HUDSON RIVER WAKE STUDY

Prepared for:
The Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines Project
NYSDEC HRNERR
Prepared by:
Christian LaPann-Johannessen, Jon K. Miller, Ph.D.,
Andrew Rella, Ph.D. & Emanuel Rodriquez
June 2015

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This report was prepared by Christian LaPann-Johannessen, Jon K. Miller, Andrew Rella, and
Emanuel Rodriguez of Stevens Institute of Technology for the Hudson River Sustainable
Shorelines Project. The authors would like to acknowledge the assistance of several members of
the Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines Project who have reviewed and provided comments on
the wake study, especially Emilie Hauser and Betsy Blair of the Hudson River National Estuarine
Research Reserve (HRNERR), Dave Strayer and Stuart Findlay of Cary IES, Dan Miller of the
Hudson River Estuary Program, Ona Ferguson and Eric Roberts of the Consensus Building
Institute, and Ben Ganon of the Student Conservation Association and HRNERR. The authors
would also like to acknowledge the assistance of the cadre of Stevens Institute of Technology
summer research students that assisted in the collection of the wake data.
About the Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines Project

The Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines Project is a multi-year effort
led by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve, in cooperation with
the Greenway Conservancy for the Hudson River Valley. Partners in the Project include Cary
Institute of Ecosystem Studies, NYSDEC Hudson River Estuary Program and Stevens Institute of
Technology. The Project is facilitated by The Consensus Building Institute. The Project fulfills
aspects of Goal 2 of the Action Agenda of the Hudson River Estuary Program. The Project is
supported by the National Estuarine Research Reserve System Science Collaborative, a
partnership of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of New
Hampshire. The Science Collaborative puts Reserve-based science to work for coastal
communities coping with the impacts of land use change, pollution, and habitat degradation in the
context of a changing climate.
Disclaimer

The opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those
of the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the Greenway Conservancy
for the Hudson River Valley or our funders. Reference to any specific product, service, process,
or method does not constitute an implied or expressed recommendation or endorsement of it.
Suggested Citation

LaPann-Johannessen, C., Miller, J.K., Rella, A., and E. Rodriguez (2015). Hudson River Wake
Study. Stevens Institute of Technology, TR- 2947; in association with and published by the Hudson
River Sustainable Shorelines Project, Staatsburg, NY 12580, http://hrnerr.org
Authors contact: jmiller@stevens.edu, and arella@stevens.edu

Hudson River Wake Study

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Stevens Institute of Technology, in conjunction with the Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines
Project, carried out a study to determine the wake heights produced from recreational and
commercial vessels as they travel along the Hudson River. The wake study is one component of
a series of studies undertaken by Stevens to better understand the physical forces impacting
shorelines within the Hudson River Estuary (https://www.hrnerr.org/hudson-river-sustainableshorelines/spatial-information-designing-shoreline/). Understanding the physical forces in turn is
critical to managing the shoreline and designing effective erosion control features where required.
In some areas of the Hudson, vessel wakes can be several times the size of the typical wind waves
and therefore represent a critical design parameter. The information contained in this report
represents a preliminary analysis of the wake energy and will be used to help inform shoreline
stakeholders and decision-makers of the required design thresholds for varying methods of
ecologically enhanced shoreline stabilization.
Previous work has shown that wakes from commuter ferry traffic in the lower Hudson River
produce a continual source of waves even when wind waves are not present, and can have a
significant impact on the shoreline (Bruno, et al., 2002). The study area spanned the 125 mile
stretch from the Tappan Zee Bridge to the Federal Lock and Dam at Troy. Based on the extent of
the study area, and the available labor and funding, a simple, physical measurement approach was
selected to provide an initial characterization of the wake climate along the Hudson. Thirty-two
measurement locations were selected along the aforementioned stretch of the Hudson River. A
visual analysis technique employing graduated staffs and a video-based measurement approach
was selected, for its simplicity, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. A research student was deployed
at each site, and was responsible for collecting the wake data and evaluating and recording all
relevant site conditions. Characteristics of each passing boat (dimensions, speed, distance from
shore, vessel type), along with the oscillations induced by its passing, were recorded. The
recordings were later analyzed to determine the wake heights. The study took place over the course
of four days in 2012 (June 26-28 and July 19) and three days in 2013 (June 28-29 and July 1), with
as many as eleven research students deployed at different sites at one time. The number of total
recorded wakes at each site ranged from a minimum of 3 at Coxsackie, NY to 59 at Highland Falls,
NY. The average number of wakes recorded at each site was 25. The size of the observed wakes
ranged from a minimum of 0 inches (imperceptible) to 42 inches at Kingston, NY. The average
recorded wake was 4.4 inches.
The data collected during this experiment represents a “snap-shot” of wakes within the Hudson
River, and is not intended to summarize all expected conditions. Suggested next steps for further
characterizing the wake conditions along the river include using the collected physical data to
verify empirical wake models, and to investigate avenues for expanding the available data. The
recorded physical data (wake size and vessel specifics) can be used to determine the most accurate
and appropriate wake model that should be applied to the Hudson River. In order to expand the
data set, an online boat tracking system, such as Automatic Identification System (AIS) can be
utilized as a secondary source to study the percentage of different types of vessels in the Hudson
River. By expanding the physical data set with supplemental vessel data from AIS, a more
comprehensive wave climatology can be produced.

