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# Chapter 4

Exponential Functions
Homework 4.1

1
= 32 b 26 c 2
9
32b 26
=
9c 2

1. 1. 1 1
2 =
negative integer exponent
2
3.

5.
7.

9.

32 =

1 1
negative integer exponent
=
32 9

25.

b10
1
= b10 15 = b 5 = 5
15
b
b

( 4 )

= ( 4 )( 4 ) = 16

27.

2b 12
2
12
9
= 2b ( ) = 2b 12 + 9 = 2b 3 = 3
9
b
b

29.

12b 5 c 5 6b 5 4 c 5 5 6b1c 0
6b
=
=
=
14b 4 c 5
7
7
7

31.

15b 7 c 3 d 8 b ( ) c 3 2 d 88
=
3
45c 2 b 6 d 8
b 1c 5 d 0
=
3
1
=
3bc 5

33.

( 5b

1 1
+
negative integer exponents
2 3
3 2 5
= + =
6 6 6

2 1 + 31 =

7902
= 7902 900 = 7 2 = 49
7900

## 11. 4 2003 4 2000 = 4 2003+ (2000) = 43 = 64

13.

(25

4115 + 89 2 ) = 1
0

15. b 7 b9 = b 7 + 9 = b16

7 6

3 4

)(4b

5 1

2 17

80b c

) = 20b

(3b )(2b ) = (3 (2 )) (b
7

7 6

7 + 6

= 6b
= 6b
6
6
or
=
b
b
21.
23.

(b ) = ( 1) (b )
2 4

2 4

= 1b 24 b8

35.

4 2 5
5

4 5

= 32b 45 c 25
= 32b 20 c 10

3 4 2
2 5

3 2

## ( 24b c )( 49b c ) = 24 49b ( )c

( 28b c )(14b c ) 28 14b ( )c
3 6

2 4

(2b c ) (3b c )
= ( 2 ) (b ) ( c ) ( 3 ) (b ) ( c )

2 17

80b c
b 8 c3
= 2 17
4b c
b 8 2 c 317
=
4
b 10 c 14
=
4
1
= 10 14
4b c

17. b5 b 5 = b5 + (5) = b 0 = 1
19.

3 + ( 5 ) 4 + ( 1)

1 2

3 + 1

2 + 5

3b 2 c 8
b 3 c 5
= 3b 2 (3) c 8 5
= 3b5 c 13
2b 5
= 13
c

4 2

1 3(2) 4(2 )
b
c
32
1 6 8
bc
9

1
= 32 b 20 b 6 c 10 c8
9

88

6 + ( 2 )
4 +1

Homework 4.2

37.

(3b c )

5 2 3

1
2

33 b 53 c 23
7b 3 c
27b15 c 6
=
7b 3 c
15 3
27b ( )c 6 1
=
7
27b18 c 7
=
7
27b18
=
7c 7
=

7b c

2
1
= =2
1
2

( 2 )

## The ties are 2 1 =

= b32 c 62
= b 6 c 12
b6
= 12
c

0
41.
5b 4 c 7
=1

2 3
67b c

47.

1
1
+ 1 = b + c
1
b
c

49. b b
4n

51.

1
bc

3n

=b

4 n + 3n

=b

50 = 40 = 30 = 20 = 10 = 1
It is reasonable to assume that 00 = 1 , also.

b.

05 = 0 4 = 03 = 0 2 = 01 = 0
It is reasonable to assume that 00 = 0 , also.

c.

## Answers may vary. It is a good idea to leave

00 meaningless, since depending on the
reasoning used, we get different values for
00 .

b
7 n 1 2n 3
= b( )( + ) = b7 n 1 2 n 3 = b5 n 4
b 2 n +3

## 53. Student B is correct. Student A did not

distribute the 1 exponent to the base 5
correctly. It should have been 51 and not 5.
Student A mistakenly multiplied 5 by 1.

b 1 =

1
b

b.

(b )

c.

( (b ) )

d.

1 1
(b )

e.

## If there are n exponents, 1 will be

multiplied by itself n times. If n is even, the
resulting exponent will be 1 and the answer
will be b. If n is odd, the resulting exponent
1
will be -1 and the answer is .
b

7n

7 n 1

1
2
and ( 2 ) = 22 .
2

57. a.

59. a.

43. 4 5 4 4 2 4
7b c
bc
b 4 4 c 2 4
b16 c8
= 7 5 = 4 7 4 5 4 =

7 2
2 b c
16b 28 c 20
14b c 2b c
b 1c 1 =

=4

22 = 4

39. 5 2 2
bc
5 2 2 4 2
)
2 4 = (b c
bc
2
= ( b 3 c 6 )

45.

1
2

2 1 =

1 1

=b

1
1 1

1(1)

=b

=b

1( 1)( 1)

= b 1 =

1(1)( 1)(1)
=b
=b

Homework 4.2

55. 2 2 = 4
2 ( 1) = 2

1. 1.
161/ 2 = 4 , since 4 2 = 16 .

1
1
=
4
2

89

1
b

Homework 4.2

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

5. 491/ 2 = 7 , since 7 2 = 49 .
7. 125

37.

= 5 , since 5 = 125 .

1/ 3

4 ( 25b8 c14 )

1/ 2

9. 84 / 3 = 81/ 3 4 = 2 4 = 16
( )

11. 93 / 2 = 91/ 2 3 = 33 = 27
( )

39.

15. 45 / 2 = 41/ 2 5 = 25 = 32
( )

19.

21.

23.

27 1/ 3 =

1
45 / 2

( 27 )

4 / 3

27.
29.

33.
35.

1 3
+
4

24 24 = 24

(3 )

1
2

7 5
+
6

b6b6 = b6
3

b5b

(4 )

1/ 2 5

1/ 4

3 2
+

( 3 )

1
81

45.

