Article ID: WMC004279

ISSN 2046-1690

Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life
Science (Part I)
Corresponding Author:
Dr. Iresh R Bhattacharjee,
Principal Scientist, Institute for Instrinsic Gravitation Biology (i3GB) {Assam Agricultural University}, 84,GMCH
Road, Anandanagar, Dispur, Guwahati-781 005 India {C/O L.Dr.G.C.Bhattacharjee, Longai Road,
Karimganj-788712, India}, 781005 - India
Submitting Author:
Dr. Iresh R Bhattacharjee,
Principal Scientist, Institute for Instrinsic Gravitation Biology (i3GB) {Assam Agricultural University}, 84, GMCH
Road, Anandanagar, Dispur, Guwahati (C/O L Dr G C Bhattacharjee, Longai Road, Karimganj-788712, Assam,
India), 781005 - India

Article ID: WMC004279
Article Type: My opinion
Submitted on:26-Jun-2013, 10:41:53 AM GMT
Article URL: http://www.webmedcentral.com/article_view/4279
Subject Categories:BIOPHYSICS
Keywords:gravity, gravitational potential energy, metabolic energy, buoyant force, self organization,
astrophysics
Source(s) of Funding:
None
Competing Interests:
There is no competiting interest

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Self Gravity: The Major Investigation Gap in Life
Science (Part I)
Author(s): Bhattacharjee IR

Abstract
Potential binding energy of self gravity acts universally
on mass which is being ignored in living world at
mesoscopic length scale without tangible reason. It is
conceptualized that biomass accumulated through
photosynthesis and other build-up mechanism within
volume of secluded structure serve as foundation.
Within membrane bound volume of mass, build up and
break down mechanism through anabolism and
catabolism of metabolic energy causes a change in
the amount of mass per unit volume at particular
instant leading to contraction out of gravitational
potential energy and relaxation due to inertia plus
kinetic energy of metabolic activity, develops pressure
with gain or release of temperature. Background
tension within volume causes mass to move
asynchronously at low frequencies and continues to
function as ‘life’. Kinetic energy producing organelles
(mitochondria, chloroplast) remain away from central
load. Self gravity attracts denser materials to its core
leading to sorting and self assembling of mass
according to density-gradient of macromolecules.
Nucleic acid having higher density finds place as ‘core’,
medium denser protein in intermediate and least
dense fat in the periphery. Metabolically inert
infrastructure or buoyant force of fluids secludes self
gravitating body from external stronger gravitational
field and helps to maintain self gravity’s free fall
condition. With collapse of equilibrium between
contraction and relaxation of self gravity, stronger
force of extrinsic gravity makes living mass inert
non-living.
Under the principle of abductive reasoning through
successive approximation on sporadic set of
observations, roles of self gravity on identical
astrophysical principles of larger mass have been
conceptualized on some evidences detailed in Part I
and II of the article. Various interior dynamics including
self organization of macromolecules, protein
conformation, movement of human thoracic diaphragm,
formation of logarithmic spiral in nature were
discussed in the light of potential energy of self gravity
and kinetic energy of metabolic energy.

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Content
1. Contents
INTRODUCTION

Ι. PHYSICAL PROPERTY OF
SELF GRAVITY 1. Self organization- intrinsic
property of self gravity
2. How self-gravity could be strong at
miniature scale?
3.
How binding action of self gravity could be a
reckonable force in biomass?
ΙΙ
. SECLUSION MAINTAINS SELF GRAVITY’S
FREE FALL CONDITION4. Mechanism of
seclusion from extrinsic gravity
5. Relative three tier reference
frame
6. Buoyant like force maintain self gravity’s free
fall condition
7. Reduced
fluid level stop metabolism
8. Neutral buoyancy can
apparently reduce the weight of living mass
9. Nanometer level free fall
acceleration for femtometer size macromolecules
10. Buffering action through repelling
electrostatic force
11.
Metabolically inert infrastructure (MII) as cell’s
seclusion environment
12.
Behavior of living mass under different types of
medium
13. Importance
of medium vis-à-vis unperturbed self gravity
ΙΙΙ. METABOLIC ENERGY
AND SELF GRAVITY
14.
Whether gravitational anchor is a criterion for
manifestation as living?
15. Energy
producing organelles or sites located away from the
centre
16. Some anomalous
hypothecations in health science
17. Body Mass Index (BMI)
18.
Body Surface Area (BSA)
19. Basal Metabolic
Rate (BMR)
ΙV. CENTRE OF SELF GRAVITY
20.
Why central position is vital?
21. Why nucleoid,
nucleolis or nucleus tend to remain in central
position?
22. Generation of ‘muscle
tone’ remains elusive in human physiology
23. ‘Build-up’ & ‘break-down’ mechanisms
in living mass
24.
Spectacular action of self gravity in muscle tone
while living and not when dead
25. There
is no complete loss of tone during paralysis
26. Tone is lost after
death during pallor mortis and not while living
27. Intrinsic muscle tone is constantly
maintained when living but loose after death

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28. Edema occurs in lowers or dependant parts of
the body after death
29. Intuitive
model on generation of ‘background tone’
30. Abundance of logarithmic
spiral in nature vis-à-vis self gravitating phenomena
31. Human average body frequency
32. Body
cools down on death after loss of
contraction-relaxation of self gravity
33.
Which force regulates stretching and relaxation
during oesophageal peristalsis?
34. What
causes channel narrowed or dilated during
trafficking?
35. Why
nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is important for health?
36. Matching inward wall
pressure in cellular activity vis-à-vis self gravity
37. Mechanical loads and centrosome microtubule organization
38.
Inner cell mass (ICM) influences potency in stem
cells?
39. Metacenter
and floating principle
40. Neucleus and neucleolus‘core’ segment of the self gravitating interior
41. Change in concentric to eccentric nucleus
under neutral buoyant condition
42.
Prototype of interior dynamics of self gravitating
biomass V. GENERAL PROPERTY OF SELF
GRAVITY 43. Self organization due to self gravity
44.
Formation of twin centre of mass on decrease in
mutual attraction
45. Self gravity
dictates self organization of macromolecules in
living cell
46. Globular protein form
and self gravity
47. Native conformation, denaturation &
renaturation of protein and self gravity
48.
Some exceptions to general rule
49. Spheroids
fibrous protein and self gravity
50. Protein folding problem and
topological property
51. Proteins fold on funnel-shaped energy
landscapes VI. REFERENCES (INCLUDING
TABLES & ILLUSTRATIONS)

Introduction
The trend among biologists is to describe any
unexplained phenomenon as the gift of nature. This is
irritating for any sensible person. Nature cannot act in
self styled manner. It must obey certain defined
physical rules. Hence such outlook needs appropriate
correction. We must find continuity in the formation of
the universe, the galaxy, the solar system to a tiny
creature up to smallest bacteria or plasmid. What
could be the force or factor that keeps such continuity
from macro to meso or up to micro length scale? For
instance, it is said that bilateral symmetry in animals is
due to necessity to cope up with the environment.
Personally you or I feel the necessity of having ‘third
hand’ or ‘third eye’ in the backside to ward off many
disadvantages we feel daily. The phenomena of

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bilateral symmetry are often described as ‘natural’.
Why nature should act spontaneously? Similarly, say,
muscle tone or background tensions remain elusive in
human physiology. Tone works 24 hours a day. When
muscles are at rest, a certain amount of tautness
usually remains. Contraction in healthy human muscle
tone is minimum 5 pulses per second.
Electromyograph evidence shows that the muscle is
electrically silent. Low frequency tone cannot be
detected by electromyography. Some quarter
suspects that muscle tissue itself has an intrinsic
elasticity. But if that were true, we would have to be
fighting against that elasticity every time we used a
skeletal muscle. Again all muscle contraction begins in
the muscle core. Even in flat muscles contraction
starts in the central plane, and then works its way out.
Why muscle contraction begins in the muscle core?
Similarly many other questions in life science are still
not appropriately answered or if answered, these are
difficult to digest in absence of supporting reasoning.
In the same way, for instance, over the issue of ‘self
organization’ in the cell, life science is passing through
a major crisis. A living cell is not an aggregate of
molecules but an organized pattern, structured in
space and in time. Harold M Franklin1 in 2005 made
extensive reviews on the spatial organization of cells,
including the arrangement of cytoplasmic constituents
and the cells' global form, which is not explicitly
spelled out in the genome. Genes specify only the
primary sequences of macromolecules, portions of
which are indeed relevant to the localization of those
molecules in space. But cell architecture, for the most
part, arises epigenetically. What could be the invisible
epigenetic mechanism that could be the driving force
and builds up organic complexity in a
membrane-bound, structured setting and lead to
spontaneous self-emergence of spatially organized
systems from where molecules come to life?
Working on range of paradoxes in biology, on critically
examining various reported works on these aspects,
on undertaking strategic experimentations and
observing on diverse living organisms randomly but in
a purposeful meticulous way for last 40 years from ab
initio stage to intermediate and final status, during
intact state (in vivo), under removed condition (ex vivo)
as well as in vitro culture of various living organisms
and on carefully avoiding over-interpretation that may
not lead to erroneous conclusions, I came to the
approximation that presence of intrinsic gravity or in
other words, self gravity, an invisible binding force that
holds the body structures in place or is responsible
primarily for ‘self organization’, building up of low
frequency but steady muscle tone is difficult to ignore.
Gravity is the building block of the universe. The reality

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of the cellular interior might be determined by the
equilibrium between ‘build up’ and ‘break down’ of
mass leading to its gain or loss. A reversible
mechanism between kinetic and potential gravitational
energy due to variation in instant mass might create
internal pressure. Such internal pressure might work
against self gravitational compression. The
surrounding hydrostatic pressure might help to create
self gravitating environment around a living mass.
This is also what is going on in the interior of the
universe, in the galaxy, in the star, the sun, the planet
and the moon. The materials may differ but all works
might be on the same principle of equilibrium between
internal pressure and gravitational pressure. The
equilibrium or balance might be the law of life from
universe to living bodies.

As per concept of molecular biology, DNA sequences
are transcribed into RNA and then translated into
amino acid chains; the latter fold spontaneously into
functional proteins. But genesis of spatial architecture,
including how molecules find their proper location in
cell space, the origins of supramolecular order, cell
morphology are not yet satisfactorily answered. Harold
M Franklin1 therefore concluded that “We urgently
need a plausible and experimentally fertile hypothesis
that starts with a driving force and builds up organic
complexity in a membrane-bound, structured setting.
No satisfying hypothesis of this kind is presently on the
books, and in its absence holistic explorers of deep
time have been unable to initiate a research tradition
that can thrive in today's intellectual and fiscal climate.
But I have no doubt that this is the way to go; for only
through the emergence of spatially organized systems
can molecules come to life”. From all such gap areas
of investigations, the present study was undertaken to
define the role of self gravity in living mass.

Physical Property of Self
Gravity
1. 1.
Self organization- intrinsic property of self
gravity
To understand nature of self gravity, Prof. J.V. Narlikar2,
eminent astrophysicist, used an imaginary episode
from the life of Aladdin. The Arabian Nights story of
Aladdin and the magic lamp ends with Aladdin living
“happily even after” with his princess and his magic
lamp. But one hot summer’s day, Aladdin, while on a
tour of the Arabian Desert suffered sunstroke. He
summoned the genie of the magic lamp and issued

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command “Take the Sun apart and distribute its bits
and pieces far and wide so that it is completely
destroyed”. Genie started chipping off bits and pieces
from the surface of the Sun. He has to work against
the force of gravity ( ), where G is the gravitational
constant; M is mass and R is radius). Aladdin began to
have a second thought. He realized how essential the
Sun was to the inhabitants of the Earth, including
himself. So, while the genie was in the process of
completing the job, Aladdin issued his next command:
“Put all the bits of the Sun back together”. The poor
genie went back to execute the command. However,
this time, to bring all the constituents of the Sun
together, the genie no longer had to work against the
gravity. In fact, while the genie had been temporarily
called away by Aladdin to issue his second command,
the bits and pieces left in space by the genie had
already began to fall back together. Self gravity, which
had been a opposing force for the first job, had now
turned into an ally. And to put the Sun back together,
the genie had to do no work. Instead, the amount of
work, which the genie had earlier expended on the first
job against the force of self gravity, would now be
done by the force of self gravity to put the Sun back
together (illustration 1). So from the imaginary story
above it is clear that the self gravity is the natural
inward compressive force having potential energy for
which genie had nothing to do to put sun in position.
We will demonstrate how self gravity would be the
binding force not only at organism level but even at
macromolecular level.

2.
How self-gravity
could be strong at
miniature scale?
Gravity is the invisible building block of the universe.
Among the basic forces (nuclear, electro-magnetic &
gravity), gravity acts on ‘mass as action at-a-distance’.
Living organism without "mass" cannot be imagined.
So effect of gravity in living mass cannot be ignored.
Biology starts in the particle hierarchy in
non-Newtonian state, with accumulation of
‘macromolecular mass’ at organelles or cell level3,4,9 (
Illustration 2). The particle hierarchy shows sub-atom,
atom, molecule, compound, organelles, cells, tissue,
organ, organ system, and organism. Here we are to
compare vital question on presence of competitive
forces like electromagnetic, nuclear and elastic forces
that could act as binding force at miniature scale. Both
gravity and electromagnetism obey the inverse-square
law, i.e. their strength declines by the square of the

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distance between interacting systems. In other
respects, however, they seem to be very different. For
instance, the gravitational force between two electrons
is 42 orders of magnitude (1042) weaker than their
electrical repulsion. The reason electromagnetic forces
do not completely overwhelm gravity in the world
around us is that most things are composed of an
equal amount of positive and negative electric charges
whose forces cancel each other out. Whereas electric
and magnetic forces are clearly bipolar, gravity is
generally assumed to be always attractive so that no
analogous cancellations occur. Gravity works on
mass without any time frame, as if relatively constant
like physical structure of a house. Electromagnetic
force works on ‘charges’ in time bound manner, as if a
relatively variable like an electric bulb based on off and
on switch. All time supremacy of self gravity on mass
as potential energy therefore cannot be ignored.

On the other hand, theoretical calculation shows that
exertion of gravitational forces which follows inverse
square law gets increased from 0.0007 to 6.6726
dynes when quantity in two masses increase from 10-4
to 10-2 grams under same separation distance of 10-6
centimeter (Illustration 3 Table 1). Similarly when
separation distance is decreased from 10-6 centimeter
to 10-10centimeter for the same two masses of 10-4
grams each, the gravitational force is increased from
0.0007 to 66,726 dyne (Illustration 4 Table 2).
Sizes of some biomass are mentioned below for ready
reference. A prokaryotic cell of E.coli is about 2 µm or
2x10-6 m long, 1 µm wide, diameter 0.8 µm, wet weight
1x10 -15 kg or 1x10 -12 g, dry weight 3.0x10 -16 kg or
3.0x10-13 g. Viruses range in between 30 to 300 nm or
300 to 3000 A0 in size. The protein comprising a prion
has a molecular weight between 50,000 to 100,000,
corresponding to a particle size that is 100 times
smaller than the smallest virus. Micoplasmas range in
size (diameter) from 0.25 to 0.1 µm. Even with such
miniature size, force of gravity cannot become extinct.
With higher density of mass, gravitational potential
energy gets increase. Interestingly living matter, unlike
non-living, has got two categories of metabolism,
anabolism that builds up mass and catabolism that
breaks down mass of carbohydrates. Gravitational
binding energy works on mass as potential energy
whereas kinetic energy is created from such mass.
The total human body content of ATP is about 50
grams, which must be constantly recycled every day.
The average daily intake of 2,500 food calories
translates into a turnover of a whopping 180 kg of ATP.
With breakdown of mass through catabolism, there
would be a variation in the kinetic energy at an instant.

