11 views

Uploaded by Anonymous 7gpjR0W

Lehmann 4

- Calculus by Beamer
- Chap 2 Test Answers
- magicbullets.pdf
- Linear Inequalities
- 7 msa 1 4 lesson plan
- 2016_Complex_Analysis_problems.pdf
- Pre Calculus Diagnostic Test
- Sample Test for Unit
- Borrowing Costs.pdf
- IMPERIAL CASE.docx
- ll std 2 evidence
- utah population modeling project (6)
- Overseas v Cordero
- Credit Transaction Compliation of Cases Docx
- SECTRANS+DIGEST
- Equations
- Chapter 1 and 10 Linear Student Notes 2017 Pwe
- 02 - Relations Functions and Their Graphs - Part 1
- GENMATHWEEK7.xlsx
- General Math DLL for SHS - (More Dll at Www.depedtambayanph.net)) Q1, Week 07

You are on page 1of 23

Exponential Functions

Homework 4.1

1

= 32 b 26 c 2

9

32b 26

=

9c 2

1. 1. 1 1

2 =

negative integer exponent

2

3.

5.

7.

9.

32 =

1 1

negative integer exponent

=

32 9

25.

b10

1

= b10 15 = b 5 = 5

15

b

b

( 4 )

= ( 4 )( 4 ) = 16

27.

2b 12

2

12

9

= 2b ( ) = 2b 12 + 9 = 2b 3 = 3

9

b

b

29.

12b 5 c 5 6b 5 4 c 5 5 6b1c 0

6b

=

=

=

14b 4 c 5

7

7

7

31.

15b 7 c 3 d 8 b ( ) c 3 2 d 88

=

3

45c 2 b 6 d 8

b 1c 5 d 0

=

3

1

=

3bc 5

33.

( 5b

1 1

+

negative integer exponents

2 3

3 2 5

= + =

6 6 6

2 1 + 31 =

7902

= 7902 900 = 7 2 = 49

7900

13.

(25

4115 + 89 2 ) = 1

0

15. b 7 b9 = b 7 + 9 = b16

7 6

3 4

)(4b

5 1

2 17

80b c

) = 20b

(3b )(2b ) = (3 (2 )) (b

7

7 6

7 + 6

= 6b

= 6b

6

6

or

=

b

b

21.

23.

(b ) = ( 1) (b )

2 4

2 4

= 1b 24 b8

35.

4 2 5

5

4 5

= 32b 45 c 25

= 32b 20 c 10

3 4 2

2 5

3 2

( 28b c )(14b c ) 28 14b ( )c

3 6

2 4

(2b c ) (3b c )

= ( 2 ) (b ) ( c ) ( 3 ) (b ) ( c )

2 17

80b c

b 8 c3

= 2 17

4b c

b 8 2 c 317

=

4

b 10 c 14

=

4

1

= 10 14

4b c

17. b5 b 5 = b5 + (5) = b 0 = 1

19.

3 + ( 5 ) 4 + ( 1)

1 2

3 + 1

2 + 5

3b 2 c 8

b 3 c 5

= 3b 2 (3) c 8 5

= 3b5 c 13

2b 5

= 13

c

4 2

1 3(2) 4(2 )

b

c

32

1 6 8

bc

9

1

= 32 b 20 b 6 c 10 c8

9

88

6 + ( 2 )

4 +1

Homework 4.2

37.

(3b c )

5 2 3

1

2

33 b 53 c 23

7b 3 c

27b15 c 6

=

7b 3 c

15 3

27b ( )c 6 1

=

7

27b18 c 7

=

7

27b18

=

7c 7

=

7b c

2

1

= =2

1

2

( 2 )

= b32 c 62

= b 6 c 12

b6

= 12

c

0

41.

5b 4 c 7

=1

2 3

67b c

47.

1

1

+ 1 = b + c

1

b

c

49. b b

4n

51.

1

bc

3n

=b

4 n + 3n

=b

50 = 40 = 30 = 20 = 10 = 1

It is reasonable to assume that 00 = 1 , also.

b.

05 = 0 4 = 03 = 0 2 = 01 = 0

It is reasonable to assume that 00 = 0 , also.

c.

00 meaningless, since depending on the

reasoning used, we get different values for

00 .

b

7 n 1 2n 3

= b( )( + ) = b7 n 1 2 n 3 = b5 n 4

b 2 n +3

distribute the 1 exponent to the base 5

correctly. It should have been 51 and not 5.

Student A mistakenly multiplied 5 by 1.

b 1 =

1

b

b.

(b )

c.

( (b ) )

d.

1 1

(b )

e.

multiplied by itself n times. If n is even, the

resulting exponent will be 1 and the answer

will be b. If n is odd, the resulting exponent

1

will be -1 and the answer is .

b

7n

7 n 1

1

2

and ( 2 ) = 22 .

2

57. a.

59. a.

43. 4 5 4 4 2 4

7b c

bc

b 4 4 c 2 4

b16 c8

= 7 5 = 4 7 4 5 4 =

7 2

2 b c

16b 28 c 20

14b c 2b c

b 1c 1 =

=4

22 = 4

39. 5 2 2

bc

5 2 2 4 2

)

2 4 = (b c

bc

2

= ( b 3 c 6 )

45.

1

2

2 1 =

1 1

=b

1

1 1

1(1)

=b

=b

1( 1)( 1)

= b 1 =

1(1)( 1)(1)

=b

=b

Homework 4.2

55. 2 2 = 4

2 ( 1) = 2

1. 1.

161/ 2 = 4 , since 4 2 = 16 .

1

1

=

4

2

89

1

b

Homework 4.2

5. 491/ 2 = 7 , since 7 2 = 49 .

7. 125

37.

= 5 , since 5 = 125 .

1/ 3

4 ( 25b8 c14 )

1/ 2

9. 84 / 3 = 81/ 3 4 = 2 4 = 16

( )

11. 93 / 2 = 91/ 2 3 = 33 = 27

( )

39.

