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Political Campaigns in Japan : The Art of Connection

M A N G A J I N

SellI
Ame

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No. 59

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BRAND NEWS

J3 V' iJ) :Z. tj T

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Ohikae Nasutte
Yo! Please , Baby, No Fat
Finally, a dairy product that satisfies the discriminating tastes of housewives
and mcmhers of organized crime syndicates alike. Morinaga 's mil k drink,

Ohikae Nasutte ( .:tJ U -IJ' X..1&: T

0 "( ),

provides more protein and calcium

than whole mi lk, but wi th huff the culori es and almost no fat. l nsurticient
calcium is one of the few weaknesses of a traditional Japanese diet. Choices
of dairy products are limited. so whole milk is one of the only options
available for the calcium-impaired. M orinaga has aimed this product mainly
at young women who need calcium, but who also want to watch the calories.
So what doe all of this have to do with organized crime? It's in the name.

Ohikae 11asul/e ( i:> U -IJ' X..1&: -9 0 "( ) is a slang expression with a double
meaning. Simply put, hikae comes from the ver b hikaeru (~X. .0 ).
meaning "prepare and wait ( tand by)." or "cut back/moderate." Nasuue
i~ an archaic variation of 1w.mue. the -Te form of the verb 11asaru (honorific
equivalent of suru, "do"). With the addition of the honorific prefix o-.
ohikae IW.

IIffe means "please prepare 10 li len (to whal I am about to say1 will now introduce myself),'' and is followed by a sl ylized, " pre-formatted"
~piel

about 1he speaker's background. The phrase i s used by members of a

certain segmen1 o f Japanese society which traditionally includes yakuza,
streel vendors, racketeers, quacks, and the like. Ohikae 11asulle is used
when introducing oneself or paying one's respect to another
member of this special soc iety. Of course. when saying

ohikae ltnSllfte, one must strike the appropriate pose- lhe
same pose the cow on the carton has assumed. Unless you
happen to be among those who honor the code (a bunch of
imimidating Japanese guys wilh full-body tattoos). doing
the ohikae llasuffe bit is usually good for a laugh.
Since !his is a super-low-fat, low-cal laclic treat, the cow
addressing us with "ohikae nasutte" is making a pun with
an ahcrnate meaning o f the verb hikaeru: "cut back.'' In
olher words. please cut back on the calories (like the cow
say ) and dr ink Ohikae Nasutte instead.

On this poster, Japan's most
lovable loser, Tora-san of the
movie series Otoko wa Tsurai
yo, strikes an ohikae nasutte
pose as he introduces himself
with the stylized speech.

Send us your examples o f creative product names o r s logans ( w ith som e kind of d ocumentation). If w e
publish your example, we' ll send you a Mangajin T -shirt to w ear on your next shopping trip. In case of
duplicate entries, earliest postmark gets the shirt. BRAND N EWS, P .O. Box 77 188, Atlanta, G A 30357- 11 88
1) .J:. 1 7-. 1 7' To: 111i ,';,', ¥. "###BOT_TEXT###gt; 7, o 1! :.-- ~ ::: ff: t.: -c: Lt.:. I? • 'li f'l· i' i~ .X. "( , j·,'J t/1 ~ ~foi ~;}I\ ;1: ·c- }3 j~ t; f ~ ~ ' u ttl ·I& )}
1.: t;J. , iJ,t 1111j AT:,.. 'I' '/ ~ illi .'.!± L.. £ ·to [IT] t. fJiJt.: I'IJ L.. -c 1!l f.{ G':> .h~ .Y,·'IJ' ~) j·,'l t il. t .t.:>'/.1- -ttl,' t.:. t!. ~' t.:. t;Jdi' IJ:, ~'1! il~ Gil O)
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'/ t Hit f) L i -9 o ~li 1t; IJ: BRAND NF.WS. P.O. Rnx 77 188, A t lama, GA 30357- 11 88. U.S.A.

7

Mangajin 9

Politics in Japan:
The Art of

Connection
Traveling with the re-election campaign of Di et member Ono Kiyoko,
political scientist Robin LeBlanc learned that the noisy traditions of a Japanese
political campaign all boil down to one thing: making a connection.
Four molllhs illlo my study of Ono Kiyoko :S
1992 re-election campaign for her seat in
the House of Councillors. I found myself
in a cro11•d of Japanese men and ll'omen
on a sort of platfo rm in the middle of a
pla:.a at Tokyo's Shibuya Station. We
grabbed.familiarly at each other:1· arms.
balancing oursell'es. reassuring each other
ofour presence. We swayed in the late July
heat and a humidity that seemed to
compress the lungs. Loudspeakers worked
the pla:a from se1•eral sides, with music
and ad1•ertisements creating the usual
background hum. BLII on this night. the
ordinary din was surmo1111ted by noise
blaring from soundtrucks of several
competing politicians.
My memories COli hardly son one
sound from another: They are all noisenoise pushing us backward and for~rard
in the thick. thick ai1: Blll in 1he mids1 of
1he confusion, my group looked to one
sou11d truc k and one set of .wiled
poli1icicms with white-gl01•ed hands. We crying and thanking her supporters again
looked up a/ Ono Kiyoko, our woman and again. but as I screamed, she caug/11
candidate surrounded by men in 1he my eye. and over her microphone. over
cemer of the truck platform. and 0 111 to all the other clash and bang of 1hat
those around us. We asked each other: unbearable July evening, I heard my
name. "Arigato Robin! Arigato Robin!"
Would ~re be disappointed /011101'1'011'?
\Vhen Ono sound truck began 10 pull Those two '''ords cmmbled the last bi1 of
OIW_I'. I clambered as high on nn· rock as
my impanial scholarly facade. Tears
I could. IH'al·ed and screamed "Ganbatte. streamed down my face as Ono left the
ganbane. ganbaue Ono-sensei! .. She ~ras pla:.a. The next e1•eninx she 11•on her

