CCB 3072



: Mohd Mu’izzuddin Bin Mohd Pauzi
Nurul Alia Bt Mohamad


Nuralia Syairah Binti Osman


Foo Wai Hun


Guilles, Arielaine Fe Cruzat



: Dr Timothy Ganesan A/L Andrew

Date Submission

: 5th August 2014

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Table of Content

No. Topic

Result of Experiment
Analysis of Instruments
Dynamic Model
Feedback Controller

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In this particular experiment. we conducted Temperature Control experiment among other experiments. the objectives are to demonstrate the characteristic of Proportional Only Control (P). The Air Temperature Control Module is an air process where 6 bar(g) compressed air is charged into the air receiver tank V-102 and regulated to about 4 bar(g) by the air regulator PCV-102. A selector with located at the control panel is used to select between SCADA or DDC mode. 3|P ag e . which can remotely control the process plant using supervisory control mode (SCADA) or direct digital control mode (DDC). Integral Action and Derivative Action (PID) on a temperature process control loop. Proportional Band and Integral Action (PI) and Proportional Band. The control panel is connected to a Distributed Control System (DCS).Introduction In Process Instrumentation and Control Lab. the DCS can directly control the plant through the Field Control Station. The Air Temperature Control has been designed on how a temperature loop for an exchanger can be controlled using a microprocessor based controller. In SCADA mode the DCS can monitor and control the process through the process controller and in DDC mode. It is also conducted to demonstrate the loop tuning procedure on a temperature process control loop. Air from V-102 flows through the process line into the air heater K-101 where it is heated up to 150 °C and is then discharged to the atmosphere.

Methodology Methodology of the Temperature Control Experiment: First of all. 6) The most suitable type of controller was determined based on the results in SIMULINK. After that. 3) A feedback control system was designed and the standard block diagram for the feedback control system was plotted. 5) The behaviour of the process control system when using 3 different types of Feedback controllers were analysed in MATLAB SIMULINK. 4|P ag e . 7) The optimum parameters for the chosen controller were then determined by using MATLAB SIMULINK. the compressor was started and we will wait for sufficient air pressure to build up in the receiver tank. the instrument main supply was swich on. the controller was set to the manual mode with set point of 100 . and then was repeated by replacing the P Controller with a Proportional-Integral (PI) Control and then lastly to use a Proportional-IntegralDerivative (PID) Control. 4) The stability of the feedback control system was analysed using Routh Stability Criterion as well as in MATLAB. 2) Basic instruments to use for the process control system were analysed. A step input was introduced and the experiment was started with Proportional only control to observe the response produced. Then. Methodology of the Project 1) A dynamic model of the process was first drafted out.

Result of Experiment Closed Loop Response of PID Controller Temperature/°C 200 150 temperature by using PID 100 50 setpoint temperature 0 0 10 20 Time/min Graph of temperature against time by using PID controller Temperature/°C Closed Loop Response of PI Rontroller 200 150 temperature by using PI 100 50 setpoint temperature 0 0 10 20 time/min Graph of temperature against time by using PI controller Temperature/°C Closed Loop Response of P Rontroller 200 150 temperature by using P 100 50 setpoint temperature 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time/min Graph of temperature against time by using P controller 5|P ag e .

Receiver tank V-301 Control tank PSV-301 PT-302 PT PIC-302 PC V-302 PSV-302 Figure 2 – Experimental Setup of Equipments 6|P ag e . Figure 1 – Closed Loop Control Furthermore. When all the various elements are interconnected with each other and there exists a continuous passing of information around the loop. then the loop becomes a closed loop control and simultaneously. the actual setup of the instruments in the lab is also given in the figure below. an automatic feedback exists. the measurement. the controller and the final control element.Analysis of Instruments The following diagram shows a feedback control loop which comprises of the process.