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CONTENTS
Executive Summary ................................................................................................................................................... ii
Contents ..................................................................................................................................................................... iii
Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................1
Approach .....................................................................................................................................................................2
Data ...............................................................................................................................................................................6
Results ..........................................................................................................................................................................9
Vessel Type .............................................................................................................................................................9
Vessel Speed ......................................................................................................................................................... 10
Vessel Size ............................................................................................................................................................. 11
Wake Height ......................................................................................................................................................... 11
Wake Height along the River ............................................................................................................................. 11
Preliminary Next Steps ....................................................................................................................................... 12
Discussion and conclusions ..................................................................................................................................... 14
References .................................................................................................................................................................. 15
Appendix ................................................................................................................................................................... 16

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iii

INTRODUCTION
An analysis of the wake climate within the Hudson River was undertaken by Stevens Institute of
Technology as a part of the ongoing Hudson River Sustainable Shorelines Project, led by the
NYSDEC Hudson River National Estuarine Research Reserve. The research team was led by
Professor Jon K. Miller and included students Andrew Rella, Christian LaPann-Johannessen,
Rebecca Kline, Sean Dirscherl, Spicer Bak, Omar Lopez, Laura Lemke, Erin Hopson, Jenny
Wehof, Adam Carabba, Mike Kalimtzis, Tyler Rishell, Sarah Chamberlain, Kirsten Salmins,
Tiffany Caroselli, Michael Robert Lewis, Ethan Crump, and Matthew Hunt. The results were
analyzed by Emanuel Rodriguez, Christian LaPann-Johannessen, and Andrew Rella. The
Sustainable Shorelines Project works to generate and make available science-based information
about the best shoreline management options for preserving important natural functions in the
Hudson River Estuary’s shore zone.
The wake study was performed as a part of a series of analyses undertaken to characterize present
and future estuary and shoreline conditions. Forces impacting the shoreline of the Hudson River
include wind-driven waves, currents from tidal flow, wakes from commercial and recreational
vessels, as well as floating debris and ice. Depending on the magnitude of these forces and the
physical characteristics of the near shore region, the shorelines along the Hudson are exposed to
varying amounts of physical energy. This physical energy can ultimately result in the erosion of
the shoreline and strongly dictates which shoreline stabilization alternatives may be appropriate.
The primary objective of the wake study, conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2013, was
to document vessel traffic and the resulting wakes along the Hudson River; with the intent of
ultimately using this information to more adequately understand the erosion potential of wakes.
Wakes are waves that are generated when vessels travel through a body of water. When a vessel
accelerates from a state of rest, it transfers a portion of its kinetic energy into the body of water;
causing a wave to form. Wake dimensions are influenced by many physical factors including the
velocity of the vessel, the width of the body of water, the bathymetry and water depth, the vessel
hull design, the vessel draft, the tidal currents and wind waves, the method of vessel propulsion,
the distance from the vessel, and the vessel orientation (Sorensen, 1997). Since there are many
variables that influence the production of boat wakes, they are difficult to predict. Ships typically
generate two distinct types of wakes which are known as transverse and diverging wakes (Figure
1). Transverse wakes are produced behind the moving vessel and travel in the same direction as
the vessel. Divergent wakes are produced at the front of a vessel and travel on an angle from the
side of the hull (PIANC, 2003).
Wakes typically impact a shoreline as a series of waves referred to as a wave train. The erosion
potential of a wake is enhanced by these wave trains, as is the risk of damage to shoreline structures
and docked vessels. Wave trains attenuate with distance and become smaller as they travel from
their point of origin; however, the period or amount of time between successive crests remains the
same. The amount of wake attenuation depends on the current velocity and direction, wind speed,
hull characteristics, vessel speed, and riverbed and shoreline characteristics (PIANC, 2003).

Hudson River Wake Study

Page 1

Figure 1 - Wake production diagram

Wakes can be studied using physical measurements or through analytical approaches using
mathematical models. Measurement techniques vary and typically include a pressure gauge
deployed on-site, a spring driven gauge for determining maximum wave conditions, or a graduated
staff to measure wake height. Mathematical prediction relies on empirical models that require the
numerous variables that influence wake characteristics be known. The comparison between
measurements and predictions can improve the knowledge of wake behavior.

APPROACH
Considering the vast study area and the necessary number of sites, the decision was made to utilize
basic measurement techniques to cover as much of the river as possible. The chosen approach
capitalized on available student labor. A visual analysis technique employing graduated wake
staffs and video-cameras was selected for its cost-effectiveness and simplicity. Each passing boat,
along with the oscillations induced by its passing, were recorded. Students also recorded relevant
vessel characteristics based on a visual observation of the vessel. Vessel speed was estimated by
recording the time it took for the vessel to transit a known distance. Distance from shore was
determined by estimating the position of the vessel relative to each bank, then calculating the
distance based on a known river width. The data sheet used for recording the data is provided
below in Figure 2. The recordings were later analyzed back at the office to determine the wake
heights and periods. At locations where a video camera was not available, the vessel information
and wake heights were recorded by hand by the observer present in the field. During the second
year of monitoring wake height was recorded in the field to aid in order to later expedite the process
of data analysis.
Observer
Date
Time

Location
Camera
Vessel Type

Vessel Speed

Distance from SL

Direction

Comments

Figure 2 – Blank wake data sheet

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The wake staffs were fabricated by Stevens, and consisted of 2” x 3” wood beams with 2” wide
alternating stripes painted along the face. Three mounting methods were constructed for
deployment off a bulkhead, a pile, or a beach. The bulkhead mount (Figure 3) was constructed by
attaching the staff to a weighted hinge and hanging it over the front face of the bulkhead. The pile
mount (Figure 4) consisted of a strapping mechanism for attaching the staff to a pile. The beach
mount (Figure 5) staff was set in a bucket of concrete for stabilization and placed offshore. Due
to the nearly five foot tidal variation along the entire project length, the position of the staff was
adjusted as required by the observer throughout the day as water level changed.