= 31 = 3
6

12

= b 6 = b2

= (16 )

1 4

1/ 4

10
5

= b 2 =

(b8 )

1/ 3

1/ 3

(16 )1/ 2 (b 20 )

1/ 2

1/ 4

= 2b

1
b

1
8
4

b 5.6 c 3.8
(
)
= b5.6 2.3 c 3.8 1.3
2.3 1.3
b c
= b3.3 c 2.5
b 3.3
= 2.5
c

47. 9b 3 c 2 1/ 2 9b 3b 5 1/ 2

25b 5 c 2
25c 2 c 2
1/ 2
9b 3+ 5
=

25c 2 + 2
1/ 2
9b8
=

25c 4
1/ 2
1/ 2
(9 ) (b8 )
3b 4
=
=
1/
2
5c 2
( 25)1/ 2 (c 4 )

= 7 3 = 7 2 = 49

= 8b 2 +10 c3 + 2
= 8b12 c 5

= 2 4 = 21 = 2

=b

1 7
+
4 4

## (5bcd )1/ 5 (5bcd )4 / 5 = (5bcd )5 + 5

= (8 ) ( b 6 ) ( c 9 )
= 2b 2 c 3 4b10 c 2
= 2 ( 4 ) b 2 b10 c 3 c 2
4

1
14
2

## 43. ( 6 9 )1/ 3 ( 20 4 )1/ 2

8b c
16b c

((27 )1/ 3 )

= b5

(16b8 )

1
8

1/ 2

( )(c )

(b3 / 5 c 1/ 4 )(b 2 / 5 c 7 / 4 ) = b 5 5 c

1/ 3

1/ 2

= (5bcd )5 = 5bcd

1
1
= 5 =
32
2

4/3

3 13
+
5

13
5

41.

( 27 )

1 5

3

( 25 ) (b8 ) ( c14 )
4

1
( 2 )

= 73

= 3 2

73
7

31.

1/ 2

= b5c 4
= b1c 2
b
= 2
c

1
1
=
361/ 2
6

25.

1
1
=
271/ 3 3

361/ 2 =

5 / 2

5 b 2
4
= 4 7
5b c

## 13. 322 / 5 = 321/ 5 2 = 22 = 4

( )

17.

49.

= 2b 2
90

3 2
+
5

b3 / 7 b 2 / 5 = b 7

15 14
+
35

= b 35

= b 29 / 35

(c 4 )

1/ 2

Homework 4.2

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

51.

69.

5 1
10 3

b5 / 6
= b 6 4 = b12 12 = b 7 /12
1/ 4
b

8
100
= 0.08

b6 / 5
1

75.

6
5

8
b

= 8b 1/ 5 =
55.

## 71. 5246 = 5.246 1000 = 5.246 103

( 41/ 2 )3 b

= 23 b

77.

1/ 5

(8bc3 )
(8 )1/ 3 b1/ 3 ( c3 )
=
1/ 4
1/ 4
(81bc 3 )
(81)1/ 4 b1/ 4 (c 3 )
1/ 3

0.00098 =

9.8
= 9.8 10 4
10, 000

0.0000346 =

1/ 3

=
=
=
=

2b

81.

1 1
3
1

3 4
4

0.008928 =

4 3

12 12

3.46
= 3.46 105
100, 000

2b1/ 3 c
3b1/ 4 c3 / 4
2b

8.928
= 8.928 10 3
1000

1
4

## 85. 100, 000 = 1.0 100, 000 = 1 105

2b1/12 c1/ 4
3

87. 2.87 108 = 2.87 100, 000, 000 = 287, 000, 000

## 57. 3.965 10 2 = 3.965 100

= 396.5

89.

59.

91. 10 12 = 1 10 12

2.39 10 1 = 2.39

1
10

6.3 10 8 =

6.3
= 0.000000063
100, 000, 000

1
1, 000, 000, 000, 000
= 0.000000000001
=

2.39
=
10
= 0.239

## 61. 5.2 10 = 5.2 100

= 520
2

63.

1
100

53. 8b 2 / 3 3 / 2 4b 2 / 3 3 / 2
4/5 = 4/5
2b
b

3/ 2
3/ 2
( 4 ) (b 2 / 3 )
=
3/ 2
(b 4 / 5 )
=

8 10 2 = 8

95.

1
100, 000
= 0.00009113

0.00000047 =

4.7
= 4.7 10 7
10, 000, 000

square is 5.

= 652, 000
5

51/ 2 =

5.

91

5 both equal 5,

Homework 4.3

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

Homework 4.3

9.

1
y = 15
3

11.

1
y = 12
2

13.

f ( x ) = 2 x , g ( x ) = 2 x

15.

f ( x ) = 4 (3 ) , g ( x ) = 4 (3 )

1. 1.y = 3x

3.

y = 10 x

5.

y = 3 (2 )

7.

y = 6 (3 )

92

Homework 4.3

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

17.

1
1
f ( x ) = 8 , g ( x ) = 8
2
2

6 = a (3 )
6 = a (3 )
2=a

x

19. a.
b.

## a < 0 and b > 1

negative output and exponential growth

example.

## a > 0 and b > 1

positive output and exponential growth

c.

## a > 0 and 0 < b < 1

positive output and exponential decay

d.

## a < 0 and 0 < b < 1

negative output and exponential decay

## 21. Answers may vary. Consider the following

example. The family of exponential curves,
1
f ( x ) = ab x , where b = and the coefficient is
2
an integer between 4 and 4, inclusive,
excluding 0.
x

1
f ( x ) = 4
2
x
1
g ( x ) = 3
2
x
1
h ( x ) = 2
2
x
1
i ( x ) = 1
2

2
f (x) = 2
3

9
g (x) = 4
8

h ( x ) = 2 (2 )

1
k ( x) = 3
2

## 27. f(x) might be linear. f(x) increases by 4 every

step.
g(x) might be exponential, it increases by a
factor of 3 every step.
h(x) might be exponential, it decreases by a
1
factor of every step.
2
k(x) does not appear to be either.

1
j (x) = 4
2
x
1
k ( x) = 3
2
x
1
l (x) = 2
2
x
1
m ( x ) = 1
2

29.

x
0
1
2
3
4

f(x)
5
10
20
40
80

31.

f ( 3) = 8

33.

f (0 ) = 1

35. x = 2

37. x = 0

## point (1, 6) lies on the graph, we know that

when x is 1, f(x) is 6. Use this to find a.