s

-• grab= ')
11u~wuu • ~rabbed al each olhcr·, arms= ij7J l£- ~ilJ..o. {~ ' J t.:. f({/(' o kwnialla • din =
· · i' ~ f"J ~ i! ~ tFI J.ctwycmm~ti J.:ltAknl·teAi 1111 w1emae

n' (:,-

12 Mangajin

second lerm in the House of Councillors
by the skin of her teeth. Despite all my
pretensions as a foreign obsen •e1; I had
ll'anted her to win.
M ost foreigners in Japan have !.een and
heard ound truc ks (large vans with loudspeakers mo unted on top) like Ono's in
the streets of the towns where they live.
Many Westerners shake their heads at Lhe

Mt ('j-

-- -- -sr1on • impanial 'cholarly facade =

--:-:--:--l
fo: I

!l.l <?

an-ofcompr omise politics i s a world of tough-minded individuals with strong. Fo r reasons both struc tural and cultural. Ono spent months building the '·thankyou networks'" that her supporters and I embodied for her at the Shibuya plaza because suc h net works are the cultural cement of a Japanese politician's organizationa l structure.land against all comer~-quite the contrary. Japanese politics. We may miss important parts of the Japanese political display if we view it through Western preconception)..~a 1111A11. Japan·s extremely restrictive campaign law~ reinforce the empha~il> on campaigning through networking. has exac tly the sa me opportunity. or aisatsu (if>~' ~ ":> . Anyone anticipating th e sort o f platform-defining comments ("' Read my lips.. foreign observers wonder. are seldom a way for a politician to distinguish himself or hersel f from others in term~ of pol icymaking preferences or skill.Po. and door-to-door visits and most uses of the media are off-limit s. L ittle or nothing is said that is even catchy.· (.1e11kyo 1111 ) At"ilwslw • w lk ing-head T ~nil ) 7 ~ ~ 3 / t1' /. the non-Japanese observer can come to learn a lot about Japanese politics. Why do the Japanel>e put up wi th this. Even when they ~top to see the spectacle. nearly everything she could do on her own behalf to win another term had already been done. no new taxes'') conveyed in media events in major American elections would be sore l y disappointed by the content of the short ~pceches. Candidates may display posters of therm..i_q (ll'riili·l(ll) ak"·'""" . "nightinga le" ) gi rl s.. A candidate has few means to distinguish him. The official campaign period is just over two weeks long.. . a Japanese politician who cannot blend in well w ith other s in his or her party cannot expect to achieve anything in a world where personal acquaintances and informal networks of obligation are the keys to power. we are o ften used to hearing politics referred to as the "art of compromise. would be much better characterized as the "an of connection:· and it is the difference between "compromi). um/111 no kiW dake ga /la111e11 11i d<•fe . In ideal terms.111 • adver~. they do not expect it to reveal much about their policy options at the ballot box. right along with the posters of any other candidates for the same position...e l ves... but during the campaign peri od they can only be hung in designated poster sites.. In fact. with a trained eye. the Japanese politician i s not rewarded for the capacity to ). What kind of politics is this? In truth. demonstrating that she is worth a voter"s loyalty. Q) ) ~)'. In Eng li sh. these public sound truck performances. scores of people with no chance to win an election often declare their candidacy simply to have the opport unity to air their views on TV.e·· and =- = ""connect ion . Moreover. l1lr Y. distinct opinions who alter each other's convictions by banging heads in a goodnatured but advcrsarial relationship. Q) (J(J 1.~ . rekiwi-reki 1w • reciprocily +lllr: 1Jdi)J . Nevertheless. Candidates may not use paid adverti ing. most of it had been done months earlier-even before the 18-day campaign period allowed by law offi cially beganand much of that work con~ isted of building networks of favor and obligation with other pol iticians and their supporters. hardly seem to provide a chance for intelligent policy debate. jlitai =( v = <.iil . profes~ional~ at announcing a candidate's name from PA systems. At events like the one outside Shibuya station.r dakyii-)111..or herself from the crowd of office-seekers.ia l . f/< {{ .:it .." but we usuall y do not consider the cultural biases contained in the expression. trcet or atory") or ytl:ei (jff .: =( Mangajin 13 . we are linked by a sense of reciprocity: we have a son of loyalty.•rial rlii l. Q) .: /. as the primary goal of politics that can trip up the foreign observer of Japanese elections. offered by the politicians atop their trucks. They are given free time for tal king-head presentations on public tele vision. but everyone who run s for office. no matter how unlikely his or her success .ri ft·Q) rlf! It 1'1' JlhJJ(IJ 1. Japanese voters know as much.cckcr i'i!i>i'..: II\ "'C ~ • 6 ~)(1. ··.politicians' wh ite gloves and the artificial voices of the uniformed ux ui. Actually. all of the exact same size and shape. known variousl y as l?llitiJ en:etsu ( i!r lift iiii .wlgo j11jo I Hili.) = = • alop Q) 1·. The~e loudspeaker ~how-.k . Once Ono has done somethi ng important for me and I have done something important for her. t. Ono appears publicly a~ the sort of person who can incur and fulfil l obligations with other interesti ng and auractive people.111 (:f.1t"igo i:o11 • office-. let alone controversial. (In fact. on the other hand. ·'election canvassing/s tump speaking'').f (J(J /. Z> ginm 1111 11111111 ni 11am • an o f comprom i'c "?Z· t£& if.110 "" 1w • cnnlruvcr. The sound truck show fails to ~how off a politician\ skill at rational debate because it is designed to fulfill an entirely different mission: demonstrating the depth of a politician's connection to those around him or her. "greetings"). By the time Ono appeared before the Shibuya crowd.