Figure 3 – Bulkhead apparatus

Figure 4 – Pile apparatus

Figure 5 – Beach apparatus

The wake study took place over the course of 4 days in 2012 (June 26-28/ July 19) and 3 days in
2013 (June 28-29/July 1). During this time, as many as 11 research students were deployed at
different sites at one time. Daily observational periods ranged from 6 am to 4 pm, with an average
of 6 hours per day. Due to logistical complications not every site was visited in both years. During
the first year of monitoring, several sites were replaced for the following reasons: there was no

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access the site due to physical restraints, obstacles were present in the water (natural and
constructed), or there was a lack of deployment options. For example, wakes could not be
observed at low tide from the location at Norrie Point Environmental Center because the
surrounding water receded too far offshore.
The thirty-two sites identified in Figure 6 were chosen from the Hudson River Estuary Public
Fishing and Boating Access Guide at approximately equal intervals within the study area between
the Tappan-Zee Bridge and the Albany dam. Sites were selected both on the east and west banks
of the river and site accessibility was strongly considered.

Figure 6. Site locations map (northern section)

Figure 7. Site location map (southern section)

In order to analyze the data more effectively, the river was divided into 10 zones based on similar
characteristics such as width, depth, and cross section. Table 1 lists the boundaries and the
approximate average width and depth for each zone. Figure 8 below presents color coded maps
for the zone designations.

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Table 1 – Project area zone designation

Zone
#
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Northern Boundary
Troy
Glenmont
Stuyvesant
Stottville
Silver Point
Staatsburg
Castle Point
Cold Spring
Stony Point
Dobbs Ferry

River
Mile
150
137
130
120
110
87
68
57
40
22

Southern Boundary
Glenmont
Stuyvesant
Stottville
Silver Point
Staatsburg
Castle Point
Cold Spring
Stony Point
Dobbs Ferry
The Battery

River
Mile
137
130
120
110
87
68
57
40
22
0

Avg. Width
(mi)
0.15
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.75
0.6
1.2
0.5
2.3
0.9

Avg. Depth
(ft)
17
23
29
23
29
46
29
57
23
35

Figure 8 - Zone designation map

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DATA
At each site, four primary data parameters were collected: wake height, boat type, vessel speed
and size. Additional data recorded included the time the boat passed the site, the direction of travel,
approximate distance of the boat from the shoreline, the period of the wake generated, and the
weather conditions at the site, including wind waves. Table 2 below includes a summary of all the
wake data recorded at all 32 sites for both years and lists their zone.
Table 2: Wake study data summary

Site Name
Troy Dam, Troy, NY
4 Forbes Avenue, Rensselaer, NY

Date Visited
6/27/2012
6/27/2012
7/1/2013

Total #
of Boats
9

Max Wake
Height (in.)
9

Avg. Wake
Height (in.)
4

20

10

5

10

Zone #
10

Albany Industrial Site, Albany, NY

6/27/2012

21

12

4

10

Henry Hudson Park, Bethlehem, NY
Schodack Island State Park, NY

6/27/2012

15

5

2.6

9

7/1/2013

8

12

5

9

Coxsackie Boat Launch, Coxsackie,
NY

6/27/2012

13

12

5

8

Greene Bedell Road, Coxsackie, NY

7/1/2013

3

12

8

8

25

27

6

8

18

3*

2*

7

22

9

5

7

34

18

5

7

4

6

5

6

26

21

5

6

6/28/2012

19

15

4

6

6/29/2013

20

12

9

6

19

21

5

6

14

42

9

6

38

27

5

6

57

33

5

6

Misraci Road, Coxsackie, NY
S Water Street, Athens, NY
Ferry Street, Hudson, NY
Dutchman's Landing, Catskill, NY
Anchorage Road, Germantown, NY
Cheviot Road, Germantown, NY
Malden Boat Launch, Malden, NY
Albany Street, Glasco, Saugerties, NY
Ulster Landing Park, Saugerties, NY
Charles Rider Park, Kingston, NY
Kingston Point Park, Kingston, NY
Rhinecliff-Kingston Amtrak,
Rhinebeck, NY

Hudson River Wake Study

7/1/2013
6/27/2012
7/1/2013
6/28/2012
7/1/2013*
6/27/2012
7/1/2013
6/28/2012
7/1/2013
7/1/2013
6/28/2012
7/1/2013

6/28/2012
6/29/2013
6/29/2013
6/28/2012
6/29/2013
6/28/2012
6/29/2013

6

Site Name
Norrie Point Environmental Center,
Staatsburg, NY
Quiet Cove Riverfront Park,
Poughkeepise, NY
Marist Boathouse, Poughkeepsie, NY
Victor C. Waryas Park,
Poughkeepsie, NY
Chelsea Yacht Club, Wappinger, NY
Riverfront Park, Beacon, NY
2 Washington Street, Newburgh, NY
Plum Point Park, New Windsor, NY
Main Street, Cold Spring, NY
Garrisons Landing, Philipstown, NY
Mine Dock Road, Highland Falls, NY

Date Visited

Total #
of Boats

Max Wake
Height (in.)