15. 45 / 2 = 41/ 2 5 = 25 = 32

( )

19.

21.

23.

27 1/ 3 =

1

45 / 2

( 27 )

4 / 3

27.

29.

33.

35.

1 3

+

4

24 24 = 24

(3 )

1

2

7 5

+

6

b6b6 = b6

3

b5b

(4 )

1/ 2 5

1/ 4

3 2

+

( 3 )

1

81

45.

= 31 = 3

6

12

= b 6 = b2

= (16 )

1 4

1/ 4

10

5

= b 2 =

(b8 )

1/ 3

1/ 3

(16 )1/ 2 (b 20 )

1/ 2

1/ 4

= 2b

1

b

1

8

4

b 5.6 c 3.8

(

)

= b5.6 2.3 c 3.8 1.3

2.3 1.3

b c

= b3.3 c 2.5

b 3.3

= 2.5

c

47. 9b 3 c 2 1/ 2 9b 3b 5 1/ 2

25b 5 c 2

25c 2 c 2

1/ 2

9b 3+ 5

=

25c 2 + 2

1/ 2

9b8

=

25c 4

1/ 2

1/ 2

(9 ) (b8 )

3b 4

=

=

1/

2

5c 2

( 25)1/ 2 (c 4 )

= 7 3 = 7 2 = 49

= 8b 2 +10 c3 + 2

= 8b12 c 5

= 2 4 = 21 = 2

=b

1 7

+

4 4

= (8 ) ( b 6 ) ( c 9 )

= 2b 2 c 3 4b10 c 2

= 2 ( 4 ) b 2 b10 c 3 c 2

4

1

14

2

8b c

16b c

((27 )1/ 3 )

= b5

(16b8 )

1

8

1/ 2

( )(c )

(b3 / 5 c 1/ 4 )(b 2 / 5 c 7 / 4 ) = b 5 5 c

1/ 3

1/ 2

= (5bcd )5 = 5bcd

1

1

= 5 =

32

2

4/3

3 13

+

5

13

5

41.

( 27 )

1 5

3

( 25 ) (b8 ) ( c14 )

4

1

( 2 )

= 73

= 3 2

73

7

31.

1/ 2

= b5c 4

= b1c 2

b

= 2

c

1

1

=

361/ 2

6

25.

1

1

=

271/ 3 3

361/ 2 =

5 / 2

5 b 2

4

= 4 7

5b c

( )

17.

49.

= 2b 2

90

3 2

+

5

b3 / 7 b 2 / 5 = b 7

15 14

+

35

= b 35

= b 29 / 35

(c 4 )

1/ 2

Homework 4.2

51.

69.

5 1

10 3

b5 / 6

= b 6 4 = b12 12 = b 7 /12

1/ 4

b

8

100

= 0.08

b6 / 5

1

75.

6

5

8

b

= 8b 1/ 5 =

55.

( 41/ 2 )3 b

= 23 b

77.

1/ 5

(8bc3 )

(8 )1/ 3 b1/ 3 ( c3 )

=

1/ 4

1/ 4

(81bc 3 )

(81)1/ 4 b1/ 4 (c 3 )

1/ 3

0.00098 =

9.8

= 9.8 10 4

10, 000

0.0000346 =

1/ 3

=

=

=

=

2b

81.

1 1

3

1

3 4

4

0.008928 =

4 3

12 12

3.46

= 3.46 105

100, 000

2b1/ 3 c

3b1/ 4 c3 / 4

2b

8.928

= 8.928 10 3

1000

1

4

2b1/12 c1/ 4

3

87. 2.87 108 = 2.87 100, 000, 000 = 287, 000, 000

= 396.5

89.

59.

91. 10 12 = 1 10 12

2.39 10 1 = 2.39

1

10

6.3 10 8 =

6.3

= 0.000000063

100, 000, 000

1

1, 000, 000, 000, 000

= 0.000000000001

=

2.39

=

10

= 0.239

= 520

2

63.

1

100

53. 8b 2 / 3 3 / 2 4b 2 / 3 3 / 2

4/5 = 4/5

2b

b

3/ 2

3/ 2

( 4 ) (b 2 / 3 )

=

3/ 2

(b 4 / 5 )

=

8 10 2 = 8

95.

1

100, 000

= 0.00009113

0.00000047 =

4.7

= 4.7 10 7

10, 000, 000

square is 5.

= 652, 000

5

51/ 2 =

5.

91

5 both equal 5,

Homework 4.3

Homework 4.3

9.

1

y = 15

3

11.

1

y = 12

2

13.

f ( x ) = 2 x , g ( x ) = 2 x

15.

f ( x ) = 4 (3 ) , g ( x ) = 4 (3 )

1. 1.y = 3x

3.

y = 10 x

5.

y = 3 (2 )

7.

y = 6 (3 )

92

Homework 4.3

17.

1

1

f ( x ) = 8 , g ( x ) = 8

2

2

6 = a (3 )

6 = a (3 )

2=a

x

19. a.

b.

negative output and exponential growth

example.

positive output and exponential growth

c.

positive output and exponential decay

d.

negative output and exponential decay

example. The family of exponential curves,

1

f ( x ) = ab x , where b = and the coefficient is

2

an integer between 4 and 4, inclusive,

excluding 0.

x

1

f ( x ) = 4

2

x

1

g ( x ) = 3

2

x

1

h ( x ) = 2

2

x

1

i ( x ) = 1

2

2

f (x) = 2

3

9

g (x) = 4

8

h ( x ) = 2 (2 )

1

k ( x) = 3

2

step.

g(x) might be exponential, it increases by a

factor of 3 every step.

h(x) might be exponential, it decreases by a

1

factor of every step.

2

k(x) does not appear to be either.

1

j (x) = 4

2

x

1

k ( x) = 3

2

x

1

l (x) = 2

2

x

1

m ( x ) = 1

2

29.

x

0

1

2

3

4

f(x)

5

10

20

40

80

31.

f ( 3) = 8

33.

f (0 ) = 1

35. x = 2

37. x = 0

when x is 1, f(x) is 6. Use this to find a.

