With the Generalized Theorem of Lagrange

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With the Generalized Theorem of Lagrange

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N.Mantzakouras

Abstract : While all the approximate methods mentioned or others that exist, give some

specific solutions of the generalized transcendental equations or even polynomial, cannot

resolve them completely.

"What we ask when we solve a generalized transcendental equation or polyonomial, is to find

the total number of roots and not separate sets of roots in some random or specified this time.

Mainly because this, too many categories transcendental equations have infinite number of

solutions in the complex whole "

There are some particular equations or Logarithmic functions Trigonometric functions which

solve particular problems in Physics, and mostly need the generalized solution. This is now the

theory G.R LE, to deal with the help of Super Simple geometric functions, or interlocking with

very satisfactory answer to all this complex problem.

PART I.

Types of functions

1. Definition

We define as type of function one of the 5 general forms of functions that are

presented in the mathematics that is the following ones:

1. Exponential function.

2. Logarithmic function.

3. Trigonometric function.

4. Power function.

5. Power exponential function.

2. Definition

1. Primary simple transcendental equation is called each equation of the form

2. Primary composite transcendental equation is called each equation of the form

Moreover the factors m , t 0 which also take values from the set C and in

general the functions q z , p z are of different type, with values above in the C

Transcendental equation

Each

primary

complex

z q z m p z t 0

transcendental

equation

of

the

form

2

roots L1, L2 C i.e.: C.R Count Roots U Li (1) of the equations that follow:

i 1

1 ( z) m p( z) t 0 (1)

2 ( z) q(z ) t 0

which

come

up

(2)

with

the

primary

composite

transcendental

equation:

1. The functions

2. The factors m,t 0 take values from the total entire C

3. The fields of L1 ,L 2 roots of (1, 2) equations are solved according to the theorem of

Lagrange, and after the primary simple transcendental functions are solved per

case, and belong in the total entire C

he Count of fields of the roots is 2, and consequently the set of the fields of the roots of is

2

L {ziEC : 1 (z ) 0} {zjC : 2 ( z) 0} /\ q (z ) m p ( z) t 0, or L

UL

i 1

Case I

Let

contour

surrounding a point

and let

be such that

the inequality

and consequently

If where

q z m p z t 0

(1)

q z m p z t

(2)

z p q 1

(3)

one root in the interior of C ; and further any function of analytic on the inside C can be

expanded as a power series with the use of a variable similar to by the formula

f f w wt

n 1

n 1

d

f w w n

n 1

w t

dw

n!

(4)

zi ,1 f w w t

n 1

m

n!

d n 1

n

f w w

(5)

n 1

w t

dw

that is also the final relation for the solution of the root of the initial primary composite

transcendental equation q z m p z t 0 having count of the roots zi,1 where the

sum of the roots i is identified with the count of the roots of the primary simple

transcendental equation q z t which also determines the field of the roots of the

equation q z m p z t that it is also L1 and concerns only this form, that is to say

(1).

Case II

As previously, we examine the second case

p z

1

t

q z

(2) which come up if we solve the initial equation

m

m

are in effect which are regarded functions of analytic on and inside a contour C surrounding a

point t and let m be such that the inequality

1

t

q z z

m

m

Then letting p z Doing inversion of the function I take f p 1 and from the

initial primary complex transcendental equation q z m p z t 0 (1*) I take

p z

1

t

q z

(2*)

m

m

1

t

(more than

m

m

one if the q (z) function exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, Power function (n> 1), Power

exponential function)regarded as an equation in has one root in the interior of C ; and

further any function of analytic on and inside C can be expanded as a power series with

w t m by the formula

n

f f w w t m

n 1

m d

f w w n

(4*)

n 1

w t m

n ! dw

n 1

n

z i ,2 f w w t m

1

n 1

m d

f w w n

n 1

w t m

n ! dw

n 1

(5*)

that is the relation for the solution of the root of the initial primary composite transcendental

equation q z m p z t 0 having sum of roots z i ,2 so the count i is identified with

the count of roots of the primary simple transcendental equation

p z

t

m

1

t

q z

that

m

m

are L2 and it also concerns only this form, that is to say (2). The total of roots, as simply

comes up, will be the union of totals of solutions that is represented by the fields of the roots

