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Chapter 2

At the end of this section, you should be able to


Find the domain and range of a function of 2

variables or more,
Perform operations on functions, and

Sketch the graph of a function of 2 variables.

Cartesian Coordinate System

R x, y x, y R
2

Distance between two points

J x1, y 1 , P x 2 , y 2 R 2

d J , P JP

x1 x 2 y 1 y 2
2

The set of all ordered n-tuples of real numbers


is called the
.

NOTATION:
Point:

x1, x 2 , x 3 ,..., x n

n-dimensional number space

R
n

x , x ,..., x x R
1

Distance between two points

d J , P JP

x1 y 1 x 2 y 2
2

P y1, y 2 ,..., y n R n
J x1, x 2 ,..., x n ,

... x n y n

n3

A
is a set of ordered pairs, such that no two
distinct ordered pairs have the same first element.

A
is a set of ordered
pairs of the form P, w , such that no two
distinct ordered pairs have the same first
element.
n
NOTE: P R

w R

, f P w

If

f P w

, then

DOMAIN:
the set of all admissible points

RANGE:
the set of all resulting values of

f
x
1. f x, y
y
DOMAIN:

x, y y 0

2. f x, y ln x ln y

DOMAIN:

x, y x, y 0

y
x

f
3. f x, y, z 25 x 2 y 2 z 2
DOMAIN:

x, y, z x

y z 25
2

4. f x, y, z ln z x 2 y 2
DOMAIN:

x, y, z z x

y 0
2

f
5. f x, y, z y xz
DOMAIN:

x, y, z xz 0

f x, y e cos x
2
g x, y, z ln xy z
y

1.

1
1

0
f , 0 e cos 1
3
2
2
3

2.

15
1
1

g 1,1, ln 1 2 ln
16
4

ln15 ln16

The composite function

f g x

f g x f g x
DOMAIN:

x x Dg g x D f

Let

f t sin t

and

g x x 1

f g x f g x

sin x 1

x x Dg g x D f
x x Dg g x R
x x Dg Dg 1,

DOMAIN:

If

is a function of a single variable and

function of

f g

is the function of

f g x1, x 2 ,..., x n

variables defined

f g x1, x 2 ,..., x n

P x , x ,..., x P D
2

is a

variables, the composite function

by

g P Df

f t e
2
g x, y, z ln xy z
t

f g

DOMAIN: P x, y, z P Dg g P D f

P x, y, z P Dg Dg

P x, y, z P Dg g P R

x, y, z xy z 0
2

f t e
2
g x, y, z ln xy z
t

f g

f g x, y, z f g x, y, z
e

ln xy z

xy z

1.

f x, y sin ye x

2. g x, y

1
x y 1
2

3. h x, y, z 9 x 2 y 2

Optional:
Range

1.

f x, y sin ye x

Domain:

Range:

1,1

y
x

2. g x, y

Domain:

Range:

x y 1
2

x, y x y 1
2

0,

y
x

3. h x, y, z 9 x 2 y 2

Domain:
Range:

2
2
x
,
y
,
z
x

y
9

0,3

If

is a function of

graph of

variables, then the

is the set of all points

x1, x 2 ,..., x n , w
n1
in R
for which x1, x 2 ,..., xn D f
And w f x1, x 2 ,..., xn .

f x, y 25 x y
2

y
x

The set of all points in


has a constant value

2 where
R

f x, y

is called a level curve

of f .
The set of all points in
has a constant value

surface of f .

3 where
R

f x, y, z

is called a level

A set of level curves or level surfaces obtained


by considering different values of

contour map.

is called a

1.

f x, y

y
x

Range:

f x, y k

y
x

k ykx

That is, the level curve of f is a


parabola if k 0 ,
line
if k 0.

f x, y

y
x

k ykx

Let k 0 y 0 .

k 1 y x .
2

k 1 y x .
2

A sketch of the graph of f is shown below:

f x, y

y
x

k 1

k 0
x

k 1

A sketch of the graph of f is shown below:

f x, y

y
x

x
y

k 1

k 0
x

k 1

2.

g x, y y x
2

Range:

g x, y k y x k
2

That is, the level curve of f


is a vertical hyperbola

if k 0 ,

k 0 ,
if k 0.

is a horizontal hyperbola if
are 2 intersecting lines

g x, y k y x k
2

Let k 0 y x .

k 1 y x 1
2

k 1 y x .
2

A sketch of the graph of g is shown below:

g x, y y x
2

y
x

k 1
k 0

k 1
x

A sketch of the graph of g is shown below:

g x, y y x
2

y
k 1
k 0

k 1
x

f x, y, z 3x 2 y z

Range:

f x, y, z c 3x 2 y z c
That is, the level surface of f is a plane.

f x, y, z c 3x 2 y z c
Let c 0 3x 2 y z 0

c 6 3x 2 y z 6
c 6
3x 2 y z 6