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International Compressor Engineering Conference
1996
L. Yu
ShaanXi Blower Factory
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* North west Institu te of Textile Sci. and Tech. , Xi' an, China
* * Dept. of Design , ShaanX i Blowe r Factor y, LinTong, Xi' an,
China
ABSTRACT
The way of heat transfe r with exchan ger coil betwee n cooling water
and discha rge gas is
now in commo n use in the interco oler of air compr essors. But the
interco oler with sprayi ng
water is more effecti ve than that for heat transfe r becaus e the dischar
ge gas is in direct contac t
with cooling water. This paper analys es the proces s in the interco oler
with sprayin g water and
deduce s the calcula tion formul as of main design ing parame ters depend
ing on heat and mass
transfe r, twoph ase flow and energy equatio ns. In the formul as,
each param eter shows
eviden tly its effect to the efficien cy of heat transfe r.
NOME NCLA TURE
cp
T
R
D
t
F
a
(j
Xo
L
y
Nu
Re
A
M
N
s
v
H
w
Ro
heat transte r
consta ntpres sure specifi c heat of gas
tempe rature
latent heat per unit mass of water
contain ing water vapour in unit mass of dry gas
time
total surfac e area of drops
heat transfe r coeffic ient
moistu re transfe r coeffic ient
length of sprayin g water passag e
averag e diamet er of drops
contain ing water in per unit mass of gas
Nussel t numbe r
Reyno lds numbe r
efficien cy of heat transfe r
mass
numbe r of drops
density
cross section area of passag e
velocit y, volume
specifi c enthalp y
mass flow
therma l conduc tivity of gas
547
c
B
calculating constant
atomizating efficiency
SUBSCRIPTS
g
w
b
a
0
gas
water
saturation point on drop surface
mean value
oil
INTRODUCTION
Intercoolers with exchanger coil is commonly adopted for air compressor, but its heat
transfer is not more effective than the intercooler, in which cooling water is in direct contact
with discharge gas. Therefore, it is necessary to research heat and mass transfer of the
intercooler with spraying water, and discover the relationships among quantity of spraying
water, water temperature, air flow velocity, average diameter of drops, relative velocity
between water drops and gas, structure and dimension of the device and so on. Depending on
the foundation relationships, the excellent design of the intercooler with spraying water can be
found.
BASIC STRUCTURE
There are three basic processes to be completed if the discharge gas is in direct contact
with cooling water to be cooled. The first is the circulating system of cooling water. Cooling
water is got in the intercooler by a pump and sprays discharge gas to be cooled. The cooling
water which has cooled discharge gas enters a cooling tower through a pipe by the intercooler
pressure, then the cooling water enters the pump entrance after being cooled. The second is
separating process. The discharge gas which has been cooled must be separated from cooling
water to get into next sylinders to be compressed. There are different separating methods, but
in this separation, three aspects must be guaranteed, steady flow to avoid whirlpools carrying
small water drops, low separating resistance, and small volume, so that the streamline baffles
can be adopted. The detailed design refers to (4). The third is heat transfer process. This
process can be simplified to heat and mass transfer between water drops and gas. Through
determined coefficients of the calculation formulas which we deduce, we can obtain the main
parameter relationship to design the intercooler.
dQ=[Cp(TTb)+R<DD,,)] e1 dF dt
dV=S Vg dt
548
(1)
where
cr=ca
dX
dt=v
In order to obtain the relation between heat transfe r area and water atomiza tion
,let us
suppose the average diamete r of dtops is L, the number of drops is N, the contain
ing water is
dM,. and the gas mass is dMg in the dV, then the ratio between water mass and
gas mass is
Y= ~~w
(Z)
where
7C
dM"= 5L 3
Zw N
dMg=Z g S Vg dt
The surface area of drops in dV
dF =N

7C
L2
6 Zg Y S dX
L Zw
(3)
(4)
Because the process of the heat and mass transfer between water and gas is
isobaric in the
interco oler, the quantit y of heat, which is absorbe d by the gas in the dV, is
the enthalp y
increase of gas, or the energy equatio n
dQ =dH dMg
=Wg(C p dT+R dD) dt
Put (4) and (5) togethe r. we obtain
dX=V dt= CpL 2 ZwW g.
