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INTERNANONAL STANOABD ISO G35.

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Galculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears

Part 5:
Strengrth and quality of materiats
ltc1tt !e- ca9acit de charge des engrenages cylindrques dermtre ctroite
Patie 5:8srance et qualit des matiau

et

hticoctate

UDC 621.833.1:20.169.1

Descriptors: gears! rylindrical gears, spur gears, helical getus, load capacity, meterials
specifications, quality, tests, determination, cturability.

THIS DOCUMENT F A OfiAFT CIRCULATEO FOR COMMENT AND APPROVAI- IT IS THEFEFORE


SUBJECTTO CI{ANGE
ANO IIAY NOT BE FEFERBED TO AS AN INTER1..|ATIOI.|AL STAI\OARO UNRL PUBTISHED AS
StJCH.

N ADDmoN TO THEIR 1ALUATION AS


USEB PURPOSES, DFAFI

BEING ACCmABLE FOR |NOUSTR|AL TECHNOLOGIC^L coMMERCtAL AND

INTEFI.{AOML STANDARO6 MAY ON OCCASION l{qvE TO BE CONSIOEBED tN THE UGHT


oF THEIR PorEt{nrL To EEcoME srANDARos To wHlcH REFEFENOE MAY BE irADE tN
roer- geeuuroNs.

o lntemational Organization for Standardation, 1995

ISO 635.2:10os(E)

Contents

Page

Scope

Normative references

Symbols

Methods for the determnation of ailowabte stress numbers

4.1

4.3
4.4

Method
Method
Method
Method

Standard allowable stress numbers - method B

s.1

Application

4.2

I
1

4
4

B
Bk
Bp

4
4

5.2
s.3

d ore

s.3.1

5.3.2
5.3.3
5.4

Graphs for , and o,


[m

ild

Requlrements for material quality and heat-treatment

6.1

General aspects
Matedal qualtty and heat treatment requirements
Structural or cast leel, plain carbon, unalloyed steels
Black malleable cast iron
Other
,

6.21
6.22
6.2.3
6.3

materials

Coupon

6
6

7
dFE

6
6.2

18
18
18
18

18
18
30

ISO 6335.2: 1995@

Annex A: considerations of the slze of the controlling section


for through hardened gearing

4.1
\2
A3
4.4
AS

Purpose
Definition
llluslrations
Recommendations

Generalcomments

Annex B: Certificates
8.1

8.2
8.3

Works certcate
Works test certifcde
Acceptance tesil certicde

3r
31
31
31

32
32

34

4
g
4

Annex C: Table of hardness conversions

3s

Annex D: Testing surface hardness with a file

rtO

D.1
D.2
D.3

Application
Description
Equipment

O.3.1 Files
D.3.2 Provers

D.4

Testing

Annex E: Bibliography

36
36
\t

36
36
37

38

ISO

63ites: l99s(E)

lnlroduction
Allowable stress numbers, as correred by ths part of ISO 6336, mey vary widely. Srch variatkn
tdbutable to clefects and variations of: chemical composition (ctrarge), structure! the type and
extert of hot working (e.9., bar stock, forgng, reduclion raio), trea tretme4 residual stress
levels, eti.

Tables summarize the most mportant influerrcing variables and the requirements for the differert
mderials and quality grades. The effects of these irfluences on sudace durability and tooth
bending strength are illustrated by the graphs in figures 1 to 14.

This pan of lsO 6336 c-overs the most widely used gear steels end related heat-treatmert
processes. Recommendalons on the choice of specific mderieb, heat-treatment processes or
manufacturing processes are not included. Furthermore, no comments ere made concemng the
suitability, or otherwise, of any materials for specific manufacturing or heat-treatment processes.

INTERNANONAL STANDARD

3es: lsss(E)

ISO

calculation of load capacity of spur and helical gears

Pat 5:
Strength and quality of material
Resr

ch,'

T,Jlt. .\u\ n ,otria\_

Scope

This part of lso 6336 describes contact and tooth-root tresses, as wellas numerical
vatues for
both limit stress numbers.
Requirements for material guality and hed treatment are specified, together with
comments on
their influences on boh limt sress numbers.
Values in accordance with ths part of ISO
procedures prwided in ISO ge2 and
High Speed and Marine Gears. They are also
for rng the load capacity of banelgears.

lS

dustriat,

1OO

rack profiles, profile

The results are in good


of ISO 6331.

Normative references

The following standards contain prwisions which, through reference in ths text, constitute
prorisons of this part d lso 6336. At the time of publition, th editons nclicded
were valid.

Standards.
ISO 53: 1974,
ISO 642: 1979,
ISO 64l: 19q,

Ail

on, and paftes to aTangements based on ths part o lso 6336 are
possibility of applying the most recent edition c the standards
IEC and lso maintain regsters of cunently narid rntemaionar

Cylindrical gears for general and hearry engineerng - Basic rack

Steel- Hardenabitity tes by end quenchng (Jominy test)


)oo(

ISO 68311:1987,

Heanreaable stels, alloy steels and free{uttng steels - pert 11: wrougtrt
case-hardening steels

ISO 2639: 1!)oc

)(

19s,

)G

ISO 3452: 19o<,

)oo(

ISO 3754: 19rol,

ISO 4967:

ISO 633e5.2:1995(E)

terms - part

ISO f 122-1: 198t,

Glossary of

ISO 132&1: J),

cllindrical gears - lso system of accuracy - part 1: Definitiors and


allorable values of deviations relvaff to conedponding flanks of gear teeth.

tSO 633,1: -1),

Calculation of load capacity of spur and trelical gears


Part 1: Basic prirrciples. lntroctuction and general irlluence tactors

ISO 633S2: J),

Calcrtion of load capacity of spur and helical gears


Paft 2: Calculaton d surface cturabitity (pitting)

ISO 6333: J),

Calculation of load capacity of spur and hetical gears


Part 3: Calcr.ldion c'f tooth bending strengh

DIN 3990: 1987,

Tragfhigkeitsberechnung von Stirnrdem

EN 10204: 19oc

m(

ar

l:

Geometrical definitions

Symbols

fk

Profile devation

pm

Module

mm

9sT

Notch parameter of the reference gear,

sFn

Tooth-root chord in the critical section

mm

Eht

Case cleh

mm

HB

Brinell hardness

HRC

Rockwell hardness (C scate)

H,30

tltl

Rockwellhardness

grl

s,r/(2e)

(BO N scale)

Vickers hardness

l+/

Mckers hardness et load F

= 9,8i N

t4/

10

Vickers hardness at load F

9B,lO N

Dynamic factor

KA

Applcation faaor

KFo

Trarwerse load fador (for tooth-rod stress) accounts for load


distribution on several teeth

Krp

Face load faclor (fof toottroot stress) accounts for load distribution
acro&s the facewidth

Kio

1)
2

To be published.

Tranwerse load factor (for contact Sress) accounts for load


dstribon on several teeth

ISO 6336-5.2:

Kw

tggs(q

Face load faAor (for contact sress) accounts for load distributon

acrs the facewidth

Mx)
ME)
MO)
ML)

symbols identifiing materier ancr heat-trement rquremnts

Rz

irleen peek-tovalley roughness

rcIT

Relatve surface fiactor, (reldive to the standard reference


test gear)

Ysr

stress conection factor of the standafd re{erence test gear

Yx

Se faaor (for tooth-root stress)

Yo

Helix angle fador for tooth-root Sress)

Y6

rolT

pm

Notch relative sensitivity faaor (relative to that of the standard


reference test geaf)

zv

Speed faaor

zL

lbcant factor

zR

Roughness factor (for cortact stress)

zw

Work hardening factor

zx

Se faaor gor clntact stress)

zp

Helix angle factor (for contact stress)

Elongaion on fracture

Pr

Fillet radirjs at the critcal section

mm

og

Ultimae tensile srengrth

N/mm2

oF lim

Nominal stress number (bending)

N/mm2

oFE

Allorable stress number (bending)

N/mm2

tH

Allowable stress number (contact)

N/mm2

og

Yeld strengrth

N/mm2

o?

Proof stress (0,2% permanent set)

N/mm2

Reduction ol area on fracture

lim

.1

ISO

Gt:ts2:

f 995(E)

Methods for the determination of ailowabte stress numbers

Allourable stress numbers should be determined for each material and material condition,
preferably by means of gear running-tess. Tes conditbrs and component dimersiors
should
equde' as neady as ls practcable, to the operdng conditions and dimensions of the gears to be

raed.

wtpn evaludng test results or daa

whet
data
cese

deved from eld seMce, it

atrvays necessary to ascerten

nduded witnihe erratuded


surface rcughness; in the
Where appropdate, f ,O
should be substitr.ted for the relevant lrf,uence factor when celcutetng the permiiibl stresses.

