# Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Transformers
1

Introduction
Michael Faraday propounded the principle of electro-magnetic induction in 1831.

It states that a voltage appears across the terminals of an electric coil when the flux linked
with the same changes. The magnitude of the induced voltage is proportional to the rate of
change of the flux linkages. This finding forms the basis for many magneto electric machines.
The earliest use of this phenomenon was in the development of induction coils. These coils
were used to generate high voltage pulses to ignite the explosive charges in the mines. As
the d.c. power system was in use at that time, very little of transformer principle was made
use of. In the d.c. supply system the generating station and the load center have to be
necessarily close to each other due to the requirement of economic transmission of power.
Also the d.c. generators cannot be scaled up due to the limitations of the commutator. This
made the world look for other efficient methods for bulk power generation and transmission. During the second half of the 19th century the alternators, transformers and induction
motors were invented. These machines work on alternating power supply. The role of the
transformers became obvious. The transformer which consisted of two electric circuits linked
by a common magnetic circuit helped the voltage and current levels to be changed keeping
the power invariant. The efficiency of such conversion was extremely high. Thus one could
choose a moderate voltage for the generation of a.c. power, a high voltage for the transmission of this power over long distances and finally use a small and safe operating voltage at
the user end. All these are made possible by transformers. The a.c. power systems thus got
well established.

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Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Transformers can link two or more electric circuits. In its simple form two electric
circuits can be linked by a magnetic circuit, one of the electric coils is used for the creation
of a time varying magnetic filed. The second coil which is made to link this field has an
induced voltage in the same. The magnitude of the induced emf is decided by the number
of turns used in each coil. Thus the voltage level can be increased or decreased by changing
the number of turns. This excitation winding is called a primary and the output winding
is called a secondary. As a magnetic medium forms the link between the primary and the
secondary windings there is no conductive connection between the two electric circuits. The
transformer thus provides an electric isolation between the two circuits. The frequency on
the two sides will be the same. As there is no change in the nature of the power, the resulting machine is called a ‘transformer’ and not a ‘converter’. The electric power at one
voltage/current level is only ‘transformed’ into electric power, at the same frequency, to another voltage/current level.

Even though most of the large-power transformers can be found in the power systems,
the use of the transformers is not limited to the power systems. The use of the principle
of transformers is universal. Transformers can be found operating in the frequency range
starting from a few hertz going up to several mega hertz. Power ratings vary from a few
milliwatts to several hundreds of megawatts. The use of the transformers is so wide spread
that it is virtually impossible to think of a large power system without transformers. Demand
on electric power generation doubles every decade in a developing country. For every MVA
of generation the installed capacity of transformers grows by about 7MVA. These figures
show the indispensable nature of power transformers.

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Electrical Machines I

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Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Basic Principles
As mentioned earlier the transformer is a static device working on the principle of

Faraday’s law of induction. Faraday’s law states that a voltage appears across the terminals
of an electric coil when the flux linkages associated with the same changes. This emf is
proportional to the rate of change of flux linkages. Putting mathematically,
e=

dt

(1)

Where, e is the induced emf in volt and ψ is the flux linkages in Weber turn. Fig. 1 shows a

Figure 1: Flux linkages of a coil

coil of N turns. All these N turns link flux lines of φ Weber resulting in the Nφ flux linkages.
In such a case,
ψ = Nφ

(2)

dt

(3)

and
e=N

volt

The change in the flux linkage can be brought about in a variety of ways
• coil may be static and unmoving but the flux linking the same may change with time.
3

P. These three cases are now elaborated in sequence below. The magnitude of B 4 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. with the help of a coil with a simple geometry. L B X - + Figure 2: Static coil Fig. The flux φ linked by the turn is L ∗ B ∗ X Weber. 2 shows a region of length L m.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao • flux lines may be constant and not changing in time but the coil may move in space linking different value of flux with time. Such a condition does not yield any useful machine. • both 1 and 2 above may take place. Sridhara Rao. Prof. G. The flux lines may change in time with coil moving in space. Here X is the length of overlap in meters as shown in the figure. Prof. of uniform flux density B Tesla. A loop of one turn links part of this flux. On the other hand if the value of B varies with time a voltage is induced in the coil linking the same coil even if the coil does not move. If now B does not change with time and the loop is unmoving then no emf is induced in the coil as the flux linkages do not change. the flux lines being normal to the plane of the paper.

Fig. presented in Fig. 2 the flux linkages are assumed to be increasing. Sridhara Rao. Polarity of the emf is obtained by the application of Lenz’s law. The peak value of the induced emf is em = Nφm . Krishna Vasudevan. sin(ωt + ) dt 2 (6) Here φm = Bm . B = Bm sin ωt (4) where Bm is the peak amplitude of the flux density.X. The polarity of the emf is as indicated. and can be expressed as. Then. G. Prof. 2(b) shows the same example as above but with a small difference. ψ = Nφ = NLXBm sin ωt (5) The instantaneous value of the induced emf is given by. Sasidhara Rao is assumed to be varying sinusoidally.ω cos ωt = Nφm .ω. e= dψ π = Nφm . The loop also experiences a compressive force. Further.L. ω is the angular rate of change with time. The flux density is held constant at B Tesla. The flux linked by the coil at the current position is 5 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .ω (7) and the rms value is given by E= Nφm . This emf is termed as ‘transformer’ emf and this principle is used in a transformer. The emf if permitted to drive a current would produce a counter mmf to oppose this changing flux linkage.ω √ 2 volt. this induced emf has a phase difference of π/2 radian with respect to the flux linked by the turn. P. the instantaneous value of the flux linkage is given by. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Lenz’s law states that the reaction to the change in the flux linkages would be such as to oppose the cause. In the present case.

the emf induced also becomes sinusoidal. This type of induced emf is termed as speed emf or rotational emf. This principle is used in d. dt dt 6 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (8) .Bm . This is how the polarity of the emf shown in fig. The uniform flux density in space is assumed to be varying in magnitude in time as B = Bm sin ωt.the actual flux linked by the coil is immaterial. Sridhara Rao. This is shown in Fig. when the coil ends are closed. cos ωt.B. The polarity of the induced emf is obtained by the application of the Lenz’s law as before. Sasidhara Rao φ = B. V olt.ω. The induced emf as per the application of Faraday’s law of induction is e = N.Bm .L. cutting the flux lines and changing the flux linkages.X. as it arises out of the motion of the conductor. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. 2(c). The change in the flux linkages and hence induced emf is given by e = N.c machines and alternators. d(Bm . P. The conductor is moved with a velocity v = dx/dt normal to the flux.L.dx/dt = B. Prof.(Here N=1) Please note. Only the change in the flux linkages is needed to be known for the calculation of the voltage. The induced emf is in step with the change in ψ and there is no phase shift. sin ωt. + N. G. Here the changes in flux linkages is produced by motion of the conductor.X) dx = N. The current in the conductor. sin ωt.L.X Weber.L.2b is arrived at. The conductor is moved with a uniform velocity of dx dt = v m/sec.L. Also the mmf of the loop aids the field mmf to oppose change in flux linkages. The third case under the application of the Faraday’s law arises when the flux changes and also the conductor moves. makes the conductor experience a force urging the same to the left.L.v volt.Electrical Machines I Prof. If the flux density B is distributed sinusoidally over the region in the horizontal direction.

Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. The winding which establishes the field is called the primary. Sasidhara Rao The first term is due to the changing flux and hence is a transformer emf. The first case where there is a time varying field and a stationary coil resulting in a transformer emf is the subject matter in the present section. is called a secondary. Sridhara Rao. At first the common constructional features of a transformer used in electric power supply system operating at 50 Hz are examined. P. The other winding.c. Case three will be extensively used under the study of a. commutator machines. Prof. The second term is due to moving conductor or is a speed emf. The case two will be revisited under the study of the d. machines where the field is time varying and conductors are moving under the same. 7 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .c.Electrical Machines I Prof. which is kept in that field and has a voltage induced in it. This principle is used in a. G.c machines and synchronous machines.c machines such as induction machines and also in a. It should not be forgotten that the primary also sees the same time varying field set up by it linking its turns and has an induced emf in the same. This is easily achieved by passing a time varying current through a coil. These aspects will be examined in the later sections. When the terminals are closed such as to permit a current the conductor experiences a force and also the mmf of the coil opposes the change in flux linkages. Next in the study of the transformers comes the question of creating a time varying filed.

Electrical Machines I 3 Prof. Over the years progressively better magnetic properties are obtained by going in for Hot rolled non-oriented to Hot rolled grain oriented steel. in power transmission and distribution. G. Sasidhara Rao Constructional features Transformers used in practice are of extremely large variety depending upon the end use. In addition to the transformers used in power systems. furnaces. a large number of special transformers are in use in applications like electronic supplies. Silicon steel in the form of thin laminations is used for the core material. Sridhara Rao.1 Core construction Transformer core for the power frequency application is made of highly permeable material. Prof. These can be broadly divided into 1. The principle of operation of these transformers also is the same but the user requirements differ. Here the focus is on power transformers only. P. This brings in a very large variety in their constructional features. traction etc. Cooling aspects 3. Hence they are ‘tailor made’ to a job. Here more common constructional aspects alone are discussed. 8 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . rectification. The high value of permeability helps to give a low reluctance for the path of the flux and the flux lines mostly confine themselves to the iron. Relative permeability µr well over 1000 are achieved by the present day materials. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Winding arrangements 3. Core construction 2. These machines are highly material intensive equipments and are designed to match the applications for best operating conditions. Power transformers of smaller sizes could be air cooled while the larger ones are oil cooled.

Above this value the steel becomes very brittle and also very hard to cut. The saturation flux density of the present day steel lamination is about 2 Tesla. The steel should not have residual mechanical stresses which reduce their magnetic properties and hence must be annealed after cutting and stacking. As the rating of the transformer increases the conductor size 9 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . C & I or O as shown in Fig.25mm per lamination. In a shell type on the other hand the iron surrounds the winding. 3 are used and the core cross section would be a square or a rectangle. In the case of very small transformers (from a few volt-amperes to a few kilo voltamperes) hot rolled silicon steel laminations in the form of E & I. Thus no special care is needed for the construction of the core. G. These laminations are coated with a thin layer of insulating varnish. Broadly classifying. a very low remanence Br and a small area under the B-H loop-to permit high flux density of operation with low magnetizing current and low hysteresis loss. These can be easily wound on a former with rectangular or square cross section. Krishna Vasudevan. In a core type construction the winding surrounds the core. The magnetic material is required to have a high permeability µ and a high saturation flux density. -High B (HiB) grades became available.5mm to the present 0. The resistivity of the iron sheet itself is required to be high to reduce the eddy current losses. In the case of very small transformers the conductors are very thin and round. Sasidhara Rao Later better laminations in the form of cold Rolled Grain Oriented (CRGO). The percentage of silicon in the steel is about 3. Prof. oxide or phosphate. The cross section of the core also would be square or rectangular. P.Electrical Machines I Prof.5. Sridhara Rao. A few examples of single phase and three phase core type constructions are shown in Fig. the core construction can be separated into core type and shell type. The thickness of the laminations progressively got reduced from over 0. If the lamination is made too thin then the production cost of steel laminations increases. The eddy current itself is highly reduced by making the laminations very thin. Prof. 4.

Prof. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao (a ) (b) (c) Figure 3: E and I.Electrical Machines I Prof.C and I and O Type Laminations 10 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. G. Krishna Vasudevan. P.

In order to avoid all these problems the coils are made cylindrical and are wound on formers on heavy duty lathes. Fig. Hence it results in more load losses. Sasidhara Rao 1. The iron losses in the lamination. Also. P. The steel laminations are grain oriented exploiting the simple geometry of the transformer to reduce the excitation losses.phase 3. Cooling ducts have to be provided in the core.phase LV HV HV LV core Single phase LV HV Three phase (a)Core type (b) Shell type Figure 4: Core and Shell Type Construction also increases. To wind such conductor on a rectangular former is not only difficult but introduces stresses in the conductor. Krishna Vasudevan. at the bends. Prof. Flat conductors are preferred to round ones. From the short circuit force with stand capability point of view also this is not desirable. Stepped core construction thus becomes mandatory for the core of large transformers. Prof. Thus the core construction is required to be such as to fill the circular space inside the coil with steel laminations. for a given area enclosed the length of the conductor becomes more.Electrical Machines I Prof. 5 shows a few typical stepped core constructions. Sridhara Rao. when the flux 11 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . When the core size increases it becomes extremely difficult to cool the same (Even though the core losses are relatively very small). G.

09 0. Sridhara Rao. Prof.14 0.07 0.1 0.16 0. Krishna Vasudevan. G.42 0.07 0.3 0.1 0.71D d d d duct Figure 5: Stepped Core Construction 12 Indian Institute of Technology Madras duct .12 0. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. P.14 0. Sasidhara Rao 0.12 0.09 0.53 0.16 0.