PI controller and PID controller. and D stand for Proportional. The magnitude of the offset varies depending on the value of the controller gain. PID controller is perhaps the most important tool that can determine the success of meeting the objectives. which is the accumulation of past errors and Derivative. three different types of controller are being used in order to determine the most suitable controller namely P controller. the offset error becomes eliminated and the movement of the process towards the set point accelerates. It must be used only when necessary because the design and tuning process of a PID controller can initially appear to be conceptually intuitive but prove to be hard in practice. For the experiment. Figure 3 – PID controller block diagram PID controller is useful in processes such as those that have rapid and large disturbances. Nevertheless. This is where the D controller plays its role by predicting the system behaviour and improving settling time and stability as a result. When the P controller is used alone. This instrument is crucial for this experiment because it enables one to study and investigate the system responses in various tuning methods. A simple block diagram of PID controller is shown below. 7|P ag e .1. which is the prediction of future errors. it is important to note that since the integral term responds to accumulated errors from the past. As the value of the controller gain increases. 2. Integral. it can cause the present value to overshoot the set point value. However. which depends on present error. P. I. this type of control proves itself useful for various processes. When used with I controller. the amount of offset decreases. terms respectively. Recorder (PR-302) This instrument has a pair of pen chart recorder which continuously records the response of the process instrument of the input and output by the means of a graph. it results with an offset from the set point of the process variable. PID Controller (PIC-302) For this experiment.

If different types of valves with various sizes are subjected to the same volumetric flow rate and differential pressure was kept contant. Vortex flow meter (FT-301) Flow meters are used to measure the flow of fluids such as liquids or gases in the system. 5. then all the valves will have an equal orifice pass area. It is important to maintain the pressure at a specified level in order to prevent explosion or implosion of tanks due to expanding or shrinking of gases or liquids present inside. The flow rate of the liquid is then measured using the concept that the frequency at which the vortices alternate sides is proportional to the flow rate of the fluid. also known as final control elements.e. 4.3. Pressure transmitter is important for the safety of the experiment as it acts as a transducer which generates a signal as a function of the pressure. Control Valve (PCV-302) Control valves. hydraulic or pneumatic actuators. The opening and closing of the valves can either be done with the help of electrical. it creates disturbances which then results to vortices. The vortices trail behind the cylinder or from each side of the bluff body. pressure. 8|P ag e . temperature) and which fully or partially opens or closes depending on the signals received from controllers which compare the set point to the process variable. are valves used to control different conditions (i. Vortex flow meter works by placing a bluff body (called a shedder bar) in the path of the fluid and as the fluid passes this bar. Pressure transmitter (PT-301) Pressure is the ratio of force to the area over which the force is distributed.

For this indicator. Pressure indicator (PI-301. differential pressure is the measure of the differences in pressures at two different points.PSC-302) Pressure Relief Valve. Gauge pressure. PI304) Pressure measurements are oftentimes made relative to some specified reference point. 9. the process tank is used to study the change in pressure by inserting air into the tank and it is crucial for safety that the pressure be kept at a high value in order to avoid damage to the tank. Some of these reference points are absolute. 8. is a type of relief valve which controls the pressure in the system by releasing excess pressure build up caused by a process upset or instrument failure. This device is mechanically activated and works due to a spring which is loaded to normally close the valve. 7. the users will be made aware and can take precautionary measures. Alarm annunciator (PAL-302. Generally.6. the pressure is equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure which makes it equal to a gauge pressure where the negative sign is omitted. gauge and differential pressure. is zeroreferenced against ambient air pressure which makes it equal to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum which makes it equal to gauge plus atmospheric pressure. on the other hand. this instrument alerts the operators of the conditions in the plant to ensure everyone’s safety. it pushes the spring up and causes the PRV to open in order to purge air to atmosphere to avoid overpressure in the tank. Pressure Relief Valve (PSC-301. PAH-302) An alarm annunciator was used in the experiment to ensure that if the pressure reaches critical levels. If the pressure inside the system is higher than the spring tension. Lastly. Process Tanks (V-301. also known as PRV. 9|P ag e . V-302) In this experiment. PI-303. PI-302.

has high reliability. 11. FI-302) A rotameter is another flow rate measuring device which measures liquid or gas flow rates enclosed in a tube. it acts as a flow rate measuring device for the process line. HV-302. Oftentimes. during maintenance or for safety purposes. This type of valve offers fast and safe switching.10. 10 | P a g e . Solenoid Valves (HV-301. the hand valves are isolation valves for the input and output air and determines the direction as well as the load changes of the air flow. Air Regulator (PCV-301) As the name implies. HV-303) Solenoid valves are electromechanically operated in which they are controlled by electric current through a solenoid. 14. the air regulator in the experiment regulates the air supply to the process receiver tank in order to ensure that the pressure limits are not exceeded. It is one type of variable area meters which measures flow rate by varying the cross sectional area where the fluid flows. In this experiment. the flow has to be completely stopped. 12. Hand Valve (HV-304. the D/P transmitter functions mainly for the process line and it is able to measure values between 0-60 psig. 13. HV-309) A hand valve is a type of isolation valve which stops the flow of process media at a given location when necessary. In the experiment. long life cycle. low control power and compact design. Rotameter (FI-301. In this experiment. D/P transmitter (PDT-301) A differential pressure transmitter or sensor connects two different points and measures its pressure difference.