4.1

Method A

The allorable stress numbers for cortact and bending are devecl from endurance tests of gears
having dimersiors closely similar to those d the gears to be rated: under test conditions which
are closely similar to the intended operetng conditons.

4.2

Melhod B

The allowable stress numbers for contact and bending are derived from endurance tests of
reference tesi gears under reference test conditions. iooth+oot allo|l/able strss numbers are also
derived from pulsor tests. Practcal experience should be taken lnto account The standard
allowable stress numbers in clauses 5.2 anct 5.3 are based on such tests and experience.
Four differert classes. MX, ME, MQ and Ml- are given for the allorable stress numbers. The
appropride choice of class will depend, as describect in clause 6, on the type of production and
quality control exercised.
'

4.3

Method Bk

Allorable stresr numbers lor bending are derived from the results d testng notched test pieces.
Preferably the ratio of the test piece notch radius to thickness should e smlar to that of ihe fillet
radius to the tooth-root chord in the critcel section. When waluating test data, one should
understand that test pieces are usualty subjected to pure, altemaing bending stress, whereas in
the case of a gear tooth the llets of the teeth are subjecled to combined beding, s'freer anO
oompressive stresses. Data on the various materials can Ue obtained from introrjse testng,
experience or from the litereture.

4.4

Method Bp

Alloutab sress numbers for bending are derived from the results of testng urlnotched test
pieces. S 4.3 for comments on eraluataon of test results. ln order to tak nto accoum the
effect of notch senstvtty, it b necessary that actual notch torm and notch factors be included in
calculaons; thus their resulls will be influenced by the extreme unreliabil d these factors. Data
on the various maerials can be obtained from knovrn test facilites or frornthe literaure (see
bibliograpl'ry annex E).

ISO

Standard allowable stress numberc. mthod B

5.1

Appllcron

6335.2:1995

The allorrable stress numbers shorvn in figures I to


i4 are basecr on the assumpton that material
cornposition and hea redment are apprpriae[ chosen
for the .2" r ge.--'
The daa fumished in ths part of
experience.

lso

6336 are wetf srbstantiated by tests and practical

The values are chosen for I % probablty of darnage.


staisticar analysis enables actustment of
thes varues in orderto conesfond to oler probeirr;-J.r"gr.

ifi
II
I
t

gear maeriafs, the allotvable $ress


efiective case clehs d
can reduce the strengh. por

about

"pth

Allowable stress numbers indicatect for nitridect test gears


are appropriae
effective case
ProPnae for effectivr
of e4 mm t

O,r.

deghs

The elcent to which the level of surface hardness irfluences


the strength of cntour-hardened,
nitrided, carbonitdded' nitrGcarburized gears, cennot
be reliably specified. The conctition of the
elemerns of the matefial surface has a m-uch more pronounced
influence.
on, locel
equate

ln some cases the futlhardness range is not permissible. The


re*icted nges are nclicaed by
the lengrth of the lines in the figures.
e reference a:<is. .
Mckers and

5.2

Ailowable stress number ni),

" ,

-\

rso 3e5.2 lees(E)

. hdcded in ligures l, g, S, 6, g, lO and 13 are apgopriae for the_re{erence


operating condirkrns and dimensions of the rde ence teft geafs, jnwn beb:
Values. c nH

distance
-Helixangle
-Module
- Centre

a=

ifit

mm

g =O(ZO=ll

m=3mmtoSmm(Z*- l) /

- Mean peak-tovallsy roughrss of the tooth

lanks

gz = 3 ttm (Za 1l
=

velocity
- l..t.tbricat viscosity

y = iO m/s (2"=

- Tangential

vso

maerial
. Geaing quality grades
- Load lnlTuence factors

- Matng gears of the sam

IOO

mrf/s

t=
(Zw

1l

= i)

4 to 6 per tSO/DtS ig2&1

Ke= t = KW = Kt.n =

When these conditions ere met3), test gears are deemed to have failed wtren 6 of the totat
worting llank area of through hardened gee, or when 0,5% of the tdel working flank area of
surface hardened gears, or 4% ol the workng flank area of a single tooth, b ctamageO by pitting,

5.3

Bendlng stfess number vatues lor

5.3.1

Nomlnal stress numbers (bendlng), o,

n,

and 6

n,

1 tiF s the nominal stress number (bendng) from re{erence test geai (see ISO 6i}96 part B). lt is
the bending stress limit value relevant to the inf,uences of the meral, the hed tredment, and the
sulace roughness c,f the test gear root llets.

5.3.2

Allowable atress number (bendlng), rs

rE is.the allowable stress number for bending. The basic bending strength of the un-notched
test piece, under the assumption that the meterial condition (including he treatment) is fulty
elastc.

OFE

F fim YsT

!0.

For the relerence test ger, the stress correcton factor Ygl =
For most materials, 3 x 106
strgss cycles are consdered to be the beginning d the lng life strength range (see life factor in

lso 6333).

2) Oda obinod under diflccrl conditons of tcsting werc adjulod to bo coneislcnt with rcfercncc conditions, h s important
d tc cortlcl prcssurc under connuous load, but rdrcr tfu upgor limit o( fhc contc1 ptc$urc derived in
ocordncc witlr ISO 6332, which may bo ustaned without prrroive piing damagc,lor r rpooifred nrrb"r ol toad cycles.

lo nota oH rr b

3)
6

The pcrcontage! rslar to tcst cvaluations; they are not not tendd

limits lor product gears.

rso 633Ss.2 lsos(E)

'

vJuesdoF ri.andos indicatedlnfigures 44,2.9, 1r, i2and 14areapproprideforthe


reference opering cnoitors ard ctimensions of the reference test gears, s srrown belor (see

5. footnote 2):

! - Module

=o':*='rl,

fit = Smm ro S mm.

factor
- Notch parameter
- Stress conection

- Peak-tevalley roughness of the tooth


- Gearing quality

ysr = ?O
gsr = 45 (Y r"rr = 1)

fillets

Rz

grades:

10 IJm (yn rd T

4tol

1)

per tSO 1g2&l

- Basic rack

per ISO s3

Facewidth
- Load factors
-

5.3.3

Ke= t

iO to

KFo

SO

mm

KFn=

Reversed bendlng
s

2,4,7,8,

11, 12 and 14 are appropriate for


of full load occur, a reduced value of ora

where full load reversal occurs each lo


ed by a faaor of 0,7. f the number of toad
or, depending on the number of reversals
expected during the gear lifetme, can be chosen. For guidance on ths consult the appropriate
literature.

rso ges-e 10es(E)

5.4

Grephc

fol o* O, end c

rttd os

Allorable strss numberc for hardness values wfrich exceed the boundaries in ligures 1 to f 4 are
su$ect to agreement between manacturer and purchaser on the basb of prevtus experience.
600

600
ME

Nznn

Nznn2

500

500
ME

1
E

ML=MO

400

LI

b=

4oo

o
300

,z

[/L=MO

300

200

00

200

150

200

t00

250

Surfoce hordness |18

t50

200
_+

250

Surfoce hdness l_E

-'
a) Normalect structural steels

b) Cast stels

Figure 1 - Allowable stress numbers (contact) for normalized structural steels and cast steels
(see 6.2.1)

500

N/rrr

A^
4oo I

roo

tt

-M-=MO

IIJ

t00

0
t00

200

Sqfoce hordress l_E

__

a) Normelized stru.tural

2oo

$eels

Nzm?

-Mt

4oo ^
I

trt-

bb
2OO

600

Nznn2

Nznn2
ME

^I

100

600

ML+/O

t00

200

200

Surfoce horress FB

--+

b) Cast SeeS

Flgure 2 - Nominal and allowabfe stress numbers (bending) for normalized structural sreets and
cast steels (see 6.21)

lSO 63:e5.2: f 99s(e

7@

700

ir

I'vmr

Nml

l,lo.tt

ft/E

600

600

tl/o

5oo

100

100

o0

400

!00

J00

9fe laress l-

EO

200

300

Sfoce hes l-

-+

-'

a) Black maileable cast ron (see O.Z2)

b) Nodular cast iron (see tabte

1)

600

tJzm

r.
JOo

^I

oo

il(;{!l-

t
I

300

0
0

2
grfoce h<trss l-

100

c) Grey cast iron (see table 1)


NOTE

Erincll hardnees HB

< 1

indicates the prscncc of e high proportion o{ fenitc n fs truclurc. For gears, this
condition s not rccomm.ndod.