39.

93

f (3) = 24

g(x)

160

80

40

20

10

h(x)

162

54

18

6

2

k(x)

3

12

48

192

768

Homework 4.3

41.

f (5) = 96

c.

43. x = 0

45. x = 3

d.

47. a.

endpoints and too high to match the middle

points. The graph at E appears to come

closer to the points. Before 1978, the linear

model predicts a negative cost which is not

possible. The exponential model makes

better estimates for years before 1980.

b.

c.

$226,000 and $203,900, respectively. The

exponential model does a better job.

Use the graphing calculator to find E(42).

the cost of a 30-second ad should have been

$2,177,321. The actual cost was $1.9

million. This is a difference of $277,321. If

60 30-second ads were sold, the total loss

was 60 ( 277,321) = $16, 639, 260.

49.

y = 7x

No x-intercept; y-intercept: (0, 1)

51.

1

y = 3

5

No x-intercept; y-intercept: (0, 3)

g (0 ) = 5 , y-intercept (0, 5)

b.

55.

1

f = 161/ 2 = 4

2

57.

3

3

f = 163 / 2 = (161/ 2 ) = 43 = 64

2

59.

f (0 ) = 160 = 1

61.

f (1) = 21 + 31 = 2 + 3 = 5

63.

f (0 ) = 20 + 30 = 1 + 1 = 2

65.

3 = 3x

31 = 3x

1 = x or x = 1

67.

1 = 3x

30 = 3x

0 = x or x = 0

69.

f ( x ) = 2x

x

f(x)

x

f(x)

1/8

1

2

3

1/4

2

4

2

1/2

3

8

1

0

1

4

16

Use the graphing calculator to verify results.

53. a.

f(x). For every increase in x of one, g(x)

increases by a factor of three, while f(x)

increases by a factor of two.

will increase faster than f(x).

94

Homework 4.4

71.

f ( x ) = 23 x , g ( x ) = 8 x

79.

g ( x ) = 8 x = ( 23 ) = 23 x = f ( x )

f ( x ) = x1/ 2 = x = g ( x )

functions.

functions.

73.

f ( x ) = 2 x +3 , g ( x ) = 8 (2 )

81.

g ( x ) = 8 x / 3 = ( 23 )

functions.

functions.

f (x) =

83.

6x

, g ( x ) = 2x

3x

x

x/3

=2(

3 x / 3)

= 2x = f ( x )

f ( x ) = 4x

x

30

20

10

0

10

20

30

6

6

g ( x ) = 2x = = x = f ( x )

3

3

f(x)

0.0000000009

0.00000095

0.00098

1

1024

1,050,000

1,070,000,000

functions.

77.

f ( x ) = 2 x , g ( x ) = 8x / 3

g ( x ) = 8 ( 2 ) = 23 ( 2 ) = 23 + x = 2 x + 3 = f ( x )

x

75.

f ( x ) = x1/ 2 , g ( x ) = x

value, f and g return opposite y-values.

Therefore, functions f and g would reflect each

other across the x-axis at each x.

32 x

f ( x ) = x , g ( x ) = 3x

3

32 x

f ( x ) = x = 32 x x = 3x = g ( x )

3

Homework 4.4

The y-intercept of f is (0, 4). As the value of x

1. 1.

increases by 1, the value of y is multiplied by 2.

By the base multiplier property, we know that f

is an exponential function with base 2.

f(x) = 4(2)x

The y-intercept of g is (0, 36). As x increases by

functions.

95

Homework 4.4

11. 5b 4 = 100

b 4 = 20

1

.

3

b = ( 20 )

b 2.11

1/ 4

1

g(x) = 36

3

The y-intercept of h is (0, 5). As x increases by

1, the value of y is multiplied by 10.

h(x) = 5(10)x

The y-intercept of k is (0, 250). As x increases

1

by 1, the value of y is multiplied by .

5

1

g(x) = 250

5

b3 = 11.81

b = 11.811/ 3

b = 2.28

32.7b 6 = 16.2

b 6 = 0.495

1

by 1, the value of y is multiplied by f is

2

1

exponential with base .

2

x

1

f(x) = 100

2

The y-intercept of g is (0, 100). As x increases

by 1, the value of y decreases by 50. g is linear

with slope of 50.

g(x) = 50x + 100

The y-intercept of h is (0, 2). As x increases by

1, the value of y increases by 4. h is linear with

a slope of 4.

h(x) = 4x + 2

The y-intercept of k is (0, 2). As x increases by

1, the value of y is multiplied by 3. k is

exponential with base 3.

k(x) = 2(3)x

b = (0.495 )

b = 0.89

1/ 6

17.

1 3 1 9

b =

4

2 4

1 3 1

9

4 b = 4

4

2

4

3

b 2=9

b 3 = 11

b = 111/ 3

b = 2.22

19.

b6

= 81

b2

6 2

b = 81

b 4 = 81

b = (81)

b = 3

1/ 4

5. b 2 = 16

b = (16 )

b = 4

1/ 2

21.

b8 79

=

5

b3

79

8 3

b =

5

79

5

b =

5

1/ 5

79

b=

5

b = 1.74

23.

b7

= b 7 2 = b5

b2

7. b 4 = 81

b = (81)

b = 3

1/ 4

9. 3b5 = 96

b5 = 32

b = 321/ 5

b=2

96

Homework 4.4

25.

b7

= 76

b2

b 7 2 = 76

b5 = 76

b = 761/ 5

b = 2.38

27.

=

=

6b 1

3

3

29.

8b3 3

=

6b 1 7

3 1

4b ( ) 3

=

3

7

4 4 3

b =

3

7

3 3

4

b =

7 4

9

4

b =

28

1/ 4

9

b =

28

b = 0.75

14 = 87b 6

14

b6 =

87

1/ 6

14

b=

87

b 0.74

The equation is y = 87(0.74)x.