a chief concern of the kr)enkai headquarters and branch leaders of the organization was gathering cash to print.'' and the focus changed from building connections to publicly demonstrating them. ktJiwn 'i ni . they carri ed away the ob ligatio n to drum up a few more conn ecti ons who would have a few more connections of their own.W. and remove posters as scheduled events came and went. won an Ol ympic medal for gymnastics in the 1960s). As one of Ono 's powerful koenkai leaders told me.> kii. for example. but these are strictly limited in format and number. However. attendees at these events supplied their names and addresses.. By law. the cards must be addressed to specific people.'1 k_.Candidates may pass out fliers. In return for dinner. The K omeito (or Clean Governm ent Party. sending postcard s. He sponsored special evening events w here entertai ner s or famous speakers were paired with appearances by Ono and other politicians. Ill.l'l!.wrete iru • esprit de corps = 1·11*-. the kr)enkai could not engage in ··ca mpaign" activities.):U: IJ) JJ. to the staffers of the Ono campaign. Finally. Ono and other LDP members who wanted to run for the House of Council lors vi sited the offic es o f potentiall y fri endly politicians of the same party.-maru I Jtl!. The law all ows politicians to liberally advertise kiienkai events on posters as long as the posters are not hung too far in advance of the event or left up following its end. politicians are in many ways less legally hamstrung at this time than during the official campaign peri od.f-)5 11lr 1*1 ~ . It could not publish newsletters asking for a vote for Ono. and the membership lists of the kOenkai of friendly politicians. now part of the New Fron tier Party). L iberal Democratic Party (LDP) politicians such as Ono have to build their connec ti ons by net work ing amo ng organizations such as those of small businessmen. M ost w ho came had been contacted by koenkai workers from lists of previous Ono supporters. From April until Jul y.: il!l: J. For example. koenkai events place much more importance on connection than policy pronouncements. the kr)enkai could and did devote itself to making Ono better known on several levels. A side from name recognition gained in other arenas (Ono. and randomly dialed.. Al though they canno t open l y ask for votes.• dallkl'/. and other politicians who hold ofti ces at lower levels of government or in the other house of the Diet. After the begi nning of the campaign peri od.<dai • congraiUlatory ca'h = fl{. • arena = ~. Like official campaign events such as the Shi buya gairi5 en::. (I(J (. Ono had strong support from a member of the House of Representatives with a ti ghtly knit gr oup of femal e supporters. has successfully used i ts ties to a religious organization (the Soka Gakkai). gently making their aspirations known. The cash and connections were used over the next few months to sponsor "Get Behind Ono" events in vari ous neighborhoods throughout the far-tlung Tokyo prefecture. a politician's meibo is his or her most important resource.l' ~~ iwai·kin I flll& slu7gi • far-flung =11.wk11 .etsu. hang. Even the lists o f addresses and phone numbers candidates can use during campai gn period come from influential people connected to their campai gns.-. and after eating and drinking at Ono's establishment. candidates must rely heavily on word-of-mouth support. "political suppo rt association''). but prior to the campaign period. "" lw I i. and a chance to see how well connected their elected officials were. farmers. I n July. for example. M any of those who came to enjoy the good chee r and hosp itality al so broug h t envelopes filled with congratulatory cash. . although candidates may make tel ephone call s and send postcards to voters. the o rgan i zation became the ''election headquarters.: 11: l ' cftiri·tel. iii!: !It! 1.. I n mid-April. ~r'r: IJ) ~~~ f . as well as the names and addresses of acquaintances who lived in the district.I'flin 14 Mangajin . T hese lists of addresses were Ono's meibo (t'r or li st of con tacts for phoning. because electoral r eg ul ati o ns pro hibit koenkai f r o m functioning during an official campaign period. the rolls of other organizations that koenkai workers represented. . Ono 's staff had moved out of its tiny office to a three-story building that became the headquarters of Ono's k oenkai (I{Z 1-£ 1.. lush settings and varied entertainment are used to foster esprit de corps among Ono followers who wi ll be cal led on to show up for her during the offi cial campaign period. th e kr)enkai he ld a jimushobiraki ( ·j~ . " o ffi ce opening") party with well over a thousand guests.f. By Apri I of 1992.'i -L. i ni lrimi • hamstrun<! = f1~ ~ ~ it 'C l ' 7.. W · ~msumku "" lmwi . The Japan Communist Party and the former Japan Socialist Party have long relied on their ties to labor unions who supply workers as possible supporters.~.. the more el abor ate touches of kr)enkai events were no longer legally wn. and getting out the vote. entertainment. This crucial co nnect ion-build ing actually occurs long before the campaign period. Some political parties have natural ties to organizations that can provide these name lists. therefore. a strategy that means connecrion is everything. As much as six or seven months before the opening of the campaign period.