Flgure 3 - Cast ron materials: Allowable stress numbrs (contact)

ISO 613s.2: less(E)

300

600

N/rr 2

Nzrn2
ME

4oo ^

roo

ML=M0

l!

oo

2oo o

0
r00

200
Sr.rfoce hordtess

300

l-E

a) Black malleable cast iron (see 6.22)


100

600
ME

Nznn2

Nzrrr2

MQ=ML

zoo

400

ltJ

IL

TL

bpo

200

o0

200

300

Surioce hordness F

b) Nodular cast iron (see table 1)


300

600

N/nir

^I

Nznnz

4oo

roo

A
I

tlJ

l!

u_

bo

--ME

2oo

'o

MO=ML

p0

200
Surfoce horCness Ffl

300

-+

c) Grey cast iron (see table 1)


NOTE

Erincll hardness HB

<

1 indicales the presence ol a high proportion of lcritc n thc ilructur. For gears, ttris
condilion is not ecommcnded.

Figure 4 - Cast iron materials: Nominal and allowable stress numbers (bending).

10

ISO 633es.2:

l99s)

t00

l0C'0

Ailoy

steels /
/

Nznn2
I

800

./

,/

//
/

MQ

/
,/

600

ME

700

tr

g0

./

Cocbon steel S

ML

ME

/
/

-M0
500

,/

"/

tMy

7t

400

300

250

200

r00

joo

SurfOce hordness HV tO (= HB)


NOTE

Nominal carbon conterd: O2O

400

__

96

Flgure 5'Through hardening steels: Allowable stress numbers (contact) (see table

2)

11

lso erles-a loesG)

900

Nznn2

/ME
800

Alloy steels

MO-ML

700

tr

600

.ME
500

/,M0
I

- ML
I

Corbon steels

400

r00

200

400

t00

Surfoce hordness HV l0 (= HB)

--+

Flgure 6 - Cast steels: Ailorable stress numbers (contact) (see table g)

12

ISO 6336-s.2: f 09s(E)

500

t000

Nznn2

Nznn2

400
I

Alloy steels .

1
-tr

800

-ME-MX

300

,MU
600

t-uE''

Lt-J

lJ-

ML

MO

200

400

Corbon

-Ml
s

ee I

t00

roo

200

loo

Surfoce hordness HV tO (=HB)


NOTE

Nominal cabon cotont

400

--+

O2O g6

Flgure 7 - Through hardening steels: Nominal and allorable sress numbers


(bencting) (see table 2)

500

r000

Nznn2

A
I

Nznn2

400

800

l!

300

^t

loy sleel
-

ME

600

Lrl

tL

Mo-ML

1-ME
200

400
MO-ML

Co r

r00

r00

bon

I ee I

200

300

400

Surfcce hcrdness l-1V l0 (=HB)


Flgute

-*
- Cast steels: Nominal and allowable

tress

numbers (bending) (see tabte s)

13

lSO 6}36.s:

lees(g

r700

Nznn

t600

ME

Adequote cose depth requtred


MO

r500

tr

1400

ML

r300
HRC
1200

50
500

5:

60

600

700
Surfoce hordness HVI ---+

65
800

Flgure 9 - Case hardening (carburizecf steels: Allorable stress numbers (contaa)


(se rable 4)

t400

Nznn

--ME

t300

MO

r200

tr

ML

il00

o
r000
HRC

900

50

500

J_

-|

600

60

700
Surfcce hordness HVt _'

65
800

Flgure 10 - Flame or induction hardened steels: Allorrable stress numbers (contacl) (see table s)

14

ISO 6tll5.2:

600

r200

Adequote cose depth requtred

N/2

l0

HRC

2s

HRC

.nny rndacbny ot
ol

..FO

ME

HRC

Core hordress 25

Nznn2
t000

)MQ

t-f,C

.,|.Em<l-RC26

800

tr
LL

ML

300

l-rJ

600

200
50

450

500

t.l-

400

HRC
100

t9e5@

55

60

600

7oo
Surfcce hordness HVI _+

65

200

8oo

Figure 11 'Case hardening (carburizecf) steels: Nominal and


allovable stress numbers (bending)
(se rable 4)

600

1200

Nznn2

Nznn2

500

1000

ME

400

800

t!

MO

300

600

ML

Hqrdened ftltets ncluded

200

lrl
L-

400
HRC

100

50

450 50c

qq

60

600

Surfcce hodness
NorE

7oo

65

200

8oo

HVI ------+

Hardenod lirrcts onry. varues for unhardencd fiilcts arc no{ prorided

Flgure 12 - Flame or inducton hardened steels: Nominal and allowable


stress numbers (bending)
(see tabte s)

15

lso Gl3es-z loesG)

800

rt

f.vml
ll0O

^I

uoo
M

coo
l-

[00
t0
10
300

ft

500

400

tnq

6 r-l

q.

600

700

800

900

9foce lrodrcss HVI -*

a) Gas nitriding steels: hardened, tempered, and g natrided (see table 6)

1200

Nzrn2
il00

i,to

noo

900

400

700
100

M1

a5

50

JOO

{00

5:

60

600

700

800

s00

...'*
b) Through harclening steels: hardened, tempered and gas nitrided
lsee iaote e
Srfoce harss l-iVl

Nzrn2

[00
t000
V.MCI

l'*

6*o
700

M
600
100

400

60

500

600

Stfoce trcrdtess HVI

ffic

700

800

900

c) Through hardening stels: hardened, tempered or normatized enct nitro-carburized (se table 7)
NOTE

On plasma nitridcd gcns, tcc litralur for vlucs. Working tials for rcliability of procoss rG rocommnded.

Flgure 13 - Gas nitrided and nitro-carbured steets: Allowable stress numbers (contaa)

16

ISO

600

00

r
l,{O

400

eoo

600

Joo

l',t
200

9os(E) \

Nurnl

500

E
lJb

400

t.lzml

et:ls2:

.100
a6

500

ll|

45

too

1E

6)

t5

5OO 600

?OO OOO
grfoce laess l_lvt _'>

0
9oO

a) Gas nitriding steels: hardened, tempred, and gas nitrided (see


table 6)
600

o00

Nznn2

Nrn2

500

00

t'

4oo

eoo 4

lro
I

lr

M200

ro0

100

43

400

6 r-Rc

3r

5.)

500

600

700

gfoce hodness l.1vt

ffi

800

400

{o

600

loo

200

900

=+

b) Through hardening steels: hardened, tempred end gas nitrded (see


table 6)
000

POo

f.Jzrn2

Nzrn2

500

^
E

r000

4oo

soo 4

i,=irO

600

foo

ML

200

400

40

J00

45

400

t-Rc

50

5oo

600

7@
Sfoce locfss l-Mt -*

'5

soo

200

9oo

c) Through hardening steels: hardened, tempered or normalzed and nitro-carburzed (see


taole

- on plasme nibidcd gcars' G{tc literturc lor valucs, Worfting iale fo rclhbility ol occcs rs rqcommcnded. For
ffank hrdncc l'lv 1 > 75o, e llowblc trtoss numb.r csn cducad by ombritcmca
ncn tt" *iit"

NoTE

",

Flgure 14 - Gas nitrided and

nitro+a;;

"J",

thicknecs

ruornin"l and anowabte stress numbers

(bending)

17

ISO 63352: 1095(Q

Requlrements for materal quality and heat.treatment

6.1

Gencrl pccic

The three mderial qualrty grades, ML MO and ME, stand ln reldonshp to figures I to 14 which
rnaru that they refer to the allourable stress numbers determined using maod 8. See 4.2, s.2
and 5.3:
ML silends for modest demands on the rneterial qualaty and on the nnterial hed-treatmert
prooess dudng gear manac{ure.

MO stands for requirements

thd can be met by Deriencd mantlacturers d moderde cosil.

ME represenB requiments

th mus be realized wtren a high degree of operating reliability

b required,

MX represents requirements for frough hardened alloyed steels with special consideraiors of

hardenability and microstructure.

Frequently highquality materials used to acheve hh reliability or bad-bearing capabitity: this


enables the mandecture of gears thd require less material (light-weight design), at ncreased cost

The requirements lsted in 6.2 have been confirmed by practical expedence and can be used as
guidelines. All requirements for a material gracle must be met when the allowable stress numbers
are to be applied. However, depending on ther experience, manrfacturers cen adopt methods or
values other than those llsted here. h is recommended thd manufacturer and cuslomer agree on
the detals, particularly for large gears.
6.2

Materlal quallty and heat trealmet requlrements

6.L1

Stuclural or cast steel, plaln calbon, unalloyed steels (see flgures 1 and 2)

Since the clmPostion of these ls not specified and the meltng method is often unkno/n, the MO
line was positioned at the lower limit (ML). Struauralsteels are used only for lightly loaded gears
and secondary applicatiors. lf high quality of seel produaion b actrieved and when jusifiect by
expeence the levels of ME may be used.