2

L1, L 2 i.e. C .R Count Roots U Li and because the functions q z and p z are

i 1

different between them, accordingly the totals of solutions L1 , L2 will be different between

them. In general, however, we accept the union of fields of the roots L1, L2 as the final field of

roots of the equation q z m p z t 0 which we also symbolize as L L1 U L 2

1. Generalised Theorem of existence and count of roots, of an accidental

transcendental equation

Each accidental transcendental equation, of the form

n

z m i pi z t 0

i 1

has as count of roots the union of individual fields of the roots L1 , L2 ,...L n , i.e.: the equations

that follow:

n

m1 p1 z mi pi z t 0

(1)

i 2

n

m 2 p 2 z

pi z t 0

(2)

i 1,i 2

.....................................................

.....................................................

.....................................................

n 1

m p z

pi z t 0

(k)

i 1,i

.....................................................

n 1

mn pn z mi pi z t 0

(n)

i 1

n

z m i pi z t 0

i 1

1. Functions pi z are analytical functions at all the point in the interior on total entire

different power of the same type generally.

2. The factors m i , t 0 take values in the total entire C belong to the sequence of n

(count of n factors) with at least 2 factors of mi to be different of zero.

3. The fields of the roots L1 , L 2 ,...Ln of the 1 , 2 ,... n equations are solved according

to the theorem of Lagrange and belong in the total entire C

4. he Count of fields of the roots is n, and consequently the set of the fields of the

n 1

roots of m p z

mi pi z t 0, 1,2,...,n is L ULi

i 1,i

i 1

Case 1

Proof

Let pi z and f z and z be functions of z analytic on and inside a contour

surrounding

1

m1

point

and

let

mi

be

such

that

the

inequality

i 2

letting pi z then doing inversion of the function I take f p11 and from the

generalised transcendental equation

n

z m i pi z t 0

(1)

i 1

p1 z

I take

1 n

mi pi z t / m1

m1 i 2

(2)

If where

m i pi p11 (3)

i 2

1 n

mi pi z t /m1

m1 i 2

regarded as an equation in which has one root in the interior of C ; (more than one if the q

(z) function exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, Power function (n> 1), Power exponential

function )and further any function of analytic on and inside C can be expanded as a power

series with the use of a variable w t m1 by the formula

f w w t m 1

mr

m 1 d n 1

n

f w w

n 1

w t m1

n!

dw

n 1

(4)

w m i m r pi p11 w (5)

where

i 2

mr m1 1

And we come up with the root

n

full

zi ,1 f w w t m

mr

n 1

m1 d

f w w n

< (6)

n 1

w t m1

n!

dw

n 1

that is the relation for the solution of the root of a generalised transcendental equation

n

full

i 1

with the count of the roots of the primary simple transcendental equation p1 z

t

m1

In this case now this determines also the field of the roots of the equation

n

i 2

Case 2

Proof in generally

The pairs of forms at line of the function

n

z mi pi z t 0

(1**)

i 1

in the formula

m k pk z

pi z t 0 (2**)

i 1,i k

belongs, as simply is proved, to the sequence of n (sum of n factors). The proof is simple:

we suppose that we have a change with the attribute that follows:

If m1 , m 2 ,...m k distinguished elements of the total {1,2,...n} with the equivalence are existed,

then if 1 2 , 2 3 ,..., k 1 is called a circle of length and it is written as

follows. Consequently, we have line of changes Respectively, if n , then we have the

line of changes n According to the developed form (2**) we take the analysis in the forms

that follow:

n

p1 z (mi m1 ) pi z t / m1 0

(1)

i 2

p2 z

(mi m 2 ) pi z t /m 2 0

(2)

i 1,i 2

.....................................................

.....................................................