Sridhara Rao. is about 30% of that in the normal direction. In some power transformers the core is built up by threading a long strip of steel through the coil in the form of a toroid. This construction is normally followed in instrument transformers to reduce the magnetizing current and hence the errors.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao is oriented in the direction of grain orientation. Prof. 6. P. Hence butt joints between laminations must be avoided. Lap joints are used to provide alternate paths for flux lines thus reducing the reluctance of the flux paths. As the reluctance of air path is about 1000 times more than that of the steel. Another important aspect to be carefully checked and monitored is the air gaps in Path of flux HV LV Windings Core (a) (b) Figure 6: Typical stacked Core and wound core Construction series in the path of the main flux. Some typical constructional details are shown in Fig. Prof. 13 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . an air path of 1mm will require a mmf needed by a 1 meter path in iron. G.

Prof. These aspects influence the type of the winding used for the HV or LV windings. P. Transformer coils can be broadly classified in to concentric coils and sandwiched coils Fig. If the secondary voltage is more then it is a step up transformer.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. HV also needs more clearance to the core. The former are very common with core type transformers while the latter one 14 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A step down transformer can be made a step up transformer by making the low voltage winding its primary. The whole stack is wrapped up by strong epoxy tapes to give mechanical strength to the core which can stand in upright position. Sridhara Rao. The one which is connected to a voltage source and creates the flux is called as a primary winding.2 Windings Windings form another important part of transformers. Krishna Vasudevan. The current on the HV side will be lower as V-I product is a constant and given as the VA rating of the machines. Hence it may be more appropriate to designate the windings as High Voltage (HV) and Low Voltage (LV) windings. 7. Punched through holes and bolts are progressively being avoided to reduce heating and melting of the through bolts. The second winding where the voltage is induced by induction is called a secondary. 3. Also the HV winding needs to be insulated more to withstand the higher voltage across it. The winding with more number of turns will be a HV winding. Channels and angles are used for the frame and they hold the bottom yoke rigidly. If the secondary voltage is less than that of the primary the transformer is called a step down transformer. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Large cores made up of laminations must be rendered adequately stiff by the provision of stiffening plates usually called as flitch plates. yoke or the body. In a two winding trans- former two windings would be present.

P. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. G. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao HV LV Core LV HV (a)Concentric coil LV HV Core (b) Sandwich coil Figure 7: Concentric and Sandwich Coils 15 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Also taps are provided on HV winding when voltage change is required. P. the LV winding is placed close to the core which is at ground potential. G. Prof. Sridhara Rao. This is commonly used for LV windings. cross over and disc coils are shown in Fig. Prof. The HV winding is placed around the LV winding. The insulation 16 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This is also facilitated by having the HV winding as the outer winding.Electrical Machines I Prof. In concentric arrangement. In the figure the letters L and H indicate the low voltage and high voltage windings. in view of the lower insulation and clearance requirements. helical. Helical coils Disc coils cross over coils Figure 8: Disc. This is made up of large cross section rectangular conductor wound on its flat side. Sasidhara Rao are common with shell type transformers. Three most common types of coils viz. The coil progresses as a helix. Crossover and Helical Coil Construction Helical Windings One very common cylindrical coil arrangement is the helical winding. 8. Krishna Vasudevan.

Sandwich coils Sandwich windings are more common with shell type core construction. The conductor cross section becomes too large and difficult to handle. Sectional discs or continuous discs may be used. The parallel circuits bring in problems of current sharing between the circuits. By bringing HV and LV coils close on the same magnetic axis the leakage is reduced and the mutual flux is increased. Disc coils Disc coils consist of flat conductors wound in a spiral form at the same place spiralling outwards. The complexity of this type of winding rapidly increases as the current to be handled becomes more. These turns are wound in several layers. Winding of a continuous disc winding needs specialized skills. The modern practice is to use continuously transposed and bunched conductors. By increasing the number of sandwiched coils the 17 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . A number of such blocks can be connected in series. Between layers no insulation (other than conductor insulation) is needed as the voltage between layers is low. Krishna Vasudevan. leaving cooling ducts in between the blocks. Prof. The eddy current losses in the conductor rapidly increases. Transpositions of the parallel paths have to be adopted to reduce unequal current distribution. as required by total voltage requirement. These are made of circular conductors not exceeding 5 to 6 sq mm in cross section. Sridhara Rao. P. Hence two or more conductors have to be wound and connected in parallel. G. They permit easy control over the short circuit impedance of the transformer. These are used for HV windings of relatively small transformers.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao requirement also is not too high. Alternate discs are made to spiral from outside towards the center. The length and thickness of each block is made in line with cooling requirements. These have excellent thermal properties and the behavior of the winding is highly predictable. Cross over coils The second popular winding type is the cross over coil. Prof.

which are proportional to the volume of the materials used.4 Cooling of transformers Scaling advantages make the design of larger and larger unit sizes of transformers economically attractive. Annular bakelite cylinders serve this purpose. G. The porous insulation around the conductor helps the oil to reach the conductor surface and extract the heat. Prof. 3. 3. 18 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In larger transformers to improve the heat transfer characteristics the conductors are insulated using un-impregnated paper or cloth and the whole core-winding assembly is immersed in a tank containing transformer oil. The major insulation is between the windings. The oil used in the transformer tank should be free from moisture or other contamination to be of any use as an insulator. This can be explained as below. If now the linear dimensions are made larger by a factor of K keeping the current and flux densities the same the core and conductor areas increase by a factor of K 2 . increase by a factor of K 3 .3 Insulation The insulation used in the case of electrical conductors in a transformer is varnish or enamel in dry type of transformers.The rating of the machine increases by a factor of K 4 . Sasidhara Rao reactance can be substantially reduced. Oil ducts are also used as part of insulation between windings. Krishna Vasudevan. Consider a transformer of certain rating designed with certain flux density and current density. The conductor insulation may be called the minor insulation as the voltage required to be withstood is not high. Prof. P. The losses in the machine. It is an insulator and also a coolant. The transformer oil thus has dual role.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao.

This method of cooling is termed as AN(Air Natural). In the above two cases the flow of oil is by natural convective forces. OB(Oil Blast) method is an improvement over the ON-type and it directs a blast of air on the cooling surface. A forced circulation of oil through a radiator is done with a blast of air 19 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The oil reaches the conductor surface and extracts the heat and transports the same to the surface of the tank by convection. Sasidhara Rao The surface area however increases by a factor of K 2 only. As the rating increases better cooling techniques are needed. Hence air cooling is used in low voltage machines. Krishna Vasudevan. Air Blast(AB) method improves on the above by directing the blast of air at the core and windings. the cooling method become OFB( Oil Forced Blast). If now a forced blast of air is also employed. The substantial increase in the output is the major attraction in going in for larger units. The limit for this is reached by the time the rating is a few kVA. However cooling of the transformer becomes more and more difficult. Thus the ratio of loss per surface area goes on increasing by a factor of K. This is termed as OFN (Oil Forced Natural). Prof. G. Prof. Substantial improvement is obtained when the transformer is immersed in an oil tank. radiators etc. P. This method permits the increase in the surface available for the cooling further by the use of ducts.Electrical Machines I Prof. with the cooling at the surface remaining natural cooling to air. This permits some improvement in the unit sizes. Simple air cooling of the transformers is adopted in dry type transformers. This is termed as ON (Oil Natural) type of cooling. The rate of circulation of oil can be increased with the help of a pump. Sridhara Rao.

P. Sasidhara Rao Main tank Radiator Tubes (a) Conservator Bushing & Breather water outlet Radiator oil pump water inlet (b) Conservator& Breather Bushing Radiator Oil pump Fan motor for O. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof.F. G. Prof.B (c) 20 Figure 9: Some Typical Cooling Arrangements Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan.

9.5 ON/OB/OFB Similarly gives the ratings in the ratio of 1:1. Next in hierarchy comes OFW which is similar to OFB except that instead of blast of air a forced circulation of cool water in the radiator is used in this. This gives rise to the concept of mixed cooling technique. Type winding Class A ◦ C oil core Class B ◦ C ◦ C AN.5:2 The temperature rise permitted in the British standard specification for power transformers are tabulated below. Due to the high specific heat of water. Suitable cooling method can be pressed into service at that time. Krishna Vasudevan.AB 55 75 - As ON. Sasidhara Rao over the radiator surface. Sridhara Rao. heat can be evacuated effectively. This gives the ratings to be in the ratio of 1:1. In many large sized transformers the cooling method is matched with the amount of heat that is required to be removed. Substantial amount of heat can be removed by employing a water cooling. Here the hot oil going into the radiator is cooled by a water circuit. Prof. Some cooling arrangements are shown in Fig. Prof.OB. P.OFB 65 - 50 adjacent OFW 70 - 50 winding 21 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. As the load on the transformer changes the heat generated within also changes. G.OW 60 - 50 for OFN. ON/OB Works as ON but with increased load additional air blast is adopted.

Electrical Machines I

3.4.1

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Properties of the transformer coil
Even though the basic functions of the oil used in transformers are a) heat conduc-

tion and b) electrical insulation, there are many other properties which make a particular oil
eminently suitable. Organic oils of vegetative or animal origin are good insulators but tend
to decompose giving rise to acidic by-products which attack the paper or cloth insulation
around the conductors.

Mineral oils are suitable from the point of electrical properties but tend to form sludge.
The properties that are required to be looked into before selecting an oil for transformer
application are as follows:
Insulting property This is a very important property. However most of the oils naturally
fulfil this. Therefore deterioration in insulating property due to moisture or contamination may be more relevant.
Viscosity It is important as it determines the rate of flow of the fluid. Highly viscous fluids
need much bigger clearances for adequate heat removal.
Purity The oil must not contain impurities which are corrosive. Sulphur or its compounds
as impurities cause formation of sludge and also attack metal parts.
Sludge formation Thickening of oil into a semisolid form is called a sludge. Sludge formation properties have to be considered while choosing the oil as the oil slowly forms
semi-solid hydrocarbons. These impede flows and due to the acidic nature, corrode
metal parts. Heat in the presence of oxygen is seen to accelerate sludge formation. If
the hot oil is prevented from coming into contact with atmospheric air sludge formation
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Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

can be greatly reduced.
Acidity Oxidized oil normally produces CO2 and acids. The cellulose which is in the paper
insulation contains good amount of moisture. These form corrosive vapors. A good
breather can reduce the problems due to the formation of acids.
Flash point And Fire point Flash point of an oil is the temperature at which the oil
ignites spontaneously. This must be as high as possible (not less than 160◦ C from the
point of safety). Fire point is the temperature at which the oil flashes and continuously
burns. This must be very high for the chosen oil (not less than 200◦ C).
Inhibited oils and synthetic oils are therefore used in the transformers. Inhibited oils
contain additives which slow down the deterioration of properties under heat and moisture
and hence the degradation of oil. Synthetic transformer oil like chlorinated diphenyl has
excellent properties like chemical stability, non-oxidizing, good dielectric strength, moisture
repellant, reduced risk due fire and explosion.

It is therefore necessary to check the quality of the oil periodically and take corrective
steps to avoid major break downs in the transformer.

There are several other structural and insulating parts in a large transformer. These
are considered to be outside the scope here.

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Electrical Machines I

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Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

Ideal Transformer
Earlier it is seen that a voltage is induced in a coil when the flux linkage associated

with the same changed. If one can generate a time varying magnetic field any coil placed in
the field of influence linking the same experiences an induced emf. A time varying field can
be created by passing an alternating current through an electric coil. This is called mutual
induction. The medium can even be air. Such an arrangement is called air cored transformer.
Indeed such arrangements are used in very high frequency transformers. Even though the
principle of transformer action is not changed, the medium has considerable influence on the
working of such devices. These effects can be summarized as the followings.
1. The magnetizing current required to establish the field is very large, as the reluctance
of the medium is very high.
2. There is linear relationship between the mmf created and the flux produced.
3. The medium is non-lossy and hence no power is wasted in the medium.
4. Substantial amount of leakage flux exists.
5. It is very hard to direct the flux lines as we desire, as the whole medium is homogeneous.
If the secondary is not loaded the energy stored in the magnetic field finds its way
back to the source as the flux collapses. If the secondary winding is connected to a load then
part of the power from the source is delivered to the load through the magnetic field as a link.
The medium does not absorb and lose any energy. Power is required to create the field and
not to maintain the same. As the winding losses can be made very small by proper choice
of material, the ideal efficiency of a transformer approaches 100%. The large magnetizing
24

Sridhara Rao. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Primary Leakage flux x Secondary Mutual flux (a) Leakage flux X Primary Mutual flux Secondary Iron core (b) Figure 10: Mutual Induction a) air core b) iron core 25 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. P.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Krishna Vasudevan.

The magnetic medium is linear for low values of induction and exhibits saturation type of non-linearity at higher flux densities. However if now a piece of magnetic material is introduced to form the magnetic circuit Fig. The flux can be easily ‘directed’ as it takes the path through steel which gives great freedom for the designer in physical arrangement of the excitation and output windings. 6. Prof. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. To minimize the eddy current losses the steel core is required to be in the form of a stack of insulated laminations. 1. 10(b) the situation changes dramatically. As the medium is made of a conducting material eddy currents are induced in the same and produce losses. Sridhara Rao. From the above it is seen that the introduction of magnetic core to carry the flux introduced two more losses. These are called ‘eddy current losses’. Fortunately the losses due to hysteresis and eddy current for the available grades of steel is very small at power frequencies. Most of the flux lines are confined to iron path and hence the mutual flux is increased very much and leakage flux is greatly reduced. This can also be visualized as a dramatic increase in the flux produced for a given value of magnetizing current. Also the copper losses in the 26 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. 2. as the B-H characteristic is traversed. Krishna Vasudevan. The iron also has hysteresis type of non-linearity due to which certain amount of power is lost in the iron (in the form of hysteresis loss). 3. Due to the large value for the permeance ( µr of the order of 1000 as compared to air) the magnetizing current requirement decreases dramatically. 5. P. These can be enumerated as below. Sasidhara Rao current requirement is a major deterrent. 4.