39.

93

f (3) = 24

g(x)
160
80
40
20
10

h(x)
162
54
18
6
2

k(x)
3
12
48
192
768

Homework 4.3
41.

f (5) = 96

c.

43. x = 0
45. x = 3
d.

47. a.

## The graph of L is too low to match the

endpoints and too high to match the middle
points. The graph at E appears to come
closer to the points. Before 1978, the linear
model predicts a negative cost which is not
possible. The exponential model makes
better estimates for years before 1980.
b.

c.

## The models L and E estimate the cost to be

\$226,000 and \$203,900, respectively. The
exponential model does a better job.
Use the graphing calculator to find E(42).

## In 2002, according to the exponential model,

the cost of a 30-second ad should have been
\$2,177,321. The actual cost was \$1.9
million. This is a difference of \$277,321. If
60 30-second ads were sold, the total loss
was 60 ( 277,321) = \$16, 639, 260.
49.

y = 7x
No x-intercept; y-intercept: (0, 1)

51.

1
y = 3
5
No x-intercept; y-intercept: (0, 3)

## f (0 ) = 100 , y-intercept (0, 100)

g (0 ) = 5 , y-intercept (0, 5)
b.

55.

1
f = 161/ 2 = 4
2

57.

3
3
f = 163 / 2 = (161/ 2 ) = 43 = 64
2

59.

f (0 ) = 160 = 1

61.

f (1) = 21 + 31 = 2 + 3 = 5

63.

f (0 ) = 20 + 30 = 1 + 1 = 2

65.

3 = 3x
31 = 3x
1 = x or x = 1

67.

1 = 3x
30 = 3x
0 = x or x = 0

69.

f ( x ) = 2x
x
f(x)
x
f(x)
1/8
1
2
3
1/4
2
4
2
1/2
3
8
1
0
1
4
16
Use the graphing calculator to verify results.

53. a.

## Eventually g(x) will be much greater than

f(x). For every increase in x of one, g(x)
increases by a factor of three, while f(x)
increases by a factor of two.

## Since g(x) has a larger base (3 versus 2), g(x)

will increase faster than f(x).
94

Homework 4.4

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

71.

f ( x ) = 23 x , g ( x ) = 8 x

79.

g ( x ) = 8 x = ( 23 ) = 23 x = f ( x )

f ( x ) = x1/ 2 = x = g ( x )

functions.

## The graphs coincide. f and g are equivalent

functions.
73.

f ( x ) = 2 x +3 , g ( x ) = 8 (2 )

81.

g ( x ) = 8 x / 3 = ( 23 )

functions.

## The graphs coincide. f and g are equivalent

functions.

f (x) =

83.

6x
, g ( x ) = 2x
3x
x

x/3

=2(

3 x / 3)

= 2x = f ( x )

f ( x ) = 4x
x
30
20
10
0
10
20
30

6
6
g ( x ) = 2x = = x = f ( x )
3
3

f(x)
0.0000000009
0.00000095
0.00098
1
1024
1,050,000
1,070,000,000

## The graphs coincide. f and g are equivalent

functions.
77.

f ( x ) = 2 x , g ( x ) = 8x / 3

g ( x ) = 8 ( 2 ) = 23 ( 2 ) = 23 + x = 2 x + 3 = f ( x )
x

75.

f ( x ) = x1/ 2 , g ( x ) = x

## g ( x ) = f ( x ) . This means that for the same x

value, f and g return opposite y-values.
Therefore, functions f and g would reflect each
other across the x-axis at each x.

32 x
f ( x ) = x , g ( x ) = 3x
3
32 x
f ( x ) = x = 32 x x = 3x = g ( x )
3

Homework 4.4
The y-intercept of f is (0, 4). As the value of x
1. 1.
increases by 1, the value of y is multiplied by 2.
By the base multiplier property, we know that f
is an exponential function with base 2.
f(x) = 4(2)x
The y-intercept of g is (0, 36). As x increases by

functions.

95

Homework 4.4

## 1, the value of y is multiplied by

11. 5b 4 = 100
b 4 = 20

1
.
3

b = ( 20 )
b 2.11

1/ 4

1
g(x) = 36
3
The y-intercept of h is (0, 5). As x increases by
1, the value of y is multiplied by 10.
h(x) = 5(10)x
The y-intercept of k is (0, 250). As x increases
1
by 1, the value of y is multiplied by .
5
1
g(x) = 250
5

b3 = 11.81
b = 11.811/ 3
b = 2.28

32.7b 6 = 16.2
b 6 = 0.495

## 3. The y-intercept of f is (0, 100). As x increases

1
by 1, the value of y is multiplied by f is
2
1
exponential with base .
2
x
1

f(x) = 100
2
The y-intercept of g is (0, 100). As x increases
by 1, the value of y decreases by 50. g is linear
with slope of 50.
g(x) = 50x + 100
The y-intercept of h is (0, 2). As x increases by
1, the value of y increases by 4. h is linear with
a slope of 4.
h(x) = 4x + 2
The y-intercept of k is (0, 2). As x increases by
1, the value of y is multiplied by 3. k is
exponential with base 3.
k(x) = 2(3)x

b = (0.495 )
b = 0.89

1/ 6

17.

1 3 1 9
b =
4
2 4
1 3 1
9
4 b = 4
4
2

4
3
b 2=9
b 3 = 11
b = 111/ 3
b = 2.22

19.

b6
= 81
b2
6 2
b = 81
b 4 = 81

b = (81)
b = 3

1/ 4

5. b 2 = 16

b = (16 )
b = 4

1/ 2

21.

b8 79
=
5
b3
79
8 3
b =
5
79
5
b =
5
1/ 5
79
b=
5
b = 1.74

23.

b7
= b 7 2 = b5
b2

7. b 4 = 81

b = (81)
b = 3

1/ 4

9. 3b5 = 96
b5 = 32
b = 321/ 5
b=2

96

Homework 4.4

25.

b7
= 76
b2
b 7 2 = 76
b5 = 76
b = 761/ 5
b = 2.38

27.