.....................................................

n

(m / m ) p ( z ) t / m

pk ( z )

(k)

i1,i k

......................................................

n 1

pn (z ) (mi / mn ) pi (z ) t / mn 0

(n)

i 1

contour

surrounding a point

and let

mi

be

i 2

1

letting p z then doing inversion of the function I take f p

n

pi z t 0 (1)

i 1

1

mk

i 1,i

mi pi z t / m (2)

and

i 1,i

1

effect f p ,then the equation

1

mk

m i p i t / m (3)

i 1,i

regarded as an equation in which has one root in the interior of C; (more than one if the q

(z) function exponential, logarithmic, trigonometric, Power function (n> 1)), and further any

function of analytic on and inside C can be expanded as a power series with a similar of

variable w t /m by the formula

n

f f w w t m

mr

m

d n 1

n

f w w

n 1

w t m

n!

dw

n 1

where

(4)

m r pi p1 w (5)

i 1,i

mr mi

with

for any i 1, i , i n

mr m 1 also for complex roots k>=1 and k Z in general. Final we come up with the

root

n

z ifu, ll f w w t

mr

m d n 1

n

f w w

<

n 1

w t m

n!

dw

n 1

(6)

that is the relation for the solution of the roots of the generalised transcendental equation

n

i 1

m p ( z) t 0

i

i1

to is

identified with the number of roots of the the primary simple transcendental equations

pi

t

t

, i . Specifically, the case pi , i

mi

mi

n

m p ( z) t 0

i

i 1 , i k

concerns only this form, that is to say (k). Now, for the generalisation of cases, because

this takes values from 1 to n , consequently the count of fields of roots will also be n , and

consequently the field of total of the roots of the equations

n

m p ( z) t 0, z t / m , k {1,2..., n} will be L UL

( z ) m k pk (z )

i 1

i 1, i k

Of course, all these are in effect, provided that the functions of type pi z are of different

type, or of different form, or of different power of the same type in general. In the case where

n

m p

i

ri

i

( z) t 0 with

i 1

ri C and i N . More specifically, for the case of ri N and for the calculation of the

roots, we will have the general relation that follows:

n

mr

m

dn 1

n

w

<

n 1 f w

w t m

n!

dw

n 1

zi , f w w t m

full

with f w p

1/rj

2i/g

and w

i 1,i

p i p 1 w

1/r j

e 2 i/ g

(7)

Within g 0,1,2...ri 1 N

For the sum in general we have the following formula:

n

n 1

mr

n 1

m d

f w w n

n 1

w t

n!

dw

(8)

m

That sum should converge in some limit of more generally complex number, and according to

the conditions of the theorem of Lagrange.

This method gives very good results usually in cases where t <=1. For instances, however,

where t> 1 is usually employs the inverse of the transformation F(1/ z) which facilitates the

convergence of the sum of the formula (8).

The relevant literature on the original theorem of Lagrange and Burmann's derived from the

classic book on the theorem "Course of modern Analysis of E.T Witteker and G.N.Watson

"Press Campridge 2002 [0].

PART II .

z

1. SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION z e t

The roots of the equation play a role in the iteration of the exponential function[2;3;11] and in

the solution and application of certain difference - Equation [1;9;10;12]. For this reason, several

authors [4; 5; 7; 8; 9; 12] have found various properties of some or all of the roots. There is a

work by E. M. Write, communicated by Richard Bellman, December 15, 1958. Also must mention

a very important offer of Wolfram in Mathematica program with the W--Function.

But now we will solve the with the method (G.RL.E ), because it is the only method that

throws ample light on general solve all equations. All the roots of our equation are given by

log( z ) z log(t ) 2 k i (1) where k takes all integral values as k 0,1,2,3,.... . To

solve the equation looking at three intervals, which in part are common and others differ in the

method we choose.

A) Because we take the logarithm in both parties of the equation, the case t o t R leads

only in complex roots. From the theory (G.RL.E ) we get two cases according to relation (I), because

the relationship (1) has two functions, p 1 ( z ) z (a) and p 2 ( z ) log( z) (b).

Thus the first case (a) the solution we are the roots of the equation

zk (

i 1

i 1

( m)

Gamma (i 1)

log( t ) 2 k i

i1

and k is integer , for a value of i .Also the case when t and is a complex

number and especially when t e , then the solution is represented by the same form (i).

B) For interval 0 t

1

t R but also general where 0 t 1 in case that

e

e

t is complex

number and when k 0 , then the solutions illustrated from the equation :

zk (

i 1

( m) i

i 1

( log i ( )) (i)

Ga mma( i 1) i 1

and in case that k 0 then using the form p2 ( z) log( z) z Exp( ) the Lagrange equation from

(G.R L.E) transformed to

i

i1

( m )

i

z k Exp( ) (

( Exp( ) Exp ( ))

i 1 Gamma(i 1) i 1

(m) i

(i 1)i1 Expi1( )) because we know the nth derivative of

translatable to zk Exp( ) (

i1 Gamma(i 1)

Exp (m x) m n Exp (m x) .