Prof. initially certain idealizations are made and the resulting ‘ideal’ transformer is studied. In order to have better understanding of the behavior of the transformer. The primary and secondary are shown on the same limb and separately for clarity. Hysteresis loss is negligible. nor there is any ohmic drop in the electric circuit. In fact the practical transformers are very close to this model and hence no major departure is made in making these assumptions. Krishna Vasudevan. Fig. 2. Secondary can be connected to a load impedance for loading the transformer.Electrical Machines I Prof. a vanishingly small value of current I0 is enough to setup a flux which is finite. Sasidhara Rao winding due to magnetization current is reduced to an almost insignificant fraction of the full load losses. G. Magnetic circuit is linear and has infinite permeability. Hence steel core is used in power transformers. there is no leakage flux. 11 shows a two winding ideal transformer. Prof. The consequence is that a vanishingly small current is enough to establish the given flux. The primary winding has T1 turns and is connected to a voltage source of V1 volts. Windings do not have resistance. Since the reluctance of the iron path given by R = l/µAis zero as µ −→ ∞. The secondary has T2 turns. As all the flux generated confines itself to the iron. As a current I0 amps is passed through the primary winding of T1 turns it sets up an mmf of I0 T1 ampere which is in turn sets up a flux φ through the core. P. Sridhara Rao. This means that there are no copper losses. These idealizations are as follows: 1. As I0 establishes the field inside the transformer 27 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao io ~ µ φ 8 v1=V1mcosωt 0 + + T1 e1 i1 - i2 + + + T2 e2 v1=V1sinωt e1 e2 - + - (a)Unloaded machine (b) Circuit form µ φ 8 v1=V1cosωt i1 + + N T1 e1 - i2 + ZL T2 e2 - (c)Loaded machine Figure 11: Two winding Ideal Transformer unloaded and loaded 28 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. G.

Krishna Vasudevan. As v1 = e1 . Kirchoff’s law application to the loop will result in the same thing. This equation results in v1 = e1 or the induced emf must be same in magnitude to the applied voltage at every instant of time. e1 = dψ1 /dt but e1 = E1peak cos ωt ∴ E1 = V1 . at every instant of time. Reluctance l µA (9) This current is the result of a sinusoidal voltage V applied to the primary. Here ψ1peak is the peak value of the flux linkages of the primary. As the current through the loop is zero (or vanishingly small). Prof.ω. Writing this in terms of instantaneous values we have. It can be easily seen that the variation of flux linkages can be obtained as ψ1 = ψ1peak sin ωt.ω 2πf T1 φm √ √ = = 4. The negative sign is due to the application of the Lenz’s law and shows that it is in the form of a voltage drop.44f φmT1 2 2 29 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (11) (12) volts . Sridhara Rao. Prof. G. Thus the RMS primary induced emf is dψ1 d(ψ1peak sin ωt) = dt dt = ψ1peak . the sum of the voltages must be zero inside the same. f is the frequency of the supply. cos ωt or the rms value e1 = E1 = ψ1peak . v1 − e1 = 0 (10) where v1 is the instantaneous value of the applied voltage and e1 is the induced emf due to Faradays principle. F lux φ = mmf I0 T1 I0 T1 Aµ = l = .Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao it is called the magnetizing current of the transformer. Let v1 = V1peak cos ωt where V1peak is the peak value and ω = 2πf t.

. The same mutual flux links the secondary winding. if the primary is wound in clockwise sense and the secondary counter clockwise sense then if the top terminal of the first winding is at maximum potential the bottom terminal of the second winding would be at the peak potential.Electrical Machines I Prof. The induced emf in the secondary can be similarly obtained as . If the winding sense is opposite i. Sridhara Rao.φm . Krishna Vasudevan. cos ωt or the rms value e2 = 2πf T2 φm √ = 4. Similar problem arises even when the sense of winding is kept the same. P. Sasidhara Rao Here ψ1peak is the peak value of the flux linkages of the primary.44f φmT2 2 E2 = (13) (14) volt which yields the voltage ratio as T1 E1 = E2 T2 (15) I1 I2 + + V1 E1 E2 V2 - - Figure 12: Dot Convention The voltages E1 and E2 are obtained by the same mutual flux and hence they are in phase.e. However the magnitude of the flux linkages will be ψ2peak = T2 . Prof.ω. Prof. dψ2 d(ψ2peak sin ωt) = dt dt = ψ2peak . G. but the 30 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

Thus the transformer operates under constant induced emf mode. However this is detected by the primary immediately as both E2 and E1 tend to collapse. The current drawn from supply increases up to a point the flux in the core is restored back to its original value. (Fig. P. Sasidhara Rao two windings are on opposite limbs (due to the change in the direction of flux). 12). Similarly a current leaving the terminal with a dot demagnetizes the core. This can be established experimentally by means of a polarity test on the transformers. 12. Hence in the circuit representation of transformers a dot convention is adopted to indicate the terminals of the windings that go high (or low) together. 11(c). G. The demagnetizing mmf produced by the secondary is neutralized by additional magnetizing mmf produces by the primary leaving the mmf and flux in the core as in the case of no-load. an unloaded ideal transformer is considered. Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. So far. then the above equation can be written in phasor form as. Sridhara Rao. Thus. If now a load impedance ZL is connected across the terminals of the secondary winding a load current flows as marked in Fig. This load current produces a demagnetizing mmf and the flux tends to collapse. T2 or I¯1 = . (17) If the reference directions for the two currents are chosen as in the Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof. i1 T1 − i2 T2 = i0 T1 i2 T2 = i1 T1 but i0 → 0 (16) and the rms value I2 T2 = I1 T1 .I¯2 T1 T1 I2 = = E1 I1 = E2 I2 T2 I1 I¯1 T1 = I¯2 T2 Also E1 E2 31 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (18) (19) . At a particular instant of time if the current enters the terminal marked with a dot it magnetizes the core.

¯ = ( )2 . Prof.Z¯L T2 I2 T2 I1 (21) An impedance of ZL when viewed ‘through’ a transformer of turns ratio ( TT12 ) is seen as ( TT21 )2 . P. If an impedance of ZL is connected across the secondary. As 32 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. E¯2 I¯2 = ¯ ZL E¯2 or Z¯L = ¯ I2 (20) The input impedance under such conditions is E¯1 T1 E¯2 T1 Z¯i = ¯ = ( )2 . V1 E1 I2 E2 V2 I1 θ2 θ1 φ φ Figure 13: Phasor diagram of Operation of an Ideal Transformer Finally. the phasor diagram for the operation of the ideal transformer is shown in Fig. The transformer can be interposed in between a source and a load to ‘match’ the impedance. Transformer thus acts as an impedance converter.ZL . Krishna Vasudevan. G. Sasidhara Rao Thus voltage and current transformation ratio are inverse of one another.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. 13 in which θ1 and θ2 are power factor angles on the primary and secondary sides.

33 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Even though the isolation aspect is a desirable one its utility cannot be over emphasized. Prof. the transformer can be used for impedance matching. In the case of an ideal transformer the efficiency is 100% as there are no losses inside the device. Prof. from the study of the ideal transformer it is seen that the transformer provides electrical isolation between two coupled electric circuits while maintaining power invariance at its two ends. Sridhara Rao. It can be used to step up or step down the voltage/current at constant volt-ampere. Sasidhara Rao the transformer itself does not absorb any active or reactive power it is easy to see that θ1 = θ2 . Thus. G. P. Also. grounding of loads and one terminal of the transformer on the secondary/primary side are followed with the provision of leakage current detection devices to safe guard the persons working with the devices. However.

the current has to vary in 34 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. H = i. if these effects are removed from a working transformer what is left behind is an ideal transformer. Finite permeability of the magnetic circuit necessitates a finite value of the current to be drawn from the mains to produce the mmf required to establish the necessary flux. Prof. voltage regulation. H is the magnetizing force which is given by. Conversely. saturation. efficiency etc are important. B= φ A (22) where A is the area of cross section of the iron core m2 . But it cannot be used for the computation of the performance of a practical transformer due to the non-ideal nature of the practical transformer. T1 l (23) where l is the length of the magnetic path. Once saturation sets in. The current and mmf required is proportional to the flux density B that is required to be established in the core. Krishna Vasudevan.A = Aµ(iT1 ) l = permeance ∗ mmf (here that of primary) (24) The magnetizing force and the current vary linearly with the applied voltage as long as the magnetic circuit is not saturated. In a working transformer the performance aspects like magnetizing current.Electrical Machines I 5 Prof. Prof. hysteresis and winding resistances have to be added to an ideal transformer to make it a practical transformer. Sasidhara Rao Practical Transformer An ideal transformer is useful in understanding the working of a transformer. P. m. losses. or φ = B. Sridhara Rao. Hence the effects of the non-idealization like finite permeability. B = µH.

Frequency of operation. This non-linear current can be resolved into fundamental and harmonic currents. G. This current can be represented by a current drawn by an inductive reactance in the circuit as the net energy associated with the same over a cycle is zero. This is discussed to some extent under harmonics. These are given by the following expressions: Ph ∝ B 1. At present the effect of this non-linear behavior is neglected as a secondary effect.Electrical Machines I Prof. These losses arise out of hysteresis.Thickness of the laminations of the core. f . m. Sasidhara Rao a nonlinear manner to establish the flux of sinusoidal shape. Thus the no-load current I0 may be made up of Ic (loss component) and Im (magnetizing component 35 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The magnetic circuit being lossy absorbs and dissipates the power depending upon the flux density of operation. Watts B. Prof. Hz t . P. The magnetizing current Im is given by Im = E1 /Xm where Xm is called the magnetizing reactance. constant frequency operation B is constant and so are these losses.Flux density of operation Tesla. The energy absorbed when the current increases is returned to the electric circuit when the current collapses to zero. Prof. This current is called the magnetizing current of the transformer. Krishna Vasudevan. Hence the current drawn from the mains is assumed to be purely sinusoidal and directly proportional to the flux density of operation.6 f (25) Pe ∝ B 2 f 2 t2 (26) Ph -Hysteresis loss. eddy current inside the magnetic core. For a constant voltage. Sridhara Rao. An active power consumption by the no-load current can be represented in the input circuit as a resistance Rc connected in parallel to the magnetizing reactance Xm .

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

as )
I¯0 = I¯c − j I¯m

(27)

Ic2 Rc – gives the total core losses (i.e. hysteresis + eddy current loss)
2
Im
Xm - Reactive volt amperes consumed for establishing the mutual flux.

Finite µ of the magnetic core makes a few lines of flux take to a path through the air.
Thus these flux lines do not link the secondary winding. It is called as leakage flux. As the
path of the leakage flux is mainly through the air the flux produced varies linearly with the
primary current I1 . Even a large value of the current produces a small value of flux. This
flux produces a voltage drop opposing its cause, which is the current I1 . Thus this effect of
the finite permeability of the magnetic core can be represented as a series inductive element
jxl1 . This is termed as the reactance due to the primary leakage flux. As this leakage flux
varies linearly with I1 , the flux linkages per ampere and the primary leakage inductance
are constant (This is normally represented by ll1 Henry). The primary leakage reactance
therefore becomes
xl1 = 2πf ll1

ohm

(28)

A similar effect takes place on the secondary side when the transformer is loaded.
The secondary leakage reactance jxl2 arising out of the secondary leakage inductance ll2 is
given by

xl2 = 2πf ll2

(29)

Finally, the primary and secondary windings are wound with copper (sometimes aluminium in small transformers) conductors; thus the windings have a finite resistance (though
36

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

I1
V1

r1

jxl1

φ

I’2

Io

+

~

Rc

-

+

jXm

E1

T1

-

r2

jxl2

I2
+

ZL

V2

T2

E2
-

(a)Physical arrangement

I1

r1

jXl1

I’2

Ic
V1

Rc

r2 jXl2
I2

Io

Im

E1

jXm

E2

(b)Equivalent circuit

Figure 14: A Practical Transformer

37

ZL V2

Electrical Machines I

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan, Prof. G. Sridhara Rao, Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao

small). This is represented as a series circuit element, as the power lost and the drop produced in the primary and secondary are proportional to the respective currents. These are
represented by r1 and r2 respectively on primary and secondary side. A practical transformer
sans these imperfections (taken out and represented explicitly in the electric circuits) is an

ideal transformer of turns ratio T1 : T2 (voltage ratio E1 : E2 ). This is seen in Fig. 14. I2
in the circuit represents the primary current component that is required to flow from the
mains in the primary T1 turns to neutralize the demagnetizing secondary current I2 due to
the load in the secondary turns. The total primary current

vectorially is I¯1 = I¯2 + I¯0

Here I2 T1 = I2 T2

(30)

or I2 = I2

T2
T1

T2
Thus I¯1 = I¯2 + I¯0
T1

(31)
(32)

By solving this circuit for any load impedance ZL one can find out the performance of the

The circuit shown in Fig. 14(b). However, it is not very convenient for use due to
the presence of the ideal transformer of turns ratio T1 : T2 . If the turns ratio could be made
unity by some transformation the circuit becomes very simple to use. This is done here by
replacing the secondary by a ‘hypothetical’ secondary having T1 turns which is ‘equivalent ’
to the physical secondary. The equivalence implies that the ampere turns, active and reactive
power associated with both the circuits must be the same. Then there is no change as far
as their effect on the primary is considered. Thus

V2 = aV2 ,
where a -turns ratio

I2 =

I2
,
a

r2 = a2 r2 ,

T1
T2

38

xl2 = a2 xl2

ZL = a2 ZL .