6.22

Bleck mllerble

clst lron (see llgurcs 3 and

4)

High quality can be achieved through controlled hed treament. Horerrer, since it's ordinarily
used for srnall, ligtttly loeded gea, the MQ line was postioned at ttp bwer limit (ML) to be on the
sde sicle. When jusiecl by experience the lsrels of ME may be used.

6.2.3

Other raterlals (see flgures S to

i4)

Material gualrty end heet treatmert requirements for other materials are given n tables 1 to z.

l8

lSO

Tblc

Itcm

- cast iron mdedars (grey and nodular (spheroictaO graphite


cast kon)
Gtey

B.q{ir.tct

crd lron (roc ligunr 3 rnd l)

ML MO
Chcmil mdyrir

Not vorilcd

ME
10016

l.loduh cl hofi (roe gurcr


ML MO

wricd.

Not vcrificd

Foundry ccdificdc
I

Mclting pncticc

No rpccificdlon

Elcct furn o. or

M.chlcd propcilics
cvdudion

OnV HB

ds Sp.cic ll nport
on acp.J. LC
plccr ftom rc ryno

No rprcicdion

Only HB

Srcturc: Grhite form

Spccificd brl
not vcrificd

Umited rs pcr
DIN G}90

Blsc !tcJro

No pecifiction
(alloycd grey
cest iron,
meximum fcnite:

Maximum fcnitc:

end,l)

ME

100* wd.d.
.

Elcclo fuincc or
oquivdcnl

osloo rs 6s

Spoclfic

tcet rGpod p.r N.l@O4


ol phyricd ttng on .
roprcrcntdivc rcmplc
whch b an intcarol pcrt
on oach tcst piecc, hcd
crtcd wth ttrc pa
bcforc boing or.rt
Vcdficdion of HB on gear
tcctfi or as ncer r!
practicrble.

ct

Foundry c.r,ictt

oquivdcnt
3

ees.2: tgg5@

l,lot vcrcd

Limited

Tested (Por, crck,


blon holcc), limitcd
defects

t{ot tsstod

Tceted (Pores, cnckc,


blow.holes). limited

Rocommcndcd: 2 hrr
500 io Xl'C.

l,lot requircd

596

5%)

Tcsts for inner


roparationc (acks)

Streec clieil

Not testod

Not required

defc.t3

at

Alloyed, groy crst


iron: {fX, to 560'C
7

Bcpcir welding

Not permied neartootfi region,


clsorherc, pcrmissible only wir approvcd
pfoco3rcs

Bccommended: 2 h at:
qC
to 560.C

5(

Not pcmied
ncer toor rcgion,
clccwhcrc,
pcrmirslblc only

Not pcmissibl

with epprored
Proc33(!t

Surlace crck dstcc,tion

Not

teled

Dye pencant tesl

fiot tstd

Cracks not permitted.


100?6 Magnetic particle or
dyo pcnetrant inspcction.
Rndom sampling
pcrmicd for large

production lots.

19

tso 6:t:t6-52 r995(q

Teblc 2 - Through lurdening steelq not surfac harclened (orged or rclled) (see figures 5 and 7)
h.m

Fqulromrlrl

rneb

Chcmlcl

Mchrnlcl
propcrllol dtor

so 689tf tl

h.dfctn

ML
Not Ycricd

MO

ME

Spccific lGlt ?cport pr EN tO4 wir 1O

fro(

rccrbility to

os los2l 6 6s rl SPccific tcri


r.port p.r EN l@(X of pfrfcicrl
tling on . r.prratdiva
rarnplo from tlp no c.f. hcd
cdcd wir rc paltr, lor h'qingn
o rollod bcrr lrrgcrlhrn 0 mm
d.n.t r nd vrificdion d
ulrcr hardnoo (HB) lor dl
porb. Opdmd pct

HB

nt

owtomcr/rupplicr agrccmont

. oftlnd .f-

os (o6f s 63 rl Spcctlic tcd


rcport p.r EN l@{ of phydcel
tcating on r Lpr...rtdvr
mplo from thc mo crt h.d
cdcd with thc pltr, l,or
lorglngc or rcllcd brrr lrrgcr

25O mm dlmtcr nd
vcificdiolr ol udrcc hrrdnca
(l'lBl lof dl p.rt . Opiliond pcr
cudomc/rupplicr rgrccrncnt
Mtodl herdrnllfi .nd h.d
cd prctic. mljlil b. rficint
io obtln pocid minimum
hadnc d dcpi

conorponding to l. too roob.


Conolling rcclion o<rndc o
in anncx B,

No rpecificdion

Thc tccl must bc dcoxidizcd rd rcfincd ln thc hdlc, Sto.l mu.t bc vcuum dcgrrod.
The cteel must b. proetcd lrom rcoxidtion during te tccmlng or casting, lntentiond
thc cuslomer, Orygen cont nt 25
calcium dditions ere prohibhed unlee urorizcd
procedutc pcr mcdrod B, Pldc ll, n pcct d
ppm maxmum. Cleanncss pcr ISO
'l'967,
aroe rpprox 20O mm2 nd the following .cclptrnc tblo. Test rcport p.r EN 10204

AB
Thick
MO 3,0 3,0
ME 3,0 2.O
lD( 3,O 2,O
Fine

Groin rizc per

FO 64t

20

No 6pocilcdon

Finc

45

as
z5

Thiok

r,s
1,5
1,5

CD
Thick
2,5 l.s
Finc

1,0 1,0
1,0 1,0

Finc grein, predominanl 5 and finer. T.6t rcPort Ptr EN 10204

Fine Thick
r,5

zo

1,5
1,5

1,O

f,0

ISO

63ls2: f ee5(lf

Table 2 - (cont)
Itam

R.qulram.ad

Non doaruclivo trcting

5.r

Ulteronio lort (n
.ough nrchlncd
oondition) pcr

ML

No rprcilicdioo

MO

ME

Ch.ckcd dtcr forging. Specific trrt r.port por EN 1@O4. Rcommndcd.

flffi

Suggslod for largc dimstcr p.rt! to ddcf


bcloro rc .xpc!. d toot
efng. lnspcction pcr ASIM 4388, r,ring .ith.r thc bck rrflcction or rdecncc
icchniquo, lncpcction l

so s44it

pccificdio whio nuro ttp

52

Sulacc cack

d.t

c6on (in finichd


conditioq bclorc ny

Forying rnd quonch oskr not pcnnicd.

rhot pconing

.n
6

Forglng

lno

qurlity lcvol

dcarcc rcan h roguirrd. A


h not lntcrdcd, Orcr UT
pcrmicd.

Foqlng rnd quonch crack. not pcmicd. Ground


gaar n p.ct d for rrfco cnct. Merod !o bo
agrccd bclrloon buycr nd cllor.

nS

roduc,tion

l,lo poclfiction

rdoQ
7

l0(

Mhrocrclurc

No rpccificction

At

bt$lold
Minimum tcmpcr
tcmpcrdura,+80',C. Root
hrdnec must m..t

Microrcrc in gcar dm
prcdominany tcmpcrcd

molcnitc'

drewing acqutamanls.
NOTE - l/hcn thc ccsting qudity mccb the qualily critcrh lor wrought (lorged or rollcd) stcclr, wrought stl allorflrblc litcc
numbc may bc uscd in gcar rding clculdion lor cst tcol gcars opcraling with wught rtccl pinions. Suibbility ol using
wrougtrt
stecl dlowaHc cr numbor for casdng ding calcuhtons must be .upporlod by lccn td o.rrig qpcricncc.
For crstingr, wrought ttool clnlinec rnd forging rcducilion rfio orilori trr xcludcd. lncluion contont rnd chapc corlol erc
rcquircd to ptoducc prdominandy round murgancrc rlfidc inclusion lfyp l). No gnin bourdary Gvpc l0 manganesc rulfidc

inchion prnniod.