Avg. Wake
Height (in.)

Zone #

6/29/2013

15

20

5

5

6/26/2012

8

21

4

5

31

12*

2*

5

56

18

5

5

53

20

7

4

7

13

7

4

28

26*

8*

4

35

10

1

4

22

15*

4*

3

15

17

7

3

59

9

3

3

6/26/2015
6/29/2013*
6/26/2012
6/29/2013
6/26/2012
6/29/2013
6/26/2012
6/26/2012
6/28/2013*
6/26/2012
6/28/2013
6/26/2012*
6/28/2013
6/28/2013
7/19/2012
6/28/2013

Riverfront Green Park, Peekskill, NY

6/28/2013

15

9

5

3

Hardie St, Verplanck, NY
Haverstraw Marina, West
Haverstraw, NY

6/28/2013

24

21

10

3

6/28/2013

14

15

9

2

Bowline Point Park, West
Haverstraw, NY

7/19/2012

37

15

6

2

47

12

1

2

6/28/2013

6

5

3

2

6/28/2013

9

21

6

2

37

OE*

OE*

2

57

12

3

2

Elliott Way, Croton-on-Hudson, NY
Croton Point Park, Croton-onHudson, NY
Westerly Road, Ossining, NY
Nyack Seaport, Nyack, NY
Losee Park, Tarrytown, NY

6/28/2013
7/19/2012
6/28/2013

7/19/2012*
6/28/2013*
7/19/2012
6/28/2013

OE*/* (Observational Error) – Due to the circumstances under which the measurements were
recorded, they could not be analyzed and were not included in the data summation.

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The total number of wakes recorded at each site ranged from a minimum of 3 at Greene Bedell
Road, Coxsackie, NY to 59 at Mine Dock Road, Highland Falls, NY. There was an average of 25
total recordings at each site. The maximum number of boats recorded on a single day was 45 at
the Chelsea Yacht Club, Wappinger, NY, due primarily to the site’s proximity to the marina. The
size of the recorded wakes at each site ranged from a minimum of 0 inches to as high as 42 inches
at Charles Rider Park, Kingston, NY. The average observed wake was 4.2 inches.
The complete data set for each site is presented in the Appendix. Each summary (Figure 9)
describes the type of instrument used, the date and time of each visit, the weather conditions, as
well as a site map. Four charts representing the distribution of the vessel sizes, types, and speed,
along with the wake generated are also included. For each variable, the site specific percentages
are compared to the percentages based on the total data set for all locations over both years. As
previously mentioned, due to logistics, some sites were only visited during 2013. For these sites,
the site specific percentages are compared to the overall percentages for all locations in 2013.
Wake heights were grouped into four inch intervals starting at 0.5 inches. All wakes over 25 inches
were placed into the same group, although few wakes exceeded this height. Boats that produced
wakes less than 0.5 inches were also put into a separate group. Boat types were classified as
recreational, barge/tug, fishing, ferry, patrol, and miscellaneous. Recreational included yachts,
other pleasure crafts, and sailboats. Barge/tug includes all freight carrying vessels and vessels that
assist their maneuvering. Fishing boats are defined as small (less than 20 ft. long) boats with
outboard motors. Ferries are boats used to transfer a large number of passengers. Patrol boats are
any police or safety boats. Miscellaneous boats include all other types of boats, including personal
watercrafts, kayaks, etc. Speed was put into 10 mph groups starting at zero mph up to 60 mph. All
speed greater than 60 mph were placed into the same group. Vessel size (length) was put into
groups of 10 ft. between 0 and 100 ft. 100 to 400 ft. were placed in the same group, as were lengths
greater than 400 ft.

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Figure 9 - Site data summary

RESULTS
Vessel Type

The distribution of observed vessel traffic by type and by zone is summarized in Figure 10.
Recreational (yachts, sailboats, pleasure crafts) and fishing vessels were the most common
during the observation periods. Recreational vessels comprised 40% or more of the traffic in
every zone except Zone 9. A dramatic increase in fishing boats between Zones 8 and 10 was
found, with fishing vessels accounting for over 60% of the traffic in Zone 9. Normally, due to
their comparatively smaller size and leisurely pace, these vessels produce smaller sized wakes;
however, higher percentages of fishing and recreational vessels may lead to multiple vessels
traveling after each other, causing increased turbulence and larger wakes. Barge and ferry
traffic composed the bulk of the remaining traffic. The frequency of barges is dictated by local
waterfront construction projects and shipping schedules. Barges, due to their design, have a
large wake potential and accounted for over 10% of the traffic in 8 of the 10 zones. Ferry traffic
is limited to sites that are in a close proximity to ferry terminals and routes.

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Vessel Type Percentage by Zone (2012, 2013)
70%
Recreational

60%

Barge

Percentage

50%

Fishing Vessel

40%

Ferry

30%

Patrol Boat

20%

Misc

10%

No Data

0%
Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 8 Zone 9 Zone 10
Location
Figure 10 - Wake Study 2012/2013 vessel type data

Vessel Speed

Vessel speeds are summarized in Figure 11. The majority of the observed vessels were
traveling between 0 and 30 mph, with a nearly equal number of vessels traveling between 0 and
10 mph and 11 and 20 mph in most zones. Zone 3 has the widest distribution of different speeds
and the highest percentage of vessels traveling over 40 mph. It was also the only zone where a
vessel speed in excess of 60 mph was estimated. In Zones 9 and 10, the maximum observed
speed was only 30 mph. This is potentially related to the significantly reduced river width and
increased industrial activity in the northern sections of the Hudson River.