Fault Simulation Switches (HS-30. HS-303) These switches act as a cut-off switch for emergency purposes. In this experiment. Dynamic Model Mass balance Since density and volume is constant Energy balance 11 | P a g e . recorder. it comes in handy whenever there is a leakage at the pressure control tank. Control Panel The control panel in this experiment acts as a motherboard of pressure control. 16. HS-302. It can also be used to shut off the outlet to the pressure control tank if the instrument air supply has been cut off for any reason. alarm annunciator.15. It mounts the controller. push button power supply switch and changeover switch between the distributed control system (DCS) and local control.

the dynamic model for the heat exchanger is Parameter values: Air temperature Based on density tables.Let and At steady-state Laplace Transform: Thus. 12 | P a g e .

From previous equation. Characteristic Equation 13 | P a g e . While Hence.

Lowest limit Using Routh Array. Therefore The range of 14 | P a g e is .

15 | P a g e .Feedback Controller For P Controller Block Diagram of the process with P – Controller to control the output of temperature.

For PI-Controller Block Diagram 16 | P a g e .

17 | P a g e .

For PID – Controller Block Diagram 18 | P a g e .

but also steady-state error for the system. The use of P-only controller which not only give more overshoot and longer settling time. offset is eliminated. hence is not selected. for this controller. P controller. the simulated result gives a better outcome as comparison to the result obtained from the experiment conducted. Begin with PID controller. We decided to choose PI controller to control for our process over PID control because of the less overshoot percentage and also easier to be tuned compared to PID controller. namely. the output of 3 types of controller. PI controller and PID controller were compared and the results can be observed from simulink done. As for PI controller. the outcome of simulink has given us a hint that the time taken to reach the new set point is shorter as compared to the actual experiment result.6 Yes No No From the above observations.26 8.3 108 73. No 1 2 3 Type of Controller P-controller PI-controller PID-controller Overshoot (%) Settling Time (s) Steady State error 24. 19 | P a g e . However.Discussion As the figures shown previously.9 6.58 72. it takes lengthier duration to reach the desired value as the order of the system increase that produce sluggish outcome. it is clear that PI controller gives the best result compared to other type of controller.

2(8). Reference P. the inaccurate transfer functions and the assumptions of ideal system might cause the results vary from the actual results. This may not be true as the system in the actual experiment is more complex and may have transfer function other than first order. Based on the results obtained and figuring. (n. Retrieved 7 1.d. International journal of computational engineering research. The order of the transfer function plays an important role in producing accurate outcome. 2014. an expected of sluggish response is common as it takes a long period of time to respond.Prabhakaran & T.ed. Conclusion Based on the temperature control experiment done for the Process. Both graphs have indicated that the desired set point value will not be achieved by using P controller alone as it is very sluggish.html What is an Integral Control System? . pp 116-118. D. T.d.Finally. (n. the graph obtained has shown an offset while reaching the set point from Integral Control Systems: http://www. (2012).see.Sivakumar. An analysis on the basic instrumentation used for the summons arrangement was also done. Melliechamp.html 20 | P a g e . Temperature control of shell and tube heat exchanger by using intelligent controllers.. a feedback controller arrangement was designed to fit the process system referring to the possible parameters that needed to be controlled using different tuning method. 1989. the best controller system for this process is the PI-controller because of the less overshoot percentage and also it is easier to be tuned. New York. The transfer function used is first order. for P controller. This may cause the delay in the system. Transfer function and gain values included Simulink software may contribute to the errors or deviation from the actual experiment results. Edgar and D.bucknell. in the conducted experiment.facstaff. Finally. ‘Process Dynamics and Control’.edu/mastascu/econtrolhtml/intro/intro3.). Instrumentation & Control Lab.Kannadasan. The Controller. from Control Actions: http://www.A. John Wiley and Sons. Retrieved 7 1. a dynamic model for the physical appendage scheme was developed using the data obtained from the 2014. By comparison to the graphs as simulated. Seborg D.). Besides.F.