## 8b3 4b3 (1) 4b 4

=
=
6b 1
3
3

29.

8b3 3
=
6b 1 7
3 1
4b ( ) 3
=
3
7
4 4 3
b =
3
7
3 3
4
b =
7 4
9
4
b =
28
1/ 4
9
b =
28
b = 0.75

14 = 87b 6
14
b6 =
87
1/ 6
14
b=
87
b 0.74
The equation is y = 87(0.74)x.
37. (0, 7.4), (3, 1.3)
The y-intercept is (0, 7.4), and the equation is of
the form y = 7.4bx. Substitute 3 for x and 1.3 for
y to find b.
1.3 = 7.4b 3
7.4b3 = 1.3
1.3
b3 =
7.4
1/ 3
1.3
b=

7.4
b 0.56
The equation is y = 7.4(0.56)x.
39. (0, 5.5), (2, 73.9)
The y-intercept is (0, 5.5), and the equation is of
the form y = 5.5bx. Substitute 2 for x and 73.9
for y to find b.
73.9 = 5.5b 2
5.5b 2 = 73.9
73.9
b2 =
5.5
1.2
73.9
b=

5.5
b 3.67
The equation is y = 5.5(3.67)x.

## 31. (0, 4) and (1, 8)

The y-intercept is (0, 4), and the equation if of
the form y = 4bx. Substitute 1 for x and 8 for y.
8 = 4b1
4b = 8
b=2
The equation is y = 4(2)x.
33. (0, 3), (5, 100)
The y-intercept is (0, 3), and the equation is of
the form y = 3bx. Substitute 5 for x and 100 for y
to find b.
100 = 3b5
3b5 = 100
100
b5 =
3
1/ 5
100
b=

3
b 2.02
The equation is y = 3(2.02) x.

## 41. (0, 39.18), (15, 3.66)

The y-intercept is (0, 39.18), and the equation is
of the form y = 39.18bx. Substitute 15 for x and
3.66 for y to find b.
3.66 = 39.18b15
39.18b15 = 3.66
3.66
b15 =
39.18
1/15
3.66
b=

39.18
b 0.85
The equation is y = 39.18(0.85)x.

## 35. (0, 87), (6, 14)

The y-intercept is (0, 87), and the equation is of
the form y = 87bx. Substitute 6 for x and 14 for
y to find b.
97

Homework 4.4

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

43. The points, (0, 4) and (1, 2), lie on the graph.
Use these points to determine the equation of the
exponential curve. The y-intercept is (0, 4), and
the equation is of the form y = 4bx. Substitute 1
for x and 2 for y to find b.
2 = 4b1
4b1 = 2
2 1
b= =
4 2
x
1
The equation is y = 4 .
2

4 = a (1.5 )
4
a=
(1.5 )3
a = 1.19

x

## 49. (10, 329) and (30, 26)

We can form a system of equations since both
points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

329 = ab10
26 = ab30
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
26 ab30
=
329 ab10
26
= b 20
329
1/ 20
26
b=

329
b 0.88
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 10 for x and 329 for y.

## 45. (1, 4), and (2, 12)

We can form a system of equations since both
points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

4 = ab1
12 = ab2
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
12 ab 2
=
4 ab1
3=b
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 1 for x and 4 for y.

329 = a ( 0.88 )
329
a=
(0.88 )10
a 1181.32
The equation of the curve is
10

4 = a (3 )

a (3 ) = 4
3a = 4
a = 1.33
1

## The equation of the curve is y = 1.33 (3) .

x

y = 1181.32 (0.88 ) .
x

## 47. (3, 4) and (5, 9)

We can form a system of equations since both

## 51. (5, 8.1) and (9, 2.4)

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

4 = ab
9 = ab5
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
9 ab5
=
4 ab3
9
= b2
4
1/ 2
9
b=
4
3
b = = 1.5
2
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 3 for x and 4 for y.
3

8.1 = ab5
2.4 = ab9
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
2.4 ab9
=
8.1 ab5
2.4
= b4
8.1
b 0.74
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 9 for x and 2.4 for y.

98

Homework 4.4

## 57. The points, (1, 2) and (3, 5), lie on the

exponential curve. Use the points to form a
system of equations since both points satisfy the

2.4 = a (0.74 )
2.4
a=
9
(0.74 )
a 36.07

equation y = a (b ) .
x

5 = ab3
2 = ab1
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
5 ab3
=
2 ab1
5
= b2
2
b 1.58
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 1 for x and 2 for y.

x

## 53. (2, 73.8) and (7, 13.2)

We can form a system of equations since both
points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

13.2 = ab 7
73.8 = ab 2
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
13.2 ab 7
=
73.8 ab 2
13.2
= b5
73.8
b 0.71
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 2 for x and 73.8 for y.

2 = a (1.58 )
2
a=
1.58
a 1.27

x

73.8 = a (0.71)
73.8
a=
2
0.71
( )
a 146.4

59. a.

## f is a linear function of the form y = mx + b.

The y-intercept is (0, 2), so b = 2 and the
equation is of the form y = mx + 2.
Substitute 1 for x and 6 for y to find m.
6 = m (1) + 2
6 = m+2
4=m
The equation for the linear function is f(x) =
4x + 2.

b.

## g is an exponential function of the form y =

abx. The y-intercept is (0, 2), so a = 2 and
the equation is of the form y = 2b x .
Substitute 1 for x and 6 for y to find b.
6 = 2b1
6
= b1
2
3=b
The equation for the exponential function is

x

## 55. (13, 24.71) and (21, 897.35)

We can form a system of equations since both
points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

897.35 = ab 21
24.71 = ab13
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
897.35 ab 21
=
24.71 ab13
897.35
= b8
24.71
b 1.57
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 13 for x and 24.71 for y.

y = 2 (3 ) .
x

24.71 = a (1.57 )
24.71
a=
13
(1.57 )
a 0.07

c.