C) Specificity for the region

1

1

t e t R but more generally t e . Appears a small anomaly

e

e

in the form (i) and as regards the complex or real value for k = 0 in log(t ) 2 k i . The case

for Complex roots we get as a solution of the equation by the form

zk (

i 1

( m )i

i 1

( log i ( )) except if k 0 .

Gamma (i 1) i 1

Eventually the case k = 0 is presented and the anomaly in the approach of the infinite sum in the

form (ii)

zs Exp( ) (

i 1

( m* )i

i 1

i 1

(i 1) Exp ( ))

Gamma(i 1)

s1

but m* m / e with s>=1

Because the replay will be s times and zs1 , s 1 we have to repeat. A very good approximation

also in this special case is when we use the method approximate of Newton after obtaining an

initial root zs with s = 1 .

2. MAXIMUM THE SURFACE AREA AND VOLUME OF A HYPERSPHERE N DIMS

In mathematics, an n-sphere is a generalization of the surface of an ordinary sphere to arbitrary

dimension. For any natural number n, an n-sphere of radius r is defined as the set of points in (n + 1)dimensional Euclidean space which are at distance r from a central point, where the radius r may be any

positive real number. It is an n-dimensional manifold in Euclidean (n + 1)-space.

The n-hypersphere (often simply called the n-sphere) is a generalization of the circle (called by geometers

the 2-sphere) and usual sphere (called by geometers the 3-sphere) to dimensions n>=4. The n-sphere is

therefore defined (again, to a geometer; see below) as the set of n-tuples of points ( x1 , x 2, ..., x n ) such that

x12 x22 .... x 2n R 2 (1)

where R is the radius of the hypersphere.

Let Vn denote the content of an n-hypersphere (in the geometer's sense) of radius R is given by

Vn Sn r

n1

dr

Sn Rn

S n e r r n1 dr

2

2

1 ... x n

.... e ( x

dx1 ....dx n ( e x dx ) n

1

2

S n ( n / 2 ) ( (1 / 2 )) n

Sn R

n1

2( (1 / 2)) / (n / 2) R

n1

( 2

n/ 2

) / (n / 2) (1)

Strangely enough, the hyper-surface area reaches a maximum and then decreases towards 0 as n

increases. The point of maximal hyper-surface area satisfies

dS n

dn

R n 1 ( 2

n/ 2

Where 0 ( x) ( x) is the digamma function . For maximum volume the same they be calculated

dV n

R n ( n / 2 ) / (1 n / 2) R n n / 2 [ln 0 (1 n / 2 )] /( 2 (1 n / 2 )) 0 (4)

dn

From Feng Qi and Bai Ni-Guo exist theorem [arXiv:0902.2519v2 [math.CA] 19 Jan 2011]

1 1

1

For all x (0 , ) , ln( x ) ( x) ln( x e ) the constant e 0.56 .

2 x

x

Taking advantage of the previous theorem solved in two levels ie

From (3) we have 2 levels :

1

1

1

1

1

ln( x )

ln (a) and ln( x e )

ln (b)

1

1

2

2

2

x

x

2

2

Both cases, if resolved in accordance with the theorem (G.RL.E ) from by the

form..

z 2 ( e 1/ 2)

( m)

i 1

Gamma(i 1)

(

i 1

i 1

(2 e (

2(e 1/ 2)

) )

with log( ) but m 1 / e s 1 , with s>=1 as before in 1 case. The initial value for (a) case is

5.59464 and for (b) case is 5.48125. We use the method approximate of Newton after obtaining an

initial root z s with s =1 is 7.27218 and 7.18109 respectively, finally after a few iterations.This shows

that ultimately we as integer result the integer 7, for maximum hyper-surface area.

Joyce

Thereafter for the case of maximum volume, and before applying From Feng Qi and Bai Ni-Guo

1

2

1

2

1

1

( x 1)

2

2

1

1

x 1

2

ln . The

z 2 ( e 3 / 2) (

i 1

s 1

( m) i

i 1

2

with

( 2 e (

) ) with log( ) but m 1 / e

i 1

Gamma( i 1)

2( e 3/ 2) 2

s>=1 as before case. In two cases end up in the initial values 3.59464 and 3.48125. We use the

method approximate of Newton arrive quickly in 5.27218 and 5.18109 respectively. Therefore the

integer for the maximum volume hyper-surface is the 5.

3. THE KEPLERS EQUATION

The keplers equation allows determine the relation of the time angular displacement within an

orbit. Kepler's equation is of fundamental importance in celestial mechanics, but cannot be directly

inverted in terms of simple functions in order to determine where the planet will be at

a given time. Let M be the mean anomaly(a parameterization of time) and E the eccentric anomaly (a

parameterization of polar angle) of a body orbiting on an ellipse with eccentricity e, then

1

a3

j a b ( E e SinE ) M E e SinE (t T )

and h

2

is angular momentum, j Area angular .Eventually the equation of interest is in final form is

M E e SinE and calculate the E. The Kepler's equation [14]has a unique solution,but is a simple

transcendental equation and so cannot be inverted and solved directly for E given an arbitrary M.

However, many algorithms have been derived for solving the equation as a result of its importance in

celestial mechanics. In essentially trying to solve the general equation x e Sinx t where t, e are

arbitrary in C more generally. According to the theory G.RL.E we have two basic cases

p1 ( z ) z (a) and p 2 ( z ) Sin( z ) (b) which if the solve separately,the total settlement will

result from the union of the 2 fields of the individual solutions.The first case is this is of interest in

relation to the equation Kepler, because e 1 .From theory G.RL.E we have the solution

z (

i 1

i

i 1

(e ) i

i 1

(e)

i

i

( ' Sin ( )) (

( Sin ( )) (1)

i 1

i 1

Gamma (i 1)

Gamma

(

i

1

)

i 1

for t . Since the exponents are changed from an odd to even we use two general expressions for

the nth derivatives. If we have even exponent is

These formulas help greatly in finding the general solution of equation Kepler,because this is

generalize the nth derivative of Sini ( ) as sum of the two separate cases. So from (1) we can see

the only solution for the equation Keplers with the type (2)

The second case solution of the x e Sinx t according to the theory G.RL.E we can also from

the p 2 ( z ) Sin ( z ) (b) that z ArcSin( z ) 2k and also z ArcSin ( z ) (2k 1) . So the

full solution of the equation x e Sinx t of the second field of roots is

zk ( ArcSin( ) 2k ) (

i 1

(1 / e) i

i1

(( ArcSin( )'( ArcSin( ) 2 k ) i ) (3)

Gamma(i 1) i1

Or zk ( ArcSin ( ) ( 2k 1) ) (

i 1

ArcSin ( )

1

1

(1 / e) i

i1

(( ArcSin ( )'( ArcSin ( ) ( 2 k 1) ) i ) (4)

Gamma (i 1) i1

2

value of (x or E) = 2.6704 radians.

In this part solve of transcendental equations we introduce another class of equations depending on

past and present values but that involve derivatives with delays as well as function itself. Such

equations historically have been referred as neutral differential difference equations[15].

The model non homogeneous equation is

n

g

k 1

k

r

x (t ) cr r x (t r ) a x (t ) wi x (t vi ) f ( t) (1)

k

x

x

r 1

i 1

discussion of specific properties of the characteristic equation will be much more difficult since this

equation transcendental, will be of the form :

n1

h ( ) a0 ( ) a j ( ) e

j 1

n2

bi ( ) e v 0 (2)

i 1

i

also must n1 n2 m . The equations (2) also resolved in accordance with the method G.RL.E

and the general solution is of as the form x (t ) f s (t) p j (t ) e j t where j are the roots

j

example we give the D.D.E differential equation x ( t ) C x ( t r) a x (t ) w x (t v ) f (t ) (3)

which is like an equation h () as of characteristic h() (1 C e r ) a w e v 0 where

C 0, r 0, v 0 and

a, w constants.

x m x t 0

x

The solution of the equation is based mostly on the solution of equation x z which has solution relying

x

on the solution of x e v which solved before. Specifically because we know the function Wk ( z) is

product log function k Z ,and using it to solve the equation x e x v is z Wk (v), v 0 .Also k Z

x

,all the solutions of the equation x z is for z 0 . According to this assumption we can solve the

x

equation x m x t 0 with the help of the method G.RL.E. According to the theory G.R.E we

have two basic cases p1 ( x) x x (a) and p 2 (x) x (b) which if the solve separately, the total

settlement will result from the union of the 2 fields of the individual solutions, .The first case is

of interest in relation to the equation has more options than the second, because

it covers a large part of the real and the complex solutions. This situation leads to the solution for x such

that it is in the form

x

log

W log

k

xk e Pr oductLog [h , 2 ik log[ ]] (

( m )

v 1

v 1 Gamma (i 1) v 1

( (e

xk e Pr oductLog [h ,2 iklog[ ]] (

( m)

v1

v 1 Gamma( v 1) v1

1

(1 Pr oductLog [ h ,2 ik log[ ]])

multiple roots in relation to k and t . Variations presented in case where, when we change the sign of

m,t mainly in the sign of the complex roots. Even and in anomaly in the approach of the infinite sum

s 1

we use the transformation but m* m / e with s>=1, a very good approximation also in this special

case is when we use the method approximate of Newton after obtaining an initial root zs . The

second group of solutions represents real mainly roots of equation where p 2 ( x ) x

So we have

x (

v 1

(1 / m) v

v 1

( 1 / m ) v

v1

v

v

(

( ) with t / m ,for m, t C

v 1

Gamma (v 1) v1

v 1 Gamma (v 1)

in generally.

6. SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION

xq m x p t 0

An equation seems simple but needs analysis primarily on the distinction of m, but also the powers

specific p,q as to what look every time.

Distinguish two main cases:

i)...... p , q R

The weight method would follow it takes m ,which regulates the method we will follow any time. But

p

according to the method G.E.R we have two basic cases p1 ( x) x (a) and p2 ( x) x (b)

whose solution gives the individual a comprehensive solution of the equation. For the case under

consideration ie m 1, p q transforms the original in two formats to assist us in connection with the

logic employed by the general relation G.RL.E .

The first transform given from the form x p m x q t 0 xq (1 / m) x p t / m 0 which is now in

the normal form to solve equation. First we need to solve the relationship x p in C. Following that we

( Log ( )2k i ) / q k Z , k 0, 1, 2,... IntegerPart[ q / 2]

can get the form xk e

,

and the count of roots is

Therefore so the first form of solution of the equation is..

( Log ( ) 2k i ) / q

xk e

v

v 1

( Log ( ) 2 k i )/q

( 1 / m )

e

p( Log ( ) 2 k i )/ q v

(

((

) (e

))

v

1

q

v 1 Gamma ( i 1)

(Log ( ) 2k i )/ q

( Log ( )2 k i )/ q

) (e

) / (q ) , with multiple roots in relation to k and

Where ( e

But for the complete solution of this case and find the other roots of the equation for this purpose i make

p

q

q

p

1

the transformation x y and we have x m x t 0 y m y t 0 and then we transform

in 1 m y

p q

t y

0 y

p q

t / m y

from all the roots. The form of solution will be as above and assuming the that g p q we have..

y k e ( Log ( ) 2 k i )/ g

v

v 1

(t / m )

e ( Log ( ) 2 k i )/ g

p ( Log ( ) 2 k i )/ g v

((

) ( e

) )

(

g

v 1 Gamma ( i 1) v 1

m<1 has no procedure for dealing with the method. Starting from the original equation was originally

p

q

found on the p and so the first transform given from the form x m x t 0 to solve the

xk e( L og ( ) 2 k i ) / p (

( m )

v 1

v1 Gamma (i 1) v1

((

( Log ( ) 2k i)/ p

p

) (e

q (L og ( ) 2 k i )/ p

)v )

To settle the issue of finding the roots, where roots arise other and with m<1 then i make the

transformation x y

q

y 1/ t y

q p

p

q

q

p

and we have x m x t 0 y m y t 0 and then we transform in

m / t 0 with the pre case p q . This transformation is relevant to the case remains as a

final case before us. The solution in this case has form and assuming the that g p q we have..

