Everyday Science

Universe + Galaxy + Solar System
Agha Zohaib KHan

css. planets.com . The Branch of Science which deals with the study of universe is called Cosmology.    2 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.theazkp.What is Universe? The universe is commonly defined as the totality of everything that exists or is known to exist This includes all matter and energy. stars. and the contents of intergalactic space. and galaxies.

According to Big Bang Universe came into existence about 15 to 20 Billion years ago.Origin of Universe There are many theories about origin of universe. The 3k Microwave Background Theory This theory supported Big Bang and states that the echo of that explosion can still be heard in the form of microwave radio single from radiation.theazkp.com . 2. Big Bang Theory. following are the major theories. when cataclysmic explosion took place.css.  1. . 3 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.

Open Universe Theory : It states that universe will keep expanding. Steady State Theory: It states that universe will always exist.css.Future of Universe There are different theories presented about the future of our universe. Close Universe Theory: It States that universe will shrink and collapse. 3. 4 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.com . 4.  2. 1.theazkp. The Cycle Theory: It states that universe will expand and collapse.

Spiral. or even more.com . together with interstellar gas and dust. The only difference between the three is what shape they are. There are three kinds of Galaxies. While others could have as many as 400 billion stars. Elliptical.Galaxy Galaxy is fundamental unit of universe. and Irregular. Some are very small with only a few million stars.theazkp. held together by gravitational attraction. A system of millions or billions of stars.css. There are billions of Galaxies in the Universe.     5 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.

theazkp. The Sun revolves around the nucleus of galaxy once in 225 to 250 million years.Our Galaxy? Our Galaxy is called Milky Way. The nearest spiral galaxy to the milky way is Andromeda Galaxy.        6 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www. The region in space occupied by Milky Way Galaxy is called Galactic Plane. This duration is called The Cosmic Year or Galactic Year. The Sun is not present at the centre of Milky Way.com . Milky Way is Spiral Galaxy.css. Arms of Spiral Galaxy are called Galactic Arms.

   7 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.theazkp.css. It further includes Asteroids.Solar System Solar System is tiny part of Galaxy and consist of sun and all the objects that travel around it. along the satellites that travel around most of them. Interplanetary dust and Interplanetary plasma. Comets.com . Meteoroids. It includes the earth and 7 to 8 other planets.

css.theazkp.com .Planets of our Solar System Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto          8 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.

com . Mercury has no moon. Mercury has no atmosphere.387 (AU) It’s Diameter is 4.880 km It takes 88 earth days to complete one revolution around the sun.theazkp. It’s mean distance from sun is 0. Mercury is about the same size as our Moon          9 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.Mercury It is 2nd Smallest Planet Closest to the Sun.css. Mercury is covered with holes called craters.

U away from the sun.com .css.Venus        It is called earth’s twin in size and mass Venus is hotter than mercury Venus is 0. It’s revolution period is 225 days. Venus is the closest planet to Earth 10 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.723 A.theazkp. it’s diameter is 12.104 km It has no moon.

css.93 hours It has one Moon called Luna.U away from the earth It’s diameter is 12756 km The Earth is the largest of terrestrial planets. 11 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.theazkp. Revolution Period 365. It as one moon.com .26 Earth days Rotation Period 23.Earth          Earth is the third closest planet to the Sun It has atmosphere Earth is 1 A.

It’s diameter is 6.theazkp. It is also called Red Planet It is 1. it is covered with red dust.Mars       Mars is barren desert .524 A.787 km Mars has two moons called phobos and Deimos 12 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.com . Mars orbits the sun after every 687 days.css.U away from the sun.

13 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.000 km Jupiter orbits the sun once after every11. It’s diameter is 143. It is the largest planet of solar system.89 years.css.Jupiter       It has dense cloudy atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. It has 63 Knowm moons Jupiter is the planet with most moons.theazkp.com .

U away from the sun It has revolution period about 29.Saturn       It is the second largest planet. It is 9.539 A.css.com .theazkp.000 km It has 62 confirmed moons 14 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.46 years It’s Diameter is 120. It has special feature like rings of saturn around it.

800 km It’s Revolution period is 84.01 years Uranus is big and give greenish glow It has 27 known moons 15 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.css.U away from the sun It’s diameter is 51.theazkp. It is 19.com .Uranus       It has mostly hydrogen and helium atmosphere.18 A.

06 A.500 Km It’s revolution period is 164.com .U away from the sun. It’s Diameter is 49.Neptune      It is somewhat similar to Uranus It is 30.theazkp.css.8 years Neptune has 13 known moons 16 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.

Originally classified as the ninth planet from the Sun. Triton.Pluto     The First Dwarf Planet Pluto is actually smaller than one of Neptune's moons.theazkp.css. Pluto was re-categorized as a dwarf planet and plutoid due to the discovery that it is only one of several large bodies within the Kuiper belt.com . 17 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www. It has 4 Moons.

and has "cleared the neighbourhood" around its orbit. has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium (a nearly round shape).com . a planet is a celestial body which: is in orbit around the Sun. 18 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www.IAU definition of planet     The definition of planet set in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) states that.css.theazkp. in the Solar System.

com . 2008 Planets – 1986.theazkp.2011 19 Agha Zohaib Khan ::: www. 2003.Past Papers Questions       Solar System .1999. 2002. 2002 Mercury – 2004 Pluto – 2004. 2011 Big Bang Theory – 2011 Galaxy .css.