13

x

99

Homework 4.5

## 61. Both the exponential equations have the

coefficient 6. Therefore they both have the same
y-intercept (0, 6). Thus, the solution is (0, 6).
63. a.
b.

c.

t (days)
0
1
2
3
4

## No. A linear function and an exponential

function will never intersect in three points.
Yes. A linear function and an exponential
function can intersect in two points.
Consider the following example.
y = 2x, y = 3x + 1

## For every increase of 1 in t, f(t) is multiplied

by 3. f(t) is exponential with base 3 and yintercept 40. The equation is f(t) = 40(3)t.
b.

c.

## f(15) = 40(3)15 574 million

Model breakdown has occurred, since this is
well over the entire population of the United
States.

3. a.

## Yes. A linear function and an exponential

function can intersect in one point. Consider
the following example.
y = 2 x, y = 1

## Complete a table for f(t) based on the

assumption that the sales are cut in half
each year.
t (years)
0
1
2
3
4

d.

108
54
27
13.5
6.75

## When the value of t increases by 1, the

value of f(t) is multiplied by 0.5. f(t) is
exponential with base 0.5 and y-intercept
108. The equation is f(t) = 108(0.5)t.

## Yes. A linear function and an exponential

function can have zero intersection points.
Consider the following example.
y = 2x, y = 1
b.

follows. When y = abx, if the value of x
increases by 1, the value of y is multiplied by the
base b.

5. a.

## Since 2008 is 13 years after 1995, find

f(13).
f(13) = 108(0.5)13 = 0.013
In the year 2008, laser disc sales will only
be approximately \$0.013 million or
\$13,000.
Complete a table for f(t) based on the
assumption that the total number of web
pages doubles each year.
t (years)
0
1
2
3
4

Homework 4.5
1. a.

f(t) (people)
40
120
360
1080
3240

## Complete a table for f(t) based on the

assumption that the total number of people
triples each day.

100

2
4
8
16
32

Homework 4.5

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

For every increase in t of 1, f(t) is
multiplied by 2. f(t) is exponential with
base 2 and y-intercept 2. The equation is
f(t) = 2(2)t.
b.

c.

7. a.

## As the value of t increases by 6, the value

of f(t) is multiplied by 2. f(t) is exponential
with base 2, has a y-intercept of 4000, and
t
an exponent
which allows t to remain in
6
years even though the doubling occurs
every 6 years. The equation is

## Since 2010 is 8 years after 2002, find f(8).

f(8) = 2(2)8 = 512
In the year 2010, 512 billion web pages will
be indexed.

f (t ) = 4000 ( 2 )

t/6

## First convert pages to inches.

2 inches
512, 000, 000, 000 pages
500 pages
= 2, 048, 000, 000 inches
Now, convert inches to miles.
foot
mile
2,048,000,000 inches

## 12 inches 5280 feet

32,323 miles

b.

f(t) (\$)
3000
3000(1.08) = 3240
3240(1.08) = 3499.20
3499(1.08) 3799.14

## C(t) is an exponential function with base

1.03 and y-intercept 800. The formula is
C(t) = 800(1.03)t.

b.

## S(t) is a linear function, with a slope of

800 0.03 = 24 and a y-intercept of 800.
The formula is S(t) = 24t + 800.

c.

## C(1) = 800(1.03)1 = \$824

C(2) = 800(1.03)2 = \$848.72
S(1) = 24(1) + 800 = \$824
S(2) = 24(2) + 800 + \$848
It makes sense that C(1) = S(1), since they
are both earning interest on the same
principal, \$800. It also makes sense that
C(2) S(2), since C calculates interest on
\$824, while S continues to calculate interest
from \$800.

d.

## C(20) = 800(1.03)20 = \$1444.89

S(20) = 24(20) + 800 = \$1280
Compounded interest earns money faster
than simple interest.

## The base, b, of the model is 1.08. The base

minus one is the interest rate.
b 1 = 1.08 1 = 0.08 = 8%

c.

## The coefficient, a, is the y-intercept. In this

model, it is the initial amount invested,
\$3000.

9. a.

13. a.

t (years)
0

t
0
6
12
18

\$40,317.47

11. a.

## As the value of t increases by 1, the value

of f(t) is multiplied by 1.08. f(t) is
exponential with base 1.08 and y-intercept

b.

20 / 6

\$40,317.47.

## Complete a table for f(t), assuming 8%

interest compounded annually.
T (years)
0
1
2
3

f ( 20 ) = 4000 ( 2 )

40

f(t) (\$)
4000
4000(2) = 4000(2)1
4000(2)(2) = 4000(2)2
4000(2)(2)(2) = 4000(2)3

80
120

4000 ( 2 )

t/6

t
101

f(t) (millions)
57.7

(57.7 )
(57.7 )

1
1
= (57.7 )
2
2

1 1
1
= (57.7 )
2 2
2

1 1 1
1
(57.7 ) = (57.7 )
2 2 2
2
1
56.8
2

t / 40

Homework 4.5

19. a.

## As the value of t increases by 40, the value

1
of f(t) is multiplied by . f(t) is exponential
2
1
with base , a y-intercept of 57.7 million,
2
t
and an exponent
which allows t to
40
remain in years even though the halving
occurs every 40 years. The equation is
1
f (t ) = 57.7
2
b.

15. a.

c.

b.

t / 40

## Use an exponential regression.

.
16 / 40

1
f (16 ) = 57.7
2
16 / 40
1
= 57.7
= 43.73
2
This means that in the year 2002 + 16 =
2018, the population of Italy will only be
43.73 million people.

c.

d.

## As the value of t increases by 5.3, the value

1
of g(t) is multiplied by . g(t) is
2
1
exponential with base , a y-intercept of
2
t
100, and an exponent
which allows t to
5.3
remain in years even though the halving
occurs every 5.3 years. The equation is
1
g (t ) = 100
2

b.