yk e (Log ( )2 k i )/ q (

( 1/ t )

v1

v 1 Gamma( i 1) v1

((

e( Log ( ) 2k i )/ q

g ( Log ( ) 2k i ) / q v

) (e

))

q

ii)...... p , q C

q

p

In this case should first solve the equation , z m z t 0, z C .The solution for z variable, after

several operations in concordance with the type De Moivre, we get the relation connecting the real and

imaginary parts the general case of complex numbers.. z

a bi

x yi

zk = e

ie

b(2k+Arg(x+yi)

a2+b2

b(2k+Arg(x+yi)

a2+b2

(x 2 + y 2 )2(a

+b )

Cos[

(x 2 + y 2 )2(a

2 +b2 )

Sin[

]+

a 2 + b2

2(a 2 +b 2 )

]

a2 + b2

2(a 2 +b 2 )

we see that the number of solutions, resulting from the denominator of the fraction that the full line

2

2

equals with the c ( a b ) / a if prices of k Z , k 0,1,2,.... IntegerPar t [c / 2] . For the case under

consideration ie m 1, p q transforms the original in two formats to assist us in connection with the

logic employed by the general relation G.R L.E.

p

q

q

p

The first transform given from the form x m x t 0 x (1 / m) x t / m 0 which is now in

p

the normal form to solve equation. First we need to solve the relationship x in C. Following that we

can get the form k Z , k 0,1,2,.... IntegerPar t[ q / 2] and the count of roots is maximum

2*IntegerPart[q/2] in generality. The solution is when we analyze the power as

v1 e( Log ( ) 2k i )/ q

p (Log ( ) 2 k i )/ q v

((

) (e

) ) and

q

v 1 Gamma( v 1) v1

yk e (Log ( )2 k i )/ q (

( 1 / m) v

to previous with p, q R . The sole change is in relation to the number of cases is Integer (( a2 b2 ) / a)

abi

x y i w for any w, z C .

for (+/- x axes) and z

7.

i)The difraction phenomena due to "capacity" of the waves bypass obstacles in their way, so to be

observed in regions of space behind the barriers, which could be described as geometric shadow areas .

In essence the phenomena of diffraction phenomena [17] is contribution, that is due to superposition of

waves of the same frequency that coexist at the same point in space.

If virus is where the intensity at a distance ro from the slot at = 0, ie opposite to the slit. So finally we

write the relationship in the form

The maximum intensity appears to correspond to the extremefunction sin w / w.Derivative of and

equating to zero will take the trigonometric equation w = tan w a solution which provides the values of w

corresponding to maximum intensity. With the assist of a second of the relations We can then, for a given

problem is know the wave number k (or wavelength ) and width D the slit, to calculate the addresses

corresponding to are the greatest.

Consider many tears as a crowd of 2 N +1 parallel between the cracks width D, the distance from center

to center is a and which we have numbered from - N to N. Such a device called a diffraction grating

slits.We accept that sufficiently met the criterion for Fraunhofer diffraction and find the equation for the

volume.

where

There fringes addresses for which zero quantity sin u, and therefore the intensity of which is determined

by the factor

Where k=/D and u=kw ,m=M.Trying solving the general form of the equation w = m*tan w with

m C , consider 2 general forms of solution, arising from the form Cos(w)= and

k Z , k 0, 1, 2, ... so we have..

(m) i

w p ( ArcCos( ) 2k ) (

i 1

i 1

Gamma(i 1)

i 1

wq ( ArcCos ( ) 2k ) (

i 1

(m )i

i 1

Gamma(i 1)

i 1

The correlated u ()

calculate the general solution of the equation by the method G,RLE

The first group of solutions represents real mainly roots of equation where p1 ( x) x

So we have

x (

v 1

v 1

(m )

(m )

v

Exp

[

])

)

(

( 1e ) with t , for m, t C .

v 1

Gamma( v 1)

v 1 Gamma(v 1)

In this case t=5 and m=-5, we calculate the x=4.9651142317442763037 the nearest 20 ignored.

Because apply relation

r

x r

xw

( w) e

xw

e xw ( w )r e xw

p2 ( x ) e x x log( ) 2 i

But this does not refer to real solutions and not the physical Evol equations for this and omitted.

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