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It is a continuous process. When contacting surfaces
move relative to each other due to potential and kinetic
energy, a pressure is developed out of friction with
rising of temperature. Researchers have found that
basal metabolic rate (BMR) or amount of energy
expended for an organism is proportional to Mass 2/3 to
¾. There is a strong relation of mass with gravitational
energy and metabolic rate in living organism. This is a
major gap area of investigation in life science to
correlate potential gravitational energy and metabolic
kinetic energy from the same amount of mass.
1. 3.
How binding action of self gravity could be
a reckonable force in biomass?
Gravity is customarily considered as long distance
force acting on massive body. But in fact, biology
starts in non-Newtonian state as soft condensed
matter in which the viscosity changes with the applied
shear stress. Unlike fluid (say, water) which could
return back to its original position after withdrawal of
stress, soft matter displays a range of fascinating
generic properties such as ability to ‘self assemble’
into complex structures, a large number of internal
degrees of freedom, weak interactions between
structural elements, and a large thermal fluctuations at
room temperature, a wide variety of forms, sensitivity
of equilibrium structures under metastable states to
external conditions. The Newton’s inverse-square law
would be valid if there is no additional dimension.
However, if there are two additional dimensions, the
dependence of the gravitational force would change
from 1/r2 to 1/r4, or the gravitational potential could
take the following form (Illustration 49 Equation 1 and
2):
If dividing by 1/r2 is a small number, dividing by 1/r4
(twice of 1/r 2 ) can make the corresponding
gravitational force much stronger5,6.
On the other hand, gravitational binding energy of an
object consists of the amount of energy required to
pull all of the matters apart including amount of energy
that is liberated in the form of rising temperature
during the accretion of matters. The gravitational
binding energy of a system is equal to the negative of
the total gravitational potential energy, considering the
system as a set of small particles. For a
spherical mass of uniform density, the gravitational
binding energy U is given by the formula7,8 (Illustration
49 Equation 3):

where G is the gravitational constant, M is the mass of
the sphere, and r is its radius. But radial density
gradients (ρ) of biological mass are not uniform.

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Normally there is lower density at the surfaces and
comparatively higher density in the inner parts
including compressed cores or nucleus, which we will
mention subsequently. This needs to be evaluated
with appropriate data. Therefore ignoring intrinsic
gravity in living organism, as negligible force, is difficult
under the present scenario. Gravity is not an instant
force like others. Its manifestation is visible only at the
later stage as an everlasting force.

Seclusion Maintains Self
Gravity Free fall Condition
1. 4.
Mechanism of seclusion from extrinsic
gravity
Arguments came from physicists that stronger earth's
gravity would swamp the intrinsic gravity of small
biomass. But moon, being self gravitating body could
retain its identity on seclusion even being swamped by
the gravitational field of the earth, solar system or the
universe. On close examination, clue can be found on
seclusion for intrinsic gravity from extrinsic gravity. An
egg floats on saline water, on working against earth's
gravity, due to buoyant force (Illustration 5a).
Buoyancy acts against the force of gravity and so
makes objects seem lighter with respect to gravity. To
represent this effect, which is important for
sedimentation, it is common to define a buoyant mass
mb that represents the effective mass of the object with
respect to gravity (Illustration 49 Equation 4)
where mobject is the true (vacuum) mass of the object,
whereas ρobject and ρfluid are the average densities of
the object and the surrounding fluid, respectively. Thus,
if the two densities are equal, ρobject = ρfluid, the object
appears to be weightless. If the fluid density is greater
than the average density of the object, the object floats;
if less, the object sinks. Various ionic fluids including
amniotic fluid secludes macromolecules or fetuses
from earth’s gravity9,10,11 (Illustration 5b,5c). Fetuses
develop on seclusion in near-weightless environment
of mothers' wombs. During the last trimester, it turns
upside-down with head-lower condition.
1. 5.

provide structural support for seclusion to the
macromolecules or organisms with density-gradient
buoyant force against extrinsic gravitational attraction
for the biological mass.

Let self-gravitating biomass/ embryo, being powered
by metabolic energy (ME) be in the accelerated
reference frame, manifesting its physiological and
genetic functionality.
‘Metabolically Inert
Infrastructure (MII)’ placed in the co-moving
non-accelerated reference frame that are relatively
stationary or at constant velocity, or non-aligned or
acting in opposite direction of the energized
accelerated self gravitating biomass or of the steady
state supporting inertial reference frame at the
specific point of time13,14,15 (Illustration 6) .

The situation is similar to children playing ball within a
compartment of a running train. Here ball is in the
accelerated reference frame and compartment is in
the non-accelerated reference frame which is pivoted
through wheels over inertial reference frame of the
ground earth (Illustration 7a, b). While playing, children
cannot distinguish whether they are playing in the
running compartment of train or in the stationary
ground. In a moving but non-accelerating frame, the
ball behaves normally because the train and its
contents continue to move at a constant velocity.
Before being dropped, the ball was traveling with the
train at the same speed, and the ball's inertia ensured
that it continued to move in the same speed and
direction as the train, even while dropping. In fact it is
inertia which ensured that, not its mass. Therefore if a
given mass does not have the opportunity to interact
with the surrounding forces, it would continue to act
independently. The manifestation of various biological
phenomena can be considered on the ‘principle of
equivalence’16. Gravitational force field is a central field;
the gravitational forces are directed toward the centre
of the gravitating mass. These forces decrease in
proportion to the square of the distance. Therefore self
gravitating tiny biological mass under seclusion or
near weightless condition can act in independent
manner on the ‘principle of equivalence’ of larger mass.

Relative three tier reference frame

Spaargaren (1994) coined the term ‘metabolically inert
infrastructure’ (MII) 12 that consists of total body mass
(body water, dissolved substances, mineral and
organic deposits) and serves as storage of nutrients,
transport and distribution of these materials. To act
independently as living body, we propose that MII

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1. 6.
Buoyant like force maintain self gravity’s
free fall condition

We consider self gravity, central attracting force acting
on mass under free fall condition. A membrane bound
living cell has three-dimensional region composed of

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cytoplasmic matrix and other organelles. Under
hydro-gravitational suspension, pressure gradient in
the ?uid is not uni-directional. Archimedes principle
estimate buoyancy on the basis of density of the solid
and the density of the ?uid and is valid only when the
pressure gradient in the ?uid is uni-directional and can
be reduced to the constant of the form ∇ p = ρg, where
ρ is the average density of the ?uid displaced by the
submerged object and g is the gravity acceleration
vector in the direction of the free fall of the object17,18.
Only then the buoyancy force F becomes equal and
opposite to the weight of the displaced ?uid W = ρgV.
For a comparatively semi-solid macromolecules
surrounded by near spherically symmetric pressure
gradients (such as a cellular nucleus suspended in
cellular interior) the estimation of the buoyancy force
must include explicit integration of all pressure forces
that act on the entire submerged surface of that object.

The divergence theorem (also called Gauss's theorem) 19
states that the total expansion of the fluid or gas inside
some three-dimensional region W equals the total flux
of the fluid or gas out of the boundary of W. In living
cells, the definition of the divergence therefore follows
naturally by noting that, in the absence of creation or
destruction of matter, the density within a region of
space can change only by having it flow into or out of
the region. By measuring the net flux of content
passing through a surface surrounding the region of
space, it is therefore immediately possible to say how
the density of the interior has changed. This property
is fundamental in physics, where it goes by the name
"principle of continuity"20. We propose that in biology,
especially in living cell, such principles of continuity
may also operate. Divergences at a given point
describes the strength of the source or sink in the flow
of fluid or gas representing expansion (positive) or
compression (negative) of the vector field. Integrating
the field's divergence over the interior of the region
should equal the integral of the vector field over the
region's boundary. For near spherically symmetric
pressure gradients (such as a cellular nucleus
suspended in cellular interior) the estimation of the
buoyancy force must include explicit integration of all
pressure forces that act on the entire submerged
surface of that object. We will discuss the issue in
details subsequently.
As per general model detailing concept of self
gravitation bio, every living cell is compressed by
invisible force of self gravity. As stated above, in
biological particle hierarchy (atoms, molecules,
compounds, organelles, cell, tissues, organs, organs
system, organism), attractive central force of self

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gravity becomes prominent at the level of organelles
over other basic forces (viz. electromagnetic and
nuclear forces) while on seclusion. In general relativity,
gravity is not regarded as a true force, but just as the
manifestation of space-time’s geometry on the
movement of matter and energy. In cosmology, λ
(lambda - the cosmological constant) is frequently
referred to as a sort of "negative gravity"21: instead of
attractive it's repulsive, and instead of getting weaker
with distance it gets stronger. However we are not
going details of controversy over the validity of such
gravity.

1. 7.

Reduced fluid level stop metabolism

The cytosol or intracellular fluid (or cytoplasmic matrix)
is the liquid found inside cells. The entire contents of a
eukaryotic cell, minus the contents of the cell nucleus,
are referred to as the cytoplasm. Most of the cytosol is
water, which makes up about 70% of the total volume
of a typical cell 20. In eukaryotes this liquid is separated
by cell membranes from the contents of the organelles
suspended in the cytosol, such as the mitochondrial
matrix inside the mitochondrion. The entire contents of
a eukaryotic cell, minus the contents of the cell
nucleus, are referred to as the cytoplasm. In
prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of
metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take
place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. In
eukaryotes, while many metabolic pathways still occur
in the cytosol, others are contained within organelles.
The cytosol has no single function and is instead the
site of multiple cell processes. Studies in the brine
shrimp (Illustration 8) have examined how water
affects cell functions. It was found that reducing the
amount of water in a cell below 80% of the normal
level inhibits metabolism, with this decreasing
progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolism
halting at a water level about 30% of normal23. With
inadequate depth of supporting fluids, macromolecular
mass in the interior lost their gravitational seclusion
identity. Kinetic energy of metabolism failed to
overtake potential gravitational energy.
Why depth of fluid (below 80% of the normal) is
important? Density (d) is defined as the ratio of an
object's mass (m) to its volume (v): d= m/v. The
specific gravity of a substance is defined as the ratio of
the density of the substance to the density of water (1
gram/cm3). This ratio is a convenient physical property
since it has no units and is therefore independent of
the system of measure used to determine it. The

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Pascal’s law24, 25 invites the presence of entity of two
bodies; first one is to dip on the other and pressure by
it is to be applied to the enclosed liquid to express in
transmitting equally to every part of the liquid (
Illustration 9). Effect of change in height in the cytosol
or fluid column within living architecture, as in Pascal’s
law can be considered as gap areas of investigation in
terms of potential and kinetic energy of gravitation and
metabolism respectively. Is it what Harold M Franklin1
prompted to say that “of cellular morphogenesis … we
know much but understand little.”

vertical pocket of fluid is measured in each quadrant in
centimeters 31. The four pocket measurements are
then added to calculate the AFI. An AFI between 8-18
is considered normal. Median AFI level is
approximately 14 from week 20 to week 35, when the
amniotic fluid begins to reduce in preparation for birth.
An AFI < 5-6 is considered as oligohydramnios. The
exact number can vary by gestational age. The fifth
percentile for gestational age is sometimes used as a
cutoff value. An AFI > 20-24 is considered
as polyhydramnios. What is the inner purpose of AFI?

1. 8.
Neutral buoyancy can apparently reduce
the weight of living mass

1. 9.
Nanometer level free fall acceleration for
femtometer size macromolecules

Neutral buoyancy is said to be a condition in which a
physical body's density is equal to the density of the
fluid in which it is immersed. This offsets the force of
extrinsic gravity that would otherwise cause the object
to sink. An object that has neutral buoyancy will
neither sink nor rise. The actual mass of the human
brain is about 1400 grams; however, the net weight of
the brain suspended in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is
equivalent to a mass of 25 grams18 i.e. what is 56 gm
in human body will appear to be 1 gram only under
neutral buoyant condition of the brain. The brain exists
in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain
its density without being impaired by its own weight,
which would cut off blood supply and kill neurons in
the lower sections without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)26.
We know what is 6 kg on earth is 1 kg weight at moon.
When a person arrives at moon, he will be acting as
per external gravitational force of the moon and not as
per that of earth. Accordingly a person when reaches
moon feels lighter. A normal weight of a human child
at birth is say 3200 gm on earth but at moon its weight
would be 531 gm.
Amniotic fluid index (AFI) is a rough estimate of the
amount of amniotic fluid27 and is an index for the fetal
well-being. It is a part of the biophysical profile (
Illustration 10). AFI is the score (expressed in cm)
given to the amount of amniotic fluid seen on pregnant
uterus and calculated by a ultrasonograph To
determine the AFI, doctors may use a four-quadrant
technique 28, 29 , when the deepest, unobstructed,
vertical length of each pocket of fluid is measured in
each quadrant and then added up to the others, or the
so called "single deepest pocket" technique30. The
linea nigra is used to divide the uterus into right and
left halves. The umbilicus serves as the dividing point
for the upper and lower halves. The transducer is kept
parallel to the patient’s longitudinal axis and
perpendicular to the floor. The deepest, unobstructed,

WebmedCentral > My opinion

Under secluded gravitating environment, nanometer
level free fall acceleration would be a tremendous
force for femtometer size macromolecules. Let us
interpolate and visualize the phenomena with some
superimposed data. Literature on neutral buoyant
force of amniotic fluid and utero as well as ex utero
measurements is scanty. Let us concentrate our
attention to the works of Junwu Mu et al32 who made in
vivo quantification of embryonic and placental growth
during gestation in mice using micro-ultrasound and
pair-wise comparisons of in utero and ex utero
measurements. They reported that when gestational
age of mice reaches 16.5 days, the non-invasive
predictive body weight remains to 0.792 gm in average.
The crown-rump length (CRL) and abdominal
circumference (AC) was reported to be the function of
gestation age (Illustration 11). The CRL and AC
remain to be 16.22 mm and 23.4 mm respectively at
that growth stage of mice. The average radius of the
fetus can thus be considered to be roughly 9.9 mm.
Let us extend theoretically the fetal weight floating
over amniotic fluid on the same principle of loss of
brain weight in cerebrospinal fluid. Ignoring difference
in the value of neutral buoyancy in cerebrospinal and
amniotic fluids, due to differential presence of salt and
other matters, the neutral buoyant weight of mice
embryo of 0.792 gm would appear to be 0.014gm.
The acceleration due to gravity on earth is about 9.8
m/s2, whereas at moon it is 1.62 m/s2. However, if we
calculate acceleration due to (self) gravity in 0.792
gram at 16 days of gestational age of mice with radius
9.9 mm, separated by neutral buoyant force, as
provided by Junwu Mu et al[27], using standard formula
g(s)= GM/R2, it comes to be about 5x10-9 m/s2. That is
free fall acceleration to the tune of 5 nanometer per
second square in a massive body of the planet may be
negligible, but in an isolated living mass of the size 9.9
femtometer (9.9x10-12 meter), acceleration of 5 nm/s2
is quite a significant force.