37. (0, 7.4), (3, 1.3)

The y-intercept is (0, 7.4), and the equation is of

the form y = 7.4bx. Substitute 3 for x and 1.3 for

y to find b.

1.3 = 7.4b 3

7.4b3 = 1.3

1.3

b3 =

7.4

1/ 3

1.3

b=

7.4

b 0.56

The equation is y = 7.4(0.56)x.

39. (0, 5.5), (2, 73.9)

The y-intercept is (0, 5.5), and the equation is of

the form y = 5.5bx. Substitute 2 for x and 73.9

for y to find b.

73.9 = 5.5b 2

5.5b 2 = 73.9

73.9

b2 =

5.5

1.2

73.9

b=

5.5

b 3.67

The equation is y = 5.5(3.67)x.

The y-intercept is (0, 4), and the equation if of

the form y = 4bx. Substitute 1 for x and 8 for y.

8 = 4b1

4b = 8

b=2

The equation is y = 4(2)x.

33. (0, 3), (5, 100)

The y-intercept is (0, 3), and the equation is of

the form y = 3bx. Substitute 5 for x and 100 for y

to find b.

100 = 3b5

3b5 = 100

100

b5 =

3

1/ 5

100

b=

3

b 2.02

The equation is y = 3(2.02) x.

The y-intercept is (0, 39.18), and the equation is

of the form y = 39.18bx. Substitute 15 for x and

3.66 for y to find b.

3.66 = 39.18b15

39.18b15 = 3.66

3.66

b15 =

39.18

1/15

3.66

b=

39.18

b 0.85

The equation is y = 39.18(0.85)x.

The y-intercept is (0, 87), and the equation is of

the form y = 87bx. Substitute 6 for x and 14 for

y to find b.

97

Homework 4.4

43. The points, (0, 4) and (1, 2), lie on the graph.

Use these points to determine the equation of the

exponential curve. The y-intercept is (0, 4), and

the equation is of the form y = 4bx. Substitute 1

for x and 2 for y to find b.

2 = 4b1

4b1 = 2

2 1

b= =

4 2

x

1

The equation is y = 4 .

2

4 = a (1.5 )

4

a=

(1.5 )3

a = 1.19

x

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

329 = ab10

26 = ab30

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

26 ab30

=

329 ab10

26

= b 20

329

1/ 20

26

b=

329

b 0.88

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 10 for x and 329 for y.

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

4 = ab1

12 = ab2

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

12 ab 2

=

4 ab1

3=b

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 1 for x and 4 for y.

329 = a ( 0.88 )

329

a=

(0.88 )10

a 1181.32

The equation of the curve is

10

4 = a (3 )

a (3 ) = 4

3a = 4

a = 1.33

1

x

y = 1181.32 (0.88 ) .

x

We can form a system of equations since both

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

4 = ab

9 = ab5

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

9 ab5

=

4 ab3

9

= b2

4

1/ 2

9

b=

4

3

b = = 1.5

2

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 3 for x and 4 for y.

3

8.1 = ab5

2.4 = ab9

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

2.4 ab9

=

8.1 ab5

2.4

= b4

8.1

b 0.74

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 9 for x and 2.4 for y.

98

Homework 4.4

exponential curve. Use the points to form a

system of equations since both points satisfy the

2.4 = a (0.74 )

2.4

a=

9

(0.74 )

a 36.07

equation y = a (b ) .

x

5 = ab3

2 = ab1

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

5 ab3

=

2 ab1

5

= b2

2

b 1.58

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 1 for x and 2 for y.

x

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

13.2 = ab 7

73.8 = ab 2

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

13.2 ab 7

=

73.8 ab 2

13.2

= b5

73.8

b 0.71

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 2 for x and 73.8 for y.

2 = a (1.58 )

2

a=

1.58

a 1.27

x

73.8 = a (0.71)

73.8

a=

2

0.71

( )

a 146.4

59. a.

The y-intercept is (0, 2), so b = 2 and the

equation is of the form y = mx + 2.

Substitute 1 for x and 6 for y to find m.

6 = m (1) + 2

6 = m+2

4=m

The equation for the linear function is f(x) =

4x + 2.

b.

abx. The y-intercept is (0, 2), so a = 2 and

the equation is of the form y = 2b x .

Substitute 1 for x and 6 for y to find b.

6 = 2b1

6

= b1

2

3=b

The equation for the exponential function is

x

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

897.35 = ab 21

24.71 = ab13

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

897.35 ab 21

=

24.71 ab13

897.35

= b8

24.71

b 1.57

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 13 for x and 24.71 for y.

y = 2 (3 ) .

x

24.71 = a (1.57 )

24.71

a=

13

(1.57 )

a 0.07

c.

13

x

99

Homework 4.5

coefficient 6. Therefore they both have the same

y-intercept (0, 6). Thus, the solution is (0, 6).

63. a.

b.

c.

t (days)

0

1

2

3

4

function will never intersect in three points.

Yes. A linear function and an exponential

function can intersect in two points.

Consider the following example.

y = 2x, y = 3x + 1

by 3. f(t) is exponential with base 3 and yintercept 40. The equation is f(t) = 40(3)t.

b.

c.

Model breakdown has occurred, since this is

well over the entire population of the United

States.

3. a.

function can intersect in one point. Consider

the following example.

y = 2 x, y = 1

assumption that the sales are cut in half

each year.

t (years)

0

1

2

3

4

d.

108

54

27

13.5

6.75

value of f(t) is multiplied by 0.5. f(t) is

exponential with base 0.5 and y-intercept

108. The equation is f(t) = 108(0.5)t.

function can have zero intersection points.

Consider the following example.

y = 2x, y = 1

b.

follows. When y = abx, if the value of x

increases by 1, the value of y is multiplied by the

base b.

