Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blended-Wing-Body

Aircraft Based on Cluster System
Guo-qing ZHANG 1; Shu-xing YANG1; Song-hai XUE1
Beijing Institute of Tecnology. Beijing,100081,China
e-mail: zhangguoqing@bit.edu.cn

Abstract: The aerodynamic characteristics of the BWBUAV were simulated numerically based on the High
Performance Computing Cluster System. The effects on
the aerodynamic characteristics of the whole aircraft
made by the BWB were investigated. The
longitudinal/lateral characteristics of BWB and the
conventional tailless sweep wing had been compared. The
results showed that BWB configuration had the better
longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics. The causes of its
excellent characteristics can be attributed to the new
wing-body lifting design, which can improve the flowing
pattern of the surface. But its lateral stability was bad.
Therefore, it would be an important criterion that trying
to enhance the lateral stability in BWB-UAV design.
Keywords: BWB; Cluster System; sweep wing; stability;
mesh

Ⅰ. INTRODUCTION
In modern times, the war has become more and
more complicated. When every country is making great
efforts in enhancing the agility and maneuverability of
the aircrafts, some new aerodynamic distributions and
configurations are drawing more and more attention.
Especially the Blended Wing Body Aircraft - BWB
Aircraft, because of its lighter quality of the structure,
higher lift-drag ratio and stronger stealth features, has
drawn the favor of many designers. Except these, the
BWB distribution has the potential advantages such as
safety, comfort and environmental noise. So the United
States, Europe, Russia and other aviation industry have
committed huge resources to conduct the study. U.S. led
by Boeing companies bring the Langley Research
Center and Stanford University and other research
institutions had extensive and in-depth study on the
BWB, involving aerodynamic, structure, control and
power, and other disciplines[1]. Since the 1990s, People
have a higher demand on the stealth features and the
flight performance of the new generation combat aircraft
(including UAVs), removing vertical tail is easier to
meet these requirements. So the investigation of BWBUAVs has set off an upsurge in the international
aviation community.
There are a variety of BWB-UAVs programs have
entered the flight-proven stage, such as X-45,X-
47A 、 B. But in our country, the investigations of

aerodynamic characteristics of the tandem wing are very
scarce; especially the effects on the aerodynamic
characteristics of the whole aircraft made by BWB
configuration are more worthy of deep investigation.
This paper had used the mature numerical CFD
software, the vertical and horizontal aerodynamic
characteristics of two tailless configurations of the
whole aircraft had been simulated numerically and
drawn some corresponding conclusions.
Ⅱ. CLUSTER SYSTEM
Because it is aerodynamic simulation of the whole
aircraft. The amount of mesh generation has reached
over 200 million. Ordinary computer and a single server
memory have been unable to meet its accuracy and
feasibility of the requests. So this experiment was
operated on CFD numerical platform in the use of highperformance cluster system structured with parallel
cluster architecture. This system is configured with 36
Itanium 2 processors; Calculation of network is
configured with 24 interface infiniband of one
switchboard. Network management is equipped with
3Com 100M 24 interface infiniband of one switchboard.
Theoretical calculation of peak can reach 230.4 Glops.
(Glops is 10 billion calculation per second)
.
Ⅲ. CFD
A. Size Function and Grid of Technology

the geometric parameters were shown as follows: wing (Trapezoidal Wing). 2 S=0.173m.1 The structural (outside) and non-structural grids of the whole numerical zones In modeling of the whole aircraft. But the key technology which affects the quality and quantity of the grids generation is to control and grasp size of the grid. for the sweep tailless distribution.3Mach. C L (15 ) had increased about 84. both the curves of lift characteristics and longitudinal moment were showing nonlinear platform. (It doesn’t change the entire structure of the network topology) As shown in Fig. The Model and Setting of the Boundary Conditions This study used the aerodynamic shape design which was the same as X-47B. Ⅳ. C L max is 48.27%. b Ag =0. enhancing the accuracy of the experiment. The temperature is 300K. as shown below ° ° . but C x 0 had no obvious changes. the experiment took the method of size function control grid size [2]. And the ∂mz < 0 .74%. pressure is greater. R e = 6 1. L=2. during meshing the non-structural grids of the wing and tail.2.Fig. compared to the conventional tailless distribution. using couple-implicit solver. the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of BWB had been α ° improved obviously. B.2 Comparison of the BWB and conventional tailless configuration The velocity of inlet is set 0. SIMPLE Iteration and uses wall functions.87.95 0 . the quality and size of the mesh generation will often directly affect the accuracy of the experimental results. The simulation uses K- ε turbulence model.1. it had been improved significantly. χ1 =17. Fig.06 × 10 . The Impacts on the Longtitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics Made by BWB From the Figs we can see. when α =20 ~35 . both were longitudinal static stability. so it is set relative pressure. ∂cl And from the Figs we can see.4m. but the BWB were showing relatively better near linear aerodynamic characteristics. THE EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS A. Based on this. And the stall characteristics of the BWB become more flat. the parts of grid are refined for the whole aircraft. as shown in Fig. during the numerical simulation.415m . λ =13. which was mainly caused by the improved flow pattern of the wing root.