1)

CAUTION: For oold lcwicc, bclow 0.C:


Conidcr low tcmprrr?c Charpy epecificdion
Considcr fissturc !PP.!nca rlsito or nil ductility temp.idrrc cpccificdion
ConsirJcr using highcr nictol alloy lccls
Conidor rcduced crbon cotcnt to lo than 0,4 96 rbon
Consider u:fng hcding olmnt to lncrcc lubricrnt tcmperduro

The gradc clonlincc rcquircmonts app only lo ttrc tocc porlions ol lhe gear materiel rrhorc ths t.th will bc locdcd to a
distncc bclow lhc finirhcd lip dinmetcr of d l.asl two timcs lhc tocr dcprth. On cxtcml gcars, this podion of the gear blank
nonnally will b. lc.s ttan 25 ?6 of thc radim.

3)

Appli to forgingc lrom ngot c.st malcrit. For cortinuous cst mderial thc minimum rcduction b 7/1.

4)

Thc mlcrotrcro ol thc Acar rcclion to

r dcptfi ol f 2 tics thc tooth hcight to consist primarlly ol tcmpcrcd martonst wth
limitod upportnndonnaion producls ocutcctold fcnitc. uppcr Bainitc rrd finc poarlitc). No bloc ljnilc, duc to
incomplelo llcnilizdion, pcrmicd, Thc mqimum limit lor uppcr ursformdon products b lO % lor gcar conolling
..stioo. S 25O mm and
lo gor conoling cctions > 250 mm.

21

lSO

etiles.2: 1995@

Trble 3 . Cest through harbning sleels, rrct swface hardened (see ligures 6 and
Itcm

Fquicmcnt
Chcmicl

dyd

Mochnicl propcro dtcr hod

trunrt

Grin izo p.r lSO 4t

Non doructivc rrting

Ultrronlc tcct (n rough mchlncd


oondition)

ME

Not vodfid

Spocffic rat .port .r El 1q04 wlrh tm?6 rc..btity to


lfio orlglnd crd.

HB

t3 ? Spocific t .t ?.port por EN tqr wlrh


to o oddnd c Voricdon ol HB.
Ogdoqd pcr qttomcr/rupplbr rglrcmcnt
Fol

o3

1l trc.lblliv

4.t

ML{IO

g)

p.r

gnin, irc 5 or fine

Td

r.Fon pcr EN 1l

No rpccicaion

Fino

l{c rpocicdion

Choc&.d toor too rod.ro.. onty. Spocifc tcd


rcpoil por EN 't4. Fccommcndod hrt nd rcquirod.
$Cad.d tor lergo dimctr prri to dctclfrrw beforc

lSO 944t

tfu cponr d tooth eing. ssp1r*. critcrh pr


A6 Lv.l

f h lon t (Osbid.

5ry

diernclorto 25 mm bolorr
rod) .nd lewl 2 in zonc 2 (ramaind ol dm) wing 3i
mm d boom holc; of .pproir.d rquivdcnt uring btck
rufr.cofl i.chnqu..

42

Surlco crackc dctccon (n finished


condilion but bcforc any rhot
pccning

teatncng

Bepair wclding

Cnck not pcrmied.

100?6 Mrgnclic prrticle or


rampling pcrmicd lor hrgc prodr,rc,tion 16.

Allowcd with spccific


procodure.

dc p.nct

inepection. Frrdom

dlo.,.d mty h rcugh condition if it is followod by hod

.r'r..tt

Not

dhfl.d dtcr toodr crfng.

NOTE
When thc casting qual merts thc gudrty citcia lor wrought (forged ot roll.d) rLrb, rwought tcol dlowablc bcls
numbco m.y b. ulad tn gcaf rating clcqldonr lor crd tccl gcarr oPctaing wir wrought tt ol gnrona. St ihblity ol uslng wrought
ctccl dlowablc !aaa numbcrs for oasting rding clculdionr must b. rupponcd w tc.t nd opcding ocricnco.
For castings, unoqght ctel clenlincca end lorging reduction rdo crit ri are cxcluded. lnclrlon ont ril end rhapc corol rre
requircd lo producc predominany round morEancrc sullide lnolusions (fyr f). No gnn boundary
Gypc l0 m.ngancso lulfidc
inclusions permed.

2.

ISO 61136-52: f e95@

Tblc
Itm
I
2

- ces hardening stels (torgpd or rolled) (see frgures 9 to f z)

Fcquhcmnt
Ccmlcl rnrtyi

so 6alil

Hardcnrbilily by ond

ML
Not vifird

Not

v.dfird

qucnoh test

(rso644
3

Chanlinc.
rlcclmaking

No

MO

ME

t lr ?.pott pcr EN t@4 with


t00f hc..bllity !o te odgind cebt

Spoclfic

Spcclic tl rcport pcr EN t02(X rridr


f 0% rccrbility to ttrc origind crrt

Spcclfic

Sprclfc

Thc.tcrl

mst

pccicdon

on

tt

I irmph

r.po p.r EN IOAI ol toeting


from lho rmc billct

t rt r.port por EN
ol trsting
on . rupr.r.tdiv. rnflc lrom tc rnc
cat

l@l

b. dooxidizcd.nd tpfin d ln lc hdlc, Slccl

must bc yrcuum

or casng.

for ML

cr,

Oxygen
B, ptac ,

ABCD
Fn Thck Finc Thlcl
MO 3,0 3,0
2,5 t,5
ME 3,0 40
Zs t,5
4

Forging

rca

No

rcduclion rdlnl)

pscifiction

Gnin rc per
FO 643

pcciliction

No

Ultaonic tct ln

No

rough mtchined
condition.
ASTM A388

pocicdion

Finc Thick
z5 f,5
t;0 t,o

Fnc Thick

2,O

1,s

1,5

t,O

At lcasl $lold
Finc arein, prcdominandy 5 and nc. Tcat rcort par EN

Rccommcndcd. Suggcctcd lor largc


dmctcr pt3 to ds{cct avs bcfore rc
Gxpns ol tooth cuing.

1@4

Fcquircd. Rrdom Hmplcr crmicd


whcn lot sizc ls cqual lo or grcdcr thar 5.

lnspcction pcr ASTM A3,8, using cithcr thc bqck rooction or rlcrcncc block g44(,

33 mm fld boom hole pcr ASTM E128 tochniqu.. lnspcc{im b lrom te outsidc

diamctcr to thc miradius nd r 360 dcgrec en ir rcquircd. A dis{ncc emplitude


conoction curuc (slngle point DAQ b not intcndcd. Orcr UT rpccicdionc which
cnsurc thc camc qudity lcvol ac pornicd.

7
7.1

Surfacc hsrdness

Surllcc hrdnccs on

r topresntdivo

urlacc qf
workpiecc4. (Sec
Vrckor+Fockrvrll

55 HRC or 73

HRT'N

lo e{ HRC or 75,7 to 01,1 HF3ON.


fundom omple testing.

5{t

minimum.
Random
cemplc tting

58 to

ll

f HRC or 75,7 to 8'1,1

% lesting

HRION.

hed eanert lot ize


s 5. clsc random camplcs pcrmied. Tcsl
fnod rs lpproprido lor thc izc of thc

prrt

hrdnoc corworion
tl.blc In annq Cl

72

Sulacc hadncss in

No

root apsca, mid lacc,


lor modulEs 123.

pecificatlon

Mects drawing pcilction, Random


rampling or by reprcscntativ. test brr,

Mcets drawing spccillcaion, 10016 tcsting


ol wcry pinion end gcar whoel or by
lcpresrlstivc lc6l bar.

23

lsO e*res.a teesG)

Tab 4 - (cont)
Iton

Rcqultrmont

Cor hrdn d

mld lecc

nofil.l to tc tr
trngcrrl d dl.lmc. 5 x csc
dcpth br,rt not lo ttn I x
widr on a

ML

MO

2l HFCor

mofc

product

ME

clculdcd foe tfu


t . frnrycflc dirtanco urlng

HRC or moro

lc hrrdcnaUlity
(optiond chck).

culo

(pcr trm Q

30 HRC or mo,

drcrrir r llct.

plior to r.pr.lanttiva tt brr

pcr

6.3

modulc.

Crro dcpthq ln fnbhcd

condion ln codanco with


SO 2G. Mesurd on tssl
couPon Paf 6.3 or frcasurcd
d mid fcc widr mc
rddcndum bclow thc tip
circlo. Thi rfcr to ulacc

durcbllfi.

