Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights














Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights

"As a very rough weather destroy the buds of spring so
does too early an experience of life's hard toil blight the young
promise of a child's faculties, and render any true education
impossible," – these words of pope Leo XII indicate the issue of
children being forces to work.
Despite planning, welfare programmes, legislation and
administrative action in the past few decades, a large majority of
children of the age group of 5-14 years continue to remain in
distress and turmoil. Child labourer are exploited, exposed to
hazards work conditions and paid a pittance far their long hours
of work. They are forced to leave schooling, shouldering
responsibilities for beyond their years. On June 17 1999 the
number-states of ILO unanimously voted to adopt convention
182 on the world from of child labour. It was recognised that
ending the commercial exploitation of children must be one of
the mankind's top priorities.

There is no universally accepted definition of "Child
Labour". Varying definition of the term is used by International

non-Governmental organisations,

trade unions and other interest groups. The avoid confusion, it is

Child Labour in Puri : 1961 Census-21.17.6 Million Census . some 8.'Child Labour' is work for children under age 18 that in some way harms or exploits them physically.13% Census .Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights to explain.11. different methods of computation.69% Census -7.19.14. Many forms of child labour are hidden from the statistician's eyes. diverse sources of data.33% 1981 census . mentally. % 1971 Census . which include forced and bonded labour. the ILO estimates.13.12.13. it would push the total still higher. particularly if girls doing domestic work at the cost of their education are considered.73% 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 Child Labour in India: Census -12. the use of children in armed conflict. . Moreover.4 million Children were engaged in so-called unconditional worst form of child labour. ILO's Survey: Reliable data on Child workers is virtually non-existent.25% 1991 Census . Moreover.28 million Census . trafficking in children and commercial sexual exploitation. physical or mental health. morally or by blocking children from education. lack of information on the vast unorganized sector of the economy. 246 million child workers aged 5 and 17 were involved in work that by its nature is hazardous to their safety.43% 2001 Census .15. for fear of legal action.5 million A universal difficulty in obtaining accurate data may be that individual fail to report Child Labour participating during survey. all the above estimates fall short of the actual figures of definition. In 2000. and moral development.

to seventeen-year-olds helping out on the family farm. Plantations  Mining and Quarrying  Manufacturing Processing. Forestry. the conditions in which the child works.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights r: Area of Distribution The 2001 census of India divided Child labour into nine divisions:  Cultivation  Agricultural Labour  Livestock. Child labor ranges from four-year-olds tied to rug looms to keep them from running away. working and earning can be a positive experience in a child's growing up. Servicing and Repairs. In some cases. storage and Communication. Fishing. and whether work prevents the child from going to school . a child's work can be helpful to him or her and to the family.  Transport. This depends largely on the age of the child.  Other services.  Construction  Trade and Commerce.

The combination of poverty and the lack of social security network are also responsible for bonded child labour. Again.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights OBJECTIVES r: According to the UNICEF report on the "Roots of child labour" published in 1997 child labour is in increasing rate in poor countries poverty is the main reason behind child labour system. For the poor. lower caste children lend to be pushed in to child labour because of their family's poverty furthermore the attitude of parents also contribute the child labour. these bonded children are forced to work. Most of the times it is not possible for the poor to return back those loans and the parents exchange their child's labour to local money lenders. The objective of the present study is to find out  What censes the massive growth of child labour despite  Constitutional protections provided for it. Since the earnings of bonded child labours are less than the interest on the loan. Some parents feel that children should work in order to develop skills useful in the job market instead of taking advantage of formal education. . Here enters the local money lenders with exorbitant high interest rates. there are few credit sources and even if there are sources like co-operative loan bank loan etc available any poor families manage to satisfy the essential criteria related to access those.

4. How long is he in this place of work? 2 years . This is ward No. Age of the child labour : 7 Years. LOCATION The study has been conducted in the C. Narayan Reddy 2. CT Road . Krishna Chandra reddy & labour.000 and a very high number of floating population. Father's Name & occupation K. Name of the work place.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights  What are the efforts of the Governments in this regard and  How the judiciary has attempted to fight against child labour  To suggest the steps to be taken for location. There are 20 big Hotels more than 28 medium sized Restaurants and a large number of tea stall.T Road. Hotel cleaning agencies. 25 of the Municipal corporation having a population of 15. the children in the age braket of 7 to 17 are working. Srikhetra Colony under Puri Municipal Corporation. Tiffin vendors and foot path shops Bus Stand area encompasses a good number of different kinds of shops in most of the shops. Puri 5. 3. hotels. teashops. Name of the child : K. 1. METHODOLOGY A note book is used to record data on the flowing matters collected through the circulation of a questions among 100 child labourers working in different shops. hotels etc.