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Soccer is being played by all ages. Age wise, playing
standard, materials, circumference or weight of ball
may differ. For youth/adult, ball may be of leather
having 70 cm circumference and 450 gram weight. For
high school level students, circumference and weight
of the ball may be reduced to 62 cm and 396 gram
respectively. For kids, weight could be less than 100
grams. Everyone will play as per individual capabilities
(Illustration 12). Similarly action of self gravity on earth
can result an apple to fall on earth, or that of moon can
cause a person to move easily when at moon.
Similarly free fall acceleration at nanometer level
would be tremendous for protein, fat or any
macromolecule of femtometer size and should not be
overlooked in tiny fetal body within its self gravitating
mass. As such importance of operation of neutral
buoyancy at cytosol or intracellular fluid (or
cytoplasmic matrix) at cell level or amniotic fluid at
mammalian level as mechanism for buffering pad to
maintain self gravity’s free fall condition is difficult to
ignore.
1. 10.
Buffering action through repelling
electrostatic force
Lipid bilayer is a universal component of all cell
membranes (earlier it was designated as cell surface
coat). The structure is called a "lipid bilayer" because it
composed of two layers of fatty acids organized in two
sheets. The lipid bilayer is typically about five
nanometers to ten nanometers thick and surrounds all
cells providing the cell membrane structure. With the
hydrophobic tails of each individual sheet interacting
with one another, a hydrophobic interior is formed and
this acts as a permeability barrier 33. The hydrophilic
head groups interact with the aqueous medium on
both sides of the bilayer. The two opposing sheets are
also known as leaflets. Due to electrostatic force,
these double bonds inhibit "packing" of the molecules
(in solids). Therefore in limited manner, the lipid
bilayer may act as cushion or buffering pad for
separation between gravity barriers of two gravitating
bodies (self gravity and extrinsic gravity) under
simultaneous operation and thereby possibly provides
opportunity for secluded environment towards
unhindered action of the self gravity.

1. 11.
Metabolically inert infrastructure (MII) as
cell’s seclusion environment

coined the term ‘metabolically inert infrastructure’ (MII)12
to describe liquids in the cell. In unicellular organisms,
cell’s environment- viz. a substratum beneath it, a
liquid medium around it and neighboring cells beside it;
whereas in multicellular organisms, aggregation of
cells and tissues with sufficient intra and extra-cellular
matrix in totality affect ‘life’, due to co-moving
non-accelerated position of the metabolically inert
infrastructure (MII) that are relatively stationary or at
constant velocity, or non-aligned or acting in opposite
direction of the energized accelerated self gravitating
biomass or of the steady state supporting inertial
reference frame at the specific point of time. Thus MII
seems to play anti (self) gravitational role. Without MII
support death occurs (Illustration 13).
We propose few more examples of metabolically inert
infrastructure, the exact role of which is so far not
specified in life science. Algae, for instance, cannot
multiply unless they get an adequate depth of liquid
media. Bacteria cannot survive outside the cultural
media. Virus cannot survive without the support of any
living host. Transfer a gene from one chromosome to
other is to be carried through plasmid or
bacteriophage which is said to act as vehicle. In
biotechnologies, an enzyme is to be coated in a porus
gel or fixed to a solid support which acts as media.
Similarly solid support that contains substance usually
a gel such as agar embedded in it for bacteria and
yeast, nutrient broth (liquid nutrient medium) or Luria
Bertani medium (LB medium or Lysogeny Broth);
extracellular matrix components ; calf serum;
suspension cultures; polyacrylamide gels, collagen
gels, and basement membrane gels at cell–substrate
interface for glioblastoma; organotypic cultures; etc
are some other examples that appears to maintain
invisible separation between self gravity and mutual
gravity or seclusion environment for self gravity.
Intravenous drip of ‘isotonic saline’ to an ailing patient
seems not only corrects disturbances in water and
electrolytic balance but also provides in limited manner
buoyancy force to various life supporting organs or
systems against gravitational pressure. Mucilaginous
jelly which surrounds the embryo in amphibians such
as frogs, toads as well as in insects possibly acts in a
similar way. Hence it can be said that role of metabolic
inert infrastructure towards keeping secluded condition
for operation of self gravity is a vital gap area of
investigation in biological science.
1. 12.
Behavior of living mass under different
types of medium

Cytoplasm is composed mainly of water and also
contains enzymes, salts, organelles, and various
organic molecules. As stated earlier Spaargaren (1994)

WebmedCentral > My opinion

It is to be remembered that fluids play an important

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role towards buoyant like physical force that separate
self gravitating biomass in living body from the
surrounding inertial gravitational forces, else which
might perturb the action of self gravity. In addition to
cytoplasmic and other fluid matrix in living cells,
human body contains various fluids like blood plasma,
lymphatic fluid, interstitial fluid, viscous fluid of mucus,
saliva, gastric juice, cerebrospinal fluid, sweat, tears,
the aqueous and vitreous humors of the eye, semen,
vaginal secretions, amniotic fluids etc. The
composition, density and depth of each fluid differ
affecting operational buoyant force. For instance, brain
exists in neutral buoyancy. The actual mass of the
human brain is about 1400 grams; however, the net
weight of the brain suspended in the CSF under
neutral buoyancy is equivalent to a mass of 25 grams.
Similarly blood cells are suspended in a fluid called
blood plasma, which is mainly composed of water and
a mixture of other dissolved substances, or solutes
apart from hormones, vitamins, amino acids, and
antibodies. Blood plasma has a density of
approximately 1.025 kg/l. In comparison to plasma,
glucose in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is diminished by
about 80%. It is a gap area of investigation that how
far disturbance in operational buoyant force can
perturb various activities of life processes.

Cells traditionally have been studied in two dimensions
(2-D) in a petri dish, but certain cells behave differently
in three dimensions than in two. Size and shape of
the cell depend on the external biophysical forces.
Cells exposed to microgravity include more rounding,
loss of gravity-dependent convection, negligible
hydro-dynamic shear and lack of sedimentation34. MIT
bioengineers 35 have provided pictures that show
normal and diseased cartilage cells which are
organized differently in normal and diseased cartilage
and 3-D cell clusters of same normal and diseased
cartilage precisely re-created in a tissue like gel
compared to cells in a conventional 2-D petri dish (I
llustration 14). External biophysical force is to be
examined critically for specifying behavior of the living
mass on it, especially gravitating environment towards
maintaining seclusion.

1. 13. Importance of medium vis-à-vis
unperturbed self gravity

We have assumed that self-gravitating biomass/
embryo is in the accelerated reference frame,
manifesting its physiological and genetic functionality.

WebmedCentral > My opinion

The “Metabolically Inert Infrastructure (MII)? is placed
in the co-moving non- accelerated reference frame
that are relatively stationary or at constant velocity, or
non-aligned or acting in opposite direction of the
energized accelerated self gravitating biomass or of
the steady state supporting inertial reference frame at
the specific point of time. Let us see how it applies
in case of mediums required as microbial or
biotechnological analysis protocols like agarose,
polyacrylamide, silica colloidal crystal (SCC), raffinose
etc. For instance, three “blot” techniques are
utilized for detecting presence and relative
quantities of specific macromolecules (DNA, RNA,
protein) in cells viz. DNA (Southern) with agarose/
acrylamide, RNA (Northern) with agarose, and protein
(Western) with polyacrylamide. Why to be positioned
over agarose or other gel? The agarose gel is a
cross-linked matrix that is somewhat like a
three-dimensional mesh or screen 36 . When boiled
agarose cools, it forms a loose molecular net
resembling a sponge with required mechanical rigidity
in soft porous texture. The pores in the gel matrix are
filled by the liquid phase. Buoyant like force of the
liquid is thus augmented by mechanical rigidity of the
surrounding structure. Thus apart from other known
advantages, final agarose gel gets the ability to
withstand compressibility and allows the positioned
biomass to feel less stressed under concentrated
gravitational load (Illustrations 15).

In Southern blotting, for instance, after separation of
fragments according to length, a sheet of either
nitrocellulose paper or nylon paper is laid over the gel,
and the separated DNA fragments are transferred to
the sheet by blotting. The gel is supported on a layer
of sponge in a bath of alkali solution, and the buffer is
sucked through the gel and the nitrocellulose paper by
paper towels stacked on top of the nitrocellulose (I
llustration 16).

As the buffer is sucked through, it denatures the DNA
and transfers the single -stranded fragments from the
gel to the surface of the nitrocellulose sheet, where
they adhere firmly. Stress applied from own weight
and from external load is known as effective and net
stress respectively. The bulk modulus of a substance,
on the other hand, measures the substance's
resistance to uniform compression or stress. For
effective rafting, the biomass is required to be
secluded, isolated or free from stress on flotation or
through other mechanisms. Stress applied from own
weight differs among RNA, DNA and protein
fragments due to obvious reason of difference in molar

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mass and density. Also agarose gels have larger
'pores' than polyacrylamide gels meaning that it packs
less densely then an equivalent amount of
polyacrylamide. Therefore, considering variation in
packing density, agarose is generally used for the
electrophoresis of large molecules such as DNA and
RNA and polyacrylamide is used for small molecules
such as proteins. Uneven local mass distribution
causes local variation in density as well as
gravitational attraction. Accordingly choice for
seclusion is being made among various available
materials.

Evans et al37 pointed out that while cell attachment
was unaffected by the stiffness of the growth substrate,
cell spreading and cell growth were all increased as a
function of substrate stiffness and the mechanical
environment can play a role in both early and terminal
embryonic stem cells (ESC) differentiation. Ji L et all38
found that cells cultured on the substrates formed
of silica colloidal crystal (SCC) retained transcription of
stem cell and endoderm markers more similar to
undifferentiated ESCs, suggesting the substrates are
restricting differentiation, particularly towards the
endoderm lineage, compared to cells cultured on flat
glass. Additionally, five days after seeding, they
observed strikingly different colony morphology, with
cells on the SCC substrates growing in spherical
colonies approximately ten cells thick, while cells on
glass were growing in flat monolayers. Colonies on the
SCC substrates developed a central pit, which was
never observed in cells cultured on glass, and
expressed proteins related to epithelialisation.
Together, these data demonstrate the potential of
using topographical cues to control stem cell
behaviour in vitro. For smallest prion39, say ([Het-s]
prion (molecular weight of 35-36kDa) of the
filamentous fungus Podospora anserina transformants
are grown in liquid raffinose synthetic medium (SR)
plus galactose. As stated above, molar mass of
raffinose, a trisaccharide composed of galactose,
fructose, and glucose is 504.42 g/mol with density
1.723 g/cm3. Therefore it seems that medium plays a
vital role towards unperturbed action of self gravity.
For smallest prion, a protein, liquid reffinose, a
carbohydrate is sufficient to increase density of the
liquid medium and thereby provide a separation due to
pressure of up thrust from inertial gravity, where as for
DNA, RNA, larger proteins, whose molecular weight
and density is comparatively higher, mechanical prop
up support from agarose gels etc. is additionally
required. However all these are gap areas of
investigation.

WebmedCentral > My opinion

Metabolic Energy and Self
Gravity
1. 14.
Whether gravitational anchor is a
criterion for manifestation as living?

It is theorized that a single cell is difficult to survive
under natural condition without being
self-gravitationally anchored or attaining steady state
condition or under multi-assembled single cell
condition. A single cell cannot survive in isolated way,
unless it is anchored by inertia. A minimal inertial
mass is required for survival. In plant tissue culture,
unless a callus (“explants”) of say above 500 mg40 or
suspension of cultures of say, 3-4 cubic centimeter (in
terms of PCV - packed cell volume) is used, it is
difficult to maintain continuity of life and growth from
individual cells. Similarly in the final volume for cell
culture, maintaining cell density as low as 3 x 105 to
high of more than 10–15x 106 cells/ml of inoculums
are required. Why a minimum mass is required for cell
culture under multi-assembled single cell condition. Is
it for anchorage? There is a literary proverb that “A
Rolling stone gathers no moss”. This is not only a
literary proverb but based on scientific observation and
fact of the commoners.

As biomass possesses both gravity and inertia, it has
the characteristic that it can act as anchor as if entire
biomass is concentrated at the centre or at the
equilibrium point. Thus after seclusion, unless a
biomass is anchored or pivoted in a steady state
condition through the action of inertia, attainment of
accelerated condition would be difficult. This is similar
to frictional force (force resisting the relative motion of
two surfaces in contact) between feet and ground in
steady state condition required for smooth walking.
Mitochondria, a primary energy producer in the cell,
constantly change shape, i.e. it remains in motion.
Electron transport chain would be away from central
core of a self gravitating cell, as the intensity of
gravitational energy gets reduced from the core to the
periphery when it can be overpowered by electrostatic
force (Illustration 17). Therefore we can propose that
critical quantity of biomass is important for acting as
inertia upon which mechanism of self gravity can
operate i.e. further growth is possible on anchorage.

1. 15.

Energy producing organelles or sites

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located away from the centre

Normally carbohydrate is considered as main source
of energy for biological mass. One gram of
carbohydrate on oxidation in the body during
respiration gives about 17000 joules of energy,
whereas 1 gram of fat gives about 37000 joules of
energy. ATP is produced through four basic methods:
in bacterial cell walls, in the cytoplasm by
photosynthesis, in chloroplasts, and in mitochondria.
However, energy producing organelles or sites is
located generally away from the centre of self gravity
of a cell or away from the central axis of the biomass
in a reference frame at that point of time (Illustration
18).

1. 16.
Some anomalous hypothecations in
health science
We have noticed some anomalous hypothecation in
health science on describing mass or weight viz. in
describing Body Mass Index (BMI), Body Surface Area
(BSA). Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR), Resting
Metabolic Rate (RMR); Physical Activity Level (PAL),
Lean Body Mass (LBM) are the most popular
answered phenomena in life science. These are
explained in details below with the invitation for
formulating correct hypothecation in the light of self
gravitation bio.
1. 17.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Body Mass Index (BMI) or Quetelet index 41, remains a
controversial statistical measurement of health. Body
mass index is defined as the individual's body weight
divided by the square of his or her height. {BMI=
Weight (kg)/ height2 (m2)}. The WHO regards a BMI of
less than 18.5 as underweight and may indicate
malnutrition, or other health problems, while a BMI
greater than 25 is considered overweight and above
30 is considered obese 42 . BMI determine risk of
developing heart disease and other health problems
such as diabetes. BMI
As per ‘Self Gravitation Bio’, BMI is nothing but weight/
height or mass/volume = density of the body mass. It
gives indication for quantum of self gravitational
attraction, as density of the mass is important
determinant for gravitational potential energy. Age, an
influencing factor of BMI, could be taken as the
capacity to generate metabolic kinetic energy. Other
influential factors include gender and accumulation of
fat (adipose tissue) in individual body is primarily a
reflection of differences in body mass and density.

