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Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations,February 2010 HIGH SPEED AERODYNAMICS Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Deﬁne adiabatic bulk modulus of a gas. (b) Show that for an ideal gas in an isothermal process, the bulk modulus is equal to pressure. 1m3 of a ﬂuid at a pressure of 1 bar is compressed isothermally to a volume of 0.885m3 raising its pressure to 3600 bar. (c) Determine its bulk modulus of elasticity. [5+5+6]

2. Deﬁne the compressibility of air as a medium in aerodynamics. Establish the lowest Mach number at which it starts showing its presence. Show that the pressure coeﬃcient Cp at Mach number is diﬀerent from that in an incompressible ﬂow. Can you show it by another method? Make use of sketches and plots. [16] 3. A Pitot tube was inserted into an airﬂow where the static pressure is 1atm. Calculate the ﬂow Mach number when the Pitot tube measures (a) 1.276 atm (b) 2.714 atm (c) 12.06 atm. (d) Derive the Rayleigh’s Pitot tube formula used [3+3+3+7]

4. The equation of 2-D motion of ﬂuid in small perturbation potential is given by 2 2 2 2 2 (1 − M∞ ) ∂ φ + ∂ φ = M∞ (γ + 1) ∂φ ∂ φ , where φ is the perturbation potential and ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂x2 M∞ is the free stream Mach number of the ﬂow. Develop the expression for the ∞ pressure coeﬃcient Cp [Cp = 1p−pV 2 in incompressible ﬂow ] in terms of the ﬂow ρ 2 ∞ ∞ over an elongated body. [16] 5. A supersonic ﬂow with M1 = 2.0, p1 = 1 atm, and T1 = 520 K is expanded around a sharp corner through a deﬂection angle of 23.380 . Calculate M2 , p2 , T2 , p0,2 , T0,2 and the angles that the forward and rearward Mach lines make with respect to the up stream ﬂow. [16] 6. A nozzle in a supersonic wind tunnel produces a test section Mach number of 2.0. Air enters the C-D nozzle from a reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross-sectional area of the throat is 1000 cm2 . Determine the following quantities; (a) Pressure, temperature and velocity at the throat and test section, (b) Area of cross-section of the test section, (c) Mass ﬂow rate and 1

Code No: 26068

RR

Set No. 2

[16]

(d) Power required to drive the compressor. 7. Consider a thin wedge placed in a supersonic ﬂow. (a) Explain diﬀerence between a shock wave and a Mach wave.

(b) Hence show that the down stream Mach number M2 is given in terms of Mn,2 Mn,2 as given below: M2 = sin(β−θ) , where θ = the semi wedge angle and β = the shock angle measured from the axis of the wedge. (c) Conﬁrm from your work out that the tangential component of the ﬂow velocity is constant across an oblique shock. [5+6+5] 8. Derive the following relation for one dimensional isentropic ﬂow as given blow;

A A∗ (γ+1)/2(γ−1)

=

1 M

2 γ+1

+

γ−1 M2 γ+1

. Explain its signiﬁcance in gas dynamics. [16]

2

Code No: 26068

RR

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations,February 2010 HIGH SPEED AERODYNAMICS Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

**1. Derive the following relation for one dimensional isentropic ﬂow as given blow;
**

A A∗

=

1 M

2 γ+1

+

γ−1 M2 γ+1

(γ+1)/2(γ−1)

. Explain its signiﬁcance in gas dynamics. [16]

2. A supersonic ﬂow with M1 = 2.0, p1 = 1 atm, and T1 = 520 K is expanded around a sharp corner through a deﬂection angle of 23.380 . Calculate M2 , p2 , T2 , p0,2 , T0,2 and the angles that the forward and rearward Mach lines make with respect to the up stream ﬂow. [16] 3. (a) Deﬁne adiabatic bulk modulus of a gas. (b) Show that for an ideal gas in an isothermal process, the bulk modulus is equal to pressure. 1m3 of a ﬂuid at a pressure of 1 bar is compressed isothermally to a volume of 0.885m3 raising its pressure to 3600 bar. (c) Determine its bulk modulus of elasticity. [5+5+6]