G. Sridhara Rao. aE2 = aV2 + aI2 (r2 + jxl2 ) Substituting in Eqn. 15. It is also possible to refer all the primary parameters to secondary by making the hypothetical equivalent primary winding on the input side having the number of turns to be T2 .33 we have 39 Indian Institute of Technology Madras but aE2 = E1 (36) . Such an equivalent circuit having all the parameters referred to the secondary side is shown in fig. Referring to fig. ??(a). with equal ease. P. we have (by neglecting the shunt branch) V1 = E1 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) (33) E2 = V2 + I2 (r2 + jxl2 ) (34) T1 I0 = T1 I1 + T2 I2 = − a = or I1 = − I2 + I0 a (35) I2 + Ic + Im a T1 . 14(a). The equivalent circuit can be derived. As the ideal transformer in this case has a turns ratio of unity the potentials on either side are the same and hence they may be conductively connected dispensing away with the ideal transformer.34 by ‘a’ [This makes the turns ratio unity and retains the power invariance]. T2 Multiply both sides of Eqn. This particular equivalent circuit is as seen from the primary side. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. analytically using the Kirchoff’s equations applied to the primary and secondary. Prof. Sasidhara Rao This equivalent circuit is as shown in Fig.

(Shown in fig. Sasidhara Rao V1 = aV2 + aI2 (r2 + jxl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) ′ = V2 + I1 (a2 r2 + ja2 xl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) ′ ′ ′ = V2 + I1 (r1 + r2 + jxl1 + xl2 ) (37) A similar procedure can be used to refer all parameters to secondary side. Sridhara Rao. 15. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. Krishna Vasudevan. P.) r’1 jx’l1 r2 I’1 jxl2 I2 I’o I’c R’c V’1 I’m jX’m ZL V2 Figure 15: Equivalent Circuit Referred to the Secondary Side 40 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof.

Electrical Machines I 6 Prof. Prof. G. 16(b)) is usually used. Krishna Vasudevan. This circuit can be used for the analysis of the behavior of the transformers. Sridhara Rao. which may be further 41 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .approximate and simplified equivalent circuits The resulting equivalent circuit as shown in Fig. 16 is known as the exact equivalent circuit. P. As the no-load current is less than 1% of the load current a simplified circuit known as ‘approximate’ equivalent circuit (see Fig. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Phasor diagrams r1 I1 r’2 jxl1 Io Ic Im Rc V1 jx’l2 jXm V’2 Z’L R jX (a) I1 Ic V1 Rc r1 I’2 Io jxl1 r’2 jx’l2 I1 I’2 R=r1+r’2 Im Z’L jxm V’2 x=xl1+x’l2 V’2 V1 I1=I’2 (b) (c) Figure 16: Exact.

42 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The equivalent primary current ′ I2 is added vectorially to I0 to yield I1 . the magnetizing and loss components of the currents can be easily represented. I1 (r1 + jxl1 )is added to E1 to yield V1 . The position of the E2 vector is known from the flux phasor. V2 should also satisfy the Kirchoff’s equation for the secondary. This is represented in Fig. Hence it is assumed that the phasor φ is known. Once I0 is known. Krishna Vasudevan. Rest of the construction of the phasor diagram then becomes routine.Electrical Machines I Prof. But the angle θ2 is defined with respect to the terminal voltage V2 and not E2 . Next we proceed to draw the phasor diagram corresponding to a loaded transformer. the drop that takes place in the primary resistance and series reactance can be obtained which when added to E1 gives uniquely the position of V1 which satisfies all other parameters. Sridhara Rao. Magnitude of I2 and the load power factor angle θ2 are assumed to be known. Sasidhara Rao simplified to the one shown in Fig. G. By trial and error the position of I2 and V2 are determined. The positions of the current and induced emf phasor are not known uniquely if we start from the phasor V1 . This is shown in fig. 16(c). Prof. P. The E1 and E2 phasor are then uniquely known. 17(b) as phasor diagram for a loaded transformer. Prof. On similar lines to the ideal transformer the phasor diagram of operation can be drawn for a practical transformer also. 17(a) as phasor diagram on no-load. Now.

Krishna Vasudevan. P. Sridhara Rao. Prof. Sasidhara Rao V1 IoX l1 Ior1 E1 E2 Io φ Il Im φ (a)No-load V1 I1X l1 E1 I1r1 E2 I2x2 I r 2 2 I2 V2 I’2 Il Io φ (b)On-load Figure 17: Phasor Diagram of a Practical Transformer 43 Indian Institute of Technology Madras φ . Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. G.

There are several tests that can be done on the transformer. In order to get the equivalent circuit parameters test methods are heavily depended upon. P. more commonly feasible with high voltage windings. 44 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .c. The ratio gives the winding resistance. From the analysis of the equivalent circuit one can determine the electrical parameters. resistance by applying skin effect corrections. Krishna Vasudevan.c voltage to the winding and measuring the current through the same. G. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao Testing of Transformers The structure of the circuit equivalent of a practical transformer is developed earlier. But for a user these are not available most of the times. Prof. For low voltage windings a resistance-bridge method can be used. The performance parameters of interest can be obtained by solving that circuit for any load conditions. The equivalent circuit parameters are available to the designer of the transformers from the various expressions that he uses for designing the transformers. But if the temperature rise of the transformer is required. From the d.Electrical Machines I 7 Prof. 7.c resistance one can get the a. Prof. however a few common ones are discussed here. then test method is the most dependable one. Also when a transformer is rewound with different primary and secondary windings the equivalent circuit also changes.1 Winding resistance test This is nothing but the resistance measurement of the windings by applying a small d.

The transformer is connected to a low voltage a. G. 18(a). It is the voltage rising from smaller number towards larger ones in each winding. If the voltage rises from A1 to A2 in the primary. at any instant it does so from a1 to a2 in the secondary. The beginning and end of the primary and secondary may then be marked by A1 − A2 and a1 − a2 respectively. a5 . A supply voltage Vs is applied to the primary and the readings of the voltmeters V1 . The same thing holds good if more secondaries are present. The dot method discussed earlier is used to indicate the polarities. P. V1 : V2 gives the turns ratio. Prof.c methods can be used for detecting the polarities of the induced emfs.c.test Figure 18: Polarity Test 7. Sridhara Rao. Prof.2 Polarity Test This is needed for identifying the primary and secondary phasor polarities. It is a must for poly phase connections. V2 and V3 are noted.c. a4 . 45 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .C.Electrical Machines I Prof.test a1 (b)D. Both a. and d. a6 . source with the connections made as shown in the fig. If more secondary terminals are present due to taps taken from the windings they can be labeled as a3 . Sasidhara Rao V3 S A2 Vs ~ a2 a2 V1 + V2 A2 + V - A1 a1 A1 (a)A. Krishna Vasudevan.C. If V3 reads V1 −V2 then assumed dot locations are correct (for the connection shown).

The active component Ic of the no load current I0 46 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Let these meters read V1 . P. with a moving coil meter. Sasidhara Rao Fig. G. 7. In Fig. Krishna Vasudevan. A. If the meter kicks back the assumed polarity is wrong.c. 19(a) V. 19(b) shows the equivalent circuit of the transformer under this test. I0 and W0 respectively. The no load current at rated voltage is less than 1 percent of nominal current and hence the loss and drop that take place in primary impedance r1 + jxl1 due to the no load current I0 is negligible. When the switch S is closed if the secondary voltage shows a positive reading. method of testing the polarity. Prof. Sridhara Rao.Fig. ammeter and wattmeter respectively. the secondary is kept open circuited and nominal value of the input voltage is applied to the primary winding and the input current and power are measured.3 Open Circuit Test W A V1 Io V2 V Im V1 jXm Ic Rc (a)Physical Arrangement (b)Equivalent Circuit Figure 19: No Load Test As the name suggests. the assumed polarity is correct. Prof. W are the voltmeter.Electrical Machines I Prof. 18(b) shows the d.

If the secondary voltage is low. Prof. Sasidhara Rao represents the core losses and reactive current Im is the current needed for the magnetization. Thus the watt meter reading W0 = V1 Ic = Pcore W0 V q1 = I02 − Ic2 (38) ∴ Ic = ∴ Im Rc = V1 Ic (39) or andXm = (40) V1 Im (41) V1 Io Figure 20: Open Circuit Characteristics The parameters measured already are in terms of the primary. Prof. P. 47 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In this case the parameters that are obtained are in terms of LV . These have to be referred to HV side if we need the equivalent circuit referred to HV side. G.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sometimes the primary voltage required may be in kilo-Volts and it may not be feasible to apply nominal voltage to primary from the point of safety to personnel and equipment. one can perform the test with LV side energized keeping the HV side open circuited. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan.

Electrical Machines I Prof. 21(b).4 Short Circuit Test The purpose of this test is to determine the series branch parameters of the equiv- alent circuit of Fig. After this value is chosen as the nominal value the parameters are calculated as mentioned above. The usual operating point selected for operation lies at some standard voltage around the knee point of the characteristic. The supply voltage required to circulate rated current through the transformer is usually very small and is of the order of a few percent of the nominal voltage. As the name suggests. ′ 2 Wsc = Isc (r1 + r2 ) Vsc I qsc ′ 2 − (r + r ′ )2 (xl1 + xl2 ) = Zsc 1 2 Zsc = 48 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (42) (43) (44) . Let these values be Vsc . Therefore Wsc is the sum of the copper losses in primary and secondary put together. G. Isc and Wsc respectively. P. 20. Also I1 = I2 as I0 ≃ 0. which is a graph showing the applied voltage as a function of the no load current. the current and power input are measured keeping the secondary terminals short circuited. or in doubt. This is a non linear curve as shown in Fig. In such cases an open circuit characteristics is first obtained. keeping the secondary open circuited. The shunt branch ′ is thus assumed to be absent. Sasidhara Rao Sometimes the nominal value of high voltage itself may not be known. in this test primary applied voltage. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. This graph is obtained by noting the current drawn by transformer at different applied voltage. 7. Sridhara Rao. Prof. The excitation current which is only 1 percent or less even at rated voltage becomes negligibly small during this test and hence is neglected. The reactive power consumed is that absorbed by the leakage reactance of the two windings. especially in a rewound transformer.

Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao W A Vsc V (a)Physical Arrangement Isc r1 jxl1 r’2 Vsc (b)Equivalent Circuit Figure 21: Short Circuit Test 49 Indian Institute of Technology Madras jx’l2 . P. G. Prof.

full load copper losses and assumed stray load losses. An equiv52 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . By this method even though one can pump in equivalent loss inside the transformer. Sridhara Rao. Therefore this test comes close to a load test but does not replace one. G. 22. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Suitable voltage is injected into the loop formed by the two secondaries such that full load current passes through them. The short circuit current is so chosen that the resulting loss taking place inside the transformer is equivalent to the sum of the iron losses. W 1 A Io Io 2Io V1 V I’2 A Vs I2 W I2 I’2 2 V Figure 22: Back to Back Test . The windings are connected back to back as shown in Fig. the actual distribution of this loss vastly differs from that taking place in reality. Sasidhara Rao In the equivalent loss method a short circuit test is done on the transformer. P. Prof.Phantom Loading In Phantom loading method two identical transformers are needed.Electrical Machines I Prof.