WebmedCentral > My opinion

Once presence of self gravity is resolved in individual
body, other factors can automatically be laid to rest on
meticulous study in right perspective.
1. 18.

Body Surface Area (BSA)

Weight can be a measure for gravitational force over a
mass. It cannot be a measure for ‘surface area’. But
in calculating Body Surface Area (BSA), health
specialist has to take into account of the total
gravitation force with incorrect nomenclature as
‘surface area’ as reflected in equations from (4) to (9)
below. Let us see how and why it happens. Body
Surface Area (BSA) is used to measure renal functionglomerular filtration rate (GFR), to calculate cardiac
index (cardiac output/BSA), Chemotherapy &
Glucocorticoid dosing. Body surface area (BSA) is
considered "normal”- 1.7 m², average (men) 1.9 m²,
(women) 1.6 m²; child (9 years): 1.07 m², (10 years)
1.14 m²; (12-13 years): 1.33 m²; neonate: 0.25; 2 year:
0.5 m2.
But BSA remains controversial starting in 1916 with
the Dubois & Dubois formula 43 , (I llustration 49
Equation 5)
A commonly used formula is the Mosteller formula 44,
published in 1987: (area in sq m from weight in kg and
height in cm): (Illustration 49 Equation 6)
Haycock formula (in children)
Equation 7)

45

: (Illustration 49

Gehan & George formula46 (Illustration 49 Equation 8)
Boyd's formula47: (Illustration 49 Equation 9)
National Cancer Institute (Illustration 49 Equation 10)
From the above, it is clear that there should be a
correction in our concept on body surface area with
self gravitation bio.
1. 19.

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) remains controversial for
long with no satisfactory solution at sight within
existing principles. BMR is considered as the amount
of energy expended while at rest in a neutrally
temperate environment, in the post-absorptive state
(meaning that the digestive system is inactive, which
requires about twelve hours of fasting in humans). The
release of energy in this state is sufficient only for the
functioning of the vital organs, such as the heart, lungs,
brain and the rest of the nervous system, liver, kidneys,
sex organs, muscles and skin. BMR decreases with
age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased
muscle mass can increase BMR. Aerobic fitness level,
a product of cardiovascular exercise, while previously
thought to have effect on basal or resting metabolic

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rate (RMR), has been shown in the 1990s not to
correlate with BMR. BMR is measured under very
restrictive circumstances when a person is awake, but
at complete rest. An accurate BMR measurement
requires that the person's sympathetic nervous system
not to be stimulated.
In fact, in absence of proper viewing perspective over
the definition of ‘mass’, as measure of gravitational
force, calculation of metabolic rate remains
controversial from 1880 till date. Max Rubner (1880)48
reported that mammalian BMR is proportional to Mass 2/3.
Kleiber (1932)49 supported by Brody (1945)50 modified
proportionality to Mass ¾. Several other prediction
equations also came into being. Historically most
notable was Harris-Benedict equation51, which was
created in 1919:
for men, (Illustration 49 Equation 11a)
for women, (Illustration 49 Equation 11b)
where P is total heat production at complete rest, m is
the weight, h is the stature (height), and a is the age,
and with the difference in BMR for men and women
being mainly due to differences in body weight. In fact,
we are of the opinion that mechano-structural
difference between genital organs of men and women
primarily lies mostly with the extrovert and introvert
expression respectively of the soft matter during the
formative stage, on which we are constrained to
elaborate at present except requesting for detailed
mechanical analysis on four dimensional structural
features of men and women. However for purpose of
estimation of BMR, Harris-Benedict equationwas the
best prediction equation until recently, when MD Mifflin
and ST St Jeor in 1990 52 created new equation: (
Illustration 49 Equation 12)
where s is +5 for males and −161 for female.
BMR was also attempted to be correlated with change
in life style. It was stated that during the last 100 years,
lifestyles have changed. A survey in 2005 53 showed
that it is about 5% more accurate. These formulae are
based on body weight, which does not take into
account the difference in metabolic activity between
lean body mass and body fat. A more accurate
formula is the Katch-McArdle formula54 based on lean
body mass: (Illustration 49 Equation 13)
where LBM is the lean body mass in kg.
In the mean time other issues goes on hunting life
science researchers. In both endothermic and
ectothermic animals, the normal metabolic rate is
inversely related to body size; the smaller the
organism, the higher the relative metabolic rate. While
dealing endothermic and ectothermic animals,

WebmedCentral > My opinion

naturally temperature has been brought into the
scenario. But here also what is true for endotherms is
not applicable for ectotherms. For instance,
temperature is considered as an important factor in
enzyme activity. It is speculated that as the
temperature increases up to about 40oC, the velocity
of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction increases because
the substrates collide with active sites more frequently
as the molecules move more rapidly due to thermal
agitation 55 . Because the metabolic reactions are
enzyme catalyzed, metabolic rate would be
proportional to temperature, up to the point where the
enzyme is denatured. The relationship between
metabolic rate and temperature is often expressed as
Q10, which measures the rate increase for each 10o
rise in temperature. It is contemplated that the abrupt
decline above 40o represents the point at which the
weak bonds that hold enzymes in their specific active
conformations begin to break. As a result the enzymes
become denatured and metabolic activity is severely
disrupted. Enzyme is a class of protein. We have
dealt protein denaturation with rise in temperature and
its relation with self gravity subsequently.
Inverse relationship between metabolic rate and body
size was said to be easily understood in the case of
endotherms; stating that smaller animals have a
greater surface-to-volume ratio, and consequently a
larger relative heat loss to the environment per unit
time55. To maintain a constant high body temperature
despite rapid heat loss across a body surface, a small
animal ought to oxidize food at a high rate. Because
the relative amount of food consumed and the pace of
digestion, respiration, and so on must rise with
decreasing body size, there is a lower limit on the size
of endotherms. The smallest mammals weighing only
about 4 grams are required to eat nearly their own
body weight of food every day, and can starve to
death in just a few hours if deprived of food.
In case of ectothermic animals, the same principle
does not hold. Ectotherms lose their metabolic heat to
the environment and do not normally respond to heat
loss by increased metabolism, so larger size and its
concomitant smaller surface-to-volume ratio should
actually retard heat loss somewhat, and the conserved
heat ought then to speed up metabolism. It is thought
that increasing size involves a disproportionate
increase in the mass of skeletal and other connective
tissue in animals—an alligator, for instance, requires
more inactive support structure than a salamander.
Since these tissues are relatively inactive
metabolically, the average metabolic rate per unit
weight for the organism as a whole may fall as the
proportion of these less active but necessary structural

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tissues rises55.
Larger animals have relatively slower metabolisms
than small ones. A mouse must eat about a third of its
body mass every day not to starve whereas a human
can survive only on 2%. The relationship follows a
power law: basal metabolic rate (R) is proportional to
the ¾ power of an animal's mass (M). This relationship,
the Kleiber Law49, 50, can be drawn as a straight line on
a log-log plot (Illustration 19). Mysteriously, this simple
relationship holds, from simple organisms to most
complex ones, from microbes to giant blue whales
across 18 orders of magnitude in body mass55.
To arrive at conclusion, some ambitious researchers56
proposed a concept based on analysis of circulatory
system to explain how characteristics like body size
and energy consumption differ from species to species
along fixed scales. Their scaling was based on some
small to huge animal to demonstrate mathematical
and geometric nature of networks that distribute
nutrients and carry away waste and heat. The bigger
the animal, more efficient it uses energy (Illustration 20
). Unfortunately such mathematical and geometrical
scaling concept also seems did not work in greater
context of family for living organisms.
Barbara Fischer of the theoretical population ecology
and evolution group, Biology Dept., Lund University57
however stressed on a unifying principle of ecology
with the ‘metabolic theory of ecology’. It states that
metabolism provides the fundamental constraints by
which ecological processes are governed. It suggests
that from single organism’s life-history strategies to
population dynamics and ecosystem processes at all
levels of organization could possibly be explained in
terms of constraints imposed by metabolic rate.
Now question arises, who could impose so called
‘constraints’ over metabolic rate? Universally gravity is
the known ‘culprit’ (?) which often put constraints in
our activities. As stated above, mass and metabolic
rate is inversely related. That is, ‘mass’ or in other
term ‘gravity’ itself might not allow metabolic energy to
act in unlimited manner. In one hand, part of mass
(say 2/3 to ¾ or 66 to75%) is expended towards
maintaining metabolic rate. On other hand, we know
that 100 percent of the same mass works towards
generating self gravitational potential energy. There is
thus a huge difference between kinetic (metabolic) and
potential (gravitational) energies. We are fortunate to
say that inertia of gravitational potential energy plays a
leveling ground for balancing gravity’s compressive
role on putting limitation. The metabolic energy is thus
on a tug-of-war between potential and its own kinetic
energy. When force of gravity and inertia are
balanced there will be no change of motion. With such

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balanced force, motion of the object remains
stationary i.e. net force is zero. When metabolic
energy is put at the rate of 10-12 to 10-6 kcal/hr, it can
move unicellular organisms. It would have to work
against both intrinsic and extrinsic gravity (if not
remains in secluded condition). Similarly cold blooded
animals can be in motion against self gravity and
planetary gravity, when metabolic rate is 10-8 to about
100 kcal/hr. Warm blooded animals do the same work
with metabolic rate having less than 100 to 103 kcal/hr.
Under secluded condition, some exception may occur
when due to upward force of fluid, the animal would
require less energy compared to energy requirement
of same mass in land. Thus presence of metabolic
energy can be felt taking into account both intrinsic
and extrinsic ‘gravitational force’ with resting metabolic
rate (RMR) for meeting most of the demands on
working against self gravity where as physical activity
level (PAL) could be mostly to meet demands for
working against extrinsic gravitational force. This will
be clear from the under mentioned discussions.
Take an example on movement of human thoracic
diaphragm. We will discuss subsequently the origin of
its dome shape arc structure, the issue of maintaining
constant angle between radius from the common
centre and tangents (over intercepted arc). Here
potential energy of self gravity contracts its dome
shape structure. The inertia attempts to bring back
contracting surface to original position. Kinetic energy
of metabolism works against it, thereby, allowing the
dome shape structure to relax. Unbalanced forces
causes change in motion in a curved surface in
speeding up and slowing down (Illustration 21).
Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is therefore primarily
involved in such internal activity against self gravity.
On the other hand, raising a ball through a height
above earth’s surface by hand involves metabolic
kinetic energy against potential energy of earth’s
gravity and invites spending metabolic energy as per
physical activity level (PAL) on contracting and
relaxing muscles (Illustration 22).
Thus understanding distribution of metabolic energy to
work against self gravity and planetary gravity, role of
potential and kinetic energy including inertia is a major
gap area of investigation in life science. It would not
only clear all ambiguity towards basal metabolic rate
(BMR) but also serve as a precursor of various new
researches in biological science including health of
human, animal, plant and microbes.

Centre of self Gravity

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Why central position is vital?

The central position in a gravitating system would be
as if the entire mass in the sphere of influence would
have been concentrated at that point, a distinguishable
features of gravitational force from other basic forces
viz. electromagnetic forces or any other local forces
like surface tension, elastic forces etc. (Illustration 23)
.

1. 21.
Why nucleoid, nucleolis or nucleus tend
to remain in central position?

Why nucleoid in prokaryote and nucleolis or nucleus in
eukaryote, all which are made of swarm of
macromolecules and little denser in the spatial
distribution than the surrounding cytoplasmic matrix,
attempt to remain in central position of the cell? (
Illustration 24)

1. 22.
Generation of ‘muscle tone’ remains
elusive in human physiology
Muscle tone or background tensions remain elusive in
human physiology. In the book “Fundamentals of
Neurophysiology” Robert F. Schmidt pointed out that
“Summation of the twitches of many fibers, excited
asynchronously at low frequencies up to 5/second,
generates a total force that does not fluctuate very
much, with amplitude that must be approximately
proportional to the average frequency of excitation.
The ‘background’ tension produced in this way by
summation of the twitches of many fibers is called tone.
All the muscles in a living organism possess such tone.
Even in a relaxed limb, the motor nerves are activated
at low frequency.” Gray’s Anatomy empirically denies
existence of muscle tone, as it doesn’t show up on an
electromyography. But Gray’s anatomy admitted that
an electromyograph can’t pick up low level,
steady-state action unless the motor units immediately
adjacent to the contact are firing. It just reads as
background noise. Other authors postulate that there
is an inherent elasticity in the muscles, and still others
talk about muscle tone but don’t have a clear picture of
what it is. Interestingly no one denies existence of
static and balanced. It is stated that tone works 24
hours a day. What force would make it functional
continuously? The nerve impulse is primarily an
electrical event. Each neuron is like a tiny biological
battery ready to be discharged. It requires to be
charged constantly. As life process starts with
accumulation of mass, upon which force of gravity

WebmedCentral > My opinion

naturally works for 24 hours without any external
inputs. Can it be responsible for subtle tone in a body?
Let us examine the issue in little details.
1. 23.
‘Build-up’ & ‘break-down’ mechanisms in
living mass
There are two inverse-square central forces such as
the gravitational or electrostatic potential. Gravitational
fields have the same range as electromagnetic fields.
The gravitational field is much weaker than the
electromagnetic field. The positive and negative
charges of the electromagnetic field tend to
compensate each other's fields. But masses are not
compensated for which gravitational force cannot be
compensated. However notice to gravitational force
gets evaded. But when there could be a difference in
the quantity of mass within a span of time,
manifestation in the variation of gravitational binding
energy58 according to gravitational mass would be
spectacular. Let us note that non-living objects have
got no ‘build-up’ and ‘break-down’ mechanisms of
carbohydrates in mass. It is static mass. In living
objects, on the other hand, there is change of mass
through ‘build-up’ and ‘break-down’ mechanism of
carbohydrates59. It is a unique character that operates
in regular manner in all living objects. Photosynthesis
and respiration are two alternate processes in plants
wherein photosynthesis means gain (‘build-up’) in
biomass whereas carbohydrates expended during
respiration and growth is loss (‘break-down’) of mass
per unit area. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) plays a
central role in ‘build-up’ and ‘break-down’ mechanism
process of mass in all living organisms. Thus it can be
seen that in non-living matter, mass remains constant
whereas in living matters quantity of mass in the form
body weight and composition (density) gets changed
with the changes in the state of energy in the form of
biochemical products and with the gain or release of
temperature.
1. 24.
Spectacular action of self gravity in
muscle tone while living and not when dead
Now let us see what would happen if there is loss and
gain in living mass along with time in a self gravitating
environment. The change in mass in a membrane
bound self gravitating close structured living objects
would cause change in gravitational binding energy
resulting into a source of potential energy as well as
inertia. Metabolic energy primarily acts as source of
kinetic energy. This would create a tension within the
mass say, in the muscles fibers, vessels etc. making
these lengthened followed by shortened, or tight
followed by loose, or stretched followed by slack, or

