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Original Title: 07a40801 Process Heat Transfer

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No: 44062

R07 SET-1

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

II .B.TECH –II SEM SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS JANUARY- 2010

PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER

(CHEMICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

1. A pipe carrying condensing steam has unit surface conductance of the steam side film

5655 w/m2K and that of outside air film 7185 w/m2K. Calculate the temperature of

outer surface of the pipe laid in a room at temperature 30 0C. Take thermal resistance

of pipe is 1.85 x 10-4 K/w per m2 of pipe. [16]

2. Hot oil (Cp=5.2 kJ/kg.k) with a capacity rate of 2800 Kg/min flows through a double

pipe heat exchanger. It enters at 380oC and leaves at 300oC. Cold oil(Cp = 4.8 kJ/kgok)

enters at 30oC and leaves at 200oC. If the overall H T coefficient is 1000w/m2K.

Determine the heat transfer area required for

a) Parallel flow and

b) Counter flow [8+8]

3. A steam pipe 0.05m diameter and 2.5m long has been placed horizontally and exposed to

still air at 250C. If the pipe wall temperature is 2950C, determine the rate of heat loss. At

the mean temperature of 1600C, the thermo physical properties of air are:

Thermal conductivity = 0.036 W/mK,

Kinematic Viscosity = 30.09 X 10-6 m2/s,

Prandtl number = 0.682

For laminar flow over horizontal cylinders with in the range 103 < (Gr.Pr) < 109 ,

Use Nu = 0.53 (Gr.Pr)0.25. [16]

b) Explain how film coefficient is evaluated for heat transfer by forced convection in

laminar flow, turbulent flow, and transition flow of fluids through circular tubes. [6+10]

b) Write notes on pool boiling of saturated liquid. [8+8]

6.a) Derive the relationship between effectiveness and number of transfer units for a

parallel flow heat exchanger.

b) What are the advantages of NTU method over the LMTD method in the design of

heat exchanger? [10+6]

7. A solution is concentrated from 20 % to 65% solids. (Specific heat of feed 0.3) Steam

at 2 atm is used. Pressure in the condenser is 100 mm Hg absolute. Feed enters at

25oC, overall heat transfer coefficient is 1800 W/m2oC. The evaporator must evaporate

20,000 kg/hr of water as vapour. Calculate the steam needed, economy and heat

transfer area required. λs = 2197 kJ/kg, λ = 2375 kJ/kg. [16]

8. Define Lamberts cosine law of radiation and prove that the intensity of radiation is

always constant at any angle of emission for a diffuse surface. [16]

******

Code.No: 44062

R07 SET-2

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

II .B.TECH –II SEM SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS JANUARY- 2010

PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER

(CHEMICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

b) Double layer furnace wall built with 400mm red brick (k=0.6 w/m 0C) and 250mm

refraction brick (k=1.12 w/m 0C). Calculate the amount of heat passing per m2 of

composite wall if the inner and outer surfaces are at 1000 0C and 50 0C. [8+8]

b) Derive the expression for the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside

area in a double pipe heat exchanger including inside and outside film resistances &

dirt resistances and pipe wall resistance. [6+10]

3.a) What do you under stand by hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layers? Illustrate

with reference to flow over a heated flat plate. How is the boundary layer thickness

defined?

b) Differentiate Reynolds analogy and Prandtl analogy [8+8]

4. Air flowing at 4.75 m/s through a pipe of inner diameter of 0.025m is used for cooling

a nuclear reactor. Air enters the pipe at 150C and the surface temperature of the pipe is

maintained at 1500C. Find the exit temperature of air and the total H.T.rate for a pipe

length of 5 m using Colburn analogy. The average fluid properties may be taken as:

k = 0.03 w/mK,

Viscosity = 2.03 X 10-5 PaS,

ρ= 1.0 Kg/m3,

Sp.heat = 1.01 kJ/kg.K

The skin friction may be computed from f = 0.0014 + 0.125 Re-0.32 [16]

b) Write the merits and demerits of film wise & drop wise condensation. [8+8]

6. Determine the heat transfer area required for a heat exchanger constructed from a 2 cm

OD tube to cool 26,000 kg/hr of an alcohol solution (Cp =3.81 kJ/kgK) from 90to50oC,

using H2O which enters at 20oC and leaves at 40oC and for the following arrangements:

(1) Co current shell

(2) Counter current shell and tube heat exchanger, alcohol in shell and H2O through

the tubes. (Assume correction factor for LMTD = 0.95).

Assume that the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outer tube area is

830 kJ/hrm2K. [16]

7. Explain the following

a) Evaporator capacity & Steam economy

b) Boiling point elevation

c) Multiple effect evaporators

d) Vapor recompression [4 x 4]

5cm thick walls. The walls have a surface area 0.5 m2 and the thermal conductivity is

1.1 W/m.C. If the inner surface of the enveloping wall is to be maintained at 215 0C

and the outer wall surface is at 30 0C calculate the temperature of the black body.