80 form the remaining 80 have left school only between class 2 and 4 and 10 are there who have completed HSC and 02 from them have also cleared +2 Com. 200/per month 11. Educational qualification. In all these cases proverty is the main reason lower caste children with poor economic condition prepare to work in small sized hotels. What was his previous place & nature of work? Nuapali. GOVERNMENT EFFORTS . 20 out of 100 have not gone to school.15. Whether he is willing to continue to study or not? Yes 12. It is clear that the child labours mostly come under the age group of 7 . How much he spends for his family.Puri Bus stand area. Whether he spends all his earnings for himself: No 10. What is the attitude of this owner? Brutal OBSERATION AND FINDINGS By analyzing the information’s collected from 100 child labour of Haripur . Standard II 8. Wages received by him (a.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights 6. 95% child labours of exploitation. The child labour are economically exploited by the employers by playing them very poor wages which are also paid irregularly and putting them to work for a very lengthy period and also in a interested to return to schools in the absence of sound economic support to them and their family. Khurda 7. whether paid regularly No 9.

The Indian government implemented the child labour Act in 1986.availability of accurate and up-to date data on child labour has been a major handicap in planned international for eradication of this social evil. The programme revolves around an incentive for children to quit work and enter non – formal schooling work a one hundred rupees payment as well as one . A bold step in government policy occurred in August 15. The purpose of this Act is to prohibit the employment of children who have not completed their 14 years in specified hazardous occupations and process besides this Government has accounced the National policy and child labour in August 1987. when the then Prime Minister Narashima Rao announced his proposal of the elimination of child labour programme.  Project based actions plans in areas of for high concentration of child labour engaged in wage / quasi wage employment. 1994. The action plan under the policy included  Focusing of general development programmes benefiting children whenever possible. However from the time of independence India has committed fourteen years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or employed in any hazardous employment to their age of strength. This programme was designed to end child labour for two million children hazardous industries as defined in the child labour act of 1986 by the year 2000.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights Non.

A significant announcement by the government was done on August 1. Government servants have already been prohibited from employing children as domestic servants. It has been imposed under the child labour (Prohibition and Regulation) ct 1986 violators are liable under the Act. 1996 aimed at preventing exploitation of children an safeguarding their economic. 20.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights meal a day for attending school recently government has adopted two schemes namely National Child Labour Project Scheme ( CLP) of child labour.2006 by issuing a notification of banning employment of children as domestic servants of works and it as helpers in Dhabas Restaurants hotels teashops. resorts and other recreational centers.11 Lakh working children. . banned child labour on hazardous jobs an or ere t e setting up of a child labour rehabilitation welfare fund offending employee would have to deposit Rs. SUPREME COURT DIRECTION The supreme court in a significant judgment given on December 10. It has been decided to sanction additional 150 NCLPs during the tenth plan. There are currently 100 NCPL covering 2. By this notification the Government has imposed the restrictions on everyone. social and humanitarian rights. The ban has been will be effective from October 10 this year.000 as compensation for each children the fund.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) states. carpet weaving. education. many of the risks and abuses faced by child agricultural workers were strikingly similar. Human Rights Watch has found that the children working in agriculture are endangered and exploited on a daily basis. Yet despite their numbers and the difficult nature of their work. the right to such measures of protection as are required by his status as a minor. the number of children working in agriculture is nearly ten times that of children involved in factory work such as garment manufacturing.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights CHILD LABOUR IN CULTIVATION FIELD Child agricultural workers frequently work for. Their work is grueling and harsh. .long hours in scorching heat. According to the ILO's new report on child labor. haul heavy loads of produce. . society and the State. and suffers high rates of injury from sharp knives and other dangerous tools. . and protection from work that is hazardous or exploitative. on the part of his family. children working in agriculture have received little attention compared to child labor in manufacturing for export or children involved in commercial sexual exploitation. or soccer-ball stitching. is exposed to toxic pesticides. Human Rights watch found that despite the vast differences. "Every child shall have ." The Convention on the Rights of the Child provides that children-all persons under eighteen "unless under the law applicable to the child. violating their rights to health.