5. a.

f(13).

f(13) = 108(0.5)13 = 0.013

In the year 2008, laser disc sales will only

be approximately $0.013 million or

$13,000.

Complete a table for f(t) based on the

assumption that the total number of web

pages doubles each year.

t (years)

0

1

2

3

4

Homework 4.5

1. a.

f(t) (people)

40

120

360

1080

3240

assumption that the total number of people

triples each day.

100

2

4

8

16

32

Homework 4.5

For every increase in t of 1, f(t) is

multiplied by 2. f(t) is exponential with

base 2 and y-intercept 2. The equation is

f(t) = 2(2)t.

b.

c.

7. a.

of f(t) is multiplied by 2. f(t) is exponential

with base 2, has a y-intercept of 4000, and

t

an exponent

which allows t to remain in

6

years even though the doubling occurs

every 6 years. The equation is

f(8) = 2(2)8 = 512

In the year 2010, 512 billion web pages will

be indexed.

f (t ) = 4000 ( 2 )

t/6

2 inches

512, 000, 000, 000 pages

500 pages

= 2, 048, 000, 000 inches

Now, convert inches to miles.

foot

mile

2,048,000,000 inches

32,323 miles

b.

f(t) ($)

3000

3000(1.08) = 3240

3240(1.08) = 3499.20

3499(1.08) 3799.14

1.03 and y-intercept 800. The formula is

C(t) = 800(1.03)t.

b.

800 0.03 = 24 and a y-intercept of 800.

The formula is S(t) = 24t + 800.

c.

C(2) = 800(1.03)2 = $848.72

S(1) = 24(1) + 800 = $824

S(2) = 24(2) + 800 + $848

It makes sense that C(1) = S(1), since they

are both earning interest on the same

principal, $800. It also makes sense that

C(2) S(2), since C calculates interest on

$824, while S continues to calculate interest

from $800.

d.

S(20) = 24(20) + 800 = $1280

Compounded interest earns money faster

than simple interest.

minus one is the interest rate.

b 1 = 1.08 1 = 0.08 = 8%

c.

model, it is the initial amount invested,

$3000.

9. a.

13. a.

t (years)

0

t

0

6

12

18

$40,317.47

11. a.

of f(t) is multiplied by 1.08. f(t) is

exponential with base 1.08 and y-intercept

b.

20 / 6

$40,317.47.

interest compounded annually.

T (years)

0

1

2

3

f ( 20 ) = 4000 ( 2 )

40

f(t) ($)

4000

4000(2) = 4000(2)1

4000(2)(2) = 4000(2)2

4000(2)(2)(2) = 4000(2)3

80

120

4000 ( 2 )

t/6

t

101

f(t) (millions)

57.7

(57.7 )

(57.7 )

1

1

= (57.7 )

2

2

1 1

1

= (57.7 )

2 2

2

1 1 1

1

(57.7 ) = (57.7 )

2 2 2

2

1

56.8

2

t / 40

Homework 4.5

19. a.

1

of f(t) is multiplied by . f(t) is exponential

2

1

with base , a y-intercept of 57.7 million,

2

t

and an exponent

which allows t to

40

remain in years even though the halving

occurs every 40 years. The equation is

1

f (t ) = 57.7

2

b.

15. a.

c.

b.

t / 40

.

16 / 40

1

f (16 ) = 57.7

2

16 / 40

1

= 57.7

= 43.73

2

This means that in the year 2002 + 16 =

2018, the population of Italy will only be

43.73 million people.

c.

d.

1

of g(t) is multiplied by . g(t) is

2

1

exponential with base , a y-intercept of

2

t

100, and an exponent

which allows t to

5.3

remain in years even though the halving

occurs every 5.3 years. The equation is

1

g (t ) = 100

2

b.

an upward curve.

b = 1.30

This means that chip speeds are increasing

by 30% each year.

f (32 )

f ( 22 )

0.33 (1.30 )

32

= (1.30 ) = 13.79

10

0.33 (1.30 )

It will be 13.79 times quicker.

e.

t / 5.3

22

follows. Because the computer speed

depends upon many computer components,

we cannot consider only the chip speed in

determining the speed of the computer as a

whole.

21. a.

28 / 5.3

1

g ( 28 ) = 100

2.57

2

This means that after 28 years, 2.57% of the

cobalt-60 will remain.

data since the data points appear to bend

upwards.

1/ 5.3

1

g (1) = 100

87.74

2

If after 1 year, 87.74% of the cobalt-60

remains, it is decaying by 100 87.74 =

12.26% each year.

b.

growth of the function so that it will pass through

the middle of the data points.

The equation is f(t) = 1.197(1.016)t.

102

Homework 4.5

c.

25. a.

b = 1.016

This means that the population is growing

exponentially at a rate of 1.6% per year.

d.

a = 1.197

This is the y-intercept of the function. It

corresponds to the world population of

1.197 billion people in the year 1900.

e.

This means that the world population will

be 9.49 billion in the year 2010.

23. a.

populations appear to be increasing by a

constant multiplicative factor.

d.

the value of f(t) (population) is multiplied

by approximately 1.35. Thus, the base is

1.35, the y-intercept 3.9, and the exponent

t

t /10

is

. The equation is f (t ) = 3.9 (1.35) .

10

f.

f(1) = 1.463(1.482)1 = 2.168

The percentage rate of growth is

f (1) f (0 ) 2.168 1.463

=

= 0.4819.

f (0 )

1.463

g.

27. a.

per year.

103

1.36

1.36

1.33

1.34

1.33

1.36

1.35

c.

Compare this model to the data.

c.

Population Ratio

with the average being about 1.35.

e.

There will be 90,443 Starbucks stores in

the year 2008.

Population

3.9

5.3

7.2

9.6

12.9

17.1

23.3

31.5

b.

model with an exponential function. Use an

exponential regression.

b.