## Exponential function. The data points fall on

an upward curve.

b = 1.30
This means that chip speeds are increasing
by 30% each year.
f (32 )

f ( 22 )

0.33 (1.30 )

32

= (1.30 ) = 13.79
10

0.33 (1.30 )
It will be 13.79 times quicker.
e.

t / 5.3

22

follows. Because the computer speed
depends upon many computer components,
we cannot consider only the chip speed in
determining the speed of the computer as a
whole.

21. a.

28 / 5.3

1
g ( 28 ) = 100
2.57
2
This means that after 28 years, 2.57% of the
cobalt-60 will remain.

## Use an exponential function to describe the

data since the data points appear to bend
upwards.

1/ 5.3

1
g (1) = 100
87.74
2
If after 1 year, 87.74% of the cobalt-60
remains, it is decaying by 100 87.74 =
12.26% each year.

b.

## 17. Decrease the base, b, of the model to slow the

growth of the function so that it will pass through
the middle of the data points.
The equation is f(t) = 1.197(1.016)t.
102

Homework 4.5

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

c.

25. a.

b = 1.016
This means that the population is growing
exponentially at a rate of 1.6% per year.

d.

a = 1.197
This is the y-intercept of the function. It
corresponds to the world population of
1.197 billion people in the year 1900.

e.

## f(110) = 1.197(1.016)110 = 9.49

This means that the world population will
be 9.49 billion in the year 2010.

23. a.

## It is better to use an exponential model. The

populations appear to be increasing by a
constant multiplicative factor.

d.

## As the value of t (years) increases by 10,

the value of f(t) (population) is multiplied
by approximately 1.35. Thus, the base is
1.35, the y-intercept 3.9, and the exponent
t
t /10
is
. The equation is f (t ) = 3.9 (1.35) .
10

f.

## f(0) = 1.463(1.482)0 = 1.463

f(1) = 1.463(1.482)1 = 2.168
The percentage rate of growth is
f (1) f (0 ) 2.168 1.463
=
= 0.4819.
f (0 )
1.463

g.

27. a.

per year.

103

1.36
1.36
1.33
1.34
1.33
1.36
1.35

c.

## The equation is f(t) = 1.463(1.482)t.

Compare this model to the data.

c.

Population Ratio

## The ratios stay approximately the same,

with the average being about 1.35.

e.

## f(28) = 1.463(1.482)28 = 90,443

There will be 90,443 Starbucks stores in
the year 2008.

Population
3.9
5.3
7.2
9.6
12.9
17.1
23.3
31.5

b.

## The data points appear to bend upwards, so

model with an exponential function. Use an
exponential regression.

b.

Year
1790
1800
1810
1820
1830
1840
1850
1860

Year
1860
1870
1880
1890
1900

Population
31.4
39.8
50.2
62.9
76.0

Population Ratio
1.27
1.26
1.25
1.21

## It is not likely that f gives reasonable

population estimates after 1860. The
population ratio changes from
approximately 1.35 to 1.25. This indicates
that model breakdown may occur in years
after 1860.
f ( 212 ) = 3.9 (1.35 )

212 /10

= 2260.17
The model predicts that the population of
the U.S. was approximately 2260.2 million
in the year 2002. The actual population
was 286.7 million. The error in the
estimate is 2260.2 - 286.7 = 1973.5 million.

2.

## Use an exponential regression.

(8b

3 5

)(6b

9 2

) = 8 6b

3 9 5 2

b cc

3 + ( 9 ) 5 + ( 2 )

= 48b
c
12 3
= 48b c
48c 3
= 12
b
The equation is f(t) = 55.15(1.10)t

3.

## 4b 3 c12 b 3 (4) c12 3 bc 9

=
=
16b 4 c3
4
4

4.

(2b

) (3b c )

5 2 3

4 6 2

= 23 b 15 c 6 32 b 8 c12
=

c.

## The model f assumes that the debt will

increase exponentially over time. For the
years 1995 to 1998, the model is predicting
something different than what actually
happened. Thus, model breakdown has
occurred.
i.

iii.

## f(100) = 55.15(1.10)100 = 760,000.8

The federal debt will be \$760,000.8
million or \$760 trillion in 2050.

iv.

(6b + c ) ( 4b )

6.

## (20b c )(27b c ) = 20 27b

(18b c )(30b c ) 18 30b (

## f(59) = 55.15(1.10) = 15,265.5

The federal debt will be \$15,265.5
million or \$15.2655 trillion in 2009.
15, 265.5
= 51.40
297
Each person would have to pay \$51.40.

5.

59

ii.

15 + ( 8 ) 6 +12

3
8b 23c 6
=
9
8c 6
= 23
9b

## The model appears to be less accurate for the

years 1990, 1993, and 1994.
b.

23 b

2 9

3 1

= 1 1 = 0

5 3

2 + 5 9 + 3

3 + 1) 1+ ( 4 )

1 4

3 6

540b c
540b 2 c 5
6 5
= b3 2 c ( )
= bc 1
b
=
c
=

7.

(37b

) (37b

3 4 97

3 4 97

= (37b 3 c 4 )

97 + 97

= (37b 3 c 4 )
=1

760, 000.8
= 1928.93
394
Each person would have to pay
\$1928.93. Since the debt grows
exponentially, it is more beneficial to
eliminate the debt now, rather than
later.

8. 324 / 5 = 321/ 5 4 = 2 4 = 16
( )
9.

10.

Chapter 4 Review Exercises
1. 1.2 400
400 (405)
=2
= 25 = 32
2 405

104

16 3 / 4 =

1
1
1 1
=
=
=
163 / 4 (161/ 4 )3 23 8

1 4
5

b 1/ 3
1
3 3
3
=
=
= 5/3
b
b
4/3
b
b

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

11.

(16b c )
( 25b c )

8 4 1/ 4

161/ 4 b

6 4 3 / 2

21.

8(1/ 4 ) 4 (1/ 4 )

2b

9 6

2 ( 9 ) 1 6

53

2b 7 c 7
125
2b 7
=
125c 7

22.