They may be fired for small infractions. and particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse. but their place of residence as well. In most cases the child . and few programs addressing child labor include child domestics. nearly all girls. mental. labor ministries rarely monitor or investigate conditions of work in private households. Many have no opportunity to go to school. hidden from public scrutiny. Child domestics. CHILDREN WITH A BONDED LIFE Bonded labor takes place when a family receives an advance payment (sometimes as little as RS 750) to hand a child-boy or girl over to an employer. spiritual.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights majority is attained earlier"-have a right "to be protected from performing' any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education. Government laws often exclude domestic workers from basic labor rights. Yet they have received little attention and even less protection. More girls work as domestics than in any other form of child labour. losing not only their jobs. or are forced to drop out because of the demands of their job. They work alone in individual households." All states parties to the Convention-every Give administrative and other measures complementation of the rights recognized in this Covenant CHILD LABOUR IN HOUSEHOLD r: Child domestic workers are nearly invisible among child laborers. or to be harmful to the child's health or physical. moral or social development. work long hours for little or no pay. They are subject to verbal and physical abuse. their lives controlled by their employers.

with the understanding that each generation would provide the employer with a new worker-often with no pay at all. Millions work in India alone. Bonded labor is outlawed by the 1956 U.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights cannot work off the debt. The workplace is often structured so that "expenses" and/or "interest" are deducted from a child's earnings in such amounts that it is almost impossible for a child to repay the debt. Millions of children work as bonded child laborers in countries around the world. and 1996 report. CHILDREN SUPPLY Gouri. nor can the family raise enough money to buy the child back. the labor is generational-that is. the Slave Trade. age sixteen. In some cases. before working as a . told Human Rights Watch that she spent three days on a truck to Kakatpur. as in a case cited in the July 1995 Human Rights Watch report. the full extent of the problem has yet to be shown.N. as documented in the Human Rights Watch 2003 report. a child's grandfather or great-grandfather was promised to an employer many years earlier. Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery. Many bonded children are subjected to severe physical abuse. and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery.

transfer. Human Rights Watch reported on the trafficking of girls into domestic and market work and the trafficking of boys into agricultural work Child trafficking is prohibited under international law as both a "practice similar to slavery" and one of the "worst forms of child labor. Gouri's ordeal is a classic case of child trafficking-the recruitment. and the woman told me just to wait. I ate rice from the stock she had left. there were over a hundred children. "I stayed in Kakatpur for five months. stopped there for five days and then made a one-day journey to Kakatpur. "It was a big house with not many people in it." Gouri told Human Rights Watch. After five months. and all the girls had come to Kakatpur to work." States have an urgent and immediate obligation to eradicate trafficking in children. or slavery. transportation. . "I talked to some of them. Trafficking in children is a human rights tragedy estimated to in both girls and boys are trafficked-in its study of trafficking in Togo. for instance. and there were some adults. Gouri was abandoned by the woman who brought her and told to wait to be collected by a truck. The bus drove as far as Puri. When she arrived in Kakatpur." Chameli went on to describe the journey "On the truck. harboring or receipt of a child for the purposes of sexual or labor exploitation." she said. She said her journey began in the village of Odasamala. where she and seven other girls boarded a minibus with a woman who said they would be looking after small children in Gabon. forced labor. a man came and took me to a boat. but more children than adults.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights housemaid there for eighteen months.