Percentage

Vessel Speed Percentage by Zone (2012,
2013)
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61+
Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 8 Zone 9 Zone 10

No Data

Location
Figure 11 - Wake Study 2012/2013 vessel speed data

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Vessel Size

Vessel size data are summarized in Figure 12. The ship lengths most frequently recorded were
between 11 and 20 ft. in every zone except Zones 9 and 10, where longer boats were observed
more frequently. Thirty percent or more of the traffic in each zone, except Zone 6 and Zone 9,
were between 11 and 20 ft. The vessels recorded in Zone 9 were considerably larger than those
in other zones, with nearly 40% of the observed ships between 91 and 100 ft. The proximity of
the observation locations to the industrial port in the northern part of the river is one potential
reason for the increase in observed vessel size.

Vessel Size Percentage by Zone (2012, 2013)
60%

0:10

Percentage

50%

11:20
21:30

40%

31:40
41:50

30%

51:60
20%

61:70
71:80

10%

81:90
0%
Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 8 Zone 9 Zone 10
Location

91:100
101:400

Figure 12 - Wake Study 2012/2013 vessel size data

Wake Height

The wake data are summarized in Figure 13. Small wakes were most common with most of
the observations falling in either the 0.5 to 4.5 inch or 4.5 to 8 inch range. The frequency of
larger wake heights increased slightly to the north as discussed in greater detail in the following
section. No wakes greater than 12.5 inches were observed beyond Zone 7. Zones 2, 4 and 6
were the only regions in which wakes greater than 25 inches were observed.
Wake Height along the River

Figure 14 shows a comparison of the frequency of occurrence for the two lowest wake regimes,
0 to 0.5 inches and 4.5 to 8.5 inches. Although limited, the data shows a noticeable trend for
both regimes along the river from south to north. The percentage of wakes less than 0.5 inches
decreases dramatically traveling south to north, while the percentage of wake between 4.5 and
8.5 inches increases. Reduced channel width, bathymetry, depth, and variation of vessel type,
are most likely the greatest contributors to this observation.

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Wake Height Percentage by Zone (2012, 2013)
60%
0.0:0.5

Percentage

50%

0.5:4.5

40%

4.5:8.5

30%

8.5:12.5

20%

12.5:16.5
16.5:20.5

10%

20.5:25
0%
Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 8 Zone 9 Zone 10

South

Location

North

25+
No Data

Figure 13 - Wake Study 2012/2013 wake height data

Percentage

Wake Height
50%
45%
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

4.5:8.5 Wake
Height
Percentage
0.0:0.5 Wake
Height
Percentage

Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 8 Zone 9 Zone 10

South

Location

North

Figure 14 - Correlation between wake height and zone

Preliminary Next Steps

The data collected during this experiment represents a “snap-shot” of the Hudson River’s wake
climatology and does not represent a detailed analysis of ship traffic. Some potential next steps
for further characterizing the wake conditions along the river would include using the collected
physical data to verify empirical wake models, and to investigate avenues for expanding the
available data. There have been many methods developed for calculating the size of wakes based
on vessel geometry, speed, and channel geometry. Physical data (wake size and vessel specifics)
recorded during this or additional studies could be used to determine the most accurate and
appropriate model for vessels within the Hudson. A similar study was performed for vessel traffic
in the Mississippi River (Sorensen, 1997). Automated vessel tracking systems such as Automatic

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12

Identification System (AIS) could then be used to in conjunction with validated formulas to
produce a more comprehensive wake climatology.
A simple proof-of-concept study was conducted to see how the information contained in the AIS
database could enhance the observation based study conducted here. The AIS data is time
referenced and contains a list of all the large registered vessels present in the Hudson River, as
well as their physical characteristics, including velocity, course, length, breadth, draft, name, ship
type, destination, and vessel status. It is important to note that smaller vessels, such as recreational
boats are typically not registered with the AIS system, therefore the AIS database represents an
incomplete record, biased towards larger commercial vessels. For demonstration purposes, eight
time periods were studied: three at night, two in the morning, two in the afternoon, and one at
noon. All the zones were observed simultaneously so that the study was consistent along the length
of the river. Compared to the observational data, there is a higher percentage of tug boats and
barges in the data, and relatively few recreational, fishing, and sailing vessels. The graphs below
summarize the information obtained through AIS. In future work, this data could be paired with
an appropriate model for calculating the expected wake from each vessel.

Percentage of Boats

Percentage

90%

Recreational

80%

Tug

70%

Sailing

60%

Fishing

50%
Law Enforce

40%
30%

Tanker

20%

Cargo

10%

Passenger

0%
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 9 Zone 10

Misc

Location
Figure 15 – Automatic Identification System (AIS) data vessel type summary (Note, AIS categorization differs
from the classification system used for the observed data)

Figure 15 presents the distribution of vessels by type within each zone. Tug boats are the only
vessel to appear in all 10 zones. Figure 16 presents the dimensions of the observed vessels. The
largest vessels were observed in Zones 6 through 10, which is likely due to the prevalence of
industrial ships heading to and from port in Albany. Figure 17 presents the average vessel velocity
in knots. The speed of the vessels tracked by AIS tends to be relatively constant, although vessels
in the lower part of the Hudson (Zones 1 and 2) tend to have slightly higher average velocities.