Year

1790

1800

1810

1820

1830

1840

1850

1860

Year

1860

1870

1880

1890

1900

Population

31.4

39.8

50.2

62.9

76.0

Population Ratio

1.27

1.26

1.25

1.21

population estimates after 1860. The

population ratio changes from

approximately 1.35 to 1.25. This indicates

that model breakdown may occur in years

after 1860.

f ( 212 ) = 3.9 (1.35 )

212 /10

= 2260.17

The model predicts that the population of

the U.S. was approximately 2260.2 million

in the year 2002. The actual population

was 286.7 million. The error in the

estimate is 2260.2 - 286.7 = 1973.5 million.

2.

(8b

3 5

)(6b

9 2

) = 8 6b

3 9 5 2

b cc

3 + ( 9 ) 5 + ( 2 )

= 48b

c

12 3

= 48b c

48c 3

= 12

b

The equation is f(t) = 55.15(1.10)t

3.

=

=

16b 4 c3

4

4

4.

(2b

) (3b c )

5 2 3

4 6 2

= 23 b 15 c 6 32 b 8 c12

=

c.

increase exponentially over time. For the

years 1995 to 1998, the model is predicting

something different than what actually

happened. Thus, model breakdown has

occurred.

i.

iii.

The federal debt will be $760,000.8

million or $760 trillion in 2050.

iv.

(6b + c ) ( 4b )

6.

(18b c )(30b c ) 18 30b (

The federal debt will be $15,265.5

million or $15.2655 trillion in 2009.

15, 265.5

= 51.40

297

Each person would have to pay $51.40.

5.

59

ii.

15 + ( 8 ) 6 +12

3

8b 23c 6

=

9

8c 6

= 23

9b

years 1990, 1993, and 1994.

b.

23 b

2 9

3 1

= 1 1 = 0

5 3

2 + 5 9 + 3

3 + 1) 1+ ( 4 )

1 4

3 6

540b c

540b 2 c 5

6 5

= b3 2 c ( )

= bc 1

b

=

c

=

7.

(37b

) (37b

3 4 97

3 4 97

= (37b 3 c 4 )

97 + 97

= (37b 3 c 4 )

=1

760, 000.8

= 1928.93

394

Each person would have to pay

$1928.93. Since the debt grows

exponentially, it is more beneficial to

eliminate the debt now, rather than

later.

8. 324 / 5 = 321/ 5 4 = 2 4 = 16

( )

9.

10.

Chapter 4 Review Exercises

1. 1.2 400

400 (405)

=2

= 25 = 32

2 405

104

16 3 / 4 =

1

1

1 1

=

=

=

163 / 4 (161/ 4 )3 23 8

1 4

5

b 1/ 3

1

3 3

3

=

=

= 5/3

b

b

4/3

b

b

11.

(16b c )

( 25b c )

8 4 1/ 4

161/ 4 b

6 4 3 / 2

21.

8(1/ 4 ) 4 (1/ 4 )

2b

9 6

2 ( 9 ) 1 6

53

2b 7 c 7

125

2b 7

=

125c 7

22.

12. 32b 2 c 5 1/ 4

2 ( 6 ) 5 1

c

6 1 = 16b

2

b

c

2 = 23 x

1 = 3x

1

1

= x or x =

3

3

2b 2 c 1

1/ 2

2 = ( 23 )

( 25 ) b

2 = (8 )

1

x

= (8 )

8

x

81 = (8 )

1 = x or

x = 1

= 44, 487, 000

1/ 4

= (16b8 c 4 )

1/ 4

24.

= 2b 2 c

13.

(8

2/3

b 1/ 3 c3 / 4 )(64 1/ 3 b1/ 2 c 5 / 2 )

= 82 / 364 1/ 3 b 1/ 3b1/ 2 c 3 / 4 c 5 / 2

= (8

) (64 )

1/ 3 1

1/ 3 2

1 1

+

3 2

3 5

+

4 2

27.

3 10

+

4 4

2 3

+

6 6

= 2 2 4 1 b

c

1

= 4 b1/ 6 c 7 / 4

4

b1/ 6

= 7/4

c

f ( x ) = 2 (3 )

x

1

0

1

2

15.

1

100, 000

= 0.0000385

3.85 10 5 = 3.85

f(x)

2

3

2

6

18

n n

3n 2 n

bn / 2

2 3

6 6

=

=

= bn / 6

b

b

n/3

b

16. 32 x = 32 x = 9 x

( )

17.

f ( 2 ) = (8 ) = 64

18.

f ( 0 ) = (8 ) = 1

19.

f ( 2 ) = (8 ) =

20.

28.

1

1

=

2

8

64

2

2/3

2

f = (8 ) = (81/ 3 ) = 2 2 = 4

3

105

1

g ( x ) = 12

2

x

g(x)

24

1

0

12

1

6

2

3

32. 2b5 = 60

b5 = 30

b = 301/ 5

b 1.9745

33. 3.9b 7 = 283.5

b 7 = 72.69

b = 72.691/ 7

b 1.8447

29. h ( x ) = 3 ( 2 )x

x

1

0

1

2

34. 5b 4 13 = 67

5b 4 = 70

b 4 = 14

h(x)

1.5

3

6

12

b = (14 )

b 1.9343

1/ 4

35.

30.

1

k ( x ) = 18

3

x

h(x)

1

54

0

18

1

6

2

2

1 2 1 2

b =

3

5 3

1 2 1

2

15 b = 15

5

3

3

5b 2 3 = 10

5b 2 = 13

13

b2 =

5

1/ 2

13

b =

5

b 1.6125

by 4. The linear equation is f(x) = 4x + 34.

g(x) is exponential. As x increases by 1, g(x) is

multiplied by 3. The exponential equation is

5

g(x) = (3)x.

3

h(x) does not appear to be linear or exponential.

k(x) is exponential. As x increases by 1, k(x) is

1

multiplied by . The exponential equation is

2

x

1

k(x) = 384 .