i" loloj fl~J (.l"lll"l'ltl • on looker' = iki: uri "" hiro • ward a"emblypcr>on J:.:. 117 minutes. I n a se nse . however. 164 minutes (on 2 tapes). In my months as a campaign observer.: jf ~ l "( . after all.95 Directed by Juz.95 To ord4!r:Shipping and handling cost depends on the total amount of the order-contact Mangajin for the correct amount. 1-800-5~-~:zD~ • Fax ~tM-1:M-0891 • PO Box n188. and money orders (made out to Mangajin and drawn on US funds). In Japanese with En glish subtitles. Sllsflitfll. Visa. swaying crowd at Shibuya impossible. GA ~"' • Ort. Ono could portray an extraordi nary desire to be linked-connected. 87 minutes.95 KWAIDAN Based on the ghost stories by Japan's most famous American ex-pat. however. 1950. I was linked to a human chain that made standing back from the hopefu l. Tarnpopo parodies American westerns and Japanese samurai films. Often copied (most recently in the Denzel Washington film Courage under Fire). many Japanese rightly rue the shallow level on which most public pol itical discourse occurs. • n~nked by = . demonstrated their c01inection to Ono. by their presence. Nevertheless. who said little but. $39. her move had a different meaning. Much like an American politician. By the time the campaign had reached the plaza at Shibuya Station on the last Saturday before the vote. Sometimes embarrassed men and women even blushed and waved Ono away w ithout taking the proffered hand. Color. Ono would stroll the streets flanked by supporters. by making the awkward move of touching people she wou ld not have touched if she knew them in ordinary circ umstances. $29. We accept MasterCard. Please allow 2-4 weeks for delivery. and supporters who had wound up in the Ono camp through a trail of connected koenkai. A satire about food and sex. Four spine-tingling supernatural tales are told with visually stunning effects and an arresting musical score. ~ ~ l f. Many foreigners and. Director Kobayashi has created a masterpiece In which terror thrives and demons lurk. shaking hands with any willing onl ookers. Ono was able to attract a crowd of campaign workers who had come to her office as representati ves of other politicians. In Japanese with English subtitles. Nevertheless.larsOMangajin. indeed. however. It is the story of a young widow who runs a small ramen restaurant in Tokyo and the handsome truck driver who teaches her how to make the perfect bowl of noodles. Color. never matched. is a display with a certain extremity. Colorful characters and witty humor are just two of the ingredients in this zany film.1/liki • rue < nagel. Lafcadio Hearn. since the art that enables a candidate to pull off a prominent plaza displ ay is the same one that wi ll l ater help her navigate the complicated system of connections at the heart of Japanese policymaking. $19. and building human connect ions between the elected and the elec tors is . to think a more "substantial"' po li cy debate would improve Japanese electoral politics. or organizations. Even the most reluctant of handshakers had to acknowledge her example of braving the tendency of social forces to separate human beings from each other.( ~~ .!\! 1 kt~l.\. Four different narrators describe the same brutal act-a woman's rape and her husband's consequent death-yet the facts elude us because each interprets the story to make himself appear in the best light. After sharing tea and sweat and jokes with friends of Ono·s friends. 1964. Robin LeBlanc is assislllnl pn~fessor of politics at Og/etlunpe UniFersity in Atlantu. careful observers could have walked away wi th important information. 1987.-\ gi.:ans/w / ~ J' 2< -j' I) __ JAPANESe CJNEMA CLASSICS RASHOMON IAMPOPO An Academy Award-winning film directed by the masterful Akira Kurosawa. Atlanta. companies. On the soundtruck w ith her were politicians ranking from foreign minister to ward assemblyperson. But in Japan. ~Jl f. l/1'. By the time I arrived at Shibuya Station.11i giin • ritu~o l fli< . In Japanese with English subtitles. A handshake from an American politician implies equality-the banter of two strong individuals who cheerfu lly agree that politics is the ''art of comprom ise. perhaps least important part of the campaign ritual. positive lessons also come from the sound-truck spectacles . w here bows are customary and handshakes are unfami l iar. checks.possible. when we look at them with more open minds. f had been tempted. M any speeches were made: none were remarkable. as many Americans would likely be. I had come to see the speeches as on ly the· smallest.· /)(7/.o rw7gmo·ll IIi IS/I rete • proffered = ."' A politican's handshake in a world of bows.~m Mangajin 15 . B&W.with those around her.:.o Itami. However.u Jll) v' 1:: = = =ll'j: f·). Even when we see it as the ··art of compromise:· politics i s finally a cooperati ve venture. a chi ef aim of democratic politics. the campaign just moved from entertainment halls to the street.