Also different units of measurement are in use in the different countries (FPS. voltage ratios can be seen being used in a power system. The units must be the same for both the parameters and their bases. CGS. Thus the per unit value is a unit-less dimensionless number. If the transformer parameter can be freed from the units then the system becomes very simple. Sasidhara Rao Per Unit Calculations As stated earlier. Once the base values are identified the per unit values are calculated for any parameter by dividing the same by its base value. etc. The ‘per unit’ system is developed keeping these aspects in mind. MKS. Also the comparison of these machines are made simple if all the parameters are normalized. Prof. Some base parameters can be chosen as independent base values while some others become derived base parameters. If simple scaling of the parameters is done then one has to carry forward the scaling factors in the calculations. Prof. Expressing in percent basis is one example of scaling. These units also underwent several revisions over the years. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. G. transformers of various sizes.Electrical Machines I 8 Prof.). However if the scaling is done on a logical basis one can have a simple representation of the parameters without the bother of the scaling factors. In the case of individual equipments. Let us choose nominal voltage and nominal current on the primary side of a transformer as the base values Vbase and Ibase . its own nominal parameters are used as base values. Other base values like volt ampere Sbase . ratings. short circuit impedance Zbase can be 54 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The parameters of the equivalent circuits of these machines also vary over a large range. P. In the case of power system a common base value is adopted in view of different ratings of the equipments used. The parameters of the transformer are referred to some base values and thus get scaled.

old on the old base of Sbaseold and Vbaseold shall get modified on new base Sbasenew . Qbase . An impedance Zp. Pbase .u = Ip. Prof. Sbase = Vbase ∗ Ibase (45) Rbase .u Z(ohm) Ibase Sbase = = Z(ohm) ∗ = Z(ohm). Bbase . V (volt) . Vbase (volt) I(amps) I(Amps) = Sbase = Ibase (amps) V Vp.u.u. G. 2 Zbase (ohm) Vbase Vbase (49) Many times. Parameters of all the machines are expressed on this common base. P. Sasidhara Rao calculated from those values. Zbase = (46) Gbase .Vbasenew as Zp. This is a common problem encountered in the case of parallel operation of two or more transformers.old.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. If all the equivalent circuit parameters are referred to the secondary side and per unit values of the new equivalent circuit parameters are computed with secondary voltage and 55 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The conversion of the base values naturally lead to change in the per unit values of their parameters.u (48) base Zp. when more transformers are involved in a circuit one is required to choose a common base value for all of them. 2 Vbase Sbase old old ) Sbase 2 Vbase new (50) new The term inside the bracket is nothing but the ohmic value of the impedance and this gets converted into the new per unit value by the new Sbase and Vbase . Ybase (47) Vbase Ibase Ibase = Vbase Normally Sbase and Vbase are known from name plate details.new = (Zp.u. Other base values can be derived from them. Krishna Vasudevan. Xbase . Prof.

Sasidhara Rao current as the base values.u. Prof. Comparison of the parameters of the machines with those of similar ones throw in useful information about the machines. a1 ′ From the above relationships it can be seen that Zp. Sridhara Rao. The veracity of the parameters can be readily checked. This can be easily seen by. This is further illustrated by taking the equivalent circuit of a transformer derived earlier and expressing the same in per unit form.Electrical Machines I Prof. Application of per unit values for the calculation of voltage regulation. This becomes obvious if we realize that the mmf of the core for establishing a given flux is the same whether it is supplied through primary or the secondary.resistance has higher copper losses without actually computing the same. = Zp. S = Zohm . Comparing the efficiencies of two transformers at any load one can say that the transformer with a higher p. Prof. efficiency and load sharing of parallel connected transformers will be discussed later at appropriate places.impedance as seen by primary.as the transformer rating is unaltered. base ′2 Vbase ′ ′ but Zohm = 1 . ′ Sbase = Sbase . ′ Vbase = Vbase .is the turns ratio of primary to secondary Z . G.u. Thus the per unit values help in dispensing away the scaling constants.impedance as seen by secondary. ′ Z . ′ ′ Zp. there is no change in the per unit values. Also the active power and reactive power absorbed inside the transformer are not dependant on the winding connected to supply.u. 56 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan.u.Zohm a2 (51) Where a . P..

G.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao Re jXe I’2 V1 V’2 (a) Equivalent Circuit V1 A O θ B I2’Xe V’2 φ I2’Re I2’ (b)Phasor Diagram Figure 23: Regulation of Transformer 59 Indian Institute of Technology Madras D C E . Sridhara Rao. Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. P.

Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. G.Electrical Machines I Prof.(Re + jXe ) (56) = V2 + I2 (cos φ − j sin φ)(Re + jXe ) ′ q |V1 | − |V2 | ∴ RegulationR = = (1 + v1 )2 + v22 − 1 ′ |V2 | (1 + v1 )2 + v22 ≃ (1 + v1 )2 + v22 .power factor angle. e θ. ′ ′ V1 = I2 (Re + jXe ) + V2 p OD = V1 = [OA + AB + BC]2 + [CD]2 q ′ ′ ′ ′ ′ = [V2 + I2 Re cos φ + I2 Xe sin φ]2 + [I2 Xe cos φ − I2 Re sin φ]2 (54) (55) φ . Prof. P.internal impedance angle=tan−1 X Re Also. Sasidhara Rao ′ I1 = I2 . v2 v22 − 1 ≃ v1 + 2 2(1 + e1 ) 2 (ex sin φ − er cos φ)2 ∴ regulation R = er cos φ ± ex sin φ + 2 ∴ R ≃ 1 + v1 + 60 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (61) (62) . (57) 2(1 + v1 ) v22 v22 +[ ]2 = (1 + v1 + )2 (58) 2(1 + v1 ) 2(1 + v1 ) 2(1 + v1 ) Taking the square root q (1 + v1 )2 + v22 = 1 + v1 + (59) v22 2(1 + v1 ) (60) where v1 = er cos φ + ex sin φ and v2 = ex cos φ − er sin φ ′ er = I2 Re ′ =per V2 unit resistance drop ′ ex = I2 Xe ′ =per V2 unit reactance drop as v1 and v2 are small. Sridhara Rao. ′ ′ ′ ′ V1 = V2 + I2 .

(1 − v1 ) ≃ 2(1 + v1 ) 2 (1 − v12 ) 2 2 (63) Powers higher than 2 for v1 and v2 are negligible as v1 and v2 are already small. As v2 is small its second power may be neglected as a further approximation and the expression for the regulation of the transform boils down to regulation R = er cos φ ± ex sin φ The negative sign is applicable when the power factor is leading.u )2 + (sin φ + Xp. Sasidhara Rao v22 (1 − v1 ) v22 v22 v22 ≃ . Sridhara Rao. the full load regulation becomes zero when the power factor is leading and er cos φ = ex sin φ or tan φ = er /ex or the power factor angle φ = tan−1 (er /ex ) = tan−1 (Re /Xe ) leading. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. the value of the regulation is maximum at a power factor angle φ = tan−1 (ex /er ) = tan−1 (Xe /Re ) lagging. OD 2 = (OA + AB)2 + (BC + CD)2 ′ ′ ′ (64) ′ = (V2 cos φ + I2 Re )2 + (V2 sin φ + I2 Xe )2 (65) ′ OD − V2 OD ∴ RegulationR = = ′ −1 ′ V2 V2 s ′ ′ 2 ′ ′ 2 (V2 cos φ + I2 Re ) (V sin φ + I2 Xe ) + 2 −1 ′ ′ V2 V2 q 2 = (cos φ + Rp. We have.u) −1 61 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (66) (67) (68) . 24. Here the phasor are resolved along the current axis and normal to it. Similarly. G. P. It can be seen from the above expression. Prof. ≃ . An alternative expression for the regulation of a transformer can be derived by the method shown in Fig.

25 that the full load regulation at unity power factor is nothing but the percentage resistance of the transformer. Sasidhara Rao V1 I2’Xe V2 O D θ φ I2’Re I2’ C A B Figure 24: An Alternate Method for the Calculation of Regulation Thus this expression may not be as convenient as the earlier one due to the square root involved. through unity power factor. It is seen from Fig. P. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. Fig. Prof. 62 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . In small transformers the designer tends to keep the Xe very low (less than 5%) so that the regulation performance of the transformer is satisfactory. 25 shows the variation of full load regulation of a typical transformer as the power factor is varied from zero power factor leading. Only with low power factor loads the drop in the series impedance of the transformer contributes substantially to the regulation. It is therefore very small and negligible. Prof. to zero power factor lagging. G.Electrical Machines I Prof.

P. G.Electrical Machines I Prof.5 0 lagging -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 Figure 25: Variation of Full Load Regulation with Power Factor 63 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Prof. Prof.0 0.5 0. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao 5 4 3 %Regulation 2 power factor 1 leading 0 1.

in large transformers the short circuit impedance is made high to give better short circuit protection to the transformer which results in poorer regulation performance. the voltage regulation is not a serious issue. In other cases care has to be exercised in the selection of the short circuit impedance as it affects the voltage regulation. so that the turns ratio can be changed. 64 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This in turn results in large mechanical forces on the winding. So. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. In the case of transformers provided with taps on windings. Prof. G. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao A low value of the short circuit impedance /reactance results in a large short circuit current in case of a short circuit.

Prof. a certain fraction of the input power gets lost inside the machine while handling the power. G. Except in the case of an ideal machine. 26 The losses that take place inside the machine expressed as a fraction of the input is some times termed as deficiency. Therefore the losses that take place inside a transformer at any 66 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . It is nothing but the product of the applied voltage and the current drawn.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. As the reactive power shuttles between the source and the load and has a zero average value over a cycle of the supply wave it does not have any direct effect on the efficiency. The actual power delivered is a function of the power factor at which this current is drawn. P. Prof. In the case of a.5 x 1 Figure 26: Efficiency A typical curve for the variation of efficiency as a function of output is given in Fig. Sasidhara Rao 100 Efficiency% 75 50 25 0 0. Thus the value for the efficiency is always less than one.c. machines the rating is expressed in terms of apparent power. The reactive power however increases the current handled by the machine and the losses resulting from it. Sridhara Rao.

The Hysteresis loss is a function of the material used for the core. Prof.Hysteresis loss and Eddy current loss. The losses taking place inside a transformer can be enumerated as below: 1. Sasidhara Rao given load play a vital role in determining the efficiency. Sridhara Rao. G. Primary and secondary copper losses take place in the respective winding resistances due to the flow of the current in them.Electrical Machines I Prof.6 f 67 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The iron losses contain two components . Ph = Kh B 1. P. the skin effect is harder to get analytically. ′ Pc = I12 r1 + I22 r2 = I22 Re (70) The primary and secondary resistances differ from their d.c. While the average temperature rise can be approximately used. Primary copper loss 2. Secondary copper loss 3. Stray load loss These are explained in sequence below. Krishna Vasudevan. Iron loss 4. The short circuit test gives the value of Re taking into account the skin effect. values due to skin effect and the temperature rise of the windings. Prof. Dielectric loss 5.

Sasidhara Rao For constant voltage and constant frequency operation this can be taken to be constant. The stray load losses are very low in air-cored transformers due to the absence of the metallic tank.25 mm thickness and are capable of operation at 2 Tesla. Krishna Vasudevan. The eddy current loss in the core arises because of the induced emf in the steel lamination sheets and the eddies of current formed due to it. Thus they take place ’all round’ the transformer instead of a definite place . In the case of low voltage transformers this can be neglected. The sum of hysteresis and eddy current losses can be obtained by the open circuit test. the eddy current loss can be reduced by reducing the thickness of the lamination. This can also be estimated experimentally. These leakage fluxes link the metallic structural parts. Prof. Prof. This loss also remains constant due to constant voltage and frequency of operation. and produce eddy current losses in them. P. Also the leakage flux is directly proportional to the load current unlike the mutual flux which is proportional to the applied voltage. As the lamination thickness is much smaller than the depth of penetration of the field. 68 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . These reduce the eddy current losses in the core. The stray load losses arise out of the leakage fluxes of the transformer. The dielectric losses take place in the insulation of the transformer due to the large electric stress. Pe = Ke B 2 f 2 t2 where t is the thickness of the steel lamination used. hence the name ’stray’.Electrical Machines I Prof. Present day laminations are of 0. G. Hence this loss is called ’stray load’ loss. It can be modeled by another resistance in the series branch in the equivalent circuit. tank etc. Sridhara Rao. For constant voltage operation this can be assumed to be a constant. This again produces a power loss Pe in the lamination.

P. Sasidhara Rao 50 50 Power Loss % 100 Load % of full load 100 s P 6 12 Time.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.hrs 18 24 24 12 (a)Load factor (b) Loss factor Figure 27: Calculation of Load Factor and Loss Factor 71 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. G. Sridhara Rao. Prof.

If the load cycle is known at this stage. Prof. G. The constant losses and variable losses are capitalized and added to the material cost of the transformer in order to select the most competitive one. Sasidhara Rao The concept of minimizing the lost energy comes into effect right from the time of procurement of the transformer. P. Prof. 73 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . it can also be incorporated in computation of the best transformer. which gives minimum cost taking initial cost and running cost put together. Obviously the iron losses are capitalized more in the process to give an effect to the maximization of energy efficiency.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao.

Sridhara Rao. 28 shows the physical arrangement of an auto transformer. which is proportional to the flux in the machine. The currents drawn by these two windings are out of phase by 180◦ .Electrical Machines I 11 Prof. As the volts per turn. Total number of turns between A and C are T1 . Fig. Sasidhara Rao Auto Transformer I1 C T1 V1 B I2 T2 V2 ZL I2 A I1 Figure 28: Autotransformer . V1 : V2 = T1 : T2 (76) For simplifying analysis. 74 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. This is equivalent to fusing the secondary turns into primary turns. At point B a connection is taken. Prof. Prof. Section AB has T2 turns. the magnetizing current of the transformer is neglected. is the same for the whole winding. This prompted the use of a part of the primary as secondary. P. Krishna Vasudevan.Physical Arrangement The primary and secondary windings of a two winding transformer have induced emf in them due to a common mutual flux and hence are in phase. The fused section need to have a cross sectional area of the conductor to carry (I2 −I1 ) ampere! This ingenious thought led to the invention of an auto transformer.