12. 32b 2 c 5 1/ 4
2 ( 6 ) 5 1
c
6 1 = 16b
2
b
c

2 = 23 x
1 = 3x
1
1
= x or x =
3
3

2b 2 c 1

1/ 2

2 = ( 23 )

( 25 ) b

2 = (8 )

1
x
= (8 )
8
x
81 = (8 )
1 = x or

x = 1

= 44, 487, 000

1/ 4

= (16b8 c 4 )

1/ 4

24.

## = 161/ 4 b8(1/ 4 )c 4(1/ 4)

= 2b 2 c
13.

(8

2/3

b 1/ 3 c3 / 4 )(64 1/ 3 b1/ 2 c 5 / 2 )

## 25. 54, 698, 201 = 5.4698201 107

= 82 / 364 1/ 3 b 1/ 3b1/ 2 c 3 / 4 c 5 / 2
= (8

) (64 )

1/ 3 1

1/ 3 2

1 1
+
3 2

## 26. 0.00897 = 8.97 10 3

3 5
+
4 2

27.

3 10
+
4 4

2 3
+
6 6

= 2 2 4 1 b
c
1
= 4 b1/ 6 c 7 / 4
4
b1/ 6
= 7/4
c

f ( x ) = 2 (3 )
x
1
0
1
2

## 14. b 2 n 1b 4 n + 3 = b(2 n 1)+ (4 n + 3) = b 2 n 1+ 4 n + 3 = b 6 n + 2

15.

1
100, 000
= 0.0000385

3.85 10 5 = 3.85

f(x)
2
3
2
6
18

n n
3n 2 n

bn / 2
2 3
6 6
=
=
= bn / 6
b
b
n/3
b

16. 32 x = 32 x = 9 x
( )
17.

f ( 2 ) = (8 ) = 64

18.

f ( 0 ) = (8 ) = 1

19.

f ( 2 ) = (8 ) =

20.

28.

1
1
=
2
8
64

2
2/3
2
f = (8 ) = (81/ 3 ) = 2 2 = 4
3

105

1
g ( x ) = 12
2
x
g(x)
24
1
0
12
1
6
2
3

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

32. 2b5 = 60
b5 = 30
b = 301/ 5
b 1.9745
33. 3.9b 7 = 283.5
b 7 = 72.69
b = 72.691/ 7
b 1.8447

29. h ( x ) = 3 ( 2 )x
x
1
0
1
2

34. 5b 4 13 = 67
5b 4 = 70
b 4 = 14

h(x)
1.5
3
6
12

b = (14 )
b 1.9343
1/ 4

35.

30.

1
k ( x ) = 18
3
x
h(x)
1
54
0
18
1
6
2
2

1 2 1 2
b =
3
5 3
1 2 1
2
15 b = 15
5
3
3
5b 2 3 = 10
5b 2 = 13
13
b2 =
5
1/ 2
13
b =
5
b 1.6125

## 36. f(x) is linear. As x increases by 1, f(x) decreases

by 4. The linear equation is f(x) = 4x + 34.
g(x) is exponential. As x increases by 1, g(x) is
multiplied by 3. The exponential equation is
5
g(x) = (3)x.
3
h(x) does not appear to be linear or exponential.
k(x) is exponential. As x increases by 1, k(x) is
1
multiplied by . The exponential equation is
2
x
1

k(x) = 384 .
2

31. b3 = 8
b = 81/ 3
b=2

37.

f ( 4 ) = 18

38. h (3) = 6
39. When g(x) = 5, x = 1 .

106

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

40. When k(x) = 6, x = 5 .

## 44. (5, 6.9) and (20, 78.6)

We can form a system of equations since both
points satisfy y = a (b ) .

## 41. (0, 2) and (5, 3)

The y-intercept is (0, 2), and the equation is of
the form y = 2bx. Substitute 5 for x and 3 for y
to find b.
3 = 2b5
3
b5 =
2
1/ 5
3
b=
2
b 1.08
The equation is y = 2(1.08)x.

78.6 = ab 20
6.9 = ab 5
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
78.6 ab 20
=
6.9
ab5
78.6
= b15
6.9
1/15
78.6
b=

6.9
b 1.18
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 5 for x and 6.9 for y.

## 42. (0, 3.8) and (4, 113.2)

The y-intercept is (0, 3.8), and the equation is of
the form y = 3.8bx. Substitute 4 for x and 113.2
for y to find b.
113.2 = 3.8b 4
113.2
b4 =
3.8
1/ 4
113.2
b=

3.8
b 2.34
The equation is y = 3.8(2.34)x.

6.9 = a (1.18 )
6.9
a=
(1.18 )5
a 3.016

x

## 45. First, increase the value of the coefficient a to

raise the y-intercept until it matches the data
point at t = 0. Then, decrease the value of the
base b to slow the increase of the function until
it passes through the middle of the data points.

## 43. (3, 30) and (9, 7)

We can form a system of equations since both
points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

30 = ab3
7 = ab9
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
7 ab9
=
30 ab3
7
= b6
30
1/ 6
7
b=
30
b 0.78
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 3 for x and 30 for y.

46. a.

## For every increase of t by 1, f(t) is multiplied

by 1.07. f(t) is exponential with base 1.07.
Since \$2000 is the initial investment, a =
2000. The equation is f(t) = 2000(1.07)t.

b.

## f(5) = 2000(1.07)5 = 2805.10

The value of the account after 5 years will be
\$2805.10.

47. a.

## Since sales double every 7 years, g(t) must

t
be exponential with base 2 and exponent .
7
The equation is of the form g (t ) = a ( 2 )

t/7

30 = a ( 0.78 )
30
a=
(0.78 )3
a 63.218

## Use the point (10, 500) to find a by

substituting 10 for t and 500 for g(t) and
solving.

x

107

Chapter 4 Test

d.

500 = a ( 2 )
500
=a
10 / 7
(2)
a 185.75

10 / 7

e.

t/7

b.

## Since t is in years since 1990, find g(19).

1219.02
Total sales for 2009 will be \$1219.02
thousand or approximately \$1,219,000.

b.