} Y ~.. .. WITH SAWY AD CAMPAIGNS PAVING THE WAY..•-1tfi~··. he explains.t4' -1"11..." says a Japanese ad copywriter who has bee n in the business for 20 years./ f (Y. o....3 percent from the same period a year earlier. .~ ~·... «R'I)1• ft..'~< . A Japanese journalist specializing in the auto industry points out that using American culture in advertising might be a good idea. ~.liM·~" •·llt<· ~-_.._ .. '•'.1hl.t~V-I!II"C>·t~~j ·~ ~ '1.. sales of domestic cars grew by o nly 0.. In contrast.. the registration of American cars in Japan rose I 8. the low prices and low-inte rest loans offered by fore ign car makers. you do for me .....Ir..HitU.. Indeed.. The first stop is General Motors.. According to Ministry of Transportation statistics for the first half of 1996 (January.u:. In the highly competitive Japanese car market.' ..l... General Motors? 50 Mangajin L ...· '(.t. l r.MERICAN CARS ARE FINALLY MAKING INROADS ON THE JAPANESE MARKET.l(i{~"'~~~ r..to . while those of Japanese cars seem to be stalled. /Jtt-st"·'''1' .. Y'7 f~l ~ t "':. As many professional copywriters say. Let's explore the Big Three's ad world in Japan. simple is best. •1'A . ~ CI 6U'... JOURNALIST SASAKI YOSHINOBU EXPWNS HOW. the copywriter analyzes. 'VJAI~~. na.t.IHI • • ~fi) ~tlll\t i* Htcn tl:o'J!o<·.i\.4 percent..Itit'. Shibore Bureizii" (''The 4WD that knows the real America: Chevrolet Blazer").. whose pre ferences are diffe rent from those of Americans.. foreign automakcrs are making efforts with their advertisements to attract Japanese consumers.t f"IH.June)...-.~~ """'~'4 o . Tf GM is competing with European carmakers. are in high gear. "Chevrolet" is a synonym for American c ulture. !t".7 percent. Car dealers in Japan point out three major reasons for this shift: the expansion of foreig n automakers' sales networks in collaboration with domestic makers.~'~"'C.... In addition to these plus factors.... Q:t . But isn' t this a little roo simple? "One reason for keeping it simple is that this slogan is used in a series of ads. e.J. OM' s ad slogan for the Chevrolet Camaro is "Shibore o ranoshimif'' ("Let' s enjoy Chevrolet"). including products from America's Big Three. •o. the Chevrolet Blazer ad uses the same slogan with the following headline: " Kono 4WD wa honmono no Amerikt1 o shitteiru. sales of imported cars...·~~?\~.•lt..... In this context. '?")ott•t ~I_ f.&t'IU•HI. the "American-ness" of GM's cars would prevail because Japanese lifestyles have been Americanized since the end of World War T'" ~ f f/... ~ .. and the inc rease in imported car s available with right-hand drive. German car manufacturers also boosted the ir sales by 22..

r ~ 1h.H~Vl3illl ) ' oill ...-*":.) ~ Mangajin 5 1 .. "Jiipu to yoberu no wa tada hitotsu" ('There's onl:JI one caUedJeep!").l::_. • . Kuraisura Neon des~" right). .<t..: •• t• •t. ll .H "C1 11>". '\.. ) "i'::iFJ!. ~ •M

1 LU • ...:nt. Contrastingdebutads from Chrysler: the cheeiful "How doyou do? I 'm the Chrysler Neon" ("Hajimemashite... .M kl.JI:.\ • . .> ) ( •tt~ti:~~1'·J::.t.!..Atit:.Z7'1~7? ASS' ) ( lii<....-rt. ~· ~: ..t!' :... ..':•~·~::.
~t. 'l''f'I~.-u ...t.7 7 >t? t.et.. *•~..<IJtlit.-b B* i-t:..t •• itJD'l'..IJ'JI••? ..~ lli!IIJ.t.!!~ I ( **~uu:.6u~ :.~···~·l2t....~ :n:*J~~.llt il1l~c .:t: I-~'J. -fl.:t:.>7JI. .. .. • .a t.!-JI. and the more commandit~g 'The ChyslerStratus has arrivedinJapan" ("Kuraisura Sutoratosu.tt. CHRYSLER e ' neon I L.r..:l:.•tti..This 1Vcommercialfor Jeep shows the same Englishcatchphraseasin the US. <i.Ta>.. 4t .~ lll lt.. ••u.1'..? ( .11 I? I. ~.'l'OOa\ '"~"T" ~ -at-1!1 tO :z:.l"7t:t.."C.'' ::J:. J 'ii' .: BtJ. I .1tU.-t..2...:•~~>61!t:~•(..~-<~.r.."1.-·.r. t-4 · .ltSRS7...•:Air• t • at..<J•?t-tr :lt :-"CUII-> tt ~fl">t:.:tn.•~..tli1t ..• • .<t!7h'J<JUl~•t•J~ 6· 11!1l'lle ll t.fl'll lllt. Nihon tochak~ " above)...ll'?J\.-"C ••~>1'1'\• T-fiD • • t ..·h~f>'lt"CCtlt 16.. but the voice-over says. . .1..k .\..J'>''J1l"CWJII•I*•tf>(l( "h-·:t? ·<t·-<1'.:• •••t. . 0CHRYSLER Hi ::1.. INY"t'h'((. . 6• • gJ.. ?... .. J ~ '\ ' "' ( I " 0120-712-812 q.....

