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# DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS

I. I. T. MADRAS

PCD290909
Date of submission: 091009

PH710/FTP/QM/P02

## PH710 : FOUNDATIONS IN THEORETICAL PHYSICS

1.
i
h
h
(a) Show that the coordinate representation of a wave packet given by hx0 j i = 1=41 pd exp ikx0
plane wave with wave number k modulated by a Gaussian prole centered at the origin.

x02
2d2

is a

(b) Determine the expectation value of the operators x, x2 , p, p2 when the state of the system is given by the
wave function above.
(c) Show that the wave function for the Gaussian wave packet satises the MINIMUM uncertainty relationship.
2.
@
0
(a) Prove that hp0 jxj i = i~ @p
0 hp j i

where

h jxj i =

dp0

@
(p0 )i~ @p
0

(p0 )

## (p0 ) = hp0 j i are momentum space wave functions.

3. If: A denotes the time derivative of the expectation value of the operator A in any state
and A is given by
:
:
p2
Px
A = ~i [H; A] then prove that p = @V
and
x
=
(
the
Hamiltonian
of
the
system
is
H
=
@x
m
2m + V ).
4.
(a) Show that [xn ; p] = i~nxn
(b) Also show that [f (x); p] =

i~ @f
@x

H=

p2
+ V (x)
2m

## Calculate [x:p;H] and show that

p2
m

d
hx:pi =
dt

hx:rV i :

To identify the above equation as the quantum mechanical analog of the virial theorem it is essential that the
left hand side should vanish. Under what conditions would this happen?
6.
(a)

Using
hx0 jp0 i = p

0
@

1
e
2 ~

ip0 x0
A
~

prove
hp0 jxj i = i~

@
hp0 j i
@p0

(b) Consider a one-dimensional simple harmonic oscillator. Starting with the Schrdinger equation for the
state vector, derive the Schrdinger equation for the momentum space wave function. Can you guess the
energy eigenfunctions in momentum space?

7. Calculate

## and j for a one-dimensional wave packet of the form

Z +1
1
' u + kx eiu(x
(x; t) = ei(kx x !t) p
2
1
0
= e( i!t+i! kx t) (x ! 0 t; 0)

! 0 t)

du

j'

=v

## is obtained. Is this a reasonable result?

8.
(a) Prove that the Wronskian of two degenerate eigenfunctions of the one-dimension Schrdinger equation is
constant.
(b) Show that the addition of an imaginary part to the potential in the quantal wave equation describes the
presence of sources or sinks of probability. Also work out the appropriate continuity equation.
9.
(a) For a particle in a one-dimensional box (V (x) = 0 f or a 6 x 6 a) with innite potential barrier, sketch
the probability amplitude for even parity solutions for the lowest three energy eigenvalues.
(b) Also sketch the probability density for odd parity solutions for the lowest three energy eigenvalues.
(c) Arrange the lowest four even and odd parity solution on an energy level diagram
(d) Determine the uncertainty product x p for the n = 1 even parity state and also for n = 4 odd parity
state.
(e) Work out the uncertainty product x p for the n = 3 even and odd parity state.
10.
(a) Using the Oscillation theorem prove that the even eigenfunction (under x
number of zeros and odd functions have odd number of zeros.

## (b) Prove that the ground state is always even.

(c) Verify the above result for the particle in a box.
11.
(a) For the one-dimensional step potential, V (x < 0) = 0 and V (x > 0) = V0 , obtain the stationary state
solutions of the Schrdinger equation for (i) E < 0; (ii) 0 < E < V0 ; (iii) E > V0 :
V0
(b) Sketch the probability amplitude and probability density for the case E =
in the region x < 0 and
2
x>0
(c) Obtain the expression for the reection coe cient and transmission coe cient by comparing the current
in the two regions when E > V0 :
(d) Show that the coe cients for reection and transmission at a step potential are the same for a wave
incident from right as for a wave incident from the left.
12.
(a) Consider a one-dimensional rectangular potential barrier of height V0 width 2a; symmetric about x =
0: Obtain the stationary state solution to the Schrdinger equation for a particle interacting with this
potential. If the solutions are, for the case E < V0 :
8
(x < a)
< Aeikx + Be ikx
Ce x + De x ( a < x < a)
(x) =
:
F eikx + Ge ikx
(a < x)