4. The equation of 2-D motion of ﬂuid in small perturbation potential is given by 2 2 2 2 2 (1 − M∞ ) ∂ φ + ∂ φ = M∞ (γ + 1) ∂φ ∂ φ , where φ is the perturbation potential and 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x2 M∞ is the free stream Mach number of the ﬂow. Develop the expression for the ∞ pressure coeﬃcient Cp [Cp = 1p−pV 2 in incompressible ﬂow ] in terms of the ﬂow ρ 2 ∞ ∞ over an elongated body. [16] 5. A Pitot tube was inserted into an airﬂow where the static pressure is 1atm. Calculate the ﬂow Mach number when the Pitot tube measures (a) 1.276 atm (b) 2.714 atm (c) 12.06 atm. (d) Derive the Rayleigh’s Pitot tube formula used [3+3+3+7]

6. Deﬁne the compressibility of air as a medium in aerodynamics. Establish the lowest Mach number at which it starts showing its presence. Show that the pressure coeﬃcient Cp at Mach number is diﬀerent from that in an incompressible ﬂow. Can you show it by another method? Make use of sketches and plots. [16] 7. A nozzle in a supersonic wind tunnel produces a test section Mach number of 2.0. Air enters the C-D nozzle from a reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross-sectional area of the throat is 1000 cm2 . Determine the following quantities; (a) Pressure, temperature and velocity at the throat and test section, 3

Code No: 26068

RR

Set No. 4

[16]

(b) Area of cross-section of the test section, (c) Mass ﬂow rate and (d) Power required to drive the compressor. 8. Consider a thin wedge placed in a supersonic ﬂow. (a) Explain diﬀerence between a shock wave and a Mach wave. (b) Hence show that the down stream Mach number M2 is given in terms of Mn,2 Mn,2 as given below: M2 = sin(β−θ) , where θ = the semi wedge angle and β = the shock angle measured from the axis of the wedge. (c) Conﬁrm from your work out that the tangential component of the ﬂow velocity is constant across an oblique shock. [5+6+5]

4

Code No: 26068

RR

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Supplimentary Examinations,February 2010 HIGH SPEED AERODYNAMICS Aeronautical Engineering Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. A nozzle in a supersonic wind tunnel produces a test section Mach number of 2.0. Air enters the C-D nozzle from a reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross-sectional area of the throat is 1000 cm2 . Determine the following quantities; (a) Pressure, temperature and velocity at the throat and test section, (b) Area of cross-section of the test section, (c) Mass ﬂow rate and (d) Power required to drive the compressor. 2. (a) Deﬁne adiabatic bulk modulus of a gas. (b) Show that for an ideal gas in an isothermal process, the bulk modulus is equal to pressure. 1m3 of a ﬂuid at a pressure of 1 bar is compressed isothermally to a volume of 0.885m3 raising its pressure to 3600 bar. (c) Determine its bulk modulus of elasticity.

(γ+1)/2(γ−1)

[16]

[5+5+6]

**3. Derive the following relation for one dimensional isentropic ﬂow as given blow;
**

A A∗

=

1 M

2 γ+1

+

γ−1 M2 γ+1

. Explain its signiﬁcance in gas dynamics. [16]

4. Deﬁne the compressibility of air as a medium in aerodynamics. Establish the lowest Mach number at which it starts showing its presence. Show that the pressure coeﬃcient Cp at Mach number is diﬀerent from that in an incompressible ﬂow. Can you show it by another method? Make use of sketches and plots. [16] 5. Consider a thin wedge placed in a supersonic ﬂow. (a) Explain diﬀerence between a shock wave and a Mach wave. (b) Hence show that the down stream Mach number M2 is given in terms of Mn,2 Mn,2 as given below: M2 = sin(β−θ) , where θ = the semi wedge angle and β = the shock angle measured from the axis of the wedge. (c) Conﬁrm from your work out that the tangential component of the ﬂow velocity is constant across an oblique shock. [5+6+5] 6. The equation of 2-D motion of ﬂuid in small perturbation potential is given by 2 2 2 2 2 (1 − M∞ ) ∂ φ + ∂ φ = M∞ (γ + 1) ∂φ ∂ φ , where φ is the perturbation potential and ∂x2 ∂y 2 ∂x ∂x2 M∞ is the free stream Mach number of the ﬂow. Develop the expression for the ∞ pressure coeﬃcient Cp [Cp = 1p−pV 2 in incompressible ﬂow ] in terms of the ﬂow ρ 2 ∞ ∞ over an elongated body. [16] 5