Cllo dcpt b dclincd s ttrc ditrcc ftom rc aurlcc !o r point d

Umit on udrc crbon


corcnt

No

spccicaion

Sulcc.tncfura: Tha

Fcduction of udace
hadness in the orle 0,f mm
of thc csc, cxcept ln the
root duc to dccarburation,
ratincd rstcnitc or non

which lc hrdncs. numbo

550 I'fv or 52 HFC. when caocilying minimum carc dcpi, mtc

dcircd r,crc hrs e


minimum munt ol bainite bcc lan 109 b o<pcqlcd
102

d lh. 'oflimum. vftc lor


bending nd rulcc lord crpcclty lr nd tl. t.mo. A prcdbcd nslmum .a thkr..
hould not bc cxcocdcd, bccu!. to do o incrrrrc rrk of embrimcnt d tho todr tipr.
6

lnrplclion ol dl microtrcturc raqulr.mant cn bc mdc on ono r.p!3aattdiva tcat brr pcr 6.3.
MO tnd roquircd lor ME (Not rcqulrcct lor Me

10

10.1

Minimum vduc, E,, rhdl bc rhovm on ttr drewing. Th lrorld bc dctcrrnncd


concidcring rizc nd mqimum ct .r condition ol thc lootr.

Eutcctoid a.rbon pc?cartg.:


+Ofr to -0,1016

lhb

lncpection . opo.|

lor

En.do{t carbon polccntegc:


+OA* to -0,10%

Malcnsite, csscntially finc rciculr,


shown by r icprc.cntrliyc tcst br.
Rccommandcd.

rs

Matcnit, finc acicular, es rtrown by

r tcprc.cntdivc

tcst br. Foquhcd,

No
epecification

Maximum 2 HRC on th psft gr on a rcprcontivc tt b6t

SemL

Discontinuous crrbdo pcrmied por


figurc 15b). Maximum lcngt of ary
carbidc is 0,@ mm. (On rcprcrcntdivc
tost brr, if usod.)

Disperscd c.rbdo6 pennied pcr


gurc f 5c). lmpcction of
rcprccantdivc tcl b pcr 6.3,

Up to 25 96 on inspcc'tion of
companion h.d tcdronl bdch tost
piece.

Up to 2596, fincly dispcrccd.


lncpoction of reprcccrtdivo t..t

marlcnith componcrts.
10.3

Cebidc pccipitation

conlinuous
csrbirle
netrvor*
pcmied per
fgure lSa)

rn.4

Raidual auticntc

No

Determincd by
mctallographic lnspcc,tion of
rcprcrcnldivc t6st bar, if
urcd. Applico to piing md
bcnding r.rrtanc., but not

rpccilicaton

b.r

pcr 6.3.

ncc..a.rily to rcufing.
10.5

lntcrgruruhr oxiddon (lGO),


rpplicrblc to ungrcund

ulcc,

Dctcrmincd by

metallogrhic lnrpection ol
unctchcd coupon, I wcd.
Umits in m to bc basod on
caso depth rs lollorts:

No
specicetion

Casc depth c [mm]

< 0,75

17

O,75<ccl,5O

1,5O<.<2.
225<c<3,@

50
60

c > 3,00

lf cxccssivc, safuagc is

ol the cus{omcr.

24

lco ml Crsc dcpth c [mm]

dlorcd

c < 0,75

0J5<oct,SO

l,5Ocr<2t5
235<.<s,fi
c > 3,00

lco mt
12

20
25
30

by conollcd rhot pccning, with thc agrcqnont

ISO 6335.2: 195@

Table 4 - (cont)
lm

Foqulcmcnt

0.6

Fcduction ol rdco
hrdnc (dopcnding on lhc

ML
No pccificdirn

.nQ'f. Hrdncl
colwooion bblc: c nnq
hcd

MC

ME

lftdmum 2 HFC or nrximum 10 MrinumlV.ff


llV bqt mcdrlg d L.rt 650
inrpcclion HR 30 N or llV,
llV h nichcd tr on r
b mcaturing L.rt 680
oompnion hod.ttdnont bdch I'lV on tc compnirrn ooupon

lrrtlo

trd-plocc.

of

roprorntdivr

cro aac.tion
11

12

Sudco ock.
Rcmord ol d.f.cts is
rcocptabL, witl auComer
pproval, proddod rt thc
ntrV dllr gcar b not
compromlrcdMagnclic pcrtiolc impe'ction

$S...onty)

Crackt nol pcrmbhblc.


Rndom rempb inrpcdion
by magnaic prdcb
lnrpcction or dyc pcndrnt

msod,

Ccck rct pcrmisiblc. 5O *

Crck not pdm!.blc.

m!rod),

$ lnspcCion by
SO 044f1 (rnrgncc prdiclc
lnapcclion mctod). Brdom
lnrpocon pcrmiucd I lot izc

ilrpcc-tion by FO 9{43
(mqnaic prrtidc inrpec{ion

5
No cpccificrtion

AsrM

Modulc

Msimum

s2,5

1,6 mm

2,4
3

>8

Grnding tcmper controt


using nital ctch pcr
ASt/AGitA ffi7-s2.

Gtade B tcmper pcrmicd

on 100t6 of functional ca
(FB3), rrndom inspootion

Gredc B tcmpcr pcrmittcd on

1)
2l

Core tnctre l lhe same


locdion as item 8,

See

No spocification

Mqimum
lndicdion

fe5
2,5 to

>8

0,8 mm
1,6

2.4

259 of

tuncfond rrlr (FBal,


rndom inpcction rcquircd.

Gradc B tcmper permitcd on


f O?6 qf functional arca (FBt),
ndom inspcction rcquircd.

Marlcrrsite, cicular fcnite and


bcinite. No blooky fenite. (rec
item 8)

nd binite. No bloc fenite.

recommendod but not


required.
14

Moduc

lndlction

esto
13

'100

Martansic, rcicula fenile

Applics to r.pr..cttativc tsl


bar per 6,3

tble e looroto 3.

Root hrdnac may be somo"lhd bss than f,ank hardness, depending


on tc izc of thc gcar and thc

va.luec mcy bc agrccd botwcon buycr and celler.

proc6s.

Allowablc

t"y detcrmined, lor cxample, uslng ANSVAGMA 2ooLAgg (gure f zl or csc csrburizcd,
figurc
-* Mesttnttanerte tt. spngor Bcrln
nitided) or Nlcmannrll/iler
1989 (Bild 21.92, Flamc nd induclion hadcned

An optimum ca'ae daplh


lL5 lor

also Bild 21.912't.

File testing ic an accepted mahod to inspoct curface hadncss,

rcc anncx

D.

i
intcgrity ol thc cer

b ot

compromisod

j::.i*il"".,tiffi i'#fr
"i
ith customcr provd' providcd rc

25

lSO

etles2:

1095(E

a)

Semi+ontinuous carbide network: pennissible

for Grade ML

b) Discontinuous carbides:
Permissible for ML ard Me

Flgure 15

26

b) Dispersed carbides:
Permissible for ML, MQ and ME

Photo micrographs of perrnssible carbide structures for case of carburized gears


(5% nital etch. x 40O magnifcation)

lso 636.s.2 less(E)


'Tble

5'Through harening

llm

siteels, inducton or lTame hardened (forged, roled, cst) (sse figures 9

Fguiromcnt

ML

Ccmicl an ly..
Mcchnicd prcpcrticc . dtcr

Clnlin*s

Grrin izc
Ulhronic tcct
Enlcnt of lorging rcduction

hctcnt
5
6

ME

MC

A ln tUc 2 (througtrudonlng riarlr: hcmr f to


Clcenlincs rcquircncntr lor plain crron nd

AECD
Finc thlck Firrc Thick
3,0

g,o a5 1,5

to la)

Finc

Thick

e,5

moanlo

rtcclc

Finc Thick

1,5 e0 15

Surcc hardnc.
All lndus,tinn hrrdcncd gc
mut b,o funco tcmpcrcd.

4{l to 56 HRC

Herdcning dcpltl,
pcr FO 3754

Thc hodcning dcph

b drlncd rs rc ditncc to tho urlacc lrom I point wtrcrc thc


hdnos Lr .qud to 80 t6 of c rcqulod udrco harclcec, O.F cf cc to bc dctcrminqd
lor oach pan by a:crlanoe.

Sulacc tt cturc

No pecificdion

50 to 56 HRC

lrspcction of andorn
remy'cc mrinty finc
acicul mrrtcrsil

Sbictcr inspcc{ion of rndom

tamplol finc ciculr


!onsitc, S 1016 noflmtcnsitic rucrc - rc lree
fenitc pcrmi[cd.