2

31. b3 = 8

b = 81/ 3

b=2

37.

f ( 4 ) = 18

38. h (3) = 6

39. When g(x) = 5, x = 1 .

106

40. When k(x) = 6, x = 5 .

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

The y-intercept is (0, 2), and the equation is of

the form y = 2bx. Substitute 5 for x and 3 for y

to find b.

3 = 2b5

3

b5 =

2

1/ 5

3

b=

2

b 1.08

The equation is y = 2(1.08)x.

78.6 = ab 20

6.9 = ab 5

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

78.6 ab 20

=

6.9

ab5

78.6

= b15

6.9

1/15

78.6

b=

6.9

b 1.18

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 5 for x and 6.9 for y.

The y-intercept is (0, 3.8), and the equation is of

the form y = 3.8bx. Substitute 4 for x and 113.2

for y to find b.

113.2 = 3.8b 4

113.2

b4 =

3.8

1/ 4

113.2

b=

3.8

b 2.34

The equation is y = 3.8(2.34)x.

6.9 = a (1.18 )

6.9

a=

(1.18 )5

a 3.016

x

raise the y-intercept until it matches the data

point at t = 0. Then, decrease the value of the

base b to slow the increase of the function until

it passes through the middle of the data points.

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

30 = ab3

7 = ab9

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

7 ab9

=

30 ab3

7

= b6

30

1/ 6

7

b=

30

b 0.78

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 3 for x and 30 for y.

46. a.

by 1.07. f(t) is exponential with base 1.07.

Since $2000 is the initial investment, a =

2000. The equation is f(t) = 2000(1.07)t.

b.

The value of the account after 5 years will be

$2805.10.

47. a.

t

be exponential with base 2 and exponent .

7

The equation is of the form g (t ) = a ( 2 )

t/7

30 = a ( 0.78 )

30

a=

(0.78 )3

a 63.218

substituting 10 for t and 500 for g(t) and

solving.

x

107

Chapter 4 Test

d.

500 = a ( 2 )

500

=a

10 / 7

(2)

a 185.75

10 / 7

e.

t/7

b.

1219.02

Total sales for 2009 will be $1219.02

thousand or approximately $1,219,000.

b.

1

value of f(t) is multiplied by . f(t) is

2

1

exponential with base

and exponent

2

t

. Since at time t = 0, 100% of the

5730

carbon-14 remains, a = 100. The equation is

t / 5730

b.

The number of lawsuits filed in 2008 will be

approximately 1.57 million.

c.

million = 0.157 million. Of these, half are

1

defeated, so 0.157 = 0.0785 million or

2

78,500. If the tobacco companies pay $10

million per lost case, the total pay out will be

78,500($10 million) = $785 billion.

d.

with this strategy.

100 / 5730

1

f (100 ) = 100

98.80

2

After 100 years, 98.8% of the carbon-14

remains in the tank.

49. a.

use an exponential model.

b.

Chapter 4 Test

1. 1.322 / 5 = 321/ 5 2 = 22 = 4

( )

2.

8 4 / 3 =

1

1

1

1

=

=

=

4/3

4

4

8

( 81/ 3 ) ( 2 ) 16

= 23 b33 c83 = 8b9 c 24

3.

(2b c )

there were approximately 48 stores in 1990.

4.

4b 3c

=1

5 9

25b c

c.

18

50. a.

g (19 ) = 185.75 ( 2 )

1

f (t ) = 100

2

In 2008, there will be approximately 1411

Kohls stores.

19 / 7

48. a.

number of Kohls stores is increasing by

20.6% per year.

108

3 8 3

Chapter 4 Test

10.

5.

b

=b

b1/ 3

6.

25b 9 c 8 5b ( )c

=

7

35b 10 c 3

5bc 5

=

7

5b

= 5

7c

1/ 2

1 1

2 3

=b

3 2

6 6

= b1/ 6

9 10

x

1

0

1

2

8 ( 3)

2

7.

2

6b (b3 c 2 ) 2bb3 c 2

=

3b 2 c 5 b 2 c5

= ( 2b1+ 3 2 c 2 5 )

= ( 2b c

11.

2 2 7 2

=2 b c

4b 4

= 14

c

8.

( 25b c )

(7b )(2c )

8 6 3 / 2

3 1

253 / 2 2b

( 25 )

=

8(3 / 2 ) 2 6 (3 / 2 ) 3

1/ 2 3

b c

7

x/3

8 2

(2 )

3 x/3

2(

3 x / 3)

x +3

x +3

= 8 (4 )

1

f ( x ) = 18

3

x

g(x)

54

1

0

18

1

6

2

2

3

2/3

= 23 ( 2 2 )

f(x)

2.5

5

10

20

2b12 b 2 c 9 c3

7

53 2b12 + (2 )c 9 + 3

=

7

125 2b10 c 7

=

7

250b10

=

7c 7

9.

2 7 2

f ( x ) = 5 ( 2 )

2 x + 3 = 23 ( 22 x )

2

f (x) = 2

3

9

g (x) = 4

8

h ( x ) = 3 (2 )

1

k ( x) = 3

2

2 x 2 x + 3 = 23 ( 2 2 x )

2 x + x + 3 = 23 + 2 x

22 x +3 = 22 x +3

1

multiplied by . f (t ) is exponential with base

2

x

1

1

and y-intercept 160. f (t ) = 160 .

2

2

109

Chapter 4 Test

14. 3b 6 = 79

79

b6 =

3

1/ 6

79

b =

3

b = 1.7248

so the equation is of the form y = 6bx. Substitute

1 for x and 3 for y to find b.

3 = 6b1

1

b=

2

x

1

The equation is y = 6 .

2

The y-intercept is (0, 70), so the equation is of

the form y = 70bx. Substitute 6 for x and 20 for y

to find b.

20 = 70b 6

20

= b6

70

1/ 6

20

b=

70

b 0.812

The equation is y = 70(0.812)x.

20. a.

t (weeks)

f(t) (leaves)

0

40

1

80

2

160

3

320

4

640

For every increase of 1 in t, the value of f(t)

is multiplied by 2. f(t) is exponential with

base 2 and y-intercept 40. The equation is

f(t) = 40(2)t.