Black body radiation constant σ = 5.67 ×10 -8 W/m2 K4. [16]

******

Code.No: 44062

R07 SET-3

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

II .B.TECH –II SEM SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS JANUARY- 2010

PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER

(CHEMICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

1. Calculate the rate of heat loss through a plane of homogeneous wall whose thickness is

considerably smaller than its width and length. Assuming the wall to be made up of

steel(k= 40 w/mK), concrete (k= 1.2 w/mK), Diatomate brick (k= 0.12 w/mK).The

thickness of all the wall materials is equal to 5cm. The inner and outer surfaces are at

1000 0C and 100 0C respected. [16]

b) Derive the expression for the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside

area in a double pipe heat exchanger including inside and outside film resistances &

dirt resistances and pipe wall resistance. [6+10]

b) A large vertical plate 4m height is maintained at 60 0C and exposed to atmospheric

air at 10 0C. Calculate the heat transfer if the plate is 10m wide.The properties of interest

are:

Thermal conductivity = 0.02685 w/m0K,

Kinematic viscosity = 16.5 x 10-6 m2/s,

Prandtl number = 0.7,

Employ the correlation Nu = 0.12(Gr.Pr)0.33. [8+8]

4.a) Explain how film coefficient is evaluated for heat transfer by forced convection in

laminar flow, turbulent flow, and transition flow of fluids through circular tubes

b) The sloping roof of house receives energy by radiation from the sun. The roof

surface reaches a steady uniform temperature 60 0C, and the ambient air is 32 0C.

The roof dimensions are 9m x 5m, and the convection HT coefficient is 11 w/m2 0K.

Determine the heat transfer by convection to the air. [8+8]

b) Write short notes on condensation of vapors. [8+8]

b) With a neat diagram explain 1-2 shell and tube heat exchanger [8+8]

7. A solution is to be concentrated from 10% to 50% solids in a single effect evaporator.

Steam is available at 2 bar absolute. The vapor space inside the evaporator is 100 mm

Hg vacuum. The feed rate to the evaporator is 25000 kg/hr. Overall HT Coefficient is

2840 w/m2 0C. Specific heat of solution is 3700 J/Kg 0C. Calculate the area of heating

surface required if the feed is at 50 0C. [16]

8. Two parallel planes having emissivities 0.3 and 0.5 are maintained at temperatures of

900 0C and 400 0C respectively. A radiation shield having an emissivity of 0.05 is

placed between the two planes.

Estimate

a) The temperature of the shied

b) Heat exchange per m2 of area if the shield were not present.

c) Heat exchange per m2 of area if the shield is present. [6+5+5]

******

Code.No: 44062

R07 SET-4

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY HYDERABAD

II .B.TECH –II SEM SUPPLEMENTARY EXAMINATIONS JANUARY- 2010

PROCESS HEAT TRANSFER

(CHEMICAL ENGINEERING)

Time: 3hours Max.Marks:80

Answer any FIVE questions

All questions carry equal marks

---

1. A pipe with 150mm outer diameter is lagged with two layers of insulation each of

equal thickness 50mm the k of one of the insulating is five times that of other. What

will be the ratio of heat loss when the better insulating material forms the outer layer to

that when the better insulating material is placed next to the pipe. Assuming the inner

and outer surface temperature of the composite insulation is fixed. [16]

2. Hot oil (Cp=5.2 kJ/kg.k) with a capacity rate of 2800 Kg/min flows through a double

pipe heat exchanger. It enters at 380oC and leaves at 300oC. Cold oil(Cp = 4.8 kJ/kgok)

enters at 30oC and leaves at 200oC. If the overall H T coefficient is 1000w/m2K.

Determine the heat transfer area required for (a) Parallel flow (b) Counter flow [16]

3.a) What do you understand by hydrodynamic & thermal boundary layers? Illustrate with

reference to flow over a heated flat plate. How is the boundary layer thickness defined?

b) Differentiate Reynolds analogy and Prandtl analogy [8+8]

4. Air flowing at 4.75 m/s through a pipe of inner diameter of 0.025m is used for cooling

a nuclear reactor. Air enters the pipe at 150C and the surface temperature of the pipe is

maintained at 1500C. Find the exit temperature of air and the total H.T. rate for a pipe

length of 5 m using Colburn analogy. The average fluid properties may be taken as:

K = 0.03 W/mK, Viscosity = 2.03 X 10-5 PaS, ρ = 1.0 Kg/m3 , Sp.heat = 1.01 KJ/kg.K

The skin friction may be computed from f = 0.0014 + 0.125 Re-0.32 [16]

a) Nucleate boiling

b) Transition boiling

c) Film boiling

d) Critical point & Ledenfrost point [4 x 4]

6. Cold water enters in counter flow heat exchanger at 10 0C, at a rate of 8 kg/sec. where

it is heated by a hot water stream that enters at 70 0C at a rate of 2 kg/sec. Assuming

that the specific heat of water remains constant at 4.18 kJ/kg0C, determine the

maximum heat transfer rate and the outlet temperatures of the cold and the hot water

streams for this limiting case. [16]

7.a) Discuss the different methods of feeding in evaporator with neat diagrams

b) Explain Boiling point elevation and Duhring rule [10+6]

8. Two parallel disks of diameter 0.6m separated 0.4 m are located directly on top of

each other. Both disks are black and are maintained at a temperature of 700 0K. The

back sides of the disks are insulated, and the environment in which the disks are can be

considered to be a black body at 300 0K. Determine the net rate of radiation heat

transfer from the disks to the environment. [16]

******

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