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firm followed by flaccid, rigid or tautness followed by
flexible and so on, as per location and structural
anatomy of the particular vessel or muscle. This
alternate movement might manifest as beats, or
excited asynchronously at low frequencies in addition
to increase or decrease in potential gravitational
compression and kinetic relaxation energy due to
inertia plus metabolic energy. Such variation in the
internal pressure due to variation in potential and
kinetic energy might be the source of power for giving
non-neural background tension or tone to the body.
However this would be an interesting area of research
for biophysicists.
1. 25.
There is no complete loss of tone during
paralysis
Let us cite few examples below to show how
generation of muscle tone or background tension
remains an elusive till date. Paralysis is the loss or
impairment of motor function in a part due to a lesion
of the neural or muscular mechanism. Paralysis is
most often caused by damage in the nervous system,
especially the spinal cord. It takes about
one-thousandth of a second for a neuron to fire an
impulse and return to its resting level. Both
sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons have a
constant rate of firing under normal conditions. This is
also called their "tone", but of neural origin. It
maintains the normal rate of heartbeat, keeps blood
pressure within a normal range and maintain
homeostasis. Of course, the sympathetic and
parasympathetic firing rate changes greatly during
fight-or-flight responses. Paralyzed muscle may be
flaccid, flabby, and without appreciable tone, or it may
be spastic, tight, and with abnormally high tone that
increases when the muscle is moved. But most
interesting fact is that there is no complete loss of
background tone during paralysis. Complete loss of
tone is only available with death.
1. 26.
Tone is lost after death during pallor
mortis and not while living
As per Law of Laplac60, (Illustration 49 Equation 14)
where T= ‘wall tension’, p = pressure, r = radius, t =
wall thickness. For a given pressure, increased radius
requires increased wall thickness to accommodate a
stable ‘wall tension’; also, increased pressure requires
increased thickness to maintain a stable ‘wall tension’.
The Law of Laplace explains various phenomena
encountered in the pathology of vascular or
gastrointestinal walls. The ‘wall tension’ is said to
represent the muscular tension on the wall of the
vessel. But how far it is true? Who controls the ‘wall

WebmedCentral > My opinion

tension’ is not yet meticulously studied taking into
account the presence of self gravity. Break down of
‘wall tension’ is conspicuous only after death. We will
discuss the issue in subsequent paragraphs.
Generally the tone is said to be ‘regulated’ (decreased
or increased) by virtue of sympathetic and
parasympathetic supply. The autonomic nervous
system (ANS) operates without conscious control,
relying upon reflex arcs that are dependent upon
hypothalamus and medulla for overriding control.
Autonomic nerve fibers innervate cardiac muscle,
smooth muscle, and glands. Through these fibers the
ANS said to play a role in regulating blood pressure
and flow, gastrointestinal movements and secretions,
body temperature, bronchial dilation, blood glucose
levels, metabolism, micturition and defecation,
pupillary light and accommodation reflexes, and
glandular secretions, just to name a few. A mechanical
engineer will however view in different angle to
unearth the word ‘regulation’.
For instance, geared elevator system (lift) works on a
number of engineering principles. Electric motor turns
the gear that rotates the sheave. A sheave is just a
pulley with grooves around the circumference.
Sheave grips the hoist ropes which are connected to
counterweight (Illustration 25 left). It is therefore
technically wrong to say, elevator is regulated by
electrical force. It only regulates gear. Similarly it is
incorrect to say that nervous system regulates various
human physical activities. Electrostatic nervous
system cannot have ‘load’ or ‘weight’ bearing capacity.
It can at best act as trigger to propel a part of the
mechanical system for lifting of load. It is therefore
advisable to understand the mechanical system as a
whole to ascertain ‘cause-effect’ relations in life
science in better manner. Correspondingly a rescuer
can easily drag a drowning person in water by holding
his hair or bathing suit. But same thing is not possible
in terrestrial environment (Illustration 25 right). Reason
is obvious.
Now let us return back to our original contention.
Within minutes of the heart stopping, a process called
pallor mortis61, blood drains from the smaller veins in
the skin. That is its original background tone is lost.
Therefore question arises why tone is lost after
heart-beating death62, 63 during pallor mortis and not
while living? Why nerve impulse fails to act when
clinically dead. Loss of tone is related to potential and
kinetic energy of mass. This small difference in the
pathology of paralysis and death needs thorough
investigation.
1. 27.

Intrinsic muscle tone is constantly

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maintained when living but loose after death
We see that intrinsic muscle tone is maintained for 24
hours when living. After death, intrinsic muscle tone is
lost. For example, due to the tone in the longitudinal
muscle bundles in the gut, the length of the small
intestine remains at half while living. After death gut
length becomes double, say about 24 ft. During
paralysis such an event is rare. At the moment of
death, all of the muscles in the body relax, a state
called primary flaccidity. Eyelids lose their tension, the
pupils dilate, the jaw might fall open, and the body's
joints and limbs are flexible. With the loss of tension in
the muscles, the skin will sag, which can cause
prominent joints and bones in the body, such as the
jaw or hips, to become pronounced.
1. 28.
Edema occurs in lowers or dependant
parts of the body after death
After 2 to 6 hours of death, external gravity begins to
pull blood to the areas of the body closest to the
ground, a process called livor mortis. Hypostasis or
settling of blood and the dependent edema i.e. fluids in
lower or dependent parts of an organ or body occurs
after death. Why downward pull towards external
direction? Why such severe manifestation of earth’s
gravity is not pronounced while living? In fact while
living, full tone could be maintained when there is a
balance between potential energy of self gravity and
kinetic energy of metabolism within self gravitating
environment. But with loss of such equilibrium,
extrinsic (earth’s) gravity could pull down fluids, blood
in the direction of stronger external gravity, as
described above and the organism behaves as inert
on losing its tone (Illustration 26).
1. 29. Intuitive model on generation of
‘background tone’
Muscle tone 64 is usually defined as the amount of
contraction in a resting muscle. It is a static, balanced,
isometric contraction between agonist and antagonist
(both internal forces) in every muscle in the body. It
never lets go completely, even in sleep, when all
dynamic muscle activity is gone. It operates when one
does nothing. Muscle-building exercise elevates tone,
can even slam it up considerably, but at whatever level
the involvement of contraction, tone still remains static
and constant at any given time.
It is argued that between cardiac and flat muscles, flat
muscles resist becoming hypertonic. They can’t
squeeze off their veins so they can’t encapsulate lactic
acid. Cardiac muscle is non-spastic because it can
burn lactic acid. However exhalation and inhalation

WebmedCentral > My opinion

mechanism is based on thin dome-shaped sheet of
muscle of the thoracic diaphragm which is said to be
controlled by phrenic nerve. It is to be remembered
that electrostatic nervous system can regulate
physiological process but when the question of
bearing certain ‘load’, its controlling role would be
limited. Therefore unless a mechanism similar to
pneumatic system operates, simple nerve impulse
cannot control movement of load. This is a gross
oversight in life science.
Thoracic diaphragm is kidney shaped in outline and
has the ability to contract from its edges towards its
centre. Its centre lies horizontally across the body
dividing the trunk into two compartments: the thorax
(the chest) and the abdomen (the belly). The thorax
contains the heart and lungs while the abdomen
contains the organs of digestion. Geometrically dome
shaped structure is an intercepted arc, centre point of
which is coinciding somewhere in the imaginary centre
of self gravity as per human architecture. Potential
energy (compressive) of self gravity contracts the
dome shape structure. Kinetic energy decompresses,
thereby allowing the dome shape structure to relax.
While undertaking both contracting and relaxed
condition, it is maintaining a constant angle between
radius from the common centre and tangents (from
intercepted arc), as shown in left side of the illustration
(Illustration 27). Similarly, if tangents are drawn on the
circumference (intercepted arc) of the balloon like
inflated heart, these will also form constant angles with
the radius from the centre of the structure during
embryonic stage 65 . The alternate ‘half-bulging’
structure in the muscles is available around skeleton in
the periphery on one side of a joint and end via a
tendon or ligament on another side of the joint,
functioned by sympathetic and parasympathetic
nerves. If tangents are drawn over such alternate
‘half-bulging’ intercepted arc, there also constant
angles can be seen between tangent and radius
drawn from central position, as shown in the middle of
the illustration (Illustration 27). Thus it is apparent that
the basic geometrical structure of different organs/
mechanisms in human coincides with the centre and
related features of potential energy of self gravity (U =
mgh) and kinetic energy (E k = ½ mv 2 ) against it.
Manifestation of background low frequency ‘muscle
tone’ is the interaction between self gravitational
binding (potential) energy and metabolic (kinetic)
energy against potential energy. Hence self
gravitational potential energy balance66, 67 needs to be
worked out in human axisymmetric con?guration
structured under stratified density of soft matter or
fluids where viscous forces may play to create
divergent geometry at early stage of formation.

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Under equilibrium condition between potential and
kinetic energy, muscle tone would remain static and
balanced from centre to periphery. Under
non-equilibrium condition, especially due to
disproportionate build-up of mass, self gravitational
tone or background tension would increase from
periphery to the centre, leading to various collapse in
living mechanism. The close relation between obesity
and cardiometabolic syndrome 68, 69 may be cited as an
example. Thus we find that “balance is the law of life”,
though we are to move with unbalanced potential
energy with the kinetic energy.

1. 30. Abundance of logarithmic spiral in nature
vis-à-vis self gravitating phenomena
It is interesting to note that gravitational waves works
like water, sound and electromagnetic waves and is
able to carry energy, momentum, and angular
momentum from their sources. Very low frequency
waves may be impossible to detect but it seems that
there is some indirect evidence for its existence. For
instance logarithmic spiral 70 is also known as the
growth spiral, equiangular spiral or spira mirabilis. The
length of the radius goes on increasing with the shell.
The logarithmic spiral has the unique property of
maintaining a constant angle between the radius and
the tangent at any point on the curve (Illustration 28).
This spiral is related to Fibonacci numbers, golden
ratio, or golden spiral in snails, snakes and others.
Unless mechanism of potential energy of self gravity
versus kinetic energy of metabolism is not brought into
the scenario, formation of logarithmic spirals in nature
will continue to remain elusive.
1. 31. Human average body frequency
Various persons viz. Bruce Tainio, Dr. Royal R. Rife,
Nikola Tesla, Dr. Robert O. Becker had stated to have
built frequency generator, frequency monitor and
claimed71 to have found that in a healthy body average
frequency is 62-72 Hz . When the frequency drops, the
immune system is said to be compromised. We do not
like to comment in favor or against such claim. Rather
we suggest that under strict scientific procedure a
thorough investigation could be made. Earlier people
were conversant with the frequencies of the electrical
and magnetic forces. So their analyses were reflected
in their thinking. Now when there is a possibility of
generating frequency due to inward breakdown and
outward buildup mechanisms with the force of self
gravity, the matter may be reinvestigated. It is to
remember that angular velocity, angular frequency and
hertz all have the dimensions of 1/s, angular velocity

WebmedCentral > My opinion

and angular frequency are not expressed in hertz, but
rather in an appropriate angular unit such as
radians per second. Thus a disc rotating at 60
revolutions per minute (rpm) is said to be rotating at
either 2π rad/s or 1 Hz, where the former measures
the angular velocity and the latter reflects the number
of complete revolutions per second. The conversion
between a frequency f measured in hertz and an
angular velocity ω measured in radians per second are
(Illustration 49 Equation 15):

Similarly
higher
frequencies
of
the
quantum-mechanical wave functions of high-energy
are expressed in terms of equivalent quantum energy,
which is proportional to the frequency by the factor of
Planck's constant. Can we therefore think that low and
high frequency could possibly be a differential feature
between self gravitational waves and electrical waves?
(Illustration 29) Thus there is ample opportunity to
detect the frequency of gravitational waves at
mesoscopic length scale on the principle of
equivalence in tune with macroscopic and microscopic
scales.
1. 32. Body cools down on death after loss of
contraction-relaxation of self gravity
After death, the human body begins to cool down from
its normal temperature of 37° Celsius until reaching
the ambient temperature around it. Known as algor
mortis, the decrease in body temperature follows a
somewhat linear progression. Decrease in body
temperature is two degrees Celsius in the first hour;
one degree each hour thereafter. Let us see how this
situation can happen? In a self gravitating environment,
on collusion between random molecules due
contraction and relaxation mechanism through
alternate ‘build-up’ and ‘break-down’ processes of
mass, body temperature gets elevated. But when self
gravity loses such contraction and relaxation process,
the speed of corresponding molecules gets slower
with loss of mobility and resistance, resulting in fall in
body temperature with death. Thus loss of mechanism
of self gravity means motion of molecules gets rest
and random motion of molecules that endows with the
property of temperature gets die down. During
neural-regulated paralysis, temporary or permanent,
there is no such spectacular fall in body temperature.
The fall in body temperature is spectacular only after
self gravity loses its strength and gets mingled with
external gravity of the earth. Unless the mechanism of
self gravity is not brought into the life science scenario,
rise and fall in body temperature of living organisms
will remain elusive.

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1. 33. Which force regulates stretching and
relaxation during esophageal peristalsis?

1. 34. What causes channel narrowed or dilated
during trafficking?

An interesting study on the effect of earth’s gravity on
esophageal peristalsis in humans was studied72. Many
mammalian species including non-human primates
consume water in a body position not aided by earth’s
gravity and it has been conjectured that esophageal
peristalsis overcomes earth’s gravity in humans. Let
us then examine the peristaltic phenomena in the light
of self gravity. The esophageal wall is composed of
distinct layers- outer longitudinal muscles and inner
circular muscles. The function of outer longitudinally
oriented muscle layer is yet unclear72, but it is stated to
be involved in inner mucosal movement. Sequential
contraction of longitudinal muscle occurs during
peristalsis. This is stated to serve in order to shorten
the esophagus and increase the cross-sectional
diameter, thereby facilitating bolus transport. William G.
Paterson73 while reviewing the whole process pointed
out that much remains to be learned about the
physiologic control of esophageal peristalsis. At rest it
may contract in a cyclical pattern. Intracellular
recordings
have
revealed
rhythmic
depolarization-repolarization with a frequency of 2 to
3/min. The duration of contraction also appears to vary
along the esophagus. Contraction is longer distally
(away from the center of the body) than proximally
(nearer to the center of the body). The peristaltic
velocity averages about 3 cm/sec in the upper
esophagus, then accelerates to about 5 cm/sec in the
mid-esophagus, and slows again to approximately 2.5
cm/sec distally. Why such positional variation e.g.
rapid in proximally and slower in distal? Unless self
gravity which is stronger at centre and weaker at
periphery or at distal points is not brought into the
scenario, it will remain elusive in spite of presence of
myenteric plexus over the whole gut.