Non dctuctivc testing

10

Sulsco cracks - not

10.1

lnspeclion of fi rt bstch
(magnclic particlc or dyc

pcrmirsiblc (lSO 3454.

pnrt mdtod)
102

Magnaic Pticlc ins.clion


(ccr erca on)A

lnspcclion of fist brtch


(mrgnctic prrliclc or dyc

pc.t mdrod)

No.p.cilkrtion

l@

96 inspcction (magnctic
prrticlc or dyc pcncant

rnarod),

Modulc

lndicdion
=2.5

2,5 to 6

>6

l1

Prlor iructurc

12

Ovcdrcding, pcilly

Thic

1,6 mm
2,4

Qtcnchcd nd lcmpcrod

To voiri

thc foo lipe


NOTE

Maximum

Sicl anoidancc (< 1000.C|

tblc .ppl.. to lpn typc franc hdcning or apin and todrtetoor typc induction hardcning

with hsdcncd

ro, hardrrss pdor imila to gurcc 16 rrrd 17.

1)

Thc hardno Pd.m, dcpth, lacititics rnd proccrc od mst bc c.tblhcd, documcrtcd and ctcckcd lo bc rcpcdable.
A rcprcntativc ..nrplc, with ttrc mc Aomr&y rnd mderil thc vort piecc, muc b. us.d to qudify thc proccss.
The
ptoor.. rquittcttl and ndrods muct b. suficbny rccurd. to produccthc cpccicd csuhs. Thc tddr p6cm muct
qtend tltc ll Lr{,t ol the lcoth and ovur llre full profilc, bor f,nk, bo rob nd ba
oot fillet.

2')

No crackr, bsgts, tm. or lpc rrc Frmitted in thc toor rs of finihcd gcrn, rcgardlan of gradc, Umits: mximum cl
onc lrrdicdion pcr 25 mm ol lacc widr end maximum of fvc in ono too,r nn Xo dicdo. .l-lorid bolo tE of wo*ing
dcpt of to<t. Bamord ol dsletis which cxcccd thc sted limits b rcccptblo. with crtomcr pprovrl, prorided tho krtcgdV
ol thc gccr io not comombcd.

27

rso 6:nes.2 1995(E)

lndudion Coil
or Flame Head

(Nonontour)
Flgure 16

Type A: Non{ontour hardening

lndudor or Flame Head

(Contour)
Flgure 1Z

28

Type A: Contour hardening

ISO 6336-s2: 199s(e

6
llcm

NiHding and through trardening steels, gas nirided (see figures 19 and i4)

Roquircmonl

Chomicrl .nly.t

Mchrnicl proporrioo dtor h.d...nt

3
4

Clcanlincc
Grin rizc
Uttsuonic ict

ML

MO

A ln ubb 2 (thtor.rghldcnlng rtcols: itcmr

Extcttt of

Nibidc ccac dcpth.

i io e

toqing rrduc{ion
Minmum vdrlc rpccficd

Thc c{fcctivc niidc cac d.p b d.fin d


ltr didnc lrom tho udrcc lo poirt d
whic
h.rdn
numb.r b lq, tlv o1Kl,E Hrc. tc oorc hrdnr .t..c" gso l+/
ooro hdnc + 50 l.lv mry b.ppllcd.

..

Srrlcc hdnc

E
8.1

Nitriding eteck

82

Through hardcning rtccbrl

650 l-lV Minimum


900 l-lV Muimum4

Prcacnt

to

Sulcc zonc: (whitc

l5O

l{V Minimun

Hardcned and tcmporcd wirort uleco dccrbudzdion.


T.mporing tmpcrqturo is lo oxaccd nitiding tcmp.turc

cfl

3lrm

Whitc lrycr

S 25

e. *'ir littlc ol

l1

o"

Corc:

Not verificd

rm mocy

r nlbidec

s > 900 tVmm2

Whitc hycr s 25rrm thok;


PtoPortion d e./t, niidcc
> 8; I ground dtcr niriding,
chcc& ping load crprcity.

n gencral, pcrc.ntg. ol lcnitc l than

s96)
12

NOTE
f

Mrnulecfu rinq accuroy,


Alter nibidng

Simllar rcqulrncntr

Ground onty in rpccid ccs; bo wary ol possible reduclion


of sudacc bad capacity.

ppv lo through hardcning and nitiding tols, phsmnbidod.

Sudacc hrdncr l morurcd perpcndlcuhr to thc urfcc; vrluce mcasurcd on


houlcl bc rppropridc lor thc csc dcpth md thc hadncss.

2l

cclion rrry bo higher,

m b lr.

houtd bc

design.
r cult ol

thc

niridc
cial

3)

Aluminum contdning nitriding deob Nitralloy N. Nitralloy


L35.nd rimilr rc limhcd to gndec ML
numbcn op n lor thcc mdc.ids rc limited o 25o 1,1/mm2 for ML d 3lO Umme tor tio.

4)

Whcn vlucs ere higher, due to whhe layer thickness

5)

the overlod capacily of many nfuided gears is tow. The gome{ric quality
dynrmc load

ro

Tho tst loed

(>

d Me. Tooth

root css

10 lm), the endulancc valucs decrease because ol cmbrinlement


of the gears must bc uflicient to limir the

r.onabr proportion or thc totar capaeiry of rG gea*.

29

ISO 6336-s2: 199s(Q

tble ? 'Through

hardened and case hardening steels, bath or gas ntro+arburizecl (see ligures 13 and

Rrquircmcnt

Itcm

Chcmicd melyrb
Mcchanicl proportios . dtcr
hc.t-bar'n.t
Clcnlincs
Grln izc
Ultronic tccl
Edert ol forglng rcduciion

Nibo+crqdzcd droll timc

Sulacc hrdncss

2
3

4
5

ML

MO

FromltoEh
>5HV

Alhyod accbt)
Unalloyed :tcels

Prc{eatment

r0

Surlecc ritructurc (whitc laycrf

> 300 l-{v


Hardencd nd tcmp.rod withort sudace decqrburization.
Tcmpcdng temp.raturc is to qcccd nitriding tmpGrature,

kailcd

inspcction not

mndatory
Nito-carburized cqupment:
As bath nitro-oarburized

11

ME

A in tble 2 (lhrougherdcning ttecls: items I to 6)

8.1

82

Whitc hycr, 5 to 30 r/m

thick, Mostly

e nitridcs

Vcntilted titanium hed-resisling alloy (inconcf) pot or rn inert linr, lron dissolvce in thc
motten salt inhibiting the nitriding procss.

Surfac hardness is measured pcendicular to the surface; values mcasu?cd on a section may be higher The
test load
should b appropriate for the case depth and lhe hrdnss.

1)

6.3

Coupon

A coupon s a test piece macte from a representative alloy grade of steel. lt may be forged
separately. lt shall accompany the product through all he treatment stages. ne test coupon
shoulct be chosen primarily to monitor the quality of the heat treatment process in terms of carbon
penetraton and microstructure. An option can also be taken to use a coupon which represents
the properties of the workpiece. The properties of a standardized coupon may be extrapotated by
experience to estmate the properties of the wo < piece with regarct to case Optn anO
microstructure.

Details of the manufacture of the coupon may be subjea to agreement between the supplier anct
the customer.
Two types of coupons are recognized:

a)

Process controllest bars: May be of arry alloy and shape. They are used to verify lhe
consstency of the heat treatment process. Their microstructure does not represent the
mcrostructure of the finished gear, but it may be ertrapolated to estimate the condition of the
finished gear, Such extrapolation must be documented.

b)

Representatlve test bars: Are designed to represent the quenching rate of the finished part.
The hardness and mcrostfucture at the center of the coupon approximates the of the core as
designated in table 4, fines I and 14. Recommended proportions are:
Minimum diameter: 6 x module
Minimum lenEh: 12 x modute

The coupon material s to be equivalent to rhe part in chemistry and hardenability.


30

141

ISO 6336-s.2:

i99s@

Annex A
(normAive)

considerations of the slze of the controllig section


for through hardened gearlng

A.f

Purposc
through
arimum
for gearing,

,t

Deflnltlon
scton which has th greaest effect n
the localm Gecton) where the specied
ma<imum controllng secton sizefor a steel b
ness, depth of desired hardness, quenching and

lllustraons

Figure Al llustrates controlling sections for quenched gear congurdons


whose teeth are
machined dter hea treatment.
lng ction cizc lor tha olccton of

rn appropdac typc of r{ccl rnd/or pccifiod hrdnc


ctmdard rough rtock machining arowrcc. otrci rgcoar ao*
.ro*.1 uch r
during hoal .tlcnt mu.t b. concUcod.
TEEITI

EEnt

<l-gln-D
2tnm
2

rso".+tl
Conollhg rocon: 200nm dlarncr

Conbollng rccon: E0mm fccwldttr

TESH

TEEIII

lql

l* lorn->l

so
l'l'l

ttr

conboling.eccon:-50mm wall ttricftner (if


le- boe dbmetcr l lcr thn 20% of ."''-lcngth
ot tc borc, then

u
lfh

conbolling roction: Eomm in lhicftnce

the outide diamete)

Flgure A.1

Examples of size of controlling sedon

31

lSo el:res. te9sG)

L4

Rccommcndon

Figure 4"2 profes approximde recommended rno<imum controlling


iection sizes br cfl
g)
alloy
steeLs
basd
on
specired hardness range,
{[,v
, minimum tempedng temprature of 4SO "C and
of teeth.

o4r

1'

zE
a
@p1

ttt
Z
fro
*z n

3,4

=
J,ss *
tJ
ZJ
=
Se d

=z

7s
=lI

\
\
3,6

to 3,8

al

tt

JOMTNYJ, DISTANCE, mm
I

lt

241

4rO

BECOMMENDEO COMfOLLtNc SECTTON S|ZE, mrn

NoTE Maximum controlling seqtion izes hghrttln lhosc abovc can


bc rccommondcd whcn 6ubstntrtd by tst
data (hod at praaice).