!j " '' ' 0 ' f..c:::::::.991 cars (up 8.'.. emphasizelowprices. ~ 4>&.. Kokusai kakaku wa Fodo no ryoshiki desu" ("Bringing the world's best brands to Japan. Wide distribution networks and affordable prices are important factors in accomplishing the goals of American automakers." The second stop is the " World's Leading Company" (a it says in the ads).·u .O&. \ I l 4....1/f\: hanpar. The ad for CHEVROLET its Neon reads: "Hajimemashite. that it seems to be an anachroni m.olo''J. ' ' despite the Neon's ferocious reputation as .!....i••lllf ~ 6 •• a -t. "'That's Chrysler's taste..=l ':. McHamburgers. * Ford's ads. International pricing is a sign of Ford's good sense"). last trump card in the competition against Japanese cars.TAURUS ~ .s..w" (" How d o you do? T am the Chrysler Neon"). t"-'ltl. Another key is whether they can grab Japanese consumers' hearts-and their ads retlect their stance toward ' Japanese consumers..s car ads itt]apa11..1.l...l." " . however....... As a resu lt... likethisoPlejortheTaurn. Ford gets the silver.e.. ~-~. . ~o you should buy it.t1"C .. T -shirts.f. Kuraisurli Neon de. C hrysler Japan Sales has asked the why Chrysler no longer needs to stress its American tlavor. Explorer.. the copywriter has a different viewpoint. .l'lh~l.. Last is the bron7... t. • '' . I in the world..633 cars. ..II..!..l 'f ... thi s one doesn't emphasize 17DI'1'1'l.~~ 1 r . Chewing gum. the gold medal goes to GM. . . however.~· ." The Japanese media have already reported sensationally that the little Neon is America's Chevrolet uses stereotypicalAntL>rlcan imagesfariJ.:. Unlike the GM and Ford ads.. ~. f'.. Spot ads for its Mondeo. r. I f iJI .I'LttO burando o Nihon e. Coke..Q hikiageru • imperious= l!"t Jj: sondai na • ferocious = ~L ?. which sold 6. This ad . "As a Japanese driver. The copywriter says that "good sense" is an imperious choice of words.VI •.U. Ford.. it looks l\!. morersu na • backlash = &. up 147.why not Chevrolet? Meanwhile. i t)il._ • • I '<~ 11:.( ii. He feels. ...:. <' t. I don't think American cars are No.4 percent from the same term a year before. selling 8.tt:tl«>t..!! t.1.-. !\IV ' ' Sasaki Yosht11obu is a freelance journalist living in Yokohama. the car journalist says. &. points out the auto journali st.OOt ~ t "' ' """' more friendly to J apanese cons umers .._ a "Japanese car-ki ller. 1(."IIo ''t'tt~C. going to Chrysler. this ad implies American leadership in the automobile industry.! f ..?tlC.. )t ttoPSnJ\?.t•• • .' American c ulture. .. and Taurus proclaim: "Sekai no he.'' The las t stop is Chrysler. which sold I0 .." media nut to use the nickname since it might create a backlash The nickname of "Japanese car-killer" is a bit strong for by Japanese consumers. The ad implies that the same goes for car prices. To him. obvious ly tri es to take advantage o f somet h ing most J apanese consu mers believe to be true: Almost everything is more expensive in Japan than in foreign countries. he says.l)6.. . . .2 percent). When looking at the Big Three's progress in Japan in the fi rst half of 1996. the slogan implies 'This is a product of the great America.- BLAZER t !. 52 Mangajin • booSl = J... With images of the American good life.125 cars (up 12.1 ill Ot• 'f'tJIIO..6 percent).t.-'###BOT_TEXT###quot; -j" fuyasu/ iJ I ~ ..:~6"( .'f' ~ a:..

-t' !v C l.) vegetables stir.> *!Ef.) hockey Ping Pong The Vocabulary Summary is takenfrom material appearing in this issue of Mangajin.I.) proper/success ful after alliin the end su itable/proper place take Ia piewre l retire from expeditions/tours embrace/make love Inot I par ti cularl y From Take'emon-ke no Hitobito.!f-r'-> ~. p.ffiJ -t ilf1~ mass media leak (1•. ~'/J: 'Dill lt!rr. lv -/)' lv t:t ::I../i 1oc~'l +. R· 84 it' -ti!C:> l. .![Jltfr-tl. t.j1fl ~X..w gen go rotmki by all means persuade sudden I y/abruptl y surprise attack elec tion stand as a candidate (1'. Mangajin 93 .uible to give the complete range of meanings f o r a word in this limited space.f-/ ma ~ u . Jf!¥1JX t. .: .: ~'? (.) mai111ain constituency collapse ( v. l .i ::I·o ·. m<- ).c.'f-t 7.wru kind/type remainder husband & wife wife absurd/ incongruous garbage bin di scard (v. It's nm alll'ays po.) From Obatarian.o .> ~ill:~ .\J.. 7.[f' -L·~ ~ ~( < fVi considerably stand out undercover action psychology enemy set/leave in a place w ound (n.l7 ). ~.) cabi net/government circumstances dissolution stare/fix one's eyes [on] preparations selfish request (n. t?J < 81] ~.: i? tr iWiJiiJ ij~f· fo: l~j'jlt \ fit 1. ~'f. n' L. -t-c-1. 42 {:ilm Y:lUJ ~Uffi 1.> .(_. Z Ull O ~ _f- . n'f9r -tt i It' 1:!'£.) housing complex kitchen small/cramped remodel From Kekkon Shivo Yo JlliJ~I'!(j s higeki-te ki ti 1/CIIS U ~\.}.> trol!6-c IJ.> ~~.t.> :iill!~J T'-> * ") 'Tt:/.j:'~J L.:)1.6.w e n1 se isu lwbatsu ifl[-t .) sati sfactor y request (v.to:~J :f:•:J:tr'S i!ii>j:-: il:l~ frll T 7.1.> shurui n ok o ri fiifu nyilbr1 tonc hinkan 1w gomibako sute n1 ya sai itame d anclti daido ko ro sem a i kai::. 38 Tv'~lv ~uibun !:LiZ-:::> m edat.(. n' '->"' g. so ottr ''definitions" are based on the usage of the 1rord in a particular strny.A 7:>('/J: lfit· f:.J~ m asukomi n agasu o.O~ ~.> ji~jF.g.~ ftJlll.:

- c o k ashii slu7sa i ippr1 seiseki f us hig i na kanrw) dan zen gifri-te ki yoso sude-ni k ets udan is hi tsug u sokudan s uru robas hin s h17giin kaika n angai S llllllll ri tu watas u kantan ni hat..) faction From Selected Works o[Ishii Hisaichi.l.JH.v' Jlll.w s hin obi s hinri teki o ku ki zu {!.:Zl. c lv t:.vocabulary summary From Kaji Rviisuke no Ci.) candidacy announcement readiness arrange/establ ish for the first time co111ent s inauguration instruct postscript second son first son much more odd bright/talented person on the other hand grades marvelous/amazing bureaucrat by far/decidedly rat ional/prag matic elements/trai ts already deci sion dying wi sh carry on/follow immediately decide excessi ve solicitude House of Representati ves hall/building unexpectedl y smoothl y/easily hand over/gi ve over easily statemelll racketeer/extortionist <:A:.> tl:l.mr~-t '-> i&ifl j1 l]lt###BOT_TEXT###quot;(\.. p.> 'f·* \.~::.) take control/ possession o f co111rol (1•.< fM:W -t 7.: j(~ --'• ~L.J:@: ~~ roff--t'-> j£!flt1 .l\!J.[1.) resignation submit/present (v. f .!J t5H~ ~~ ~.~¥-rg.: ~R:ltfr 'JI"t .) politics suit/be suited Ito/for i occupation fit/suit (v. Jll."i"(l.@-tl.\ kirai suika kao h en da h o tondo s /w shin roku na /al/011111 c ha1110 s hi1a y appari s hikarubeki bas ho tO/'ll i111a i sum e nsei daku b e tSII 11 i :A1tJ Mi ·f).:19.- o/ ~lf:Jj {/II gimon n a ika ku jyilkyil kaisan niramu j unbi kane 1w n egai j ihro t e islwtsu s uru slllltsuha ais ats u ((lisei totmwe ru hajime te naiyo h ossoku s hiji sum ts uishin j inan c h onan J"Jrn'J WX'.65 sti mulati ng/arousi ng summer dislike w atermelon f ace is strange almost all photograph (11.) d oubt (n ..> ~ fjf!-t 7..wr tf!i 7.\f~/il) fil.! li c lv c' 'LJ.w b aras hii rikai d e kiru undo suru ho kke pinpo n first o f all wonderful can understand exercise ( 1'.tiiN!l'it ~tm ~$'} -t lvt:i: zehi setro ku sum ikinari f uiuchi sen kyo rikko ho suru iji S lll'll jihan hokai suru seij i muite iru s ho kugyil ~J iJ~-t tui Ejl. t. ..> lt!!.~ .fry (n.dM t..:~ ±tY:J f-:>c .

Even so. only someone with the powerful Kaji name can win the Kagoshirna race. Ryusuke rushes back to K yushu. Ryusuke refuses the prime minister to his face-a shocking thing.IJIIfl~(/)- Kaji Ryfisuke no Gi Kaji Ryusuke's Agenda by~••se Hirokane Kenshi Scandals. for the first time he begins to respect his father as a politician. Ryiisuke·~ brother had fallen a~ lccp at the wheel and his father was killed instantly in the crash. memoir~. Ryusuke returns to Tokyo.wku and artist of the series Ningen Kosm en. Mangajin 17 . the party is doomed. he ha~ built a successful career as an elite salaryman at one of Japan· s foremost corporation~. Having read some of his father's The plot thickens. Shortly after the story begin~. With scandals wearing down the party' s popularity. contident. At the funeral. the prime minister himself (a longtime friend of Kaj i Motoharu) asks Ryiisuke to run for office. the 39-year-old second son of a powerful politician. If Ryusuke doesn't run for office. We pick up the story a few days later as Ryusuke meets Yamamoto in a Tokyo coffee shop. Yamamoto Makio is secretary-general of the Nishikie club. The news is grim: dri ving home after a long day of campaigning in K yushu. Although accused of being involved in a scandal. he evokes both respect and censure from those around him. Talented. it has weakened the party ' s position. Ryusuke's wife. gridlock-business as usual for pol itics in Japan. but not bd'ore imploring Ryusuke to carry on the famil y's political tradition for the sake of their father's memory-and for the country. it looks as though he wa!> simply made the scapegoat in order to protect the prime minister. His brother dies in the hospital. lives at the Kaji family home in Kagoshima in order to be w ith their son who attends the elite prep ~chool La Salle. Kaji Motoharu's political support group in Kagoshima. deception . lchinoseki Ayumi is an employee under Ryusuke. infighting. Ryiisuke and Ayumi are awakened (post-lusty encounter) in their Tokyo hotel room by Ryiisuke's beeper: his office had received an urgent call from his wife in Kagoshima.a politician from the prime minister' s cabinet makes u racist comment w hile visiting the US. indeed. is from Kagoshima on the island of K yushu. Kc~ji Ryllsukc 110 Ci. Becoming a politician like his father. and hotheaded (one colleague compares him to a " wild thoroughbred"). is the farthest thing from hi~ mind. Ryusuke's lover. meanwhile. Kaji Yukiko. Kaji Ryusuke. both featured in earli er issues of Mangc~jin) approache~ this inexhaustible subject from the inside with his latest solo project. tells him that she is pregnant and want~ to keep the baby. The arti st Hirokane Kenshi (the well-known creator of Koehn Shima Kli. The party can't afford to lose that crucial district i f it hopes to retain the leadership of the Diet. and although he claims he was misinterpreted. A graduate of the prestigious Uni versity of Tokyo. Kaji M otoharu. She is also his lover.