There are many instances of constriction and dilation
in channel movements in trafficking in both animals
and plants. But in most of the cases these are in half
way to give a complete understanding. In the plant cell
wall, for instance, plasmodesmata are channels that in
conjunction with associated phloem form an
intercellular communication network that supports the
cell-to-cell and long-distance trafficking of a wide
spectrum of endogenous proteins and
ribonucleoprotein complexes. The narrowed and
dilated route of trafficking of such macromolecules is
of importance in the orchestration of non-cell
autonomous developmental and physiological
processes. Plant viruses encode movement proteins
that subvert this communication network to facilitate
the spread of infection 74 . Macromolecules move
according to electrochemical gradient and
hydrodynamic (Stokes) radius. Plasmodesmata and
more specifically constriction and openness of
desmotubule in mesophyll cells of plants is regarded
yet an unknown function.(Illustration 31) Which
space-time bound pressure control hydrodynamic
radius at various strategic locations? This is a gap
area of investigation in the light of self gravitating
environment.

The primary origin of push-pull travel force with
alternate stretching and compression from the
peripheral to central direction can be apparently seen
in foetus position (Illustration 30). Compression and
resultant stretched force due to inertia and action of
the self gravity is apparently available from mouth to
stomach, considering a point somewhere around
stomach as the central position and mouth as well as
anus as in the periphery of the self gravitating body.
Centre being higher compressive zone, peristaltic
velocity will be higher proximally than the periphery.
Thus origin of the peristaltic movement for longitudinal
muscle with push-pull travel force can become clear
with the introduction of self gravity. However this is a
gap area of investigation.

WebmedCentral > My opinion

1. 35. Why nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is important
for health?
Hypotonic, isotonic and hypertonic solutions are used
for making cell turgid, flaccid and plasmolyzed
respectively on adjusting its volume. Therefore
volume regulation is important and vital in cellular
response under aqueous media. Tonicity of aqueous
solutions (water with solutes, such as salt, dissolved in
it) is based on cellular responses to that solution.
Solutions are hypotonic if the cells or tissue swell in
response to immersion. Solutions are isotonic if the
cells or tissue neither shrinks nor swells in response to
immersion in that solution. Solutions are hypertonic if
the cells or tissue shrink in response to immersion.
Why volume regulations in the overall passage route
and in the overall size of the inner macromolecule are
important? Why any physical imbalances between the
two as regards their sizes create health hazards?
Control of sizes of inner macromolecules may be
hydrodynamic based on tonicity (Illustration 32), but
what about overall size of the trafficking route? Which
factor control size of the trafficking route? This is a gap
area of investigation.
The nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is a ratio of the size (i.e.,
volume) of the nucleus of a cell to the size of the

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cytoplasm of that cell. The nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio
indicates maturity of a cell, because as a cell matures
the size of its nucleus generally decreases. Why size
of the nucleus should decrease with maturity? The
phenomena can better be answered with the concept
of self gravity. Self gravitational pressure acting
inwards thought to be exerted on the surface outside.
Thus it could squeeze fluids and gas out of the surface.
Such squeezing action would be maximum at the
nucleus, as if a core segment in a self gravitating body.
Maturity means an increase in mass with increase in
density. More the mass with increase in density more
would be the squeezing action, as per classical
gravitational law. Ratio is fairly constant for a particular
cell type.
An increased nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio is commonly
associated with precancerous dysplasia as well as
with malignant cells. For example, "blast" forms of
erythrocytes, leukocytes, and mega karyocytes start
with an N:C ratio of 4:1, which decreases as they
mature to 2:1 or even 1:1 (with exceptions for mature
thrombocytes and erythrocytes, which are anuclear
cells, and mature lymphocytes, which only decrease to
a 3:1 ratio and often retain the original 4:1 ratio)75. On
correcting cytoplsmic density with addition of
hypertonic, isotonic or isotonic normal saline thus
regulate nuclear cytoplasmic ratio. For instance, tumor
cell morphology was visualised 76 through use of
transmission electron microscopy following 1 hour
exposure to a hypertonic environment. The cells in a
hypertonic environment exhibited a reduction in
nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, well defined plasma
membranes and contained intact organelles with no
evidence of nuclear condensation or apoptotic bodies (
Illustration 33). This is indicative that buoyed up force
of the fluid can be manipulated within the stipulated
volume of the cell to get desired size of the nucleus,
through process of osmosis and diffusion.
1. 36. Matching inward wall pressure in cellular
activity vis-à-vis self gravity
Turgor Pressure is the support for plants generated by
wall pressures. Water enters the cell by osmosis from
the higher osmotic potential (solute potential) to the
lower osmotic potential. The volume of the cell
cytoplasm increases forcing the plasma membrane
outwards against the cell wall. A pressure develops
called the turgor pressure (pressure potential), which
is excerpted against the cell wall. The outward
pressure is matched by an inward pressure, equal in
magnitude but opposite in direction. These pressures
are called turgor pressures and provide mechanical
support to the plant tissue. If a plant experiences a

WebmedCentral > My opinion

lack of water the cell becomes plasmolysed, wall
pressure is lost and the plant wilts. Normally the outer
surface is amenable to matching inward pressure of
inertia (Illustration 34). But there are many
circumstantial evidences when matching inward wall
pressure could get supplemented by some extra
forces which affect cellular activity. For instance, turgid
pressure in plant cell gets modified on maturity with
decrease in vacuole size (free space) and increase in
mass of cytoplasm per unit volume, as shown in
Illustration 35, which causes more than usual inward
pressure resulting in narrowing of flow passage. Such
a situation can be explained for increase in pressure of
self gravitation with increase in mass per unit volume
with age. However this is a gap area of investigation.

1. 37. Mechanical loads and centrosome microtubule organization
Gravitational potential energy is inward and kinetic
energy is outward against binding energy. Mechanical
living cell deformation studies have demonstrated that
mechanical loads are borne by microtubules, which
are balanced by tensile forces in contractile elements
of the cytoskeleton 77 . Moreover, the disruption of
microtubules yields a transfer of forces to the
extracellular matrix, a decrease in cell stiffness and
altered cell shape. Evidence also suggests that similar
forces that are active on micro-tubules are integral to
the maintenance of nuclear shape and also proposes
that the transfer of mechanical stress across the
cytoskeleton may link the alterations in cell and
nuclear shape that occur during cell spreading and
retraction78, 79. It is interesting to note that in animal
cells, the major microtubule-organizing center is the
centrosome, which is located adjacent to the
nucleus near the center of interphase (non-dividing)
cells. During mitosis, microtubules extend outward
from duplicated centrosomes to form the mitotic
spindle, which is responsible for the separation and
distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells. The
centrosome thus plays a key role in determining the
intracellular organization of microtubules, although
most details of its function remain a mystery. Thus
between centrosome and microtubule organization, it
can be seen that microtubules in most cells extend
outward from a microtubule-organizing center, in
which the minus ends of microtubules are anchored. It
is apparent that the formation of centrosome is
primarily influenced by potential energy of the self
gravity, whereas microtubule organization is
influenced by kinetic energy.
Centralized arrangement of microtubules under

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inverted colour of the photograph taken on using
green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged proteins by
Jeremy Simpson and Rainer Pepperkok 8 0 are
presented in Illustration 35. Picture demonstrates
conclusively the operation of invisible binding energy
of self gravity and kinetic energy working against the
binding energy in living cell.
Of late a very interesting question “What determines
cell size?”- was sought be answered by group of
independent researchers 81 . In the forum article
“Physical limits of cell size for embryonic cell division
in Caenorhabditis elegans”, Akatsuki Kimura pointed
out that in transparent C. elegans embryos,
centrosomes have the ability to position themselves at
the cell center, enabling the mitotic spindle to position
at the cell center (Illustration 36). The mechanisms
mediating centrosome centration may differ among
species. Recent studies have supported the idea that
the cytoplasmic pulling force is a major driving force
for centrosome centration in animal cells.
Microtubule-dependent centration of the centrosome
must be facilitated by microtubules, which grow from
the centrosome and span throughout the cytoplasm to
find the geometrical center of the region. Cell size may
be limited by the physical properties of the cell and
positioning of the mitotic spindle at the cell center is
critical for symmetric cell division. Nothing happens
without a cause. Potential energy of the self gravity
binds and kinetic energy works against it. Hence there
is need to study invisible central tendency of the force
of self gravity and effect of mutual gravity of two
interacting masses.

1. 38. Inner cell mass (ICM) influences potency in
stem cells?

Stem cell potency specifies the differentiation potential
(the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of
the stem cell. It can be totipotent, pluripotent,
Multipotent, Oligopotent, Unipotent etc. as per their
characteristics for regeneration or differentiation. Most
interesting fact is that inner cell mass (ICM) influences
potency in stem cells. For instance, pluripotent,
embryonic stem cells originate in inner cell mass (ICM)
cells within a blastocyst82 . Why inner cell mass or
central position is an important location as
non-potency stage for regeneration or differentiation in
stem cells? Compared to periphery, attractive
gravitational pull/ force towards core or central position
are higher. Therefore potency for regeneration/
differentiation might begin when bio materials are
displaced from the central position. In central position

WebmedCentral > My opinion

(at core), potential energy of self gravity is strongest.
Metabolic or kinetic energy working against it fails to
act in required differential function against the self
gravity while locating itself as inner cell mass. Once it
goes out of the inner cell mass, kinetic energy can set
into motion leading to regeneration or differential of
stem cell. This is similar to an example below. Kinetic
energy of a frog for escape can be put to rest on
pressing it at central position. On removal of pressure
from central position, frog can go out to exhibit its full
potency (Illustration 37). Same is the case for plasma
cells 8 3 which are large lymphocytes with a
considerable nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. After the
process of affinity maturation in germinal centers,
plasma cells have an indeterminate lifespan, ranging
from days to months. Recently they have been shown
to reside for much longer periods in the bone marrow
as long lived plasma cells (LLPC). Thus movement
and lifespan of plasma cells depend on location and
local characteristics within self gravitating environment.

1. 39. Metacenter and floating principle

Under floating condition, locating central position is
dependent not only on the mass in question, but also
on the density of the materials over which such mass
floats. For a floating object to be stable, the center of
gravity must be below the center of buoyancy. The
metacenter is a line that intersects both the center of
gravity and the center of mass. The center of gravity
may push the mass downward while the center of
buoyancy may push the mass upward. When a fish,
for example, is being rocked back and forth, center of
gravity and center of buoyancy would come closer
together thus decreasing the metacenter; when center
of buoyancy gets lower than center of gravity, the fish
is going to flip (Illustration 38).

1. 40. Neucleus and neucleolus- ‘core’ segment of
the self gravitating interior
Neucleus and neucleolus under inverted colour of the
photograph taken on using green fluorescent protein
(GFP) tagged proteins 80 shows that neucleus and
neucleolus in vitro condition can be designated as the
‘core’ segment of the self gravitating interior of the
living cell (Illustration 39).
1. 41. Change in concentric to eccentric nucleus
under neutral buoyant condition

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Deviation from centre or not having same centre is
known as eccentricity. For instance, plasma cells are
large lymphocytes with a considerable
nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio. They have basophilic
cytoplasm and an eccentric nucleus 84 . Why such
eccentric nucleus? Such eccentric nucleus is possible
only when gravity-buoyancy equilibrium of a
macromolecular solid core of nucleus deviates from
the centre of the inertial frame of reference, as shown
in the Illustration 40.
Gravitational attraction provides the restoring force
that acts to return the eccentric core to its concentric
position. Magnitude of the gravity force is proportional
to the displacement D so long as the density of the
outer fluid is constant in the integrated volume and the
density distribution of the fluid in the remaining part of
the vessel remains spherically symmetric as well as
the average density of the core and the average
density of the ?uid that surrounds the core52. Gravity is
the force that helps to stabilize the central equilibrium
position of the inner macromolecular spherical core.
The Archimedes principle provides not valid but only
an average approximation for the buoyancy force of
comparatively solid nucleus submerged in cytoplasmic
fluid when the size of the nucleus is much smaller than
its distance away from the center of the surrounding
matrix.

1. 42. Prototype of interior dynamics of self
gravitating biomass
Let us draw a prototype84 of the internal gravitational
dynamics of biomass. It has a core of radius R and
mass mc bounded by structural membrane and filled
with fluid with a density ρF. The centre of the structure
O is the origin of inertial frame of reference and
displacement of the core D is from the origin. On
orienting system of coordinates along the Z axis the
displacement of the core could be measured. The
gravitational interaction between the core and the fluid
in the interior structure can be determined by the
gravitational attraction of the fluid contained inside the
structure of radius R + D (Illustration 41). A paradigm
of integration is presented below.

Due to the axial symmetry about the Z axis, only the Z
components will contribute to the total force FG.
Considering (Illustration 50 Equation 16)

average density of the mass of the spherical core is (
Illustration 50 Equation 17) , (Illustration 50 Equation
18), (Illustration 50 Equation 19), (Illustration

WebmedCentral > My opinion

50 Equation 20)
The magnitude of the gravitational attraction is (
Illustration 50 Equation 21)
The above result indicates that the magnitude of the
gravity force of Mass 2 is proportional to the
displacement D, irrespective of comparative length of
R so long as the density ρF of the fluid remain
constant. When the R occupies the central position (D
= 0) the gravitational force FG = 0 exactly as it was in
the case of the pressure force FP. However, unlike the
pressure force FP, for any non-zero value of D the
resultant gravity force FG is always oriented toward
the center of the structure O. It means that gravity is
the force that helps to stabilize the central equilibrium
position of the inner spherical core of Mass 2 . The
Archimedes principle provides not valid but only an
average approximation for the buoyancy force of
nucleus submerged in surrounding fluid when the size
of the nucleus is much smaller than its distance away
from the center of the surrounding matrix.
Due to compression inside interior of the bounded
structure, hydrostatic pressure increases with depth h
from the surface according to the relationship: (
Illustration 50 Equation 22)
where is density and is the magnitude of the
acceleration due to gravity at depth h. The magnitude
of the gravity acceleration g is a known function of the
radial distance r measured from the center of the
structure: (Illustration 50 Equation 23)
where G is the gravitational constant. Combining these
relationships (depth and radius of the structure ), (
Illustration 50 Equation 24)
where p is the pressure inside the structural interior
and r is the radial distance, a function from the center
of the structure. The expression for the radial pressure
gradient is therefore
(Illustration 50 Equation 25)
And since it is negative, it indicates that the pressure
increases with depth for any radial density distribution
ρ(r). At the core boundary the density of the ?uid is
and the pressure gradient is (Illustration 50 Equation
26)

where is the average density of the core. Inserting the
expression for gives the buoyancy force for
in?nitessimally small D. For a near-concentric
spherical core (D ≥ O is the eccentricity), submerged
in a spherically symmetric pressure gradient, the
magnitude of the buoyancy force (Illustration
50 Equation 27)

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where R is the radius, is the average density of the
core, is the average density of the fluid that surrounds
the core and is gravitation constant. The negative
sign indicates that the buoyancy force FP pushes the
structure away from the maximum pressure point at D
= 0 for any D > 0. Therefore such limitations of the
Archimedes principle needs to be accounted while
calculating interactions of self gravity of living mass
with planetary gravity considering the situation
analogous to “planet within planet”.