A
B

where " =

k
k

B
=B
@
; and

cosh 2 a +

i"
sinh 2 a e2ika
2

i
sinh 2 a
2
i"
cosh 2 a
sinh 2 a e
2

i
sinh 2 a
2
=

2ika

C F
C
A G

## (b) Obtain the determinant of the above matrix.

(c) Obtain the reection coe cient and transmission coe cient by comparing the currents in the three regions
when a particle with E < V0 is incident from the right, i.e the region x > a and moving from right to left.
(d) The matrix which connects Aand B with F and G given in 12 (a) can be written as
A
B

+i
+i

+i
+i

2
4

F
G

## Show that this matrix can be rewritten as

A
B

ei cosh
i sinh

i sinh
i
cosh

F
G

(e) Obtain the S-matrixwhich is the matrix of the coe cients Sij , i and j both equal 1,2 such that
B
F

S11
S21

A
G

S12
S22

13.
(a) For the potential given in 12a; nd an expression for the reection coe cient and transmission coe cient
when E > V0 :
E
E
in the range 0 6
6 10:
(b) Sketch R; T as a function of
V0
V0
(c) It is suggested that you develop a computational program to obtain R and T for various values of a,V0
and T .
14.
(a) By solving the Schrdinger equation for the harmonic oscillator obtain the analytical forms for
explicitly for n = 0; 1; 2; 3:

(x)

(b) Determine the uncertainty of x and p for the harmonic oscillator when it is in the eigen states with
n = 0; 1; 2; 3:
(c) Arrange the results of (b) in the as shown below
n
0
1
2
3
We shall examine the dyadic

x p

i
~ B
~ = [Ax ; Bx ] ~ex~ex + [Ax ; By ] ~ex~ey + :::
A;

~ and B
~ are vector observables given by A
~ = Ax e^x + Ay e^y + Az e^z , B
~ = Bx e^x + By e^y + Bz e^z : (Ax ; Ay ; Az
where A
& Bx ; By ; Bz are the corresponding scalar observables)
15.
~B
~ B
~A
~ ?
(a) Is the above expression equal to A
h
i
~ B
~ =A
~B
~ B
~A
~
~ A
~
(b) Show that A;
B
I : where I is the unit dyadic I =~ex~ex + ~ey ~ey + ~ez ~ez :
h
i
h
i
~ B
~ =
~ A
~ ?
(c) In general is A;
B;
3

i
h
~ J~ =
16. Show that J;

i~J~

nPn

## 18. The spherical harmonics are normally written as

Ylm

(!) :

( ; ') =

2l + 1 (l m)!
m
( 1) eim' Plm (cos ) : Prove
4
(l + m)!

that
m

(a) Ylm = ( 1) Yl
(b)
(c)
(d)

Lz Ylm
L2 Ylm
R2 R
0
0

m~Ylm

= l (l + 1) ~2 Ylm
0

Ylm ( ; ') Ylm
0

l;l0 m;m0 :

## 19. With reference to the geometry given above

prove Pl cos
monics.

l
P
4
Y m ( ; ) Ylm ( ; ') : This is known as the Addition Theorem of spherical har2l + 1 m l l

References:
1. J. J. Sakurai, Modern Quantum Mechanics(Revised Edition), Pearson education.
2. John L. Powell and Bernd Crasemann; Quantum Mechanics, addison-Wesley , 1961.
3. E. Merzbacher; Quantum Mechanics,Second Edition, Wiley International Edition,(New York,1960).
4. L.D.Landau and E.M.Lifshitz; Quantum Mechanics Non-relativistic Theory, Third Edition,(1985).
5. E.U.Condon & G.H.Shortley; Theory of Atomic Spectra, Cambridge University Press,(New York,1960).
6. Hans A.Bethe and Edwin E.Salpeter,Quantum Mechanics of One and Two- Electron atoms ,Plenum Publishing Corporation(New York,1977).