This ratio therefore denotes the savings in copper. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. As T2 approaches T1 the savings become significant. To quantify the saving the total quantity of copper used in an auto transformer is expressed as a fraction of that used in a two winding transformer as. Thus some amount of material saving can be achieved compared to a two winding transformer. Thus auto transformers become ideal choice for close ratio transformations. the window space can be less for an auto transformer. The larger the ratio of the voltages. The current in the winding between A and B is (I2 − I1 ) ampere. smaller is the savings. at a price. This will be countered by a current I1 flowing from the source through the T1 turns such that. however. P. G. The magnetic circuit is assumed to be identical and hence there is no saving in the same. Sasidhara Rao When the secondary winding delivers a load current of I2 ampere the demagnetizing ampere turns is I2 T2 . I1 T1 = I2 T2 (77) A current of I1 ampere flows through the winding between B and C . Prof. As the space for the second winding need not be there. The cross section of the wire to be selected for AB is proportional to this current assuming a constant current density for the whole winding. giving some saving in the lamination weight also. Prof. The electrical isolation between primary and secondary 75 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The savings in material is obtained.Electrical Machines I Prof. copper in auto transf ormer (T1 − T2 )I1 + T2 (I2 − I1 ) = copper in two winding transf ormer T1 I1 + T2 I2 2T2 I1 = 1− T1 I1 + T2 I2 But T1 I1 = T2 I2 ∴ The Ratio = 1− T2 2T2 I1 =1− 2T1 I1 T1 (78) (79) (80) This means that an auto transformer requires the use of lesser quantity of copper given by the ratio of turns.

to obtain higher output. Krishna Vasudevan. the volt ampere rating being V1 I1 = V2 I2 = S. P. If we are not looking at the savings in the material. The new output of this auto transformer will now be V1 V1 ) = S(1 + ) V2 V2 I2 = V1 (I1 + I2 ) = S(1 + ) I1 I2 (V1 + V2 ) = I2 V2 (1 + 76 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (81) (82) . even then going in for the auto transformer type of connection can be used with advantage. the output voltage becomes (V1 + V2 ) volt. Fig. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. G. Sasidhara Rao I1+I2 I1 φ I2 I2 V2 V1 V1+V2 I1+I2 ZL I1 I2 Figure 29: Two Winding Transformer used as auto transformer has to be sacrificed. This can be illustrated as follows. Prof. 29 shows a regular two winding transformer of a voltage ratio V1 : V2 . If now the primary is connected across a supply of V1 volt and the secondary is connected in series addition manner with the primary winding.

Prof.1 Equivalent circuit I1 r1. The windings can be connected in series opposition fashion also. Then the new output rating will be I2 (V1 − V2 ) = I2 V2 ( V1 V1 − 1) = S( − 1) V2 V2 (83) The differential connection is not used as it is not advantageous as the cumulative connection.Electrical Machines I Prof.xl1 I1 I2 V1 r2. P. for simplicity. Prof. G.xl2 V2 (I2 -I1) I1 I2 Figure 30: Kirchoff’s Law Application to auto transformer As mentioned earlier the magnetizing current can be neglected. Sridhara Rao. Writing 77 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sasidhara Rao Thus an increased rating can be obtained compared to a two winding transformer with the same material content. Krishna Vasudevan. 11.

31 where Re = r1 + (a − 1)2 r2 and Xe = xl1 + (a − 1)2 xl2 . Sridhara Rao. The above equivalent circuit can now be compared with the approximate equivalent circuit of a two winding case Re = r1 + a2 r2 and Xe = xl1 + a2 xl2 . That is because 78 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thus in the case of an auto transformer total value of the short circuit impedance is lower and so also the percentage resistance and reactance. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sasidhara Rao the Kirchoff’s equation to the primary and secondary of Fig. 30 we have V1 = E1 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) − (I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) (84) Note that the resistance r1 and leakage reactance xl1 refer to that part of the winding where only the primary current flows. Prof. Thus the full load regulation is lower. P. G. Having a smaller value of short circuit impedance is sometimes considered to be a disadvantage. E2 = V2 + (I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) (85) The voltage ratio V1 : V2 = E1 : E2 = T1 : T2 = a where T1 is the total turns of the primary. Similarly on the load side we have. Then E1 = aE2 and I2 = aI1 multiplying equation(84) by ’a’ and substituting in (83) we have V1 = aV2 + a(I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) + I1 (r1 + jxl1 ) − (I2 − I1 )(r2 + jxl2 ) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 + r2 + jxl2 − ar2 − ajxl 2) + I2 (ar2 + jaxl2 − r2 − jxl2 ) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + jxl1 + r2 + jxl2 + a2 r2 + ja2 xl2 − ar2 − ajxl2 − ar2 − jaxl2 ) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + r2 (1 + a2 − 2a) + jxl1 + xl2 (1 + a2 − 2a)) = aV2 + I1 (r1 + (a − 1)2 r2 + jxl1 + (a − 1)2 xl2 ) (86) Equation (85) yields the equivalent circuit of Fig. Krishna Vasudevan. The magnetization branch can now be hung across the mains for completeness.

Prof. The magnetizing current is omitted here again for simplicity. 32. P. Sridhara Rao. 79 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Reactance is reduced resulting in better regulation characteristics. The price that is required to be paid is loss of electrical isolation and a larger short circuit current (and larger short circuit forces on the winding). All these benefits are enhanced as the voltage ratio approaches unity. G. The losses are reduced increasing the efficiency. From the foregoing study it is seen that there are several advantages in going in for the autotransformer type of arrangement.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Re jXe Re=r1+(a-1)2r2 Xl=xl1+(a-1)2xl2 Io Ic V1 Rc Im jXm V’2=aV1 Figure 31: Equivalent Circuit of auto transformers the short circuit currents become very large in those cases. Krishna Vasudevan. The efficiency is higher in auto transformers compared to their two winding counter part at the same load. The voltage/current transformation and impedance conversion aspects of a two winding transformer are retained but with lesser material (and hence lesser weight) used. The phasor diagram of operation for the auto transformer drawing a load current at a lagging power factor angle of θ2 is shown in Fig.

Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Sasidhara Rao I1x1 (I2-I1)r2 I1r1 (I2-I1)x2 V1 I2 E1 E2 I1 (I2-I1)x2 (I2-I1)r2 V2 θ2 θ1 I2 φ Figure 32: Phasor Diagram of Operation of an autotransformer 80 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Prof. Sridhara Rao. G.

Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan.3 or more they are used with advantage. P.c output V in M oving contact Figure 33: Variable Secondary Voltage Arrangement Another wide spread application of auto transformer type of arrangement is in obtaining a variable a. The secondary voltage is tapped by a brush whose position and hence the output voltage is variable. Sridhara Rao.c. Variable a. When the ratio V2 : V1 is 0. Prof. The normal applications are motor starters. 33.c. Such arrangement cannot exploit the savings in the copper as the output voltage is required right from zero volts upwards. The conductor is selected based on the maximum secondary current that could be drawn as the output voltage varies in practically continuous manner. Here only one winding is used as in the auto transformer. G. Prof. voltage supply. These are used in 81 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The primary conductor is bared to facilitate electrical contact Fig. voltage from a fixed a. boosters or static balancers. Sasidhara Rao Auto transformers are used in applications where electrical isolation is not a critical requirement.

Krishna Vasudevan. arrangements (with a diode bridge) in laboratories.c.Electrical Machines I Prof. dimmers etc. Sasidhara Rao voltage stabilizers. 82 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Prof. P. variable d. G. Prof. motor starters.

Increased core losses 3. Additional copper losses due to harmonic currents 2. G. 83 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I 12 Prof. Thus the study of harmonics is of great practical significance in the operation of transformers. These combine with non-linear nature of transformer core and produce severe distortions in voltages and currents and increase the power loss. Increased electro magnetic interference with communication circuits. 3. In the present times a greater awareness is generated by the problems of harmonic voltages and currents produced by non-linear loads like the power electronic converters. Sasidhara Rao Harmonics In addition to the operation of transformers on the sinusoidal supplies. Prof. The effects of the harmonic currents are 1. Electro static interference with communication circuits. On the other hand the harmonic voltages of the transformer cause 1. Increased dielectric stress on insulation 2. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. The discussion here is confined to the harmonics generated by transformers only. Prof. Resonance between winding reactance and feeder capacitance. the harmonic behavior becomes important as the size and rating of the transformer increases. P.

At any instant of the flux density wave the ampere turns required to establish the same is read out and plotted. traversing the hysteresis loop once per cycle. Fig.1 Single phase transformers Modern transformers operate at increasing levels of saturation in order to reduce the weight and cost of the core used in the same. P. Relatively small value of harmonic fields generate considerable magnitude of harmonic voltages. Because of this and due to the hysteresis. the transformer core behaves as a highly non-linear element and generates harmonic voltages and currents. The plot of the magnetizing current which is peaky is analyzed using Fourier analysis. This is explained below. For example a 10% magnitude of 3rd harmonic flux produces 30% 84 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. The sinusoidal flux density curve represents the sinusoidal applied voltage to some other scale. The harmonic current components are obtained from this analysis. Sridhara Rao. These harmonic currents produce harmonic fields in the core and harmonic voltages in the windings. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao ϕ e ϕ ϕ’’ ϕ’’ ϕ’ ϕ’ i’’ϕ i’ϕ t’ t’’ t iϕ i’ϕ ’’ iϕ iϕ Figure 34: Harmonics Generated by Transformers 12. 34 shows the manner in which the shape of the magnetizing current can be obtained and plotted.

Normally third harmonic is the largest in its magnitude and hence the discussion is based on it. The flow of harmonic currents are decided by the type of the electrical connection used on the primary and secondary sides. P. Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao.2 Three phase banks of single phase transformers In the case of single phase transformers connected to form three phase bank. there are three fundamental voltages in the present case each displaced from the other by 120 electrical degrees. In this case current has to be sinusoidal and the harmonic currents cannot be supplied by the source and hence the induced emf will be peaky containing harmonic voltages. Because of the symmetry of the a.Electrical Machines I Prof. The harmonic currents produce losses and electro magnetic interference as already noted above. When the load is connected on the secondary side the harmonic currents flow through the load and voltage tends to become sinusoidal. Sasidhara Rao magnitude of 3rd harmonic voltage. In the case of a single phase transformer the harmonics are confined mostly to the primary side as the source impedance is much smaller compared to the load impedance. G. As these harmonic voltages get short circuited through the low impedance of the supply they produce harmonic currents.c. Prof. The 85 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . each transformer is magnetically decoupled from the other. The understanding of the phenomenon becomes more clear if the transformer is supplied with a sinusoidal current source. Prof. The harmonics which are triplen (multiples of three) behave in a similar manner as they are co-phasal or in phase in the three phases. wave about the time axis only odd harmonics need to be considered. These effects get even more pronounced for higher order harmonics. These currents produce effects according to Lenz’s law and tend to neutralize the harmonic flux and bring the flux wave to a sinusoid. 12. The harmonic voltages induce electric stress on dielectrics and increased electro static interference. Also. The same can be told of other harmonics also.

Thus the supply current is nearly sinusoidal (but for the non-triplen harmonic currents). Third harmonics currents flow both in the primary and the secondary and hence the magnitudes of these currents. As the triplen harmonics are always in phase. The triplen harmonic currents inside the closed mesh winding correct the flux density wave to be nearly sinusoidal. Sridhara Rao. Yy connection with neutral wires When a neutral wire is provided the triplen har86 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The potential of the neutral is no longer steady. G. so also the drops due to them will be lower. Non-triplen harmonics √ like fundamental. Flux wave in each transformer will be flat topped and the phase voltages remain peaked. Line currents remain sinusoidal except for non-triplen harmonic currents. Yy connection without neutral wires With both primary and secondary connected in star no closed path exists. by virtue of the Y connection they get canceled in the line voltages. The harmonic currents and drops and the departure of the flux density from sinusoidal are larger in the present case compared to Dd banks. The harmonic behavior of poly-phase banks can be discussed now. become 3 times phase value and appear in the line voltages. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. This is termed as ”oscillating neutral”. The secondary voltages will be nearly sinusoidal. Sasidhara Rao non-triplen harmonics behave in a similar manner to the fundamental and have ±120◦ phase displacement between them. Dy and Yd connection (without neutral connection) Behavior of the bank with mesh connection on one side is similar to the one discussed under Dd connection. P. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. The star point oscillates due to the third harmonic voltages. Dd connection In three phase banks with mesh connection on both primary side and secondary side a closed path is available for the triplen harmonics to circulate currents.