] I called the labor recruitment company in Ahmadabad to complain about my salary. During the survey I came to know that. I had no rest during the day." This was the painful statement of Ratna.. to 7 p. two years ago at the age of seven. He was given some food. little free time. The lady employer yelled at me every day.m. I had to buy my own ticket home. I wanted to run away. washed clothes. I cleaned two houses. because I also cleaned the grandmother's house. Any time he made an error with his work. but they didn't want to take my call. only to be apprehended by the local police who forcibly returned him to the carpet looms. but I was afraid the employer and security would catch me. [When I returned to Orissa. She slapped me one or two times a week. he tried to run away. Once after a particularly painful beating. a girl who works in a household in Gujurat. washed the floor. He was told repeatedly that he could not stop working until he earned enough money to pay an alleged family debt. I worked every day and was not allowed to go out. ironed. and washed the car. and no medical assistance.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights INTERVIEWS OF TWO CHILD LABOURS "I took care of two children .. I worked from 4 a. cleaned the walls.m. not even to walk on the street. he was fined and the debt increased. Babuli started weaving carpets in Puri. he was beaten with a stick. Once when his work was considered to be too slow. . He was never told who in his family had borrowed money or how much he had borrowed.. I cleaned all parts of the house.

Children making silk thread in India dip their hands into boiling water that burns and blisters them. often in dangerous and unhealthy conditions. for example. breath smoke and fumes from machinery. and guide twisting threads that cut their fingers. and a susceptibility to arthritis as they grow older. injuries to their hands and legs are common and medical care is often not available. has left children disabled with eye damage. stunted growth. handle dead worms that cause infections. lung disease. who work long hours. Still they can't raise any voice. but their real sufferings are uncountable. Children. These are some examples of sufferings of the child labors. Working at rug looms.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights EFFECT OF CHILD LABOUR The Children's Rights Division at Human Rights Watch of Child Labor Convention. . Children harvesting sugar cane in EI Salvador use machetes to cut cane for up to nine hours a day in the hot sun. are exposed to lasting physical and psychological harm.

education. other work in trade and farms. We have also worked to provide to children's organizations and international advocacy groups objective on-the-spot reporting to support efforts to effect change. with fewer in manufacturing and construction. though it is prohibited by the ILO. At least 23 on a full time basis have focused its efforts on the worst forms of child labor. the World Bank. .Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights PREVENTION OF CHILD LABOUR On the advocacy front. we have met with children's and human rights groups. Kakatpur. the International Labor Organization (ILO). From the survey I have estimated that above 50 children between the ages of five and fourteen work in the area. as well as representatives from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). and opportunities by being entrapped in bonded labor. Most working children in this area are found in agriculture. many children work as domestics. They are trying to develop a holistic strategy to prevent children from losing their childhood. and other organizations.

OF CHILD LABOUR 7690 8753 9392 11987 17958 22351 .Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights STASTICAL REPORT ON CHILD LABOUR IN PURl YEAR 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2014 NO. OF CHILDREN 50263 70651 85793 97987 125043 137800 NO.

the enactment of child labour (Prohibition & Regulation) act. With regard to the worker's interest. with suitable safeguards against their exploitation and provision for educational and recreational facilities. Accordingly. the pragamatic approach was to regular the practice of child labour. vocational and educational well-being and enlistment of a child worker. the child .Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights Conclusion Despite the hope aroused of some improvement in the lots of the child workers. It should be made mandatory for all employers to take steps for the intellectual. y the August notification of the government to ban employment of children from October 10. has not goaded either the state governments or the Centre to any sort of purposive action even on a limited front. 1986. the employment of children below 14 years has been allowed in selected areas of the non-hazardous organized sector.2006. nothing prevents the employers from flouting the legal provisions in the full knowledge that the child workers themselves will become willing accomplices in covering it up. The legislation was drafted on the second premise that since the root cause of poverty cannot be eliminated overnight. The only way to ensure compliance with the Act is to make punishment for violations more stringent and incorporate a provision for surprise checks and establish a separate vigilance cell. But in the absence of an efficient and rigorous inspection machinery. Let us hope.

.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights of twenty-first century will find himself into the "Heaven freedom".

population & economic change in developing countries. November 3. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Child Labour: A Denial of Human Rights Reference  Sambad. Guatemala.2006  ILO (International Labour Office) 1993 Bulletin of Labour statistics 1993-3. I R. Bhubaneswar Friday. 'Opportunity Costs of Education to Rural Households" (USAIO.. M. 1988. primary Education efficiency sub sector Assessment) . ed. Easterlin. 1976 "Child Costs and Economic development".  Richards.  ILO (International labour Office) 1992 World labour Report 1992 Geneva  Lindert P. Geneva.A.