INTRODUCTION

Bridges are normally constructed using precast concrete beams. Prior cast design of the beam should
be done. Hence structural analysis part plays a major role here. SAP 2000 is a reliable software that
could be used for analyse a bridge. In this assignment a selected bridge has analysed using SAP 2000.
Here the bridge is analysed using grillage analysis.
SELECTION OF PROBLEM PARAMETERS AND MEMBER SIZES
Index number : 090104 E
Therefore length of the bridge = 20 + (104/100) = 21 m
Grade 40 concrete is used.
Longitudinal Beam:
M beams are required to use. Therefore for 21 m span M4 beams will be sufficient. Section of a M4
beam is drawn below. Depth of the beam is 880mm.

400

300

60

80
80

10

50
160

970

Note : All the dimensions are in mm.
Even though the width of the lower flange of the beam is 970mm in the SAP model it is taken as
1000mm since between two beams there is a 30mm motar joint.

Transverse Beam
Depth of the beam : 880 +75 – 185 = 770 mm
Width of the beam : 1 m

770

1000

CROSS SECTION OF THE BRIDGE

1500

500
Pavement
1

3500

3500

1500

M beams

1000
Vehicle lane
1

Vehicle lane
2

Pavement
2

Note: All the dimensions are in mm.
Therefore 10 longitudinal beams are needed and hence the length of the bridge is 21 m 22 transverse
beams are needed for the grillage.
PROCEDURE
Step 1:
Units were selected as kN, m, C. New modal was selected, under that grid only selected. Number of
gridlines was entered as X -2, Y -2, and Z – 2. Grid spacing was entered as X - 1, Y-1 and Z – 1.
Step 2 :
Material properties and section properties were entered. When entering sectional data for the M beam,
torsion constant should given as zero as this bridge is to be designed as torsionless system.

Step 3:
Following model was developed.

Step 5:
Relevant load cases were defined and loads were applied
Type HA loading:
01. Type HA uniformly distributed load. (Reference Table 13 BS 5400: Part 2: 1978)
Load length is less than 30m. Therefore load is 30 kN/m/lane.
Therefore uniformly distributed load on a transverse beam = (30/3.5) = 8.57 kN/m2 = 8.57 kN/m
Two load cases were defined as HA1 and HA2. And above loading applied to the transverse beams
in the side of lane 1 and 2 under the load cases HA1 and HA2 respectively.

HA1 Loading
Also for the pavement pedestrian loading of a 5 kN/m should be applied as same as above
introducing two load cases as Ped1 and Ped2.
02. Knife edge loading:
Nominal loading is considered as 120 kN/lane.
Therefore knife edge loading on a transverse beam = (120/3.5) = 34.29 kN/m
It should be applied as same as above considering two load cases as KEL1 and KEL2.

Knife Edge Loading

Type HB loading:
HB loading is an abnormal vehicle unit loading.

axle

axle

axle

axle

1m
1m
1m

2m

6m

2m

Dimension Of A HB Vehicle

Load per axel is taken as 30 units which is equal to 30 tons.
Therefore load per axel = 30x10 = 300 kN/axel (g is taken as 10 ms-2)
Therefore load per wheel = (300/4) = 75 kN/wheel
Two load cases were defined as HB1 and HB2 and they were applied when the vehicle is at the middle
of the bridge and at the start or end of the bridge respectively. The loads were applied as nodal loads at
the corresponding points of the grillage.

HB1 Loading

HB2 Loading
Step 6:
Following load combinations were entered.
01. 1.15Gk + 1.5HA
02. 1.15Gk + 1.25HA
03. 1.15Gk + 1.10HA + 1.10HB
04. Envelop containing all above combinations
Step 7:
The model was analysed and results were obtained.

RESULTS

Bending Moment Diagram For The Envelop

Shear Force Diagram For The Envelop

Torsional Moment Diagram For The Envelop