Code No: 26068

RR

Set No. 1

7. A supersonic ﬂow with M1 = 2.0, p1 = 1 atm, and T1 = 520 K is expanded around a sharp corner through a deﬂection angle of 23.380 . Calculate M2 , p2 , T2 , p0,2 , T0,2 and the angles that the forward and rearward Mach lines make with respect to the up stream ﬂow. [16] 8. A Pitot tube was inserted into an airﬂow where the static pressure is 1atm. Calculate the ﬂow Mach number when the Pitot tube measures (a) 1.276 atm (b) 2.714 atm (c) 12.06 atm. (d) Derive the Rayleigh’s Pitot tube formula used [3+3+3+7]

6

Code No: 26068

RR

Set No. 3

1. (a) Deﬁne adiabatic bulk modulus of a gas. (b) Show that for an ideal gas in an isothermal process, the bulk modulus is equal to pressure. 1m3 of a ﬂuid at a pressure of 1 bar is compressed isothermally to a volume of 0.885m3 raising its pressure to 3600 bar. (c) Determine its bulk modulus of elasticity.

(γ+1)/2(γ−1)

[5+5+6]

**2. Derive the following relation for one dimensional isentropic ﬂow as given blow;
**

A A∗

=

1 M

2 γ+1

+

γ−1 M2 γ+1

. Explain its signiﬁcance in gas dynamics. [16]

3. A Pitot tube was inserted into an airﬂow where the static pressure is 1atm. Calculate the ﬂow Mach number when the Pitot tube measures (a) 1.276 atm (b) 2.714 atm (c) 12.06 atm. (d) Derive the Rayleigh’s Pitot tube formula used [3+3+3+7]

4. The equation of 2-D motion of ﬂuid in small perturbation potential is given by 2 2 2 2 2 (1 − M∞ ) ∂ φ + ∂ φ = M∞ (γ + 1) ∂φ ∂ φ , where φ is the perturbation potential and 2 2 ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂x2 M∞ is the free stream Mach number of the ﬂow. Develop the expression for the ∞ pressure coeﬃcient Cp [Cp = 1p−pV 2 in incompressible ﬂow ] in terms of the ﬂow ρ 2 ∞ ∞ over an elongated body. [16] 5. A nozzle in a supersonic wind tunnel produces a test section Mach number of 2.0. Air enters the C-D nozzle from a reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross-sectional area of the throat is 1000 cm2 . Determine the following quantities; (a) Pressure, temperature and velocity at the throat and test section, (b) Area of cross-section of the test section, (c) Mass ﬂow rate and (d) Power required to drive the compressor. [16]

6. Deﬁne the compressibility of air as a medium in aerodynamics. Establish the lowest Mach number at which it starts showing its presence. Show that the pressure coeﬃcient Cp at Mach number is diﬀerent from that in an incompressible ﬂow. Can you show it by another method? Make use of sketches and plots. [16] 7

Code No: 26068

RR

Set No. 3

7. A supersonic ﬂow with M1 = 2.0, p1 = 1 atm, and T1 = 520 K is expanded around a sharp corner through a deﬂection angle of 23.380 . Calculate M2 , p2 , T2 , p0,2 , T0,2 and the angles that the forward and rearward Mach lines make with respect to the up stream ﬂow. [16] 8. Consider a thin wedge placed in a supersonic ﬂow. (a) Explain diﬀerence between a shock wave and a Mach wave. (b) Hence show that the down stream Mach number M2 is given in terms of Mn,2 Mn,2 as given below: M2 = sin(β−θ) , where θ = the semi wedge angle and β = the shock angle measured from the axis of the wedge. (c) Conﬁrm from your work out that the tangential component of the ﬂow velocity is constant across an oblique shock. [5+6+5]

8

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