Hudson River Wake Study

13

Average Length, Breadth, and Draft of Vessels
200
180
160

Meters

140

Avg Length
(m)

120
100

Avg Breadth
(m)

80
60
40

Average
Draft (m)

20
0
Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4 Zone 5 Zone 6 Zone 7 Zone 9 Zone 10
Location
Figure 16 - AIS data vessel size summary

Avg speed (kn)
14

Average Speed (kn)

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Zone 5

Zone 6

Zone 7

Zone 9

Zone 10

Location
Figure 17 - AIS data vessel speed summary

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
The wake analysis was performed as a part of a series of analyses undertaken to characterize
present and future estuary and shoreline conditions. Depending on the magnitude of the forces and

Hudson River Wake Study

14

the physical characteristics of the near shore region, the shorelines along the Hudson River are
exposed to varying amounts of physical energy. This physical energy contributes to erosion along
the shoreline and strongly dictates which shoreline stabilization alternatives may be appropriate.
The primary objective of the wake study, conducted during the summers of 2012 and 2013, was
to document vessel traffic and the resulting wakes along the Hudson River, with the intent of
ultimately using this information to more adequately understand the erosion potential associated
with wakes in the Hudson. The findings from this report will be included in an evaluation of the
physical forces experienced along the different segments of the Hudson River, including the
expected forces from wind driven waves, currents, ice, and wakes. The information will be used
to help inform shoreline decision-makers about the required design thresholds for varying methods
of ecologically enhanced shoreline stabilization.
The number of wakes recorded at each site ranged from a minimum of 3 at Greene Bedell Road,
Coxsackie, NY to 59 at Mine Dock Road, Highland Falls, NY. The average number of
observations at each site was 25, while the maximum number of boats recorded on a single day
was 45 at the Chelsea Yacht Club, in Wappinger, NY. This large number of observations was
related to the proximity of the observation site to the marina. The size of the recorded wakes at
each site ranged from a minimum of 0 inches observed at several sites to as high as 42 inches
observed at Charles Rider Park, Kingston, NY. The average recorded wake was 4.4 inches.
Next steps for further characterizing the wake conditions along the river would include using the
collected physical data to verify empirical wake models and to investigate avenues for expanding
the available data. There have been numerous methods developed for empirically predicting the
size of wake waves, given that the necessary parameters are known. The recorded physical data
(wake size and vessel specifics) can be used to determine the most accurate and appropriate model
for the Hudson River. Automated vessel tracking systems such as AIS contain ship records that
could be used with these empirical relationships to provide a better estimate of the wake
climatology for the Hudson.

REFERENCES
Bruno, M., Fullerton, B. and Datla, R. 2002. Ferry Wake Wash in NY/NJ Harbor. Hoboken,
NJ : Stevens Institute of Technology, Davidson Laboratory, TR SIT-DL-02-9-2812, 2002.
PIANC. 2003. Guidelines for Managing Wake Wash from High Speed Vessels. Brussels,
Belgium : International Navigation Association, 2003. Report of Working Group 41 of the
Maritime Navigation Commission.
Sorensen, Robert M. 1997. Prediction of Vessel-Generated Waves with Reference to Vessels
Common to the Upper Mississippi River System. s.l. : U.S. Army Engineer District, Rock
Island; U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Louis; U.S. Army Engineer District, St. Paul, 1997.
ENV Report 4.

Hudson River Wake Study

15

APPENDIX

Hudson River Wake Study

16

APPENDIX

Hudson River Wake Study

16

Troy Dam, Troy, NY
NA
Wednesday, June 27, 2012
10:15 am –2:45 pm
Mostly Cloudy, 70’s

Vessel Speed

60.0
40.0
20.0
Total Values 2012

0.0

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2012

150.0

100.0
50.0

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2012

Vessel Type

Site Values 2012

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
150.0
100.0
50.0
0.0

Total Values 2012

0.0

100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0

Total 2012
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Number 2012

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

4 Forbes Ave, Rensselaer, NY
Bucket
Wednesday, June 27, 2012
10:00 am – 3:00 pm
Partly Cloudy, Mid 70’s
Monday, July 1, 2013
9:30 am – 1:30 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

Vessel Speed

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Albany Industrial Site, Albany, NY
NA
Wednesday, June 27, 2012
9:30 am –3:45 pm
Mostly Cloudy, 70’s

50
40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2012

50
40
30
20
10
0

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2012

Vessel Type

Site Values 2012

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2012

40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2012
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2012

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Henry Hudson Park, Bethlehem,
NY
NA
Wednesday, June 27, 2012
8:30 am –2:15 pm
Mostly Cloudy, 70’s

100
80
60
40
20
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2012

150
100
50

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2012

Vessel Type

Site Values 2012

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2012

0

120.0
100.0
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0

Total Values 2012
0-10
10-20
20-30
30-40
40-50
50-60
60-70
70-80
80-90
90-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2012

Schodack Island State Park,
Schodack Landing, NY
NA
Monday, July 1, 2013
8:30 am – 1:00 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
60
40
20

Total Values 2013

0

Site Values 2013

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Vessel Type

40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Coxsackie Boat Launch, Coxsackie
NY
NA
Wednesday, June 27, 2012
9:00 am – 1:00 pm
Scattered Clouds, Low 70’s
Monday, July 1, 2013
9:30 am – 12:30 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Speed

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

80
60
40
20
0

Wake Height (in.)

Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Study Values

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Greene Bedell Rd. Coxsackie, NY
NA
Monday, July 01, 2013
9:15 am –12:30 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

80
60
40
20
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2013

150
100
50

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013

Vessel Type

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
150
100
50
0

Total Values 2013

0

150
100
50
Total Values 2013

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

(Visit 1)

(Visit 2)

Misraci Road, Athens, NY
Bucket
Wednesday, June 27, 2012
7:45 am – 3:50 pm
Overcast, Low 70’s
Monday, July1, 2013
9:00 am – 1:00 pm
Overcast, Low 70’s

Vessel Speed

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

50
40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
Time
Weather
Date
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

South Water St, Athens, NY
NA
Thursday, June 28, 2012
7:30 am – 4:00 pm
Scattered Clouds, Low 80’s
Monday, July 1, 2013
9:30 am – 12:30 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

Vessel Speed

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

60
40
20

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

0

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Ferry Street, Hudson, NY
NA
Wednesday, June, 27, 2012
6:30 am – 3:30 pm
Scattered Clouds, Mid 70’s
Monday, July 1, 2013
9:00 am – 12:30 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

Vessel Speed

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

50
40
30
20
10
0

Wake Height (in.)

Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Study Values

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Dutchman’s Landing, Catskill NY
NA
Thursday, June 28, 2012
9:30 am – 2:00 pm
Scattered Clouds, Low 80’s
Monday, July 1, 2013
9:00 am – 1:30 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

Vessel Speed

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

50
40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Anchorage Road, Germantown,
NY
NA
Monday, July 1, 2013
10:00 am – 1:30 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

80
60
40
20
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2013

60
40
20

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013

Vessel Type

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013

0

60
40

20
Total Values 2013

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Cheviot Rd, Germantown, NY
NA
Thursday, June 28, 2012
9:00 am –2:30 pm
Clear, Low 80’s
Monday, July 1, 2013
10:00 am –1:00 pm
Light Rain, Low 70’s

Vessel Speed

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Malden Boat Launch, Malden, NY
NA
Thursday, June 28, 2012
10:45 am –2:45 pm
Partly Cloudy, High 70’s

40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2012

40
30
20
10
0

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2012

Vessel Type

Site Values 2012

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2012

80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2012
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2012

Albany St, Glasco, NY
NA
Saturday, June 29, 2013
9:30 am – 1:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed

100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2013

40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Ulster Landing Park, Saugerties,
NY
NA
Thursday, June 28, 2012
9:30 am – 12:30 pm
Clear, Low 80’s
Saturday, June 29, 2013
8:00 am –12:30 pm
Partly Cloudy, High 70’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Charles Rider Park, Kingston
NY
NA
Saturday, June 29, 2013
8:00 am – 1:00 pm
Partly Cloudy, High 70’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Vessel Type

60
40

20
Total Values 2013

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Kingston Point Park, Kingston NY
NA
Thursday, June 28, 2012
8:30 am – 1:30 pm
Clear, Low 80’s
Saturday, June 29, 2013
8:30 am – 1:00 pm
Partly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

60
40
20

Wake Height (in.)

Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Study Values

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

0

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Rhinecliff-Kingston Amtrak,
Rhinebeck, NY
Rod
Thrusday, June 28, 2012
8:00 am – 2:30 pm
Clear, Low 80’s
Saturday, June 29, 2013
9:00 am – 1:30 pm
Scattered clouds, Low 70’s

Vessel Speed

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

50
40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Norrie Point Environmental
Center, Staatsburg, NY
NA
Saturday, June 29, 2013
9:00 am – 1:30 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

50
40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2013

60
40
20

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2013

Percentage

Pernectage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013

Vessel Type

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013

0

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Quiet Cove Riverfront Park,
Poughkeepsie, NY
Rod
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
9:45 am –1:45 pm
Overcast, Mid 60’s

80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2012

150.0
100.0
50.0

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2012

Vessel Type

Site Values 2012

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80.0
60.0
40.0
20.0
0.0

Total Values 2012

0.0

30.0
20.0
10.0
Total Values 2012

0.0
0-10
10-20
20-30
30-40
40-50
50-60
60-70
70-80
80-90
90-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2012

Marist Boathouse, Poughkeepsie,
NY
NA
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
9:15 am – 1:30 pm
Partly Cloudy, Low 60’s
Saturday, June 29, 2013
8:00 am – 1:30 pm
Partly Cloudy, High 70’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
60
40
20

Total Study Values

0

Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Victor C. Waryas Park,
Poughkeepsie, NY
NA
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
9:00 am – 3:00 pm
Overcast, High 60’s
Saturday, June 29, 2013
7:30 am – 1:30 pm
Partly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Chelsea Yacht Club, Wappinger,
NY
NA
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
8:00 am – 3:00 pm
Overcast, High 60’s
Saturday, June 29, 2013
6:30 am – 2:00 pm
Partly Cloudy, Low 80’s

Vessel Speed

40
30
20
10
0

Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Site Values
Total Study Values

Total Study Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Site Values
Total Study Values

Vessel Type

40
30
20
10
0

Total Site Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Study Values

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Riverfront Park, Beacon, NY
NA
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
8:15 am –2:45 pm
Overcast, Mid 60’s

Vessel Speed

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2012

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
60
40
20

Total Values 2012

0

Site Values 2012

Site Values 2012

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Values 2012
Site Values 2012

Vessel Type

30
20
10
Total Values 2012

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2012

2 Washington St, Newburgh, NY
NA
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
7:00 am – 2:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Mid 60’s
Friday, June 28, 2013
10:00 am – 2:30 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

50
40
30
20
10
0

Wake Height (in.)

Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Study Values

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

60
40
20
Total Study Values

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Plum Point Park, New Windsor, NY
Bucket
Tuesday, June 26, 2012
7:00 am – 3:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Mid 60’s
Friday, June 28, 2013
9:30 am – 3:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Low 80’s

Vessel Speed

No Data

25 +

20.5-25

16.5-20.5

12.5-16.5

8.5-12.5

4.5-8.5

0.5-4.5

Total Site Values

Percentage

100
80
60
40
20
0
0-0.5

Percentage

Wake Height
60
40
20

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Size

Total Site Values
Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Total Study Values

Total Study Values

Wake Height (in.)

80
60
40
20
0

Total Site Values

0

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Site Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Study Values

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Main St. (Waterfront), Cold Spring,
NY
NA
Tuesday, June 26 2012
9:00 am – 2:00 pm
Overcast, High 60’s
Friday, June 28 2013
9:30 am – 1:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

100
80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Garrisons Landing, Garrison, NY
Rod
Friday, June 28, 2013
9:30 am – 2:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2013

80
60
40
20
0

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Mine Dock Rd, Highland Falls, NY
NA
Thursday, July 19, 2012
9:00 am – 1:30 pm
Overcast, High 60’s
Friday, June 28, 2013
8:00 am – 3:30 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Low 80’s

Vessel Speed

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Size (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

100
80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Riverfront Green Park, Peekskill,
NY
Rod
Friday, June 28, 2013
10:30 am – 1:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 60’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

60
40
20
Total Values 2013

0

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
60
40
20

Total Values 2013

0

Site Values 2013

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Vessel Type

150
100
50
Total Values 2013

0
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Hardie St, Verplanck, NY
NA
Friday, June 28, 2013
9:30 am – 2:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Mid 70’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Vessel Type

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel type

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Haverstraw Marina, West
Haverstraw, NY
NA
Friday, June 28, 2013
10:00 am – 1:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

50
40
30
20
10
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2013

80
60
40
20
0

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013

Vessel Type

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Bowline Point Park, West
Haverstraw, NY
NA
Friday, June 28, 2013
8:00 am – 12:30 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Mid 70’s
Friday, June 28, 2013
8:15 am – 12:30 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Mid 70’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Vessel Type

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

80
60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Elliot Way, Croton-on-Hudson, NY
NA
Thursday July 19, 2012
9:00 am – 2:00 pm
Overcast, Low 70’s
Friday, June 28, 2013
10:30 am – 2:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed

No Data

25 +

20.5-25

16.5-20.5

12.5-16.5

8.5-12.5

4.5-8.5

0.5-4.5

Total Study Values

Percentage

100
80
60
40
20
0
0-0.5

Percentage

Wake Height
60
40
20

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Total Site Values

Wake Height (in.)

100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

0

40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Croton Point Park, Croton-onHudson, NY
NA
Friday, June 28, 2013
9:30 am –2:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

80
60
40
20
0

Vessel Speed

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height

Site Values 2013

100
80
60
40
20
0

Wake Height (in.)

Site Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013

Vessel Type

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
100
80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013

80
60
40
20
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Westerly Rd, Ossining, NY
NA
Friday, June 28, 2013
8:00 am – 12:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather

Vessel Speed

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013

Percentage

Percentage

Wake Height
60
40
20

Total Values 2013

0

Site Values 2013

Site Values 2013

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

Vessel Size

Total Values 2013
Site Values 2013

Vessel Type

40
30
20
10
0

Total Values 2013
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

60
40
20
0

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Size (ft)

Site Values 2013

Nyack Seaport, Nyack NY
NA
Thursday, July 19, 2012
7:30 am – 2:00 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Low 70’s
Friday, June 28, 2013
7:00 am – 2:15 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

100
50
Total Study Values
No Data

25 +

20.5-25

16.5-20.5

12.5-16.5

8.5-12.5

4.5-8.5

0.5-4.5

0

Percentage

Vessel Speed

150

0-0.5

Percentage

Wake Height

Total Site Values

40
30
20
10
0

Wake Height (in.)

Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Size

Total Study Values

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Vessel Type
80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values

Site Name
Instrument Type
Date
(Visit 1)
Time
Weather
Date
(Visit 2)
Time
Weather

Losee Park, Tarrytown, NY
NA
Thursday, July 19, 2012
7:30 am – 2:30 pm
Mostly Cloudy, Low 70’s
Friday, June 28, 2013
7:30 am – 3:30 pm
Mostly Cloudy, High 70’s

Vessel Speed
60

Total Study Values

40
20

Total Site Values

Vessel Size

Total Study Values
Total Site Values

Percentage

Percentage

Vessel Type

Vessel Type

Total Site Values

Vessel Speed (mph)

Wake Height (in.)

80
60
40
20
0

Total Study Values

0

50
40
30
20
10
0

Total Study Values
0-10
11-20
21-30
31-40
41-50
51-60
61-70
71-80
81-90
91-100
100-400
400+
No Data

50
40
30
20
10
0

Percentae

Percentage

Wake Height

Vessel Size (ft)

Total Site Values