## For every increase in t of 5730 years, the

1
value of f(t) is multiplied by . f(t) is
2
1
exponential with base
and exponent
2
t
. Since at time t = 0, 100% of the
5730
carbon-14 remains, a = 100. The equation is

t / 5730

b.

## f(15) = 44.32(2.01)15 = 1,565,096

The number of lawsuits filed in 2008 will be
approximately 1.57 million.

c.

## If 10% of the cases go to court, 10% 1.57

million = 0.157 million. Of these, half are
1
defeated, so 0.157 = 0.0785 million or
2
78,500. If the tobacco companies pay \$10
million per lost case, the total pay out will be
78,500(\$10 million) = \$785 billion.

d.

## No, the tobacco industry will pay much more

with this strategy.

100 / 5730

1
f (100 ) = 100
98.80
2
After 100 years, 98.8% of the carbon-14
remains in the tank.

49. a.

## Since the data seem to lie in a upward curve,

use an exponential model.
b.

Chapter 4 Test

## Use exponential regression.

1. 1.322 / 5 = 321/ 5 2 = 22 = 4
( )
2.

8 4 / 3 =

1
1
1
1
=
=
=
4/3
4
4
8
( 81/ 3 ) ( 2 ) 16
= 23 b33 c83 = 8b9 c 24

3.

(2b c )

## The coefficient a is 48.46. This means that

there were approximately 48 stores in 1990.

4.

4b 3c
=1

5 9
25b c

c.

18

50. a.

g (19 ) = 185.75 ( 2 )

1
f (t ) = 100
2

## f (18 ) = 48.46 (1.206 ) 1411.35

In 2008, there will be approximately 1411
Kohls stores.

19 / 7

48. a.

## The base b is 1.206. This means that the

number of Kohls stores is increasing by
20.6% per year.

108

3 8 3

Chapter 4 Test

## SSM: Intermediate Algebra

10.

5.

b
=b
b1/ 3

6.

25b 9 c 8 5b ( )c
=
7
35b 10 c 3
5bc 5
=
7
5b
= 5
7c

1/ 2

1 1

2 3

=b

3 2

6 6

= b1/ 6

9 10

x
1
0
1
2

8 ( 3)

2
7.
2
6b (b3 c 2 ) 2bb3 c 2

=
3b 2 c 5 b 2 c5

= ( 2b1+ 3 2 c 2 5 )
= ( 2b c

11.

2 2 7 2

=2 b c
4b 4
= 14
c
8.

( 25b c )
(7b )(2c )

8 6 3 / 2
3 1

253 / 2 2b

( 25 )
=

8(3 / 2 ) 2 6 (3 / 2 ) 3

1/ 2 3

b c
7

x/3

8 2

(2 )

3 x/3

2(

3 x / 3)

x +3
x +3

= 8 (4 )

1
f ( x ) = 18
3
x
g(x)
54
1
0
18
1
6
2
2
3
2/3

## 12. Answers may vary. One example is as follows.

= 23 ( 2 2 )

f(x)
2.5
5
10
20

2b12 b 2 c 9 c3

7
53 2b12 + (2 )c 9 + 3
=
7
125 2b10 c 7
=
7
250b10
=
7c 7
9.

2 7 2

f ( x ) = 5 ( 2 )

2 x + 3 = 23 ( 22 x )

2
f (x) = 2
3

9
g (x) = 4
8

h ( x ) = 3 (2 )

1
k ( x) = 3
2

2 x 2 x + 3 = 23 ( 2 2 x )
2 x + x + 3 = 23 + 2 x
22 x +3 = 22 x +3

## 13. For every increase of 1 in t, the value of f(t) is

1
multiplied by . f (t ) is exponential with base
2
x
1
1
and y-intercept 160. f (t ) = 160 .
2
2
109

Chapter 4 Test

14. 3b 6 = 79
79
b6 =
3
1/ 6
79
b =
3
b = 1.7248

## (1, 3), lie on the curve. The y-intercept is (0, 6),

so the equation is of the form y = 6bx. Substitute
1 for x and 3 for y to find b.
3 = 6b1
1
b=
2
x

1
The equation is y = 6 .
2

## 15. (0, 70) and (6, 20)

The y-intercept is (0, 70), so the equation is of
the form y = 70bx. Substitute 6 for x and 20 for y
to find b.
20 = 70b 6
20
= b6
70
1/ 6
20
b=
70
b 0.812
The equation is y = 70(0.812)x.

20. a.

## Complete a table for f(t).

t (weeks)
f(t) (leaves)
0
40
1
80
2
160
3
320
4
640
For every increase of 1 in t, the value of f(t)
is multiplied by 2. f(t) is exponential with
base 2 and y-intercept 40. The equation is
f(t) = 40(2)t.

## 16. (4, 9) and (7, 50)

We can form a system of equations since both
points satisfy y = a (b ) .
x

50 = ab 7
9 = ab 4
Combining the two equations yields the
following.
50 ab 7
=
9 ab 4
50
= b3
9
1/ 3
50
b=
9
b 1.771
Use b and one of the points to solve for a.
Substitute 4 for x and 9 for y.

b.

## f(6) = 40(2)6 = 2560

There will be 2560 leaves on the tree 6
weeks after March 1.

c.

## f(52) = 40(2)52 = 1.80 x 1017

The model predicts there will be 1.80 x 1017
leaves on the tree 1 year after March 1. This
is unrealistic, model breakdown has
occurred.

21. a.

9 = a (1.771)
9
a=
(1.771)4
a 0.915

x

17.

b.

## The base b is 1.076, so the percent growth

per year is 7.6%.

c.

## a = 759.79 is the y-intercept. This means

that there were approximately 760 multiple
births in 1970.

d.

## f(38) = 759.79(1.076)38 12,290.23

The model predicts there will be about
12,290 multiple births in 2008.

f (0 ) = 6

18. When f ( x ) = 3 , x = 1.
19. From the graph, we see that the points, (0, 6) and
(1, 3), lie on the curve. The y-intercept is (0, 6),
so the equation is of the form y = 6bx. Substitute
1 for x and 3 for y to find b.

110