General Property of Self
Gravity
1. 43.

Self organization due to self gravity

We have already explained that self organization is the
intrinsic property of self gravity. Biology cannot be
exception, once we recognize the existence of self
gravity in biology. In a glass, of different liquids viz.
honey, water, vegetable oil, alcohol can be organized
one above other- thanks to earth’s gravity induced
density gradient, as illustrated below (Illustration 42).
Similar to aforesaid example of stratification of liquids
in presence of extrinsic gravity, we can draw a
hierarchy of biomaterials in a membrane-bound cell
under the influence of self gravity. DNA sequences are
transcribed into RNA and then translated into amino
acid chains; the latter fold spontaneously into
functional proteins. But genesis of spatial architecture,
including how molecules find their proper location in
cell space, the origins of supramolecular order, cell
morphology are not yet satisfactorily answered1. The
sequence of macromolecules> molecular
self-assembly> pushing denser macromolecules
outward> formation of twin centre of mass with
decrease in mutual attraction can be expressed in
coarse grain manner in the following, according to
their timeline of formation.
It is common to see that nucleoid in prokaryote and
nucleolis or nucleus in eukaryote- all are made of
swarm of macromolecules. Depending upon the
timeline of formation along other types of
macromolecules, they would tend to lie in the central
position due to priority of inward attraction of self
gravity to drag higher molecular weight at the initial
stage of cell growth. Such higher weight
macromolecules subsequently become lighter than the
equivalent volume of cytoplasmic fluid due to
concentration of salts, matrix and therefore could float
away to the outward periphery from the central
position of self gravity due to side thrust generated by

WebmedCentral > My opinion

the co-moving denser fluids. At this late stage, denser
macromolecules are pushes outward due to
hydrostatic or turgor pressure. With the decrease in
mutual attraction due to increase in distance, twin
centre of mass forms, each exhibiting individual
gravitating barrier (Illustration 43).
Energy producing organelles like mitochondria,
chloroplast etc., though having a mixture of
macromolecules having a combination of higher and
lower molecular weight tend to remain little away from
central position due to their mechanism for production
of energy as a matter of local effect (Illustration 44).
Molecular self-assembly or self organization is the
direct as well as indirect consequence of the action of
self gravity.
1. 44.
Formation of twin centre of mass on
decrease in mutual attraction
The centrosome is called the "microtubule organizing
center". Centrosomes in animals contain two
orthogonally arranged centrioles. The organelle is
located near the nucleus in the cytoplasm due to
potential energy of self gravity. It divides and migrates
to opposite poles of the cell during mitosis. Pushing of
denser macromolecules outward might be due to
hydrostatic or turgor pressure develops during course
of time (Illustration 45).
Gravitational force is a function of the radial distance
from the core. With decrease in mutual attraction, twin
centre of mass, as if two gravitating bodies, one
outside the other’s gravity barrier could be formed.
Location of pin-pointed centre of self gravity might be
more defined in animal than in plant cell, where, in
case later, effect of self gravity might be
overshadowed by other local forces.

1. 45.
Self gravity dictates self organization of
macromolecules in living cell

Macromolecules are important for various biological
functions. There are four basic kinds of biological
macromolecules. These are carbohydrates, lipids,
proteins and nucleic acids. These polymers are
composed of different monomers. But one thing might
get less attention that these macromolecules are
having different molar mass or molecular weight in
addition to variation in density. Under free floating
condition, macromolecules having higher molar mass
or higher density will occupy the core position of self
gravitating body and macromolecules having
intermediate or lesser molecular weight or lesser

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density will remain away from core. That is, ‘higher the
density- higher would be the attractive force of self
gravity’ or in reverse way ‘lesser the density - lesser
would be the attraction of self gravity’. This is what is
happening in the movement or position of
macromolecules in the living cells in general, which
testify that self gravity is operating in the living cell
without any doubt. Alternative justifications in this
regard are either absent or not elegant and well
designed.

Let us assume that release of water molecules and
presence of salts and other materials are ensured in
the fluids from carbohydrates, proteins and other
sources. Buoyant like forces automatically come into
operation as a consequence of accumulation of fluid to
a particular depth, thereby separating the rest biomass
from the inertial external gravitational force. Under
lifted or free floating condition, biological
macromolecules having higher molar mass and
density would be attracted first at the self gravity’s
core, as higher the mass, higher would be the
gravitational attraction. Compared to nucleic acid,
molar mass of carbohydrate is less (say, galactose C6
H 12 O 6 is 180 g/mol. The molar mass, density and
solubility of another carbohydrate C12H22O11 is 342.297
g/mol, 1.723 g/cm3 and 683.0 g/L respectively. On the
other hand, molar mass of water (H2O) is 18 g/mol,
sodium chloride (NaCl) - 58.443 g/mol and so on.
Density of water is 1g/ml at 40C. So carbohydrates,
water, salts possibly play effective primary role as
‘metabolically inert infrastructure’ or as foundation over
which other macromolecules can ballet as per
dictation of potential energy of self gravity and kinetic
energy of the macromolecules. Under complex
admixture of different macromolecules in various
organelles, individual effects may not be pronounced.
For the time being we are not bringing such admixture
into our analysis. We left such analysis for the future.

For instance, in case of nucleic acid, molar mass of
DNA fragments etc. is say, 1000–5,000,000 g/mol.
Therefore under near free floating condition, nucleic
acid which has higher molar mass or molecular weight
as well as density, would tend to remain at the central
core due to attraction of self gravity. It is to be noted
that nucleic acids contain phosphorus, in addition to C,
H, N & O. Unlike proteins, nucleic acids contained no
sulfur. The DNA polymer is much larger and may
extend up to 2 meters in length. The nucleus is only
about 5µm in diameter. The chromosomal DNA is
packed tightly and fit in that small volume. The
molecular weight of double stranded DNA is

WebmedCentral > My opinion

approximately 660 x the number of base pairs. The
genome of E. coli, for instance, contains 4,639,221
base pairs. The molecular weight of one E. coli
genome, therefore, would be 660 x 4,639,221 =
2,840,000,000 g/mole. Molecular weights for the DNA
from multicellular organisms are commonly 109 or
greater. The DNA from the smallest human
chromosome is over ten times larger than E. coli DNA.
Therefore accumulation of nucleic acid under tightly
packed condition at the central position possibly
demonstrates presence of invisible force of self gravity
without any contradiction.

Proteins, on the other hand, which have intermediate
molar mass or molecular weight as well as being
comparatively less denser than nucleic acid, would
remain in intermediate position under free floating
condition as well as under self gravitating
environment. In case of fats and lipids, molar mass
are also intermediate. But the density of fats and lipids
is less than protein on equal volume basis. So fats and
lipids are under duress of self gravity to occupy the
peripheral position under ‘free movement’ (free fall)
condition. Hence finding of lipids in cell membrane is
not accidental, but a simple instance of comparatively
delayed action of self gravity in attracting less dense
materials compared to high dense materials at
particular point of time (Illustration46).
The molecular weight or molar mass and density of
some amino acid and fatty acid are shown in
Illustration 47 as Table 3 for ready reference.
1. 46.

Globular protein form and self gravity

It is interesting that protein sphericity is not yet well
defined though many studies are being conducted.
Globular shapes, which are close to a sphere, often
called spheroproteins, act as enzymes, hormones,
transporters of other molecules, stocks of amino acids,
and other roles, and they are the most interesting
proteins in the design of drugs and understanding of
life phenomenon. Let us extend the idea of self gravity
towards such globular architecture of protein.

Average
protein
density
is
a
molecular-weight-dependent function85. The spatial
average density of proteins can be considered equal
to 1.35 g/cm3 independent of the nature of the protein
and particularly independent of its molecular weight. It
is worthy to mention that proteins are composed of
hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids. As far as
molar mass and density are concerned, there is no
remarkable difference between hydrophobic and

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hydrophilic amino acids (Illustration 47 Table 3).
Hydrogen bonding between different atoms provides
required force. However under free floating native
aqueous environment, hydrophobic amino acids get
buried in the core of a protein as ‘communal
aggregation’ forming bonding between them, whereas
hydrophilic amino acids could remain in the boundary
of a protein for interaction with the aqueous solvent
forming spherical structure. Thus being shielded by
hydrophilic amino acids in the aqueous solvent, the
hydrophobic amino acid seems to play a crucial role of
sphericity with packing interactions on forming
‘communal aggregation’ 86 . This general scenario
sometimes gets changed. For example, the protein
myoglobin87 contains 0.34 gram of iron in 100 grams of
protein. The atomic weight of iron is 56; thus the
minimum molecular weight of myoglobin is (56 ×
100)/0.34 = about 16,500. The minimum molecular
weight of hemoglobin that contains four atoms of iron
is 4 × 16,500 or 66,000. Thus if a protein contains only
one molecule of one of the amino acids or one atom of
iron, copper, or another element, the minimum
molecular weight of the protein or a subunit differs and
thereby their behavior in local self gravitating
environment may slightly differ.

organic solvent like alcohol or chloroform. This is
important to note that on short term basis, gravity is
weaker than electrostatic force. Gravity works on mass
at macromolecular level without any time frame.
Protein aggregation is therefore a mass based
aggregation (not charge based). Folding starts after
formation of some critical mass that spread up to
certain critical distance (say, 2.8-3.0 A0). Thus there is
ample scope to doubt that phenomena could be
propelled by the potential energy of self gravity, as it
increases with increase in mass.
Again ‘denaturation’ of protein results in disruption in
cell activity and possibly can proceed up to cell death.
Why cell activity is to be disrupted, or cell death should
occur with simple change in physical form, if chemistry
is dominating? It is interesting to note that under
‘renaturation’89, proteins can regain their native state
when the denaturing influence is removed. So unless
a universal binding force of self gravity is not brought
into picture, native state of globular protein
(‘naturation’), ‘denaturation’ and again reversing to its
original form of ‘renaturation’ will continue to remain
elusive. So it is difficult to ignore invisible force of self
gravity and hence it is gap area of investigation in life
science.
1. 48.

Some exceptions to general rule

1. 47.
Native conformation, denaturation and
renaturation of protein and self gravity
After proteins get stabilized by hydrogen bonds, as
revealed from above, the strength of dipole moment
gets weaker with increase in distance from the central
position. At that state, potential energy of self gravity
gets increase with increase in mass. Therefore gravity
gradients in the backbone of the polypeptide chains
possibly tend to fold to a globular conformation at the
‘farthest point’ similar to ‘fountain effect’ with ‘central
tendency’, thereby leading to folding in 3-dimensional
secondary, tertiary or even quaternary structures of
native conformation.
In this matter, it is worthwhile to note that formation of
native conformation of protein cannot be based on
simple classical chemical reactions but on a physical
process, as can be seen from subsequent
‘denaturation’ and ‘renaturation’ phenomena of
proteins. The reverse process of native state in
secondary and tertiary structure of protein is called as
‘denaturation’88. For protein ‘denaturation’, there is a
need for application of some external physical stress
or making protein thermally unstable possibly to the
extent of overcoming gravity barrier of the self
gravitating mass or putting in a compound such as a
strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an

WebmedCentral > My opinion

Molar mass and density based thumb rule for action of
the self gravity in organizing macromolecules may be
violated by various local forces operating at particular
period of formation, especially for proteins, lipids and
others. For instance, hydrogen bonding, ionic
interactions, Van Der Waals forces, and hydrophobic
packing often might disturb the general pattern of
attraction in protein macromolecules. Amyloids90 for
instance, are insoluble fibrous protein aggregates
sharing specific structural traits. They arise from at
least 18 inappropriately folded versions of proteins and
polypeptides present naturally in the body. These
misfolded structures alter their proper configuration
such that they erroneously interact with one another or
other cell components forming insoluble fibrils. They
have been associated with the pathology of more than
20 serious human diseases in that, abnormal
accumulation of amyloid fibrils in organs may lead to
amyloidosis, and may play a role in various
neurodegenerative disorders. The site specific local
environments of these proteins are required to be
defined from the point of surrounding medium or
metabolically inert infrastructure, apart from mass,
volume and density of the cell or protein. The idea can
be clear from the following facts.