G. In the shell type of construction. The flux path is completed through the air. P. The neutral wire carries three times the triplen harmonic current of one transformer as these currents are co-phasal. Three limb core type 3-phase transformer is the one in which the phases are magnetically also linked. this winding can be used to feed some permanent station loads also. even though the three cores are together. Krishna Vasudevan. In a Yy connection. It is called a tertiary. Prof. This is true for fundamental and non-triplen harmonics.Electrical Machines I Prof. Further. Sasidhara Rao monic current can flow and the condition is similar to the single phase case (with a star connected 4 wire source or with the system earth). a three phase transformer generally has the three magnetic circuits that are interacting. to obtain third harmonic suppression one may provide a third winding which is connected in mesh. Such transformers are designated as Yyd transformers.3 Three phase transformers units As against a bank of three single phase transformers connected to three phase mains. This winding improves the single phase to earth fault detection also. then triplen harmonics are ’shared’ between them depending upon their impedances. Other polyphase connections not discussed above explicitly will fall under one type or the other of the cases discussed. Sridhara Rao. which can be an unloaded winding. Prof. The triplen harmonics being co-phasal cannot use other limbs for the return path (this holds good for zero sequence. unbalanced fundamental mmf also). If the neutral wires are provided and also mesh connected winding is present. Unloaded secondary neutral will not be operative. Flux of each limb uses the other two limbs for its return path. So substantially large value of the mmf produces a low value of third harmonic flux as the path of the flux is through the air and has a very 87 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 12. The exception to this rule is a 3-phase shell type transformer. they are non-interacting.

Thus the flux in the core remains nearly sinusoidal. Krishna Vasudevan.Electrical Machines I Prof. Other harmonics can be suppressed by connecting tuned filters at the terminals. Sridhara Rao. 88 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . so also the induced emf. G. Harmonic current compensation using special magnetic circuit design is considered to be outside the scope here. This happens irrespective of the type of connection used. The triplen order flux. Prof. P. Prof. sometimes links the tank and produces loss in the same. Sasidhara Rao high reluctance.

In some applications like a. Star and mesh connections are very commonly used. in a three phase system there are three equal voltages differing in phase 120 electrical degrees. one must also know their limitations and problems. The basic relationship between the primary and secondary voltages (brought about by a common mutual flux and the number of turns). multi winding transformers etc. Krishna Vasudevan. the polarity of the induced emf (decided by polarity test and used with dot convention) and some understanding of the magnetic 89 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I 13 Prof. Thus transformers are deployed in many forms and connections. Similarly. G. are a few of the many possibilities.c. T connections. to d. Transformers used in all these applications must be connected properly for proper functioning. Prof. six phases or more may be encountered. conversion. Sridhara Rao. Literature abounds in the description of many other. P. As an engineering application is driven by techno-economic considerations. In a balanced two phase system we encounter two voltages that are equal in magnitude differing in phase by 90◦ . develop and deploy a polyphase transformer itself. to facilitate proper selection of a configuration for an application. zig zag connections . Many polyphase connections can be formed using single phase transformers. A few of the common connections and the technical and economic considerations that govern their usage are discussed here. Apart from these. Due to the advantages of polyphase power during generation. no single connection or setup is satisfactory for all applications. Sasidhara Rao Poly Phase connections and Poly phase Transformers The individual transformers are connected in a variety of ways in a power system. vee or open delta connections. Further there is an order in which they reach a particular voltage magnitude.c. auto transformer connections. This is called the phase sequence. Apart from the characteristics and advantages of these. In some cases it may be preferable to design. transmission and utilization polyphase power handling is very important. Prof.

Prof. Prof. If the induced emf at an instant is from A1 to A2 on the HV winding it will rise from a1 to a2 on the LV winding. they introduce phase shifts between input and output sides. 3. mesh or zig-zag connected windings on either primary secondary or both. Group I: zero phase displacement between the primary and the secondary. Out of the different polyphase connections three phase connections are mostly encountered due to the wide spread use of three phase systems for generation. Group IV: 30◦ lead phase displacement of the secondary with respect to the primary.. The HV winding is indicated by capital letters and the LV winding by small letters. A3 .Electrical Machines I Prof. If more terminals are brought out from a winding by way of taps there are numbered in the increasing numbers in accordance to their distance from 1 (eg A1 . P. 1. The capital letters indicates primary and the small letters the secondary. Z/z for zig-zag. Group II: 180◦ phase displacement. A2 ..).for star. Each winding has two ends designated as 1 and 2. 36 corresponding to each group. The angular displacement of secondary with respect to the primary are shown as clock position. 35 and Fig. These connections are broadly classified into 4 popular vector groups. transmission and utilization. D/d stand for mesh. Three balanced 3-phase voltages can be connected in star or mesh fashion to yield a balanced 3-phase 3-wire system. A few examples of the physical connections and phasor diagrams are shown in Fig. 4. international standards are also available. 2. Sasidhara Rao circuit are all necessary for the same. G. In addition to giving different voltage ratios. Sridhara Rao. To facilitate the manufacturer and users. 0◦ 90 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The transformers that work on the 3-phase supply have star. Y/y . Krishna Vasudevan. Group III: 30◦ lag phase displacement of the secondary with respect to the primary.

G. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan.M . P.F Vector diagram s W indings & Term inals n N A1 A 2 a2 a1 B1 B 2 b2 b1 C1 C 2 c2 c1 a2 A2 B2 C2 a2 A2 A1 A 2 a2 a1 B1 B 2 b2 b1 C1 C 2 c2 c1 B2 C2 A2 n A1 A 2 a4 a1 B1 B 2 b4 b1 C1 C 2 c4 c1 C2 B2 (a) G roup2 180 0 Phase shift E.M .F Vector diagram s W indings & Term inals N n A2 A1 A 2 a1 a1 B1 B 2 b1 b1 C1 C 2 c1 c1 C2 A2 A1 B1 C1 B2 a2 A 2a1 B 2b1 C 2c1 a1 b2 b1 c2 c1 C2 n A1 A 2 a3 B1 B 2b 3 C1 C 2 c3 A2 B2 a1 b1 C2 c1 B2 (b) Figure 35: Vector Groups for 3-phase Transformer Connections 91 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. Sasidhara Rao G roup1 0 0 Phase shift E.

P.M .M .F Vector diagram s W indings & Term inals a2 n A1 A 2 a2 a1 B1 B 2 b2 b1 C1 c2 c1 C2 N A 2 a1 B1 B 2 b1 C 2 c1 N A1 B1 C1 B2 a2 A1 C1 A2 n A2 a4 B2 b4 b2 C2 b1 c2 B2 B2 c1 c3 C2 A2 a3 b3 C 2 c4 a1 a1 C2 b1 B2 c1 (b) Figure 36: Vector Groups for 3-phase Transformer Connections 92 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof.F Vector diagram s W indings & Term inals A2 n A1 A 2 a2 a1 B1 B 2 b2 b1 C 2 c2 c1 C1 N C2 A1 A 2 a2 B1 B 2 b2 C1 C 2 c2 a2 A2 B2 a2 a1 b1 c1 A1 A 2 a4 B1 B 2 b4 C1 C 2 c4 B2 C2 N n A2 a1 b1 c1 B2 C2 (a) G roup4 + 30 0 Phase shift E. G. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Sasidhara Rao G roup3 30 0 Phase shift E. Prof.

This is due to the fact that the magnetizing current itself forms a small fraction of the total phase current drawn on load. The flux setup in any limb will return through the other two limbs as the mmf of those limbs are in the proper directions so as to aid the same. 4-wire system is possible on both sides. the space occupied is less. The added advantage of 3-phase core is that it can tolerate substantially 94 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. The three limbs are equal in cross section. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao Star/mesh(Dy or Yd ) This arrangement is very common for power supply transformers. Even though magnetically this is not a symmetrical arrangement.single phase units but kept in a common tank. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. it does not adversely affect the performance. Also. Oscillating neutral problem is absent in this connection. The 3-phase core type transformer on the other hand has a simple core arrangement. P. The delta winding permits triplen harmonic currents to circulate in the closed path and attenuates them. But the spare capacity cost will be less and single phase units are easier to transport. Other than that there is no big difference. Primary and secondary of each phase are housed on the same limb. Unbalanced loading is also possible.Electrical Machines I Prof. In view of this single tank. This connection requires 15% more turns for the same voltage on the zigzag side and hence costs more. they occupy more space. Prof. as the reluctance to the flux setup by side limbs is different from that of the central limb. Zig zag/ star (ZY1 or Zy11) Zigzag connection is obtained by inter connection of phases. Mesh connected three phase transformers resemble 3. Generally speaking a bank of three single phase transformers cost about 15% more than their 3-phase counter part.

95 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan. Sridhara Rao. Similarly unbalanced operation of the transformer with large zero sequence fundamental mmf content also does not affect its performance. Prof. G. Even with Yy type of poly phase connection without neutral connection the oscillating neutral does not occur with these cores. Sasidhara Rao large value of 3rd harmonic mmf without affecting the performance. P. Finally. The 3rd harmonic flux must therefore find its path through the air. Due to the high reluctance of the air path even a substantially large value of third harmonic mmf produces negligible value of third harmonic flux. The 3rd harmonic mmf of the three phases will be in phase and hence rise in all the limbs together.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. three phase cores themselves cost less than three single phase units due to compactness.

Even if one of the transformers gets into a fault or is taken out for maintenance/repair the load can continued to be serviced. 4. Prof. If many smaller size transformers are used one machine can be used as spare. After ascertaining the polarities they are connected to output/load bus 96 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . 2. a spare of similar rating has to be available. Sasidhara Rao Parallel operation of one phase and two phase transformers By parallel operation we mean two or more transformers are connected to the same supply bus bars on the primary side and to a common bus bar/load on the secondary side. More transformers connected in parallel will then be pressed into service. If only one large machine is feeding the load. Non-availability of a single large transformer to meet the total load requirement.Electrical Machines I 14 Prof. The reasons that necessitate parallel operation are as follows. Fig. Such requirement is frequently encountered in practice. The power demand might have increased over a time necessitating augmentation of the capacity. Prof. 1. Sridhara Rao. Krishna Vasudevan. To ensure improved reliability. P. it may be easier to transport smaller ones to site and work them in parallel. 37 shows the physical arrangement of two single phase transformers working in parallel on the primary side. Transformer A and Transformer B are connected to input voltage bus bars. The problem of spares becomes more acute with fewer machines in service at a location. When transportation problems limit installation of large transformers at site. G. 3. 5. To reduce the spare capacity.

Sasidhara Rao V1 A E1 IA V2 E2 load IB E1 E2 B supply bus Load bus Figure 37: Parallel Operation of Two Single Phase Transformers .Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Krishna Vasudevan. G. Sridhara Rao. Prof. Prof.Physical 97 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

This way one can overcome the problem of the phase angle error.6 degree gives rise to one percent difference in voltage. If wrong polarity is chosen the two voltages get added and short circuit results.Electrical Machines I Prof. P. Prof. The voltage drop across each machine has to be the same by virtue of their connection at the input and the output ends. must be equal. Inside the loop formed by the two secondaries the resulting voltage must be zero. Polarity of connection The polarity of connection in the case of single phase transformers can be either same or opposite. In addition if active and reactive power are required to be shared in proportion to the ratings the impedance angles also must be the same. Sridhara Rao. Sasidhara Rao Per unit impedance Transformers of different ratings may be required to operate in parallel. Thus the impedances must be in the inverse ratios of the ratings. In the case of polyphase banks it is possible to have permanent phase error between the phases with substantial circulating current. Thus we have the requirement that per unit resistance and per unit reactance of both the transformers must be the same for proper load sharing. Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Transformers having −30◦ angle can be paralleled to that having +30◦ angle by reversing the phase sequence of both primary and secondary terminals of one of the transformers. Phase error of 0. The turns ratios in such groups can be adjusted to give very close voltage ratios but phase errors cannot be compensated. As the voltage drops must be the same the per unit impedance of each transformer on its own base. Hence poly phase transformers belonging to the same vector group alone must be taken for paralleling. 99 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Thus the larger machines have smaller impedance and smaller machines must have larger ohmic impedance. If they have to share the total load in proportion to their ratings the larger machine has to draw more current. G. Such transformer banks must not be connected in parallel.

Krishna Vasudevan. 38(a).Electrical Machines I Prof. 38(c). Load can be switched on subsequently to these bus bars. The equivalent circuit is drawn in terms of the secondary parameters. Sasidhara Rao Phase sequence The phase sequence of operation becomes relevant only in the case of poly phase systems.1 Case A: Equal voltage ratios Always two transformers of equal voltage ratios are selected for working in parallel. Sridhara Rao. G. In the case of poly phase banks also the approach is identical and the single phase equivalent circuit of the same can be used. A transformer with +30◦ phase angle however can be paralleled with the one with −30◦ phase angle. Prof. The phase sequence can be found out by the use of a phase sequence indicator. By inspection the voltage equation for the drop can be 100 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . This may be further simplified as shown under Fig. Case A: when the voltage ratio of the two transformers is the same and Case B: when the voltage ratios are not the same. 14. Prof. the phase sequence is reversed for one of them both at primary and secondary terminals. These are discussed now in sequence. P.(b). Basically two cases arise in these problems. Performance of two or more single phase transformers working in parallel can be computed using their equivalent circuit. This way one can avoid a circulating current between the transformers. If the phase sequences are not the same then the two transformers cannot be connected in parallel even if they belong to same vector group. The voltage drop across the two transformers must be the same by virtue of common connection at input as well as output ends. The poly phase banks belonging to same vector group can be connected in parallel. Neglecting the parallel branch of the equivalent circuit the above connection can be shown as in Fig.

