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Everyday Science

Universe + Galaxy + Solar System


Agha Zohaib KHan

What is Universe?
The universe is commonly defined
as the totality of everything that
exists or is known to exist
This includes all matter and energy,
planets, stars, and galaxies; and the
contents of intergalactic space.
The Branch of Science which deals
with the study of universe is called
Cosmology.

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Origin of Universe
There are many theories about origin of universe,
following are the major theories.

1. Big Bang Theory.


According to Big Bang Universe came into existence
about 15 to 20 Billion years ago, when cataclysmic
explosion took place.
2. The 3k Microwave Background Theory
This theory supported Big Bang and states that the
echo of that explosion can still be heard in the form of
microwave radio single from radiation.
.
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Future of Universe
There are different theories presented about the future of our
universe.
1. Open Universe Theory :
It states that universe will keep expanding.

2. Close Universe Theory:


It States that universe will shrink and collapse.
3. The Cycle Theory:
It states that universe will expand and collapse.

4. Steady State Theory:


It states that universe will always exist.
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Galaxy
Galaxy is fundamental unit of universe.
A system of millions or billions of stars, together with
interstellar gas and dust, held together by gravitational
attraction.
There are billions of Galaxies in the Universe. Some are
very small with only a few million stars. While others
could have as many as 400 billion stars, or even more.
There are three kinds of Galaxies, Spiral, Elliptical, and
Irregular. The only difference between the three is what
shape they are.

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Our Galaxy?
Our Galaxy is called Milky Way.
Milky Way is Spiral Galaxy.
The region in space occupied by Milky
Way Galaxy is called Galactic Plane.
The Sun is not present at the centre of
Milky Way.
Arms of Spiral Galaxy are called Galactic Arms.
The Sun revolves around the nucleus of galaxy once in 225 to
250 million years. This duration is called The Cosmic Year or
Galactic Year.
The nearest spiral galaxy to the milky way is Andromeda
Galaxy.

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Solar System
Solar System is tiny part of
Galaxy and consist of sun and all
the objects that travel around it.
It includes the earth and 7 to 8
other planets, along the satellites
that travel around most of them.
It further includes Asteroids,
Meteoroids,
Comets,
Interplanetary
dust
and
Interplanetary plasma.

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Planets of our Solar System


Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Saturn
Uranus
Neptune
Pluto

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Mercury
It is 2nd Smallest Planet
Closest to the Sun,
Its mean distance from sun is 0.387 (AU)
Its Diameter is 4,880 km
It takes 88 earth days to complete one revolution around
the sun.
Mercury is covered with holes called craters.
Mercury has no moon.
Mercury has no atmosphere.
Mercury is about the same size as our Moon

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Venus

It is called earths twin in size and mass


Venus is hotter than mercury
Venus is 0.723 A.U away from the sun.
Its revolution period is 225 days,
its diameter is 12,104 km
It has no moon,
Venus is the closest planet to Earth

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Earth

Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun


It has atmosphere
Earth is 1 A.U away from the earth
Its diameter is 12756 km
The Earth is the largest of terrestrial planets.
It as one moon.
Revolution Period 365.26 Earth days
Rotation Period 23.93 hours
It has one Moon called Luna,

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Mars

Mars is barren desert , it is covered with red dust.


It is also called Red Planet
It is 1.524 A.U away from the sun.
Mars orbits the sun after every 687 days.
Its diameter is 6,787 km
Mars has two moons called phobos and Deimos

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Jupiter

It has dense cloudy atmosphere of hydrogen and helium.


It is the largest planet of solar system.
Its diameter is 143,000 km
Jupiter orbits the sun once after every11.89 years.
It has 63 Knowm moons
Jupiter is the planet with most moons.

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Saturn

It is the second largest planet.


It has special feature like rings of saturn
around it.
It is 9.539 A.U away from the sun
It has revolution period about 29.46 years
Its Diameter is 120,000 km
It has 62 confirmed moons

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Uranus

It has mostly hydrogen and helium atmosphere.


It is 19.18 A.U away from the sun
Its diameter is 51,800 km
Its Revolution period is 84.01 years
Uranus is big and give greenish glow
It has 27 known moons

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Neptune

It is somewhat similar to Uranus


It is 30.06 A.U away from the sun.
Its Diameter is 49,500 Km
Its revolution period is 164.8 years
Neptune has 13 known moons

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Pluto

The First Dwarf Planet


Pluto is actually smaller than one of Neptune's moons,
Triton.
Originally classified as the ninth planet from the Sun, Pluto
was re-categorized as a dwarf planet and plutoid due to
the discovery that it is only one of several large bodies
within the Kuiper belt.
It has 4 Moons.

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IAU definition of planet

The definition of planet set in 2006 by the International


Astronomical Union (IAU) states that, in the Solar System,
a planet is a celestial body which:
is in orbit around the Sun,
has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium (a
nearly round shape), and
has "cleared the neighbourhood" around its orbit.

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Past Papers Questions

Solar System - 1999, 2002, 2003, 2008


Planets 1986, 2002
Mercury 2004
Pluto 2004, 2011
Big Bang Theory 2011
Galaxy - 2011

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