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Spheroids fibrous protein and self gravity

Though made up of almost same amino acids, the
shape of fibrous proteins, often called scleroproteins,
look like a long ?lament or rod, and usually serve as
inert structural or storage protein. Keratin, collagen,
elastin, and fibroin are all scleroproteins. Their role is
limited to protection and support, forming connective
tissue, tendons, bone matrices, and muscle fiber. Most
of its polypeptide chain is parallel to a single axis and
are often mechanically strong and highly cross-linked.
Under classic artefactual cell culture conditions in a
flat, rigid petri dish or as per geometry of the contact
surfaces, it remains in elongated position. It could
possibly withstand the force of self gravity and remain
in extended structure. But the behavior of cartilage
cells, for instance, could be affected significantly when
they are organized in 3-D using a micropatterning
technique and on carefully positioning the cells within
about 10 microns of each other i.e. nearly the diameter
of a cell and about one-fifth the diameter of a human
hair. Though process was observed to be slow or the
size and shape of the cell clumps varied significantly, it
is interesting that the cells clump together into "cell
spheroids"91. From the above it is clear that spheroid
shape could be formed due to potential energy of self
gravity if there is free floating or free fall condition and
self gravity is allowed to operate in unperturbed
manner. As potential energy of self gravity and
sphericity are two sides of the same coin, we can
assume scleroproteins remain an exception only due
to circumstances of local origin. So it could remain in
extended structure, unlike compact form i.e it could
possibly withstand the potential energy of self gravity.
Manuel Théry92 while reviewing micropatterning as a
tool to decipher cell morphogenesis and functions,
pointed out that cell microenvironment, especially
positioning of adjacent cells, location and orientation of
extracellular matrix (ECM) fibres imposes specific
‘boundary conditions’ that influence cell architecture
and mechanics. The size and stiffness of the
microenvironment limits cell volume and cell spreading.
However for geometrical control, only few studies have
combined the soft, deformable substrates as medium.
Hence environment that allows the self gravity to work
unperturbed needs to be understood in better manner
before drawing flat conclusion.
1. 50.
Protein folding problem and topological
property
The protein-folding problem was first posed about one
half-century ago. Structural biology interprets
molecular level biological mechanisms in terms of the

WebmedCentral > My opinion

structures of proteins and other biomolecules. Dill et al 93
made extensive reviews of protein folding problem.
Understanding protein-folding "code" involves the
question of a given string of amino acids lead to a
particular balled-up ("native") structure of a protein. It
is now understood that proteins fold rapidly because
random thermal motions causing conformational
changes leading energetically downhill toward the
native structure, a principle that is captured in
funnel-shaped energy landscapes. The energy
landscape is constructed by measuring the stabilities
of folded fragments for a series of overlapping modular
repeats. Each horizontal tier presents the partially
folded fragments with the same number of repeats.
Proteins denature at high temperatures because
there are many states of high energy and fewer
states of low energy, that is, the landscape is
funneled. Thus ultimately folding speed of a protein is
to be correlated with a topological property of its native
structure. Why ultimately we are going to solve the
problem through topological property?
1. 51.
Proteins fold on funnel-shaped energy
landscapes
Thus we can see that simple classical chemical
reactions based on electrostatic force cannot solve the
problem of protein folding. Albert Einstein thought that
gravity is what happens when space itself is curved or
warped around a mass, such as a star or a planet.
Thus, a star or planet would cause kind of a dip in
space so that any other object that came too near
would tend to fall into the dip. Such curved geometry
in spacetime governing the motion of inertial objects is
being interpreted as gravity mainly generated by the
mass of an object (Illustration 48 left). On the other
hand, in funnel-shaped energy landscapes protein fold
quickly due to random thermal motions causing
conformational changes leading energetically downhill
toward the native structure (right). An unfolded protein
starts out in a state of high free energy that makes its
conformation unstable. However, as the protein starts
to fold, the free energy begins to drop and the number
of possible conformations begins to decrease like the
shrinking width of a funnel. The bottom of the funnel is
reached when free energy is minimized. As the free
energy drops, however, there may be kinetic traps
along the way that can stop the folding process and
hold the protein in partially folded conformations,
known as molten globules and folding intermediates,
for extended periods of time. Eventually these trapped
conformational states are transformed into a stable
conformation but the shape and form of that final
conformation is influenced by the kinetic traps. It is a
point of interest that such kinetic trap and potential

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energy of gravity has any relation. Because we know
that aqueous solution of protein adopts three
dimensional shapes that gives diverse pattern of
protein folding having different size and shape of
proteins in golf course, moat or other energy
landscapes. Moreover varying solution conditions,
such as hydration shells across the proteins, salt type,
salt concentration, cosolutes, preservatives,
surfactants affect this process apart from temperature
and pH. Hence there is a need to study meticulously
these external factors to ascertain is there is any
universality or commonality in astrophysical and
biological worlds. Here principle is important than
miniature size. This is high time to understand when
and where do protein folds, whether with increasing
potential energy of gravity at its central position,
proteins are progressively directed towards
increasingly low energies.
Continued to Part II for more evidences including
conclusion
Under the principle of abductive reasoning through
successive approximation on sporadic set of
observations, some more evidential roles of self
gravity on identical astrophysical principles of larger
mass have been conceptualized that are appended in
part II of the present article. We are going to add our
conclusions at the end of the Part II of the article.

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Illustrations
Illustration 1
Illustration 1. Working against self gravity of the Sun was laborious (left) for the Genie
whereas keeping Sun intact (right), the Genie had no work. Self organization is the intrinsic
property of self gravity.

Illustration 2
Illustration 2. Particle hierarchy and domain of various basic forces in life science shows that
gravitational force becomes dominant force from level of macromolecules at organelles and
continues up to organism level with accumulation of mass.

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Illustration 3
Illustration 3 Table 1

Illustration 4
Illustration 4 Table 2

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Illustration 5
Illustration 5 (a,b,c). An egg floats on saline water, on working against earth's gravity, due to
buoyant force (a). Similarly amniotic fluid inside inertial womb/anatomical structure of mother
or various ionic fluids secludes fetuses or macromolecules from extrinsic gravity, apart from
other functions as solvent etc. (b, c).

Illustration 6
Illustration 6. Relative three tier reference frame: embryo with metabolic energy (ME)
accelerated, fluid or metabolically inert infrastructure (MII) in non-accelerated reference frame,
and relevant infrastructures in inertial reference frame.

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Illustration 7
Illustration 7ab. a. Relative three tier reference frame for children playing in the running
compartment of the train: ball is in accelerated reference frame, running compartment of the
train in non-accelerated reference frame, and wheel upon ground in inertial reference frame; b.
Children are playing ball on the stationary ground.

Illustration 8
Illustration 8. Reducing amount of water below 80% of the normal level inhibits metabolism in
brine shrimp23. With inadequate depth of supporting fluids, macromolecular mass in the
interior lost their gravitational seclusion identity.

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Illustration 9
Illustration 9. The Pascal’s law invites the presence of entity of two bodies; first one is to dip
on the other and pressure by it is to be applied to the enclosed liquid to express in transmitting
equally to every part of the liquid. Is it what Harold M Franklin1 prompted to say that “of
cellular morphogenesis … we know much but understand little.”

Illustration 10
Illustration 10. Neutral buoyancy apparently secludes self gravity of macromolecules from the
working of the extrinsic gravity of planet? Measurement of the largest vertical pocket is
therefore indispensible for fetal health. Inner purpose of AFI is to track proper seclusion.

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Illustration 11
Illustration 11. Pair-wise comparisons of in utero through ultrasound and ex utero
measurements of CRL and abdominal circumference in mice (reproduced with permission
from Junwu Mu et al)32.

Illustration 12
Illustration 12. Kids also imitate playing football by the adult

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Illustration 13
Illustration 13. Metabolically inert infrastructure (MII) plays anti (self) gravitational role. Without
support of MII towards opportunity of seclusion from stronger extrinsic gravity, death occurs.

Illustration 14
Illustration 14. Pictures show normal (above left) and diseased (above right) cartilage cells
which are organized differently in normal and diseased cartilage and 3-D cell clusters of same
normal (middle left) and diseased (middle right) cartilage precisely re-created in a tissue like
gel compared to cells (bottom) in a conventional 2-D petri dish. MII or medium helps proper
secluded condition for manifestation of self gravitation in living cells.

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Illustration 15
Illustration 15. Final cross linked gel structure matrix of agarose allows effective stress
distribution of concentrated gravitational load

Illustration 16
Illustration 16. Why bio-matters are to be positioned over sponge and agarose gel? Sponge as
well as agarose gel provides mechanical rigidity in order to withstand compressibility or bulk
modulus (substance’s resistance) of the stress applied from own weight (effective stress) and
from external load (net stress). For effective rafting, the biomass is required to be secluded,
isolated or free from stress on flotation or through other mechanisms.

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Illustration 17
Illustration 17. Biomass is initially to be anchored through inertia of the critical amount of
callus/ explants, suspension of cultures, or cell density for a three dimensional cell to be
pivoted on the central axis of the self gravity. Mitochondria (cellular power plants) remain away
from the centre and can then deliver requisite energy for life. ‘Rolling stone gathers no
mosses- are not a literary proverb but based on scientific observation of the commoners.

Illustration 18
Illustration 18. Energy producing organelles and mechanisms are away from the centre of self
gravity of a cell or away from the central axis of the reference frame of biomass say, in animal,
plant and prokaryotic bacterial cell.

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Illustration 19
Illustration 19. Graph shows inverse relationship between metabolic rate and body mass in
living organisms as per Kleiber’s Law.

Illustration 20
Illustration 20. Scaling had been attempted by researchers on small to huge animal to
demonstrate mathematical and geometric nature of circulatory networks that distribute
nutrients and carry away waste and heat56. The bigger the animal, more efficient it uses
energy.

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Illustration 21
Illustration 21. During movement of human thoracic diaphragm, potential energy of self gravity
contracts the dome shape structure. The inertia attempts to bring back contracting surface to
its original position. Kinetic energy of metabolism works against it, thereby, allowing dome
shape structure to relax. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is involved in such internal activity
against self gravity.

Illustration 22
Illustration 22.Raising a ball through a height above earth’s surface involves metabolic kinetic
energy against potential energy of earth’s gravity as well as spending metabolic energy as per
physical activity level (PAL) on contracting and relaxing muscles.

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Illustration 23
Illustration 23. Central position of a gravitating system would be as if the entire mass in the
sphere of influence would have been concentrated at that point

Illustration 24
Illustration 24. Nucleoid in prokaryote and nucleolis or nucleus in eukaryote remain in the
centre

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Illustration 25
Illustration 25 . Geared elevator system or lift works on a number of engineering principles to
carry load and not on simple switch ‘off’ and ‘on’ of electric motors (left). A rescuer can easily
drag a drowning person in water by holding his hair (right). But same thing is not possible in
terrestrial environment. In a mechanical system, nervous system of electrical origin cannot
regulate transmission of load required for human physical activities.

Illustration 26
Illustration 26. Schematic diagram shows full tone due to balance between potential energy of
self gravity and kinetic energy of metabolism (left). Tone is lost and organism behaves as inert
matter out of imbalance between inner potential and kinetic energies when stronger external
gravity dominates (right).

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Illustration 27
Illustration 27. Intuitive schematic diagram showing maintenance of constant angle between
radius from the common centre and tangents over intercepted arcs from central angle (right)
on dome shaped thoracic diaphragm with potential and kinetic energy (left), balloon-like heart
at central position and alternate ‘half-bulging’ structure in the skeletal muscles in the periphery
with potential and kinetic energy (middle).

Illustration 28
Illustration 28. In logarithmic spiral (left), tangent to any point on the curve maintains constant
angle (in red) with the radius. Magnitude of potential energy of self gravity goes on decreasing
from centre to the periphery whereas higher magnitude of outward kinetic energy (in yellow)
could make radius of curvature lengthened (in blue) leading to logarithmic spiral phenomena
in various living creatures like snail (right), snake and others.

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Illustration 29
Illustration 29. Low and high frequency could possibly be a differential feature between self
gravitational waves and electrical waves.

Illustration 30
Illustration 30. The peristaltic movement i.e. compression and resultant stretched force or
Push-pull travel (P) wave due to inertia and action of the self gravity in longitudinal muscle is
apparently available from mouth to stomach, synchronously with circular muscle, considering
stomach and its adjoining areas as the central position and mouth as well as anus as in the
periphery of the self gravitating body.

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Illustration 31
Illustration 31. Plasmodesmata and more specifically constriction and openness of
desmotubule in mesophyll cells of plants is regarded yet an unknown function. Pressure-flow
relationship seems evident in the flow, with increase in self gravitation pressure at strategic
site.

Illustration 32
Illustration 32. Why volume regulations in trafficking route and in overall size of inner
macromolecule are important? Why any physical imbalances between the two as regard their
sizes create health hazards? Control of sizes of inner macromolecules may be hydrodynamic
based on tonicity, but what about overall size of the trafficking route? Which factor control size
of the route? This is a gap area of investigation.

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Illustration 33
Illustration 33. Exposure to a hypertonic environment76 (B) results in a reduced nuclear to
cytoplasmic ratio, when compared to isotonic culture medium (A) or isotonic normal saline (C).
This is indicative that buoyed up force of the fluid can be manipulated within the stipulated
volume of the cell to get desired size of the nucleus, through process of osmosis and
diffusion.

Illustration 34
Illustration 34. Matching inward pressure that helps to develop adequate turgid pressure in
plant cell gets modified with maturity i.e. increase in mass per unit volume.

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Illustration 35
Illustration 35. Pictures show centralized arrangement of microtubules (a) taken on using
green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged proteins80 (photos with permission from Jeremy
Simpson and Rainer Pepperkok) and under inverted colour (a’) respectively demonstrating
operation of binding potential energy of self gravity towards centrosomes and kinetic energy
against binding energy in living cell by microtubules.

Illustration 36
Illustration 36. An image of microtubules in an embryonic cell of C. elegans - astral
microtubules from the spindle reach the cell cortex81 demonstrates inter-gravitational
attraction between adjacent self gravitating bodies.

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Illustration 37
Illustration 37. Transformation of potency in stem cell depends on its removal from inner cell
mass where potential energy of self gravity remains higher (left). Kinetic energy of a frog for
escape can be put to rest on pressing it at central position. On removal of pressure from
central position, frog can go out to exhibit its full potency (right).

Illustration 38
Illustration 38. Metacenter is a line that intersects both the center of gravity (G) and the center
of mass (M). When center of buoyancy (B) gets lower than center of gravity, fish is going to flip.

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Illustration 39
Illustration 39. Pictures showing (a) neucleus and (b) neucleolus taken on using green
fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged proteins80 (photos with permission from Jeremy Simpson
and Rainer Pepperkok) and under inverted colour (a’, b’) respectively. Neucleus and
neucleolus can be designated as the ‘core’ segment of the self gravitating interior of the living
cell.

Illustration 40
Illustration 40. Sphere of inner macromolecules with centre O’ at reference frame (x’, y’, z)
displaced by D from the centre O of the inertial reference frame (x, y, z) under neutral buoyant
condition, making eccentric nucleus from concentric one.

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Illustration 41
Illustration 41. Displacement of the core can be measured on orienting system of coordinates
along the Z axis. The gravitational interaction between the core and the fluid in the interior
structure can be determined by the gravitational attraction of the fluid contained inside the
structure of radius R + D.

Illustration 42
Illustration 42. Honey, water, vegetable oil and alcohol- all liquids can be organized one
above other- thanks to earth’s gravity induced density gradient.

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Illustration 43
Illustration 43. Hierarchy of biomaterials are shown with the sequence of (i) DNA> (ii) RNA>
(iii)Protein> (iv)Macromolecules> (v)Molecular self-assembly> (vi) Pushing denser
macromolecules outward> (vii) With decrease in mutual attraction, twin centre of mass forms.

Illustration 44
Illustration 44. Picture showing mitochondria (a) using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged
proteins80 (photos with permission from Jeremy Simpson and Rainer Pepperkok). Energy
producing organelles mitochondria are little away from central position.

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Illustration 45
Illustration 45. Picture showing centrosomes using green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged
proteins80 (photos with permission from Jeremy Simpson and Rainer Pepperkok).
Centrosomes migrate to opposite poles of the cell during mitosis, possibly due to outward
hydrostatic/ turgor pressure.

Illustration 46
Illustration 46. Self organization of macromolecules: potential energy of self gravity attracts
nucleic acids to cell’s near central position due to highest molar mass and density. Proteins
have intermediate molar mass- thus remain in intermediate position. Fats and lipids are less
dense than others remain in periphery in cell membrane.

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Illustration 47
Illustration 47 Table 3

Illustration 48
Illustration 48. As per Einstein, gravity is when space itself is curved or warped around a mass,
e.g. star or planet. Inertial object that came too near would tend to fall into the dip of the
spacetime curvature (left). Protein fold quickly due to random thermal motions causing
conformational changes leading energetically downhill toward the native structure and
funnel-shaped energy landscapes (right).

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Illustration 49
Illustration 49 Equation (1) to (15)

Illustration 50
Illustration 50 Equations (16) to (27)

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