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Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements

Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013)

Compiled by USANA Research & Development
USANA Health Sciences
3838 West Parkway Blvd.
Salt Lake City, UT 84120
Updated: January 2013
Copyright © 2013, USANA Health Sciences, Inc.

Foreword

The importance of nutrition for human health has long been recognized. Prior to 1960,
interest in this field focused primarily on the etiology and prevention of acute nutrient
deficiency diseases, such as scurvy, rickets, and pellagra. Some 50 essential nutrients
(vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, cofactors, essential amino acids, and essential fatty acids) were identified, and recommended daily intakes for those essential nutrients were
developed. These recommendations, in turn, proved valuable in eradicating acute nutrient deficiency diseases.
During the past 23 years, attention has shifted to the role of diet and nutrition in the
pathogenesis of chronic degenerative diseases. Heart disease, some cancers, osteoporosis,
type II diabetes, and macular degeneration are well-known examples of diseases with dietary risk factors, and research is currently underway on many more nutrient-disease interactions. Unfortunately, these associations are difficult to study, in part because of the
timeframes involved. Chronic degenerative diseases develop over decades (or lifetimes),
and it is extremely difficult to conduct research programs spanning more than sev“We recommend that all adults take
eral years in length. Nevertheless, advances
one multivitamin daily. This practice is
in epidemiological and clinical research
justified mainly by the known and sushave uncovered a great deal of information
pected benefits of supplemental folate and vitamins B12, B6, and D in
about the impact of diet and nutrient inpreventing cardiovascular disease,
takes on long-term health.
cancer, and osteoporosis…

Over the past decade, science and
healthcare researchers have paid increasing
attention to the role of nutritional supplements as possible dietary components with
roles in preventing and treating chronic
disease. Hundreds of scientific studies have
been conducted and published, each spanning a broad range of potential health issues. These studies have employed a wide
variety of methodologies and they have

We recommend multivitamins, rather
than individual vitamins, because multivitamins are simpler to take and
cheaper than the individual vitamins
taken separately and because a large
proportion of the population needs
supplements of more than one vitamin."
-Fletcher RH, Fairfield KM. Vitamins for chronic
disease prevention in adults: clinical applications. 2002. JAMA 287:3127-9.

2 | Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements: Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013). Copyright © 2013, USANA Health Sciences, Inc.

produced both positive and negative results. In some areas – such as the role of calcium
and vitamin D supplements in slowing the progression of osteoporosis, or the role of folic acid supplements in preventing certain birth defects – results have been largely consistent, and these nutrients have become an accepted part of modern healthcare practices. In other areas (e.g. the role of antioxidant supplementation in preventing heart disease), results have been less consistent, and firm conclusions remain controversial.
The following is an enumerative bibliography of peer-reviewed research examining possible health benefits of nutritional supplements and functional foods. This list is not exhaustive. Papers have been selected on the basis of scientific merit and relevance to the
field, regardless of whether positive or negative results were obtained. Our objective in
compiling this list is to provide readers with a good cross-section of recent scientific literature, with hopes of contributing to a better understanding of the current state of nutritional research.
For convenience, references have been sorted by health issue:






Cardiovascular Health
Cancer
Bone and Joint Health
Healthy Pregnancies and Healthy Babies
Immune Function
Healthy Vision
Other

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. No USANA product is intended to
diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

3 | Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements: Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013). Copyright © 2013, USANA Health Sciences, Inc.

Cardiovascular Health

1.
Abbey M, Nestel PJ, Baghurst PA. Antioxidant vitamins
and low-density-lipoprotein oxidation. 1993. Am J Clin Nutr
“As indicated in Table 1, the 900
58(4):525-32.
mg/day target for EPA/DHA could re2.
Adank C, Green TJ, Skeaff CM, Briars B. Weekly highquire 3–21 servings of fish/week dedose folic acid supplementation is effective in lowering serum
pending upon the source/type chosen.
homocysteine concentrations in women. 2003. Ann Nutr Metab
Consequently, a high quality fish oil
47(2):55-9.
supplement/concentrate and func3.
Allender PS, Cutler JA, Follmann D, Cappuccio FP, Pryer
tional foods enriched in EPA/DHA will
J, Elliott P. Dietary calcium and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of
become important vehicles for enrandomized clinical trials. 1996. Ann Intern Med 124(9):825-31.
hancing current low intakes of
4.
Agarwal S, Rao AV. Tomato lycopene and low density lipEPA/DHA...”
oprotein oxidation: a human dietary intervention study. 1998.
Lipids 33(10):981-4.
-DJ Holub, et al. (#66)
5.
Aminbakhsh A, Mancini J. Chronic antioxidant use and
changes in endothelial dysfunction: a review of clinical investigations. 1999. Can J Cardiol 15(8):895-903.
6.
Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Lawrence A, Altringer LA, Jerdack GR, Hengehold DA, Morel JG. Cholesterollowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: metaanalysis of 8 controlled trials. 2000. Am J Clin Nutr 71(2):472-9.
7.
Anderson JW, Davidson MH, Blonde L, Brown WV, Howard WJ, Ginsberg H, Allgood LD, Weingand KW.
Long-term cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium as an adjunct to diet therapy in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. 2000. Am J Clin Nutr 71(6):1433-8.
8.
Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, Giovannucci E, Kawachi I, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC. Relation of consumption of vitamin E, vitamin C, and carotenoids to risk for stroke among men in the United States. 1999. Ann
Intern Med 130(12):963-70.
9.
Bao B, Prasad AS, Beck FW, Fitzgerald JT, Snell D, Bao GW, Singh T, Cardozo LJ. Zinc decreases C-reactive
protein, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cytokines in elderly subjects: a potential implication of zinc as an
atheroprotective agent. 2010. AJCN 91:1634-41.
10.
Baur JA, Sinclair DA. Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence. 2006. Nat Rev Drug Discov
5(6):493-506.
11.
Bellamy MF, McDowell IF, Ramsey MW, Brownlee M,
“Mg2+ [magnesium] deficiency or a
Newcombe RG, Lewis MJ. Oral folate enhances endothelial funcreduction in dietary intake of Mg2+
tion in hyperhomocysteinaemic subjects. 1999. Eur J Clin Invest
plays an important role in the etiology
29:659-62.
of diabetes and numerous cardiovas12.
Berman M, ERman A, Ben-Gal T, Dvir D, Georghiou GP,
cular diseases including thrombosis,
Stamler A, Vered Y, Vidne BA, Aravot D. Coenzyme Q10 in paatherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease,
tients with end-stage heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantamyocardial infarction, hypertension,
tion: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. 2004. Clin Cardiol
arrhythmias and congestive heart fail27(5):295-9.
ure in humans. Mg2+ supplementation
13.
Boaz M, Smetana S, Weinstein T, Matas Z, Gafter U, Iaina
can bring about a significant decrease
A, Knecht A, Weissgarten Y, Brunner D, Fainaru M, Green MS.
in blood pressure and a stabilization of
Secondary prevention with antioxidants of cardiovascular disease
cardiac arrhythmias and acute myoin endstage renal disease (SPACE): randomized placebocontrolled trial. 2000. Lancet 356(9237):1213-8.
cardial infarction.”
14.
Bronstrup A, Hages M, Prinz-Langenohl R, Pietrzik K.
-S Chakraborti, et al. (#22)
Effects of folic acid and combinations of folic acid and vitamin B12 on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy, young
women. 1998. AJCN 68(5):1104-10.

4 | Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements: Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013). Copyright © 2013, USANA Health Sciences, Inc.

15.
Brouwer IA, van Dusseldorp M, Thomas CM, Duran M,
“In this large prospective study of
Hautvast JG, Eskes TK, Steegers-Theunissen RP. Low-dose folic
women, we observed a modest inverse
acid supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentraassociation between intake of vitamin
tion: a randomized trial. 1999. Am J Clin Nutr 69(1):99-104.
C and incidence of CHD [coronary
16.
Brouwer IA, van Rooij IA, van Dusseldorp M, Thomas CM,
heart disease]. Women in the highest
Blom HJ, Hautvast JG, Eskes TK, Steegers-Theunissen RP. Homocysteine-lowering effect of 500 microg folic acid every other day
quintile of vitamin C intake (≥360
versus 250 microg/day. 2000. Ann Nutr Metab 44(5-6):194-7.
mg/day) from diet and supplements
17.
Brown AA, Hu FB. Dietary modulation of endothelial
had a 27% lower risk of nonfatal MI and
function: implications for cardiovascular disease. 2001. Am J Clin
fatal CHD than women in the lowest
Nutr 73:673-86.
quintile of intake (≤93 mg/day). The
18.
Brown BG, Zhao XQ, Chait A, Fisher LD, Cheung MC,
reduction in risk appeared to be limMorse JS, Dowdy AA, Marino EK, Bolson EL, Alaupovic P,
ited to women who took vitamin C
Frohlich J, Albers JJ. Simvastatin and niacin, antioxidant vitamins
supplements. Among users of vitamin C
or the combination for the prevention of coronary disease. 2001. N
supplements, we observed a signifiEngl J Med 345(22):1583-92.
cant 28% lower risk of nonfatal MI and
19.
Brown L, Rosner B, Willett WW, Sacks FM. Cholesterolfatal CHD than among non-users. Altlowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis. 1999. Am J Clin
hough risk did not vary significantly acNutr 69(1):30-42.
cording duration of use of supplements
20.
Bucher HC, Cook RJ, Guyatt GH, Lang JD, Cook DJ, Hataor dose of supplements, the reduction
la R, Hunt DL. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on
in risk was somewhat stronger for
blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
women taking at least 400 mg/day.”
1996. JAMA 275(13):1016-22.
21.
Bucher HC, Hengstler P, Schindler C, Meier G. N-3 poly-SK Osganian, et al. (#112)
unsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis
of randomized controlled trials. 2002. Am J Med 112(4):298-304.
22.
Chakraborti S, Chakraborti T, Mandal M, Mandal A, Das S, Ghosh S. Protective role of magnesium in cardiovascular diseases: A review. 2002. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 238:163-79.
23.
Chambers JC, McGregor A, Jean-Marie J, Obeid OA, Kooner JS. Demonstration of rapid onset vascular endothelial dysfunction after hyperhomocysteinemia: an effect reversible with vitamin C therapy. 1999. Circulation
99:1156-60.
24.
Cheng S, Massaro JM, Fox CS, Larson MG, Keyes MJ, McCabe EL, Robins SJ, O'Donnell CJ, Hoffmann U,
Jacques PF, Booth SL, Vasan RS, Wolf M, Wang TJ. Adiposity, cardiometabolic risk, and vitamin D status: the Framingham Heart Study. 2010. Diabetes 59(1):242-8.
25.
Cheung MC, Zhao XQ, Chait A, Albers JJ, Brown BG. Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL
to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL. 2001. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc
Biol 21:1320-6.
26.
Collaborative Group of the Primary Prevention Project (PPP). Low-dose aspirin and vitamin E in people at
cardiovascular risk: a randomised trial in general practice. 2001. Lancet 357(9250):89-95.
27.
Connor WE. Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. 2000. Am J Clin Nutr 71(suppl):171S-5S.
28.
Constans J, Blann AD, Resplandy F, Parrot F, Renard M,
Seigneur M, Guerin V, BoisseauM, Conri C. Three months sup“Vitamin C, carotenoids, and vitamin E,
plementation of hyperhomocysteinaemic patients with folic acid
the three main dietary sources of antiand vitamin B6 improves biological markers of endothelial dysoxidants, each affect lipid peroxidation
function. 1999. Br J Haematol 107:776-8.
and may reduce atherogenesis and
29.
Cos P, De Bruyne T, Hermans N, Apers S, Berghe DV,
lower the risk of coronary heart disease
Vlietinck AJ. Proanthocyanidins in health care: current and new
(CHD).”
trends. 2004. Curr Med Chem 11(10):1345-59.
30.
Cui R, Iso H, Date C, Kikuchi S, Tamakoshi A, the Japan
-EB Rimm, et al. (#123)
Collaborative Cohort Study Group. Dietary Folate and Vitamin B6
and B12 Intake in Relation to Mortality from Cardiovascular Diseases - Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. 2010. Stroke 41:1285-9.

5 | Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements: Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013). Copyright © 2013, USANA Health Sciences, Inc.

Fish oil improves endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in heart transplant 6 | Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements: Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013). Dietary linolenic acid is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries: the National Heart. Dwyer KM. Roubenoff R. Effects “The NHEFS findings are consistent with of long-term supplementation with moderate pharmacologic dosthe hypothesis that high levels of anties of vitamin E are saturable and reversible in patients with type 1 oxidant vitamins (such as vitamins C. Am J Clin Nutr. Lancet 354(9195):2048-9. Arch Fam Med 8(6):537-42. 1991. 1998. 41. Lung. Beltrame J. 2001. Arnesen H. 1999. Eckfeldt JH. Seljeflot I. Davis IJ. and monocyte adhesion to endothelium. Ganz P. Huang A. and blood pressure in African American adolescents. Maki KC. J Lipid Res 32(8):1325-32. 2000. Emmert DH. Holbrook M. Holbrook M. 36. Ellison RC. Effects of vitamin E on endothelial function in men after myocardial infarction. (#44) 48. Inc. diabetes. Lancet 359(9312):1108-13. De Leeuw I. Kong JC. Sun P. Vita JA. Engelen W. Mudge GH. The role of vitamin E in the prevention of heart disease. JACN 22(4):258-68. Davi G. Gokce N. Anderson SM. 1995. -JE Enstrom. DHA supplementation relation 97-953-7. Hunter LM. Hikiti H. Circu“Overall. Gokce N. Devaraj S. Drennan KB. Carr JJ. Kirchner JT. Elliott TG. Dieber-Rotheneder M. Vita JA. Am J Clin Nutr 68(3):648-55. 1999. Huang A. Hohn AR. Behthe consumption of supplements conrendt D. 37. and stomach 47. Romano M. Dwyer JH. Effect of ascorbic acid treatment on conduit vessel endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypertension. Hostmark AT. 2003. Fleischhauer FJ. Wainstein M. 2011. Li D. 42. the NHEFS findings are plau45. Striegl G. Scribner RA. Fulgoni VL. Barth JD. Nicholson LM. Klein MA. Kiel DP. Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid. Torri SA. Kinlay S. Jialal I. Djousse L. Biegelsen ES. Am J Cardiol 76(16):1188-90. Duffy SJ. Davidson MH. Dutta A. and A) increase the body's defense 44. Frei B. Province MA. 34. Vertommen J. 35. 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 72(5):1142-9. Fischell TA. thermore. Vitamin E and its Role in the Prevention of Atherosclerosis and Carcinogenesis . Enstrom JE. Free Radic Biol Med 29(8):790-2. 1995. Farina EK. Am J Clin Nutr 61:831-6. Li L. duced the concentrations of athero32. Esterbauer H. Schaefer EJ. Effect of oral supplementation with dalphatocopherol on the vitamin E content of human density lipoproteins and resistance to oxidation. Circulation 7. . Dutta SK. 39. Devaraj S. -DS Kelley. 43. Duffy SJ. 40. the last 20 years of large increases in 46. Vitamin C Intake and system against free radicals and reMortality among a Sample of the United States Population. Decreased lipid oxidation. The effects of alpha tocopherol supplementation on monocyte function. Saldanha LG. et al. Jialai I.111(22):2921-6. Selwyn AP. genic lipids and lipoproteins and inHall HA. duce the risk of arteriosclerosis. (#76) 33. FurEpidemiology 3:194-202. 1992.” eral density in older adults: the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. USANA Health Sciences. Long-term effects of consuming foods containing psyltective lipoproteins. E. 2005. 38. Eritsland J. calcium supplementation. Keaney JF Jr. Am J Clin Nutr 67(3):367-76. Dietary calcium. 1998. Longsible in the sense that they are conterm metabolic effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in pasistent with the secular trends during tients with coronary artery disease. Arnett DK. Mezzetti A. Keaney JF Jr.31. Protective effects of fish intake and interactive effects are only partially explained by estabof long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intakes on hip bone minlished risk factors. Fang JC.93(5):1142-51. Mancini GB. Frei B. cancer) in the general population that Tucker KL. J Clin Invest 98:756-63. 1998. Dugan LD. 2000. Keenoy BM. Kanim LE. Waeg G.A Review. interleukin 1beta. creased concentrations of cardioproOlson BH.” lium seed husk on serum lipids in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. 1996. Alpha tocopherol supplementation decreases serum C-reactive protein and monocyte interleukin-6 levels in normal volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients. Suh J. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 280(2):H528-34. Increased levels of soluble P-selectin in hypercholesterolemic patients. Effect of vittaining vitamin C and large declines in amins C and E on progression of transplant-associated arterioscleage-adjusted death rates (total. diovascular disease. carrosis: a randomized trial. et al. Puhl H. Hopkins PN. Cupples LA. et al. Yan WD. and Blood Institute Family Heart Study. Copyright © 2013.

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2006. a finding that is of considerable clinical and public-health importance. Stoffels K.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 of the NOD2/CARD15-defensin beta2 innate immune pathway defective in Crohn disease. Tavera-Mendoza LE. Blumberg Hm. Effects of vitamin a suppleour findings. 2008. 604. Infect Immun 76(9):3837-43. 2005. Avenell A. 2008. Nutr Rev 66(10 Suppl 2):S125-34. Ann Nutr Metab 51(4):301-23. Schauber J. Bitton A. van Etten E. Endocr Pract 15(5):438-49. Vitamin D signaling. 2010. 2007. J Leukoc Biol 84:900-14. Seidman EG. ascorbic acid. infectious diseases. Hornig DH. Smolders J. 608. 610.and vaccine-specific immune pha-tocopherol] groups. Wiltschut J. 2005. Fawzi WW. The Vitamin D Connection to Pediatric Infections and Immune Function. Age-associated changes in immune and inflammatory responses: impact of vitamin E intervention. Laue Ch. patients who received zinc Vitamin D as an immune modulator in multiple sclerosis. Maggini S. Damoiseaux J. Dunstan [vitamin and trace elements: zinc. 2007. Wintergerst ES. Direct and indirect induction by 1. Wang TT. Pediatr Res . Behr MA. Hornig DH. Exp Dermatol 17(8):633-9. 2009. Modlin RL. Regulation of vitamin D homeostasis: implications for improving their resistance to infections. 2006. tence in old age and that an optimum intake of micronutrients is needed for enhanced immune responses in elderly subjects. A systematic review of multipercentage of patients without respiravitamin and multimineral supplementation for infection. Clin Exp Allergy 36(10):1227-35. Immune-enhancing role of vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions. Hupperts R. 597. Wu D. J Neuroimmunol 194(1-2):7-17. Lehmann H. Update: effects of antioxidant and non-antioxidant vitamin supplementation on immune function. a and selenium had a better antibody rereview. Mader S. 2008. 606. Taylor AL. 2008. the immune system. 603. 2008. Dabbas B.” 602. which may have considermentation on immune responses and correlation with clinical able impact on the health of the instituoutcomes. Nutr Rev 65(5):181-217. sponse after influenza vaccine. Such an intervention led to a striking reduction in illness. Webb AL. Tangpricha V. Mathieu C. Overon the immunity of elderly persons by bergh L. et al.” . [trace elements: zinc. 605. and the 598. Our results sugresponses. 607. Menheere P. 2009. Servant MJ. Gallo RL.596. USANA Health Sciences. Maggini S. and regulation of innate immunity. tory tract infections was higher in the T J Hum Nutr Diet 19(3):179-90. Soualhine H. Yamshchikov AV. Villamor E.F Girodon. Vitamin D for treatment and prevention hypothesis that nutritional status is an imof infectious diseases: a systematic review of randomized portant determinant of immunocompecontrolled trials. Laperriere D. The vitamin D pathway: a new target for control of the skin's immune response?. Prescott SL. Winkler P. Gysemans C. White JH. alfirst 6 months of life on allergen. beta carotene. Stephen AI. selenium] and VT 599. .RK Chandra (#524) 42 | Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements: Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013). Ann Nutr Metab 50(2):85-94. Meydani SN. Hale J. seleJA. Effect of a dietary supplement containing probiotic bacteria plus vitamins and minerals on common cold infections and cellular immune parameters. Clin Microbiol Rev 18(3):446-64. “In our study. Copyright © 2013. Ziegler “The results of this study substantiate the TR. Villamor E. Inc. Wintergerst ES. Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function. de Vrese M. Effects of probiotic supplementation for the nium. Bitton AJ. Dionne S. 2006. J Biol Chem 285(4):2227-31. (#544) 65(5 Pt 2):106R-13R. 609. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 43(7):318-26. tionalized elderly. White JH. Larger trials will be required to confirm 601. Desai NS. gest a beneficial effect of these nutrients 600. Walker VP. Schrezenmeir J.

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was associated with WE. Millen AE.63. 2004.” Wallace RB. Klein R. 1988 through 1994. Double-masked. and retinol 658. Mares “In summary.PF Jacques. 0. a specific carotenoid predomidomized controlled trial. Stiles W. Snodderly DM. Albert DM. 2008. 664. Blodi B. Lyle BJ. Mares-Perlman JA. age. Brady foods rich in lutein. Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cat“In this large prospective study. vitamin A. Brady WE. Moeller SM. Gehrs KM. 2003. McNeil JJ. the results of the present JA. Arch Ophthalmol 113(12):1518-23. velopment of nuclear cataract. not to a healthy lifestyle per se. Klein BE. Arch Ophthalmology 126(3):354-64. Agrón E. nantly found in spinach and kale. Arch Ophthalmol 118(11):1556-63. smoking. . randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supstrengthening the hypothesized role for plementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macuthis specific nutrient in nuclear cataract lar degeneration: the Veterans Last study (Lutein Antioxidant formation. Mares-Perlman JA. Tikellis G. Klein R. 1995. and other potential cata657. {omega}-3 Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake and 12-y incidence of neovascular age-related 46 | Health Benefits of Nutritional Supplements: Selected Readings from the Last 23 Years (1990-2013). Am J Clin Nutr CI:0. Statkute L. Mares JA. 659.95. Tinker L. Bowract risk factors were controlled for. P for trend = 0. Trevithick JR. Robertson JM. Blodi BA. Am J Clin ing the role of these nutrients in the deNutr 53(1 Suppl):346S-51S. The obsersupplement use and incident cataracts in a population-based vation that other fruit and vegetables study. McCarty suggests that the relation may be due to CA. Granado F. Klein BE. Palta M. an Ancillary Study of the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol ar opacification. Greger JL. (#639) Research Group. Optometry 75:216-30. Serum carotenoids and tocopherols and lowest quintile of intake (RR: 0. Vitamin E supplementation and cataract: ranlutein. Lutein. vitamin E intake is associated with a re665. Chappell RJ. and bcase-control study. Vaquero M. Blanco I. Clemons TE. Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M. Inc. Klein ML. Ophthalmology 111(1):75-84. Our observation that 125(5):661-9. Mares-Perlman JA. quency of intake of spinach and kale. Ritter LL. A possible serve to focus added effort on examinrole for vitamins C and E in cataract prevention. lycopene. Ritenbaugh C. band age-related macular degeneration in a population-based carotene. Sangiovanni JP. Lyle BJ. Lyle BJ. USANA Health Sciences. supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-y double-blind. and the associations with riSupplementation Trial). 662. Sinclair MI. but not alpha-tocopherol.04) after 69(2):272-7. Arch Ophthalmol 124(8):1151-62. Parekh N. Pulido J. Palta M. axanthin had a 22% lower risk of cata656. 1994. 1991. Pei K.655. Trabulsi JN. Associations between intermediate agerelated macular degeneration and lutein and zeaxanthin in the . Richer S.78. Frankowski J. 2007. Mares-Perlman JA. boflavin. VandenLangenberg GM. Mares JA. thiamin. ract extraction than did those in the Bowen PE. Am J Epidemiol with the highest intake of lutein and ze149(9):801-9. Association between vitamin D and age-related macular study provide added support for a reladegeneration in the Third National Health and Nutrition Extion between nutrient intake and nucleamination Survey. Olmedilla B. those aracts in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Age-Related Eye Disease Study . Klein R. were not associated with decreased risk 660. placebo-controlled pilot study. et al. Increasing frement use. 2000. duction in nuclear opacification is conRudy D. Chew EY. cryptoxanthin). Copyright © 2013. Vitamin a moderate decrease in risk. Tinker L. Othen P. (#625) Carotenoids in Age-related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS): ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. Wallace RB. Klein BE. Nyland J. Moeller SM. Parekh N. Klein R. Reed GF. Mares-Perlman JA. Serum antioxidants er specific carotenoids (a-carotene. Donner AP. 663. 95% incidence of age-related nuclear cataract. 2006. Robman L. 1999. Associations Between Age-Related Nuclear Cataract and Lutein and Zeaxanthin in the Diet and Serum in the Carotenoids in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS). Chappell RJ. Tsipursky M. and niacin should 666. 2004. Fisher AI. et al. Relawere not associated with cataract in tion between lens opacities and vitamin and mineral supplemultivariate analysis. Ophthalmology 101(2):315-25. and 661.” 667. Meleth AD. Klein BE. Palta M. Taylor HR. Voland R. placesistent with other longitudinal studies. Ritenbaugh C. 1999. Sperduto RD. Klein R.L Chasan-Taber. Nutrition 19(1):21-4. bo-controlled. Johnson EJ. Parekh N. Greger JL.

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