56、0.1316 0.56、0. Four different sections of the speed flow .7 Velocity vector distribution (X w / l w =0.0286 0.7) α = 30° the fuselage characteristics were shown at X w / l w =0.0297 19 BWB 1.36、0.05 35 84. Side edge vortex caused by the sweep wing and the As shown in Fig.0527 0.7.6 Comparison of pitching moment Fig.7.74 84.4 Comparison of polar curves Fig.3 Comparison of lift and drag characteristics Fig.27 5.44、 along the axis(X w )compared to the length of the wings 0. when (l w ).7608 0.5 Comparison of pitching moment Table 1 Aerodynamic parameter of the two configurations Aerodynamics configuration C L max α ° C L (15 ) C x0 α lj Tailless sweep wing 0.2 ° ° Fig.36、0.Fig.0312 Δ% 48. The flow pattern of BWB was obviously different from the conventional tailless configuration.44、0.

all the recommendations and suggestions would be accepted sincerely. the drag characteristics of BWB had no obvious changes.6) coefficient was very small. Without her consistent and illuminating instruction. the aerodynamic advantages of BWB mainly stem from the novel wing-body lift integration of design. AIAA Journal of aircraft 2004. 2005. B. [2] Sun Jing. And from above Figs we can infer that the better liftdrag characteristics of BWB to a large extent attributed to the improvement of the wing-body surface flow pattern.8 Comparison of lateral force coeff At the same time. whether by increasing the vertical surface to solve the stability (It can increase the infiltration area and flight noise) or transforming the aerodynamic shape of BWB remains to be further investigated. But the drag characteristics had shown that. the frictional resistance increasingly dominated. [3] Zhu Ziqiang Wu Zongcheng. when α ≤ 8° . The Impacts on the Lateral Aerodynamic Characteristics Made by BWB(Ma=0. GUI Ye-wei. my ∝ 0 , β m y = −0. but the conventional vertical tail configuration was replaced by BWB. it was almost in the neutral stable condition.002 . [1] TANG Wei. REFERENCES Fig. but also could enhance the flow pattern of the wing root. this thesis could not have reached its present form. . for his constant encouragement and guidance. which made the whole drag force increase. Fig. But as laminar flow technology developed (Mixed-Flow Control-HLFC) and the turbulent drag reduction technologies became more and more practical [2] . Concept Investigation of ‘W’Tailless Configuration [J]. The lift and the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics had been improved greatly. delaying the separation of the boundary layer and extending the border stall. Zhang Binqian. I greatly thank for all the experts and editors. AIAA 2005-4602.41(1):10-25.0015 ~ − 0. He has walked me through all the stages of the writing of this thesis.2007. Based on this. CONCLUSION (1)BWB has more favorable lift-drag and longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics.0. mainly due to the improvement of the surface flow pattern. whether by increasing the vertical surface to solve the stability or transforming the aerodynamic shape of BWB remains to be further investigated. Modern aircraft design aerodynamics [M] Beijing.3.9 Comparison of lateral moment From above Figs we can see. it was mainly because that BWB configuration had widen the fuselage. Journal of Astronautics [J] Vol. As the Mach increased. both of them compensated with each other and made the drag have an obvious increment.1. BWB configuration lacked the lateral stability. but the wing and fuselage integration could greatly reduce the resistance. Ⅴ. the frictional of BWN configuration was expected to further decrease.4. greatly enhanced the longitudinal stability. and the lateral force [1] Liebeck R H Design of the Blended-wing-body subsonic transport [J]. the increased infiltration areas of the whole aircraft could increase the flying friction.0. which would greatly affect the directional stability. my supervisor. β m y remained unchanged in the subsonic stage. ACKNOWLEDGMENT My deepest gratitude goes first and foremost to Professor Yang. Aerodynamic Design and Optimization for a Wing-Body Vehicle. with the angle of attack increased.28 No.fuselage had made a great contribution to the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of BWB configuration. it was mainly because that the direction of the aircraft static stability was mainly provided by the vertical tail. Beijing University of Aeronautics & Astronautics Press. (3)The lateral stability of BWB is bad. the magnitudes of the lateral moment coefficient kept around 10 −3 . however. 198-206. Both the sharp degree of the front edge and the improvement of the wing flow pattern could improve the horizontal lateral stability at the high angle of attack to some degree [3]. The side edge vortex not only could provide the vortex lift. (2)Compared with the conventional tailless sweep wing.

[7] Kenneth C.In.No. Vol. α =30°the pressure cloud of upper surfaces of two configurations . Analysis of Vortex Bursting Utilizing Three-Dimensional Laser Measurements [J].Cornelius.2. [6] Reneaux J Overiew on drag reduction technologies for civil transport aircraft [R] European Congress on Fig.March-April 1995.32. α =5°. [5] W. JOURNAL OF AIRCRAFT.10 Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering 2004. Wind Tunnel Analysis of a Morphing Swept Wing Tailless Aircraft [J].E. M. 23 rd AIAA 2005-4981.Franke. AIAA 2007-676.[4] Richard Guiler. Aerodynamic Ground Effects of Tailless Chevron and Lambda Shaped UCAV Models [J].