We can form a system of equations since both

points satisfy y = a (b ) .

x

50 = ab 7

9 = ab 4

Combining the two equations yields the

following.

50 ab 7

=

9 ab 4

50

= b3

9

1/ 3

50

b=

9

b 1.771

Use b and one of the points to solve for a.

Substitute 4 for x and 9 for y.

b.

There will be 2560 leaves on the tree 6

weeks after March 1.

c.

The model predicts there will be 1.80 x 1017

leaves on the tree 1 year after March 1. This

is unrealistic, model breakdown has

occurred.

21. a.

9 = a (1.771)

9

a=

(1.771)4

a 0.915

x

17.

b.

per year is 7.6%.

c.

that there were approximately 760 multiple

births in 1970.

d.

The model predicts there will be about

12,290 multiple births in 2008.

f (0 ) = 6

18. When f ( x ) = 3 , x = 1.

19. From the graph, we see that the points, (0, 6) and

(1, 3), lie on the curve. The y-intercept is (0, 6),

so the equation is of the form y = 6bx. Substitute

1 for x and 3 for y to find b.

110

- Calculus by BeamerUploaded byPat Agbada
- Chap 2 Test AnswersUploaded bybwlomas
- magicbullets.pdfUploaded byChiril Garbatovschi
- Linear InequalitiesUploaded bytutorciecle123
- 7 msa 1 4 lesson planUploaded byapi-314566229
- 2016_Complex_Analysis_problems.pdfUploaded byChinnaraju.E
- Pre Calculus Diagnostic TestUploaded byanon_199048
- Sample Test for UnitUploaded byapi-3820126
- Borrowing Costs.pdfUploaded byanjcabs
- IMPERIAL CASE.docxUploaded byZYKA
- ll std 2 evidenceUploaded byapi-328446016
- utah population modeling project (6)Uploaded byapi-280768687
- Overseas v CorderoUploaded byArchie Guevarra
- Credit Transaction Compliation of Cases DocxUploaded byerosfreuy
- SECTRANS+DIGESTUploaded bynikkimaxinevaldez
- EquationsUploaded byRida Aabid
- Chapter 1 and 10 Linear Student Notes 2017 PweUploaded byStanley
- 02 - Relations Functions and Their Graphs - Part 1Uploaded byillustra7
- GENMATHWEEK7.xlsxUploaded byPia Dela Cruz
- General Math DLL for SHS - (More Dll at Www.depedtambayanph.net)) Q1, Week 07Uploaded byIreneRoseMotas
- Lab Report Guidelines 4Q 2018-2019Uploaded bySeth Ryan Manuel
- MATLAB 3 2 2012Uploaded byoptimal87
- CREDITS Cases Week 2Uploaded byAnonymous IyGXG1Se
- Resource 7055Uploaded byaftab
- A Quick Guide to Planning Your FinanceUploaded byEdwinToh
- APMAUploaded bypizzle012345
- SOCIAL ArithmeticUploaded byAdek Teguh Rachmawan Anar-q
- 1Union Bank of India Clerk Exam., 2010[1]Uploaded bymanojmca
- 36.docxUploaded byKim van Elden
- 10264007Uploaded byBishawnath Roy

- Lehmann IA SSM Ch3Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- CurriculumVitae 2006.PsUploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- 0650.GuidelineUploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- As Cartas Do Inferno - C.S. LewisUploaded bySuellen Nobre
- Vedic MathematicsUploaded bysubash_dot
- Fermi Nuclear Chapter 1Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- angulos 1 CRESP.docUploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- InfoUploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM AppdxAUploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch11Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch10Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch8Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch9Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- LehmannIA SSM Ch7Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch6Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch5Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch2Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W
- Lehmann IA SSM Ch1Uploaded byAnonymous 7gpjR0W

- MusicMaster V5 SR8 Release NotesUploaded byONAIR.DE
- Anti-Collision System in TrainUploaded byIJRASETPublications
- Explained Servlets in Simple Way.pdfUploaded byusermani
- Sap Pp Pi Process OrdersUploaded bykamatsachin
- VxVM Storage Foundation 4.1 CommandsUploaded byres0nat0r
- Analysys Mason Telecoms Operators Approaches to M2M and IoTUploaded byGuiguizz
- f2803x Frm Dev Pkg UgUploaded byMadalina-Alexandra Puscasu
- Mechatronics a Multidisciplinary Approach Volume 10Uploaded byAmit Kumar
- Data Link LayerUploaded bybojamma
- Task 8-May 9Uploaded byMuhammad Nur Siddiq Zulendra
- java developerUploaded bysatya.sureit
- Manual de Controlador de Temperatura UDC2300Uploaded byLeo Hdez
- How to Create a Chart Using MS Excel 2Uploaded byhkindschy
- 239Uploaded byvictor
- 11-MIPS TLB StructureUploaded byKurumeti Naga Surya Lakshmana Kumar
- OC ConnectedConsumer Report DIGITALUploaded byPatrícia Cordeiro
- Suez 1Uploaded byDavid Cruz Zamora
- Network Analyst TutorialUploaded byAraditiya
- SB6000TL-21-DEN1420WUploaded byEliana Costa
- CV of Alexander TrakhimenokUploaded by123rukshi
- si4634dyUploaded bybgm7966
- Knowledge ManagementUploaded bySertse Abebe
- Service Oriented Architecture(SOA).docxUploaded byshrikant
- Site Planning for Medical centresUploaded by001bella
- Paper on Artificial IntelligenceUploaded byUlhas N. Gangji
- CCNP ROUTE Notes - UpdatedUploaded byclassic317
- property workingUploaded byapi-314809600
- 0151 Creating Your Library s Business PlanUploaded bySally Ghazal
- ePSXe TutoriaUploaded byGigix xs
- anmolUploaded byAnmol Kataruka