Prof. P. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. G. Sasidhara Rao jX A RA V1 IA RA V 2’ jX A IA ZA V1 RB jX B RB I jX B V 2’ IB IB ZB (a) (b) ZA IA I ZB IB VL V ’L V Load ZL (c) Figure 38: Equivalent Circuit for Transformers working in Parallel -Simplified circuit and Further simplification for identical voltage ratio 101 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof.

Prof. Fig. ZA ZA ZA + ZB v IZ ZA = = = I. It is seen that the total voltage drop inside the 102 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . The per unit impedances must therefore be the same on their respective bases. ZB ZB ZA + ZB (90) Thus IA = and IB If the terminal voltage is V = IZL then the active and reactive power supplied by each of the two transformers is given by PA = Real(V IA∗ ) and QA = Imag(V IA∗ ) and (91) PB = Real(V IB∗ ) and QB = Imag(V IB∗ ) (92) From the above it is seen that the transformer with higher impedance supplies lesser load current and vice versa. we aim at the same per unit drops at any load for the transformers. P. Thus the ohmic values of the impedances must be in the inverse ratio of the ratings of the transformers. Krishna Vasudevan. The drops are magnified and shown to improve clarity. IA ZA = IB ZB . Z= ZA ZB ZA + ZB (89) IZ ZB v = = I.Electrical Machines I Prof. Prof. Sasidhara Rao written as IA ZA = IB ZB = IZ = v (say) (87) HereI = IA + IB (88) And Z is the equivalent impedance of the two transformers given by. G.u basis. 39 shows the phasor diagram of operation for these conditions. therefore IA IB = ZB . at a larger current. Sridhara Rao. If transformers of dissimilar ratings are paralleled the transformer with larger rating shall have smaller impedance as it has to produce the same drop as the other transformer. ZA Expressing the voltage drops in p.

This forces the active and reactive components of the currents drawn by each transformer to be different ( even in the case when current in each transformer is the same). P. Prof. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. G. To determine the sharing of currents and power either p.u reactance must be the same on their respective bases for the two transformers. In order to avoid any divergence and to share active and reactive powers also properly. Sasidhara Rao E V IAXA V2 φ φB IX θA θB φA IBXB IB IA IL IARA IR IBRB Figure 39: Phasor Diagram of Operation for two Transformers working in Parallel transformers is v but the currents IA and IB are forced to have a different phase angle due to the difference in the internal power factor angles θA and θB . 103 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Krishna Vasudevan.u) impedances must be the same. Thus the condition for satisfactory parallel operation is that the p.u resistances and p. Prof. If we want them to share the load current in proportion to their ratings.u parameters or ohmic values can be used. θA = θB . their percentage ( or p.

Sridhara Rao. Due to manufacturing differences. G. Krishna Vasudevan. ZL is the load impedance at the secondary terminals. even in transformers built as per the same design. the voltage ratios may not be the same. The load brings about a common connection at the output side. By inspection the voltage equation can be written as below: EA = IA ZA + (IA + IB )ZL = V + IA ZA · EB = IB ZB + (IA + IB )ZL = V + IB ZB · Solving the two equations the expression for IA and IB can be obtained as 104 Indian Institute of Technology Madras (93) . In this case the two input voltages cannot be merged to one.Electrical Machines I 14. Prof. In such cases the circuit representation for parallel operation will be different as shown in Fig. P. 40. Sasidhara Rao Case B :Unequal voltage ratios RA RB jX A IA jX B IB ZL EB EA I VL Figure 40: Equivalent Circuit for unequal Voltage Ratio One may not be able to get two transformers of identical voltage ratio in spite of ones best efforts. Prof. EA and EB are the no-load secondary emf. as they are different.2 Prof.

P. Sasidhara Rao EA ZB + (EA − EB )ZL ZA ZB + ZL (ZA + ZB ) EB ZA + (EB − EA )ZL = ZA ZB + ZL (ZA + ZB ) IA = IB and (94) ZA and ZB are phasors and hence there can be angular difference also in addition to the difference in magnitude. 41 is given below.. It is known by the name parallel generator theorem. Prof. When load is not connected there will be a circulating current between the transformers. ZA = IL . IL = IA + IB + IC + . IA = −IB = (EA − EB ) (ZA + ZB ) (95) If the load impedance becomes zero as in the case of a short circuit.ZL But IA = V IB = IC = EC − V ZC (98) 105 Indian Institute of Technology Madras EB − V . G. Then.. 93 ) as IA = EA − V ZA and IB = EB − V ZB (97) If more than two transformers are connected across a load then the calculation of load currents following the method suggested above involves considerable amount of computational labor. The currents in that case can be obtained by putting ZL = ∞ ( after dividing the numerator and the denominator by ZL ). Prof. A simpler and more elegant method for the case depicted in Fig.. Krishna Vasudevan. ZB .. IA = EA ZA and IB = EB ZB (96) Instead of the value of ZL if the value of V is known . EA − V .. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof. the currents can be easily determined ( from Eqns. we have.

the load shared by each transformer can be computed. Prof.. Prof.. P.) = + + + . G. Sridhara Rao.. ZL ZA ZB ZC (99) Grouping the terms together V( 1 1 1 1 EA EB EC + + + + .Electrical Machines I Prof. 98. 106 Indian Institute of Technology Madras ... Substituting V in Eqn.. Knowing the individual current phasor.) ( (100) (101) (102) From this V can be obtained.. Krishna Vasudevan.. ZL ZA ZB ZC ZA ZB ZC = ISCA + ISCB + ISCC + . IB etc can be obtained.... IA .) = ZL ZA ZB ZC Z V = Z(ISCA + ISCB + ISCC + ... Sasidhara Rao RA jXA RB jXB RC jXC EA IA IB I EB IC EC ZL V Figure 41: Parallel Generator Theorem Combining these equations V EA − V EB − V EC − V = + + + . 1 1 1 1 1 + + + + ..

Krishna Vasudevan. The volts per turn available in large transformers is quite high and hence a change of even one turn on the LV side represents a large percentage change in the voltage. P. Sasidhara Rao Transformer voltage control and Tap changing Regulating the voltage of a transformer is a requirement that often arises in a power application or power system. This is done by provision of taps in the winding. 3. LV winding being the inner winding in a core type transformer adds to the 107 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I 15 Prof. Prof. To supply a desired voltage to the load. To counter the voltage drops due to loads. 2. Sridhara Rao. Also the LV currents are normally too large to take out the tapping from the windings. G. On a power system the transformers are additionally required to perform the task of regulation of active and reactive power flows. Prof. Booster transformer Regulation transformer B 1 2 Booster transformer Main transformer B 1 tertiary2 Reverser Reverser Figure 42: Tap changing and Buck Boost arrangement The voltage control is performed by changing the turns ratio. To counter the input supply voltage changes on load. In an application it may be needed 1.

The on-load tap changer on the other hand tries to change the taps without the interruption of the load current. 108 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . voltage levels are some times changed by injecting a suitable voltage in series with the line. The Off load tap changing relatively costs less. Tap changing can be effected when a) the transformers is on no. Sridhara Rao. This may be called buck-boost arrangement. taps are provided on the HV winding. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. The tap changing arrangement and buck boost arrangement with phase shift are shown in Fig. 42. P.load and b) the load is still remains connected to the transformer. phase of the injected voltage may be varied in power systems. Provision of taps to control voltage is called tap changing. Sasidhara Rao difficulty of taking out of the taps. Krishna Vasudevan. A few schemes of on-load tap changing are now discussed. G. Hence irrespective of the end use for which tapping is put to. These are called off load tap changing and on load tap changing. In addition to the magnitude. In the case of power systems. The tap positions are changed when the transformer is taken out of the circuit and reconnected. In view of this requirement it normally costs more. Prof.

Electrical Machines I Prof. P. G. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. Sasidhara Rao 1 s 2 3 4 Reactor 5 HV LV Figure 43: Reactor Method of Tap Changer ( with table of switching) 109 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Sridhara Rao. Prof.

G.5 9 5. Switches need not interrupt load current as a alternate path is always provided. Krishna Vasudevan. Load need not be switched off.s Reactor method The diagram of connections is shown in Fig. Thus a four step tapped winding can be used for getting seven step voltage on the secondary(see the table of switching).s 4 2. 2.4 7 4. 110 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . When only one tap is connected to the reactor the shorting switch S is closed minimizing the drop in the reactor. The reactor has a center tapped winding on a magnetic core.2 3 2. The two ends of the reactor are connected to the two bus bars to which tapping switches of odd/even numbered taps are connected. The reactor can also be worked with both ends connected to two successive taps. P. 43. The switches for the taps and that across the reactor(S) are connected as shown. More steps than taps are obtained.3 5 3. 3. The advantage of this type of tap changer are 1. Prof. Sasidhara Rao Tap switches closed 1 1. In that case the switch ’S’ must be kept open.s 8 4. Sridhara Rao.Electrical Machines I Prof.s 2 1. Prof. The reactor limits the circulating current between the taps in such a situation. This method employs an auxiliary reactor to assist tap changing.s 6 3.

Parallel winding. One precaution to be taken with this arrangement is that the winding must 111 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . Prof. 42shows the booster arrangement for a single phase supply. Series booster method In this case a separate transformer is used to buck/boost the voltage of the main transformer. Two circuit breakers A and B are used in the two circuits. This arrangement can be added to an existing system also. Next. Initially tap 1a and 1b are closed and the transformer is energized with full primary voltage. Krishna Vasudevan. The circulating current is controlled by careful selection of the leakage reactance. Provision of taps switches and circuit breakers are to be additionally provided to achieve tap changing in these machines.Electrical Machines I Prof. A small difference in the number of turns between the two circuit exists. The power rating of this transformer need be a small fraction of the main transformer as it is required to handle only the power associated with the injected voltage. parallel circuits are needed in primary and secondary to carry the large current in a big transformer. Sasidhara Rao The major objection to this scheme seems to be that the reactor is in the circuit always generating extra loss. When the circuit A is opened whole of the primary current of the transformer flows through the circuit B. Generally. This produces a circulating current between them. P. Sridhara Rao. Prof. In this position the two circuits are similar and there is no circulating current. Then circuit breaker A is closed. To change the tap the circuit breaker A is opened momentarily and tap is moved from 1a to 2a. The reverser switch reverses the polarity of the injected voltage and hence a boost is converted into a buck and vice versa. G. Fig. circuit breaker B is opened momentarily. 44. transformer method In order to maintain the continuity of supply the primary winding is split into two parallel circuits each circuit having the taps as shown in Fig. The main transformer need not be having a tapped arrangement. the tap is changed from 1b to 2b and the breaker is closed.

Sridhara Rao. G. Sasidhara Rao B A a2 b1 a1 b2 b3 b4 a4 a3 LV HV Figure 44: Parallel Primary Winding Tap Changing 112 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . P. Prof.Electrical Machines I Prof. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof.

The methods of voltage regulation discussed so far basically use the principle of tap changing and hence the voltage change takes place in steps. This can be obtained with the help of moving coil voltage regulators.c. wound in the opposite 113 Indian Institute of Technology Madras . G. a. If it gets open circuited the core (B in fig) gets highly saturated. electro-chemistry and voltage stabilizers need continuous control of voltage. Prof. illumination control by dimmers. b are the two primary windings wound on a long core. 5% a1 a2 V out V in S 95% b1 b2 Figure 45: Moving Coil Voltage Regulator moving coil voltage regulators Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof. In spite of the small ratings and low voltages and flexibility. Krishna Vasudevan. this method of voltage control costs more mainly due to the additional floor space it needs. Prof. and d. Sridhara Rao. motor speed control. Applications like a. 45 shows the physical arrangement of one such transformer. Sasidhara Rao not be open circuited. P.c.

6 = 20%. Krishna Vasudevan.c voltage V1 V1 V2 sliding contact a) without electrical isolation b) with electrical isolation Figure 46: Sliding Contact Regulator Sliding contact regulators These have two winding or auto transformer like construction. The total secondary voltage in the present case varies from 10 percent to 20 percent of the input in a continuous manner. Prof. By selecting proper ratios for the secondaries a2 and b2 one can get the desired voltage variation.6 = 10% when s is in the top position.86 + 5 10.6 respectively. Sasidhara Rao sense. In the bottom position it becomes 95 4. Sridhara Rao. Prof. The winding from which the output is taken is bared and a sliding contact taps the voltage. Variable secondary a. A short circuited moving coil s is wound on the same limb and is capable of being held at any desired position. Thus the flux produced by each winding takes a path through the air to link the winding.86 and 10. G. The turns ratios of a1 : a2 and b1 : b2 are 4. These fluxes link their secondaries a2 and b2 .86 + 95 10. This moving coil alters the inductances of the two primaries. P. The minimum step size of voltage change obtainable is the voltage across a single turn. The sharing of the total applied voltage thus becomes different and also the induced emf in the secondaries a2 and b2 . The conductor is chosen on the basis of the maximum load current on the 114 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Electrical Machines I Prof. 5 4.

Prof. 46. G. The two winding arrangement provides electrical isolation also. P. Two winding arrangements are also possible. Sasidhara Rao output side. Krishna Vasudevan. Prof. In smaller ratings this is highly cost effective. Sridhara Rao. 115 Indian Institute of Technology Madras .These are shown in Fig.Electrical Machines I Prof.