' . ~ t..to· ~ 'J /\ Q I') "' t~ h n t:t c. C.~ *I')! ~ ~ A. ~l ~ y 18 Mangajin ~ . c:· ? t /\ .R Kaji RyiJsuke no Gi . ~ 1.t (' =1' /\ L.IJDliS lli 11' ~ ift • \ w.:.

the PL3 form of omou ("think").111i itlllltiml/. us he begin' trying to per~uade Kaji to run for office. From the perspecti ve of the city. It's the standard expression for welcoming a vis itor to one's ho me or customers to one's place of busmes~. or:· 0 't'To 4-B 'i J(.:)p ~~1l'~!v ~ ~{~}(.L. which implie~ the action tal. Below.~'f. literally "eat.: i.\£l." (PL3) • settoku sltiyo is the volitional ('' let's/! shall") form of settoJ.."C Sumimase11." The -le form is often used to state the cau\e/rea<.1.. (apology) (hon. i:>{['~ IF.) <ouddenly/abruptly surprise anac~ ~ <-? ~) ~ ~l i t.) inamc-fam. 0 Yamamoto: Thi-ttlv. . welcome "Come right in!" (PIA) • irasshaimase is a polite command form of the PIA verb irasslraru (""come"'). And todav I intend to ersuade you no matter what it takes." (PL4) Kaji: "' L /e.wmimase11 can be a polite apology or thanl..LIJ<$: ~ lv o Yal Korya domo.)-call/. but its u e with expressions of apology. (f reeting) as for this (emph. t. the causati ve-passive form of kurau.urau (or kuu. Ryiisuke.. a polite PL-l humble fom1 ofyobidasu. often u~ed like "not at all." (PL3) • otto is an interjection used when a person i~ caught off guard and \Uddenly realizes he needs to be careful leM he make a mistake/put himself in danger/get in trouble.A " Yesterday. • the suffix -cltil means ''during/in the mid~t \O 1ltigoto jil. a PL4 honorific form of dele kum ("come out").. • ie is a shortened iie ("no" ). • to marks ::. ~1l' <Iva -r--t! A.:.w. as a longtime family friend and a generation older than Kaji.) ""' fed/gl\cn (colloq.elri Ryiisuke-san o senoku shiyo as the specific content of his thoughts. Korya diimo (or the uncontracted kore wa domo) are common variation~.. Halwlw Ira.. he swi tches to the more polite and formal -sa11.. Kyo wa ::.li'i l." very informal) i~ an expre~sion for "be ambushed" or "be attacked when one·~ guard i' down. o-slrigoto jikcm -chi/ o-yobidmlri iu11himallrite. Koko desu! (intcrj.· ·>) '-'-=> " Not at all.'tro9 rfJ .) here is/are/am "Oh. thanks.:Li:l.) Ka'!: -? ! ' Ah! Hello.on for what come~ next in the sentence.. Mr.u suru ("persuade").) '>hall pcr.uade (quote) think/thought Yamamoto: S'). (ObJ. • fuiuclti refers to a ''surprise attack/ambu\h." • o-yobidaslti itaslrimasltite is the -te form of o-yohidc1. Ha ha ha ha.)-work hours during Chon. "country" inc ludes any regional c ity . The ·te form is again used to indicate a reason. Mangajin 19 . Yamamoto.ehi Ryiisttke-scm o settoku shiyii to omoimashite.c) " I' m sorry to have asked YQU to come down here during working hours.e~ place in an outward direction • "call out/away !from ~ome­ th ing J. no IJ@J~~ iJ'~ tl1"C.Waiter: li'C:>-:> l~li'"i-tt." (PL3) • ya or yii can be used as an informal " hi/hello" by male speakers.. I' m over here.. yesterday is today as for by all means (name-hon."Co Kino desu.: ~v-r-t-IJ•'! ltsu Kagoslrima kara dete korarew 11 de111 ka :' "hen (place name) from came out (explun.t:>li'fCf/l'. R

iisuke-kun.. dele kuru is used to speak of someone trave ling from the count ry to the city: in the case of Tokyo.. • dete korareta is the past form of dete korareru. When did vou come up from Kagoshima?" (PL-l) • . ~' ~ ~ IJ Otto. from yobu ("call/summon") and -dasu. Yamamoto-san." (PL3) • Yamamoto. '"''''' o kunlll'lllllrt'IIUI\Irita Ill'.t:l -:> t .) (laugh) "Whoa you hit me with a surp rise punch right otT the bat.) (obj.1m·clul = ··during work hours. • domo is acmally only an intensifier.~ depending on the conte-.Z o / rasshaimase.ummun uut-(cau.his reason for asking Kaj i to see him.>. ikinari Juiuchi (interj. ~itt. 0 Yamamoto: iJ?.):-) t . Kaji: