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ISSN 2319-8885


Effect of Flakiness Index on Bituminous Mixes



M.Tech, Dept of Transportation Engineering, JNTU College of

Engineering, Hyderabad, A.P-INDIA,

Professor, Dept of Civil Engineering, JNTU College of

Engineering, Hyderabad, A.P-INDIA,

Abstract: Flakiness index is one of the prominent shape

criteria that govern behavior and performance of aggregate
in the bituminous mixes. This research has been done as a
realistic study for an actual pavement construction case in
Hyderabad airport in India, which a lot of pavement area
cracked and failed due to existence of flaky aggregate
particles. The strength and serviceability requirements of
bituminous mixture such as Stability, Flow, and Voids in
Total mix (VTM) and Voids Filled with Bitumen and
(VFB) highly depend on the physical properties of
aggregates. The change in rotation angle of coarse
aggregate was found to correlate well with the internal
resistance of a HMA mix. The particle shape determined
how aggregate was packed into a dense configuration and
also determined the internal resistance of a mix. Cubical
particles were desirable for increasing aggregate internal
friction and improving rutting resistance. The results
which are obtained from the study showed that the
strength and stability of the bituminous mixes decreases
gradually by increasing flakiness index.
Keywords: Bituminous concrete (B.c), Flakiness index
(F.I), Flow, Hot mix asphalt (HMA), Stability, Voids
Filled with Bitumen (VFB), Voids in Total mix (VTM).
Road transport provides greater utility in transport over
short and long hauls of lighter weight commodities and of
lesser volumes, as also for passenger transport for short
and medium hauls. Road as one of land transportation
infrastructure is very important in supporting the
economic for both regional and national development. The
quality of material for road construction will also
influence the road performance. Bituminous concrete as
one of road surface material is mainly influenced by the
quality of aggregates since aggregate occupies 95% by
weight in total mixture. Flakiness index of an aggregate
can be defined as a percentage by weight of particles
whose least Dimension (Thickness) is less than 0.6 of their
mean dimension. Physical shape of coarse aggregate is a

very important property in performance of the bituminous

mixes in the highway pavements [1]. Existence of flaky
aggregates in the bituminous mixes is
and a dangerous phenomenon because, of
tendency to break under wheel load either during
compaction in construction stage or in service life of
the pavement The flaky aggregates will also cause
problem in achieving the required degree of
compaction[1,2]. In flexible pavements there exists a
desired property for aggregate, which is the degree of
interlocking. This interlocking property is obtained by
existence of angular type aggregate. Due to having more
corners and angles the aggregate will produce a better
interlocking and friction with the neighboring aggregates
in the mix and causes more strength [1,3]. High flakiness
index will produce less voids and cause bleeding [3].
This study is carried out on bituminous concrete
(B.C) of grade (1) of 19 mm nominal size of aggregate.
Flaky aggregates has been added gradually to the test
samples from (0 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25) %. Aggregates can
either be natural or manufactured. Natural aggregates are
generally extracted from larger rock formations through
open excavation. Extracted rock is typically reduced to
usable sizes by mechanical crushing. Manufactured
aggregate is produced by other manufacturing industries
such as construction and steel industries. The coarse and
fine aggregate acts as the structural skeleton of pavements
while bitumen functions as the glue for the mixture. If the
percentage flaky aggregate that is required for each group
of test samples is given in random the result will change
and different properties are achieved since, in our case the
feeding is given in a uniform manner. The flakiness index
reduces workability [4].

A. Material
Basically the materials that are used in this study
includes aggregate and filler component of (B.C) grade
(1) of 19 mm. nominal size aggregate, Base bitumen and

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flaky aggregates. 2% filler is added to the mix. And that

rate is kept constant in order observe the clear effect of
flakiness index. The aggregate and the bitumen which are
used in the study should pass in certain tests, for
aggregate such as Los angles, abrasion test, impact value
and crushing, specific gravity and water absorption see
table (1). For bitumen these tests should be done like
penetration, softening point, ductility, specific gravity and
viscosity see table (2). The binder content for this study is
chosen between 5 to 6% [5].



B. Aggregate Preparation for Job-Mix formula

To determine the Job-mix formula, the aggregate
analysis will be somewhat governed by a number of
aggregate stockpiles. This can be done by separating
Coarse, fine and dust into independent piles, then from
each pile a mass of an amount of (5-10) kg is taken by
using coning and quartering method. This phase of mix
design establishes the job-mix formula that defines the
actual gradation and asphalt content to be obtained in
the finished construction[6].

Figure-1, 2, and 3 Coning and Quartering.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume. 02,IssueNo.10, September-2013, Pages:1023-1030

Effect of Flakiness Index on Bituminous Mixes

C. Sieve Analysis and Blending of aggregate

The test of Sieve analysis is a simple test consisting
of sieving a measured quantity of material through
successively smaller sieves. The weight of material
retained on each sieve is weighted and expressed as a
percentage of the total weight of the sample. In this study
a weight of 5 kg from each portion of aggregate is taken
such as Coarse, fine and dust, then passed through
Bituminous concrete (B.C) of grade (1) gradation, sieves
which starts from (26.5-0.075) mm as shown in table (3).
After getting final results from sieve Analysis blending
process is carried out by Trial and error method. In order
to get the required amount by percentage of each
component like coarse, fine and dust.
Graph-2: Fine aggregate Sieve-Analysis.

Graph-3: Dust Sieve- Analysis.

Graph-1: Coarse aggregate Sieve- Analysis.

Graph-4: Job-mix graphical Result

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume. 02,IssueNo.10, September-2013, Pages:1023-1030


D. Adjustment of Flaky aggregates

Flakiness index test is Applicable on those aggregate
sizes bigger than 6.3 mm. This process is carried out when
the aggregate proportions such as coarse, fine and dust is
identified. In order to determine the effect of flakiness
index on the bituminous mix, a number of aggregate test
samples have to be prepared and upon each group of
samples a certain percentage of flaky aggregate is applied
which start from (0 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25) %. The test of
flakiness index is carried out on each test sample which is
prepared for the mix. In this manner the test sample should
pass through flakiness sieves that for this study it includes
(25, 20, 16, 12.5,10 and 6.3) mm. When the sieving
process is over, the retained weight between any two sieves
should be separated and passed through flakiness
thickness gauge to identify the existing flakiness index
see fig.(5). After this step in order to achieve the Required
flakiness index percentage, The amount of flaky
aggregates are adjusted within a sample whether by
applying extra or removing the
excess flaky
aggregates upon each mass of flaky aggregates in a
uniform and equal manner. Elongated aggregates are
removed from each mass for a clear observation of change
according to each percentage [7].

Fig-4. Test of flakiness Index.

Fig-5. Thickness gauge

E. Mix Design and Sample preparation
The mix design method which is adopted in this study
is Marshall Mix design method. In this method a sample
of 1200g of aggregate, filler and binder mix is taken.
Aggregate and filler portion is heated to a temperature
between (175-190) C (Not exceeding 28 C above
mixing).The compaction mould assembly and rammer are
cleaned and kept pre-heated at a temperature of (95-150)
C. Bitumen binder is heated to a temperature between
(120-165) C. In this study the mixing temperature is
160C because its grade is 60/70. Soon both heated
bitumen and aggregate are mixed in a special pan or
container either manually or by mechanical means. Then
the mix is poured into the moulds and compacted at 149
C temperature with 75 blows to each side of the sample

Fig-6. Sample preparation.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume. 02,IssueNo.10, September-2013, Pages:1023-1030

Effect of Flakiness Index on Bituminous Mixes

A. Stability
Fig-7. Marshall Samples.
F. Testing
When all of the samples which contain required
flakiness index are prepared, then its put in a water bath
of 60C temperature for 30-40 minutes. After this step the
sample is tested by Marshall Test device to obtain stability
and flow of the mix [1, 6].

Its the property of strength and bearing performance

of the bituminous mixes against wheel loads and traffic
intensity. From table (5) it has been observed that with
increasing flakiness index stability decreased by 43%. The
maximum stability is 1506 kg and sharply decreased to
858 kg at 25% flakiness index. The minimum stability is
900 Kg. See graph (5). [1] [8].

Graph-5 Stability vs. Flakiness index.

A. Flow
Fig-8 Marshall Test device.

Flow is the deformation of the bituminous mixes under a

certain applied load. In this study we observe that the
value of flow decreases with increasing flakiness index by
53.5%. See table (5) and graph (6). The maximum value
of flow is 6.28 mm at non-flaky mix. And its 2.92 mm at
25% flakiness index. The acceptable flow limit is between
2-4 mm [1, 8].

According to table (5) the following influences for

stability, flow, void in total Mix (VTM),void filled with
bitumen (VFB), density and void in mineral aggregate
(VMA) can be assessed.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume. 02,IssueNo.10, September-2013, Pages:1023-1030


Graph-6 Flow vs. Flakiness index.

Graph-8 VFB vs. Flakiness index.

B. Void in total mix (VTM)

D. Void in mineral aggregate (VMA)

From the table (5) and graph (7) it has been observed
that VTM is decreasing with increasing of flakiness index
by 34.19 %. Its decreased from 2.31 % at 0% flakiness
index to 1.52 % at 25% flakiness index, while its limit is
between 3-6 % [1, 8].

In table (5) and graph (9) its observed that the value of
VMA is decreasing with increasing of flakiness index by
4.4%.VMA value is 15.71 % at 0% flakiness index and
15.02 at 25 % flakiness index. The VMA limit is between
12-14% for nominal maximum size of aggregate 19 mm
[1, 8].

Graph-7 VTM vs. Flakiness index

Graph-9 VMA vs. Flakiness index
C. Void filled with bitumen (VFB)
E. Density
According to the obtained results from table (5) and
graph (8), its observed that the value of VFB is increased
by 4.85% from 85.49 % at 0% flakiness index to 89.85 %
at 25% flakiness index. The standard limit for VFB is
between 65-75% [1, 8].

According to table (5) and graph (10) we observe that

the value of density is increasing with increasing of
flakiness index by 0.84%. At 0% the value of density is
2.36 g/cc, but in 25 % flakiness index is 2.38 %.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume. 02,IssueNo.10, September-2013, Pages:1023-1030

Effect of Flakiness Index on Bituminous Mixes

the Mix decreases the more voids are filled by

bitumen. So they are inversely proportional.

Graph-10 Density vs. Flakiness index


From the results that are obtained from this study it

has been concluded that flakiness index should be
kept below 25 % for a better strength and durability.

Increase of flakiness index highly decreases the

stability due to negative performance of
aggregates in the mix, since its evident that flaky
aggregates are weak and thin and dont have a good
interlocking ability and strength to form a good bond
with surrounding aggregates.

Though VMA is an attribute which is related with

filler ratio and viscosity of the bitumen but, also it
can be influenced by flakiness index as well. Since
we can see that VMA is related with VTM, which
decreases with increase of flakiness index and both
of them are influenced by particle shape and

It can be observed that density is also related with

VTM and flakiness index. When the void in the
mix decreases it implies that the mix is getting
denser. Density increases with increase of flakiness

[1] S.K khanna and C.E.G. Justo -A.Veeraragavan,

Highway materials and pavement testing ,2009 pp:
60,88,155-156 and160.
[2] Principle and Practice of Highway engineering By Dr.
L.R.Kadyali and Dr.N.B Lal. 2008, pp: 447.
[3] Hot mix Asphalt Materials, mixtures ,design and
construction by Freddy L. Roberts , Prithvi S.kandhal ,
E. Ray Brown , Dah-Yinn Lee and Thomas W. Kennedy
.1991 pp: 105-107, pp: 178.

Flow is decreasing with increase of flakiness index in

the mix, because due to lack of degree of interlocking,
the sample disintegrates earlier. So low flow value
will be obtained. Flow is a characteristic that varies
by property and quantity of the bitumen depending on
the elastic and viscous property of the bitumen.

[4] Bambang Ismanto SISWOSOEBROTHO, Kariantoni

GINTING and Titi Liliani SOEDIRDJO Workability and
Modulus of Asphalt Concrete Mixtures
containing flaky aggregates shape
Journal of the
Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 6,
pp. 1302 - 1312, 2005.

Void in total mix. (VTM) is decreased with increasing

of flakiness index because, in case of flat and thin
aggregates which lack an angular and cubical form,
the aggregate particles will be drawn nearer to each
other by compaction and form a denser configuration.
Then voids between aggregate particles are reduced
and filled more and more by bitumen and filler
particles. This is a negative phenomenon, because
presence of voids in the mix within acceptable range
is very mandatory. In high temperature condition the
bitumen inside the mix flows into those voids, so nonexistence of those voids will cause bleeding and
cracking in the pavement. But in case of angular and
cubical aggregates the required percentage of voids
can be obtained properly.

[5] Indian standard IS:2386 part 2,4 and 7 and


[6] Mix design method for Asphalt concrete and other hotmix types. By Asphalt institute 1995. pp: 24-25, 61.
[7] D. Sakthibalan Influence of Aggregate Flakiness on
Dense Bituminous Macadam & Semi Dense Bituminous
[8] MORTH specification section 500. pp: 183-187.

I express my Respect and gratitude for Dr.S.Amarendra
Kumar, Manager at R&D EPC Division, GMR
Void filled with bitumen (VFB) is a property that is
Infrastructure Ltd, Hyderabad, India, for his kind help
highly related to VTM. The more void percentage in
during accomplishment of this thesis.
International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research
Volume. 02,IssueNo.10, September-2013, Pages:1023-1030


Authors Profile:
Suren Muhammad Salih,
Received his Bachelor, Degree in
Civil Engineering from University
Salahaddin,Arbil, IRAQ. Presently
he finished his Master of
Technology in Jawaharlal Nehru
Engineering, Department of Civil
Engineering, specialization in
Hyderabad, INDIA.

International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Technology Research

Volume. 02,IssueNo.10, September-2013, Pages:1023-1030