1)

4Kl oc minimum tempr may

Higher specicd hardneses (e.g. 375 to 415 HB,38o to 421 HB


but cosb should bc aluated duc to reducd machinability.

Flgure

be required to mer these hardness pecificdions.

nd

4o1

to

444 HB) arc

ued for cpecial gea;ng.

Size of controlling secton for two O,4O % carbon alloy stels

Generrl comments

Ma<imum cortrollng secton sizes for rounds greder than 2oo mm O.D. generally
require in-house
heat tred exPeriments d larger sectons folloed by sectioning and tranierse
hidn-"o testing.

mdmum cnollng section

. Specied

hardnesses able to
considerably loreq howwer, and higher
ed and tempered/hardness testng
32

ISO

3es.2: 199s@

Annex B
(nformaive)

Certificates

8.1

Work ccdfficstc

Wth a worfis certificde, it will be certifed that the indic[ed test results for manrfactured ot
transformed products are those which have been obtained during manufacturirp of product
equivalent to the suppliect one and that ats characteristlcs cortor ro me requirme,i tne
order.

8.2

Worfs test certificate

with a works test certificate, it will be certified that the characteristics of the products have been
obtained during tests on the mandactured or tranlormed product itself and that the results
conform to the requirements of the order.

8.3

Acceptance test certfcate

With an accePtance test certificate, an expert indepenctent from the manufacturer will cenify
that
on the bass of the resutts or inspections he or she has made on the manrlactured or transformed
product, this delivered produa conforms to the requrements of the order. Conforming to
the
order sipulaions, or being in default of them, on basis of technical requirements cortined n the
contract specifications, this certificate can be issued by an expert estabtished by the manufadurer.

tels are to be performed in a laboratory independent from the manufacturer of the


manufactured or transformed product; this laboratory must have the required equipment at its
disposal.

The required

33

lso drs-z

f ges(E)

Annex C
(irlonnative)

Table of hardness converctons

no
785
800
e0
835

Brincll

hrdn

Free q
2
2ltt

&

255
260

650

26s

865

zto

HB

HBN

51.f

69,5
70,o
70,5

Fo4)

'2

540

(51s)

13,,1

242

11

sso

Fzq

5,3

247

42

t8f0

srJ

24,O

15,O

2
57

ffi

96{t

300

995

10f

24,A

45,7

25,6

,4

l8lS

5(

712

570

(s34
(s44

3,O

t680

s3,6

1920

71.7

(ssf )

54,f

721

90

6r)

u,7

72,7

(570)

ss2

73.2

,4

472

r955

27,1

47,8

1995

18,4

2030

610

(58O)

55,7

73,7

TCt

620

(s8e)

49,0
49,7

05

60

7a2

(sse)

29,8

zl45

erc

(608)

3f0

285
295

56,3
56,8
57,3

31'o

5,l,3

304

,2

s43

21

650

(618)

5/.8

26r

285

ffi
n1

n,8

276

28,5

330

3l.t

3i,3

32lt

vA

350
360

g2

333

970

35

35,5
36,6
17,7

3g)
o

5t,6

3t,4
5s,4
56,4
57,4

361

38,8

371

3,8

58,4
59,3

6fi)
680
690

59,2
59,7

76,8

60,1

Tt.6

7&

ffi

380
3go

l{t,8

602

76()

410

4t,8

1350

6't,1

GX)

42,7

61,9

c)

|(

lt,6

,7

418

14,5

16,9

63,5
64,3
64,9
65,7

f 155

150

*S,3

l4act

tO

497

15O

470

47

46,'l

f555

480

(4s61

47,7

49,

66,4

1596
1690
1665
1700

(461

,4

5t,1

500
510
520

7q

49,1

(48s)
(4e4)

t9,8

50,5

67,7
68.3
69,0

75,5
75,9
76,a

70

14

74,6
75,1

58,3
5,6

f320
138tt

HRC

17to

f255

HB

1Tt5

950

Bohr.{l hdno

4p-5

gto

f55
1 f90

Freoq

l!

11:l

11

HF1.

&in

hrdno

2f ,3

9oo
915

HRC

/ir*cn
hr<lno

,0

n5

r060

Boohcll hdna

4
3

8O

lCK6

34

Vickco

hdnor

800
840

Tr2

61,O

7A,4

61.8
62,5

79.f

63,3
4,0

80.4
8f ,1
81,7

,7

79,7

660
880

65,3
65,9
66,4

,,2
,,7

900

67,O

&t,6

920
940

67.5
68,0

84,0
84.4

8t,r

ISO

63:l.2:1995(!)

Annex D
(irformaive)

Testing surface hardness with a file


Thls appendix b given as a guideline for the user

D.l

b b

the standard.

Appllcatlon

This specficaon covers the use

d a lile for testrg

surface lurdness.

The file hardness test b used as a qualitdive mees{Jre


fully hardened parts. lts achrantages are:

not a prt

surface rardness lt

b most tseful on

Portability of the teS equipment


Ablty to test surlaces which can not be tested by other equipment

Speed of applcation
SersitiviV to surface conditions, such as decarburizdion and microstructural defects.
Does not damage the surface beng tested.

Specic examples of the use of file hardness test:

- Surface hadness of active profile and roots of gear teeth


- Decarburizetion checks on hardened parts
D.2 Descrlptlon
File hardness testng compares the Teef of a new le biting the surface of the test part to the feel
file biting the surface of a calibrated sampfe oi'prwer. The term Tle irard. means
that sharp testng files will not cut the surface more easily thn they cLrt a prover of the minimum
specified hardness. Sy.! a comparson can only be done by comaring ine teelof cuning the
workpiece with the feel of cuttng the prover.
oJ the.same

D.3

Equlpment

D.3.1 Flle
Flrst qualty les are hardened to Roch,yell rc' fiRC) 8&68 and wil generalty start to take a sght
bite a HRC 65. Fle tooth shape and sharpness also influence cutting ebil. Srandardizaton of
files is necessery for hardness checking.

File size should be appropriate for the size of part. Sizes from loo to 20o mm length are
commonly used. Heller, Nicholson and Simonds are well kno,vn manrfasturers of quality files.
The sharpness of the lile is important. Experienced testers can judge when a file becomes
dull enough to be msleading, A more accurde methd b to perioOicafiy check the fite against

a pro/er.

D.3.2

Provers

A calibrated test block 50 mm dia by 6 mm thick which has been carburized, hardened and
dra'vn to the mnimum acceptable hardness, or a sample part of knorrn hardness can be used as
a prover. A set of test blocks in 2 HRC steps is a very useful standard. The surface fnsh of the
pro/er shoulcl be similar to the test part.

35

ISO 6il35.2: 1e95$)

D.4

Testlng

The surtace of th test Parts with scale or nst will load the file, resultng in an inaccurate
determindlon of hardness
When testing high hardness perts, ground surfaces do not cut as reaclily as regular machined
surtaces.

uld be gras@ by the hand with the index finger extended along
Irt pressure and steady the stroke. Altemaively the file can be
of the thumb.
file is mored slowly until it is apparent
first sn of cntting, the filing sfrould be stopped. Short
life. Pressure end contact area should remain corrstant

'

The part b .le hard' if a file wll not cr'rt the surface more easV than it ct ts a pro/er g the
minimtm specilTed hardness.

36

lso

6336.s.2: 199s(E)

Anner E
(nformaive)

Bibliography
ISO 81: 1977,

ISO t0G1,4&B:

4l

cylincldcal gears for general ancl treary engineedng


diametral pitches

-4), Calculdion

Modules and

of load capacity of bevelgears

To be publhhcd.

37