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You are on page 1of 6

Section 4 Systems with one degree of freedom (revisited)

Problem: Find the tangent lines to the branches of the critical level corresponding to maximal potential energy

.

Solution: Taylor expand the potential

know that we are at energy

, which means that

, which means that

which leads after some algebra to Arnolds answer

. We

, or

,

.

Problem: Let

be the area enclosed by the closed phase curve corresponding to the energy level . Show that the period of motion along this curve is

equal to

.

Solution: We know from conservation of energy that

and thus the area is equal to

where

are the turning point of the motion. Differentiating under the

integral sign, we find:

, or the total period of motion

(since we go from

to and back to

and the time of travel on the way

back is the same as on the way forward by symmetry).

Arnold does not mention this, but I believe this problem is a special case of a

1

, consider a classical motion from

to taking total time , and define

(

being the

Lagrangian, kinetic energy minus potential energy). Then a careful chain rule

shows that

, where is the energy of the classical motion. Similarly,

given

, consider a classical motion from

to

at energy , and

define

. One can then show that

, where is

the total duration of the classical motion. All of this can be formulated more

nicely and generally, and perhaps we will get to it later in Arnold.

Problem: Let

Find the period

the point .

of small oscillations in a neighborhood of

Solution: Sorry, I was thinking about the above while Lyle was doing this. I

think it was a Taylor expansion as in the first problem?

Problem: Consider a periodic motion along the closed phase curve corresponding to the energy level . Is it stable in the sense of Liapunov?.

First, we need to define Liapunov stability. Consider a first-order differential

equation

for

. (You can apply this to higher-order ODEs

by changing them to systems of first-order ones). Let

be its solution with

initial condition

. We say

is Liapunov stable if for all

,

there exists

so that if

, and

is the solution to the ODE

with initial condition , then

for all

.

Conceptually, solutions that start close will stay close for all time.

Solution: It is very rare that a periodic motion will be Liapunov stable, for the

following reason. Consider a periodic motion

with period . Given any

, consider all solutions that begin within of

. Suppose one of these

solutions has a period

. Then, after time , our solution returns to

where it started, but our neighbor is lagging behind by some amount . After

2

Obviously, this is not a real proof, but its what Arnold probably had in mind.

As he says, the only way to get Liapunov stability is if the period is independent of the energy, such as for a harmonic oscillator. Though you rarely have

Liapunov stability, you can have orbital stability: given

, consider the tube around its image in phase space; we say

is orbitally stable if for all

, there exists

so that if

, then the phase curve

for lies entirely in the -tube around the phase curve for . This is weaker

than Liapunov stability, since

must be within of

for some , not

necessarily

, so synchronization issues as in the above problem are not a

consideration.

Phase flow

Given a point

defines a map

, consider the solution

with initial conditions . Let

denote

of to itself. The set of is called the phase flow.

a phase flow.

to

. This

blows up in some finite time (since the integral for time of travel

gives a finite result as

). Thus

is undefined for

. In fact, it seems that for any

not exist.

, there exists

for

.

for which

does

Solution: By common sense, one can arrive at the picture shown in Arnold.

However, the question arose as to whether the image was truly a perfect el3

lipse. Lyle said that by direct computation, one can show that it is. Stephanie

presented a way of seeing this by directly computing the phase flow for this

problem (in general, this is impossible to do in closed form). The ODE can be

written as:

Thus,

Since

is symmetric, it can be diagonalized, i.e. written as a product of a

rotation, a diagonal matrix, and the inverse rotation. The first rotation leaves

the circle a circle; the diagonal matrix turns it into an ellipse, and then the

inverse rotation leaves the ellipse an ellipse. (Stephanie also showed how to

use the diagonalization to compute .)

Consider now

a function

for

. We say is conservative if there exists

(called the potential energy) such that

.

servative.

points azimuthally, say in the clockwise direction. Then, if you integrate

4

over a circle, you will not get zero, which you would get if were conservative,

since it would be

, where is the initial (and final) point of the

chosen circle (more on this is coming in Section 6). For example, one could

choose

. Another way to see this is not conservative is to

observe that

, whereas these partials would both equal

if

were conservative.

Consider a conservative system. Because of conservation of energy, all phase

curves must lie on the constant-energy hypersurface

. For example, for the two dimensional harmonic oscillator,

, the constantenergy surface is a sphere in four-space. The solution takes the form:

Problem: Show that the phase curves are great circles of this sphere.

Solution: We need to find two linearly independent vectors in

ways perpendicular to

. That is, we seek

for all . In other words, we want:

Thus, we want:

or

Since a 2-by-4 matrix always has at least two linearly independent vectors in

its kernel, we can always find two linearly independent

.

Problem: Show that the set of phase curves for the 2D harmonic oscillator

forms a two-dimensional sphere.

Solution: The set of all great circles of the constant-energy sphere is isomorphic to the set of planes in containing the origin, which one can show to be

four-dimensional. Evidently in this case we can not achieve all great circles as

phase curves. Indeed, since the above 2-by-4 matrix has special structure, not

all possible pairs of

can occur as its nullvectors.

We can rewrite the solutions as:

.

and only if one of the following holds

(a)

are equal if

, and

mod

(b)

(c)

Now, consider a sphere in with height and bottom at the origin. Let

be the height of a point on the sphere and

its azimuthal angle. Set

and

. I believe that using the above claim, this map is the

desired isomorphism from the 2-sphere onto the set of phase curves.

6

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