s
6 Y S a Zg
where
Ro
a=
Nu
(5)
CpdT +RdD
Cp(TTb)+RCD~)
(6)
W g =S V g Z
If the Tb and the Db are mean values, or the mean value of the specific enthalp y of
water,
we integra te (6)
(7)
The formula will become the limit, 0/0, when the process is isoenth alpy because
of Hg1 =
Hg2 =H...,. In order to infer the formula of the isoenth alpy process , the conditio n of the
iso
enthalp y is in use and the infering process is same as above. The only differen
ce is that the
heat transfe r of the heat transfer equatio n is the quantit y of heat absorbe d by the
dry gas, or
not contain ing water steam gas. The heat transfe r equatio n and energy equatio n
become
dQ=a( TTb) dF dt
549
dQ=Wg Cp dT dt
According to the infering process as above
(8)
Because the pressure in the intercooler is more than 2 at. , the vapour content in gas, D, is
nearly constant, so that the calculating formula can be simplified
2
 Cp L
Xo6 Nu
Vg Zw Ln T1Tb1
Y Ro
(9)
T z T bz
(10)
This is the calculating formula of heat transfer in the intercooler with spraying water,
which shows the relation among the efficiency of heat transfer A, the length of spraying water
passage Xo, the velocity of gas Vg, the average diameter of drops L, and the containing water
in per unit mass of gas Y. Depending on the implication of the parameters in the formula, the
formula can become
V B Ln A
Xo= C Ng
(11)
where
The Cis calculating constant and the B is atomizating parameter. The Nu can be obtained by
Nu=2+0. 386(Pr Re) 0 5
In order to obtain the length of spraying water passage Xo, the experimental data of the
spraying room of air conditioning was measured in Second Cotton Mill, Beijng, China. See
[2].
m
Vg' s
Twl
Twz
Hwa
Hgl
Hsz
X.,
(X.,)
Js: China
6.00
18. 1
20. 8
13. 3
17.7
15.0
184
1.88
Luwa: Swiss
5. 99
14. 9
18.9
11.1
17.5
13.2
1. 80
Luwa: Swiss
6.56
14. 6
18. 8
11.0
18.9
14. 6
1. 90
l. 80
l. 95
550
The exper iment al data was measu red in a round pipe with sprayi
ng oil for coolin g discha rge gas
of air compr essor. See [3]. Tgl=1 20"C; Wg=1 2Kg/m in; P=2. 6Kg/c m 2
Wo;l/ min
Tol
21.39
60
19.76
60
17.82
60
15. 98
60
21.54
65
19. 98
65
18.33
65
16.53
65
87.7
83.7
83.7
82. 6
81.2
The calcul ating result s is satisfa ctory with exper iment s by the
above formu la. The length of
sprayi ng water passag e in the interc ooler ought to be 1. 5m accord
ing to the above data.
CONCLUSION
The formu la (11) is suitab le for design ing the interc ooler with
sprayi ng water. In which
the relatio n among the main param eters can be found . X,
is the length of sprayi ng water
passa ge, Vg is the gas veloci ty, C is the calcul ating const ant,
B is the atomi zating param eter,
Nu is the Nusse lt numb er and A is the efficie ncy of heat transf
er. C and Nu can be obtain ed by
calcul ating. Xo and Vgare the design ing param eters of the interc
ooler. X, ought to be 1. 5m and
Vg ough to be 6 12m/s . Ln A is requir ing param eter for the
interc ooler, which is 2. 34. 6,
B is depen dent on water distrib ution in the gas passag e of the
interc ooler, which ough to be
more by design ing way in sprayi ng water .
REFERENCES
(1) G. F. Hewit t. "Meas ureme nt of Two Phase Flow Param
eters" AP,19 87
(2) Y. Kang "An Analy sis Relati on Amon g the Main Param eters
in the Spray ing Water Room
of Air Condi tionin g Syste ms" Status of CFCs Refrig eratio
n system s and refrig erant
prope rties , Purdu e, 1988
(3) Y. Kang "The Temp eratur e Measu remen t For Rotar y
Comp ressor with Oil Inject ion"
Proce edings of the 1986 Intern ationa l Comp ressor Engin eering
Confe rence, Purdu e, 1986
(4) Y. Kang "The Interc ooler With Spray ing Water For Air
Comp ressor s" Procee dings of the
1986 Intern ationa l Comp ressor Engin eering Confe rence, Pudue
, 1986
(5) Y. Kang "Calc ulatio n of Heat and Mass Trans fer in
Recip rocati ng Comp ressor s with
Spray ing Water in to Cylin ders" Procee dings of the 1988
Intern a tiona! Comp ressor
Engin eering Confe rence ,Purd ue, 1988
(6) B. Butte rwort h, et al, "Two Phase Flow and Heat Trans
fer" Oxfor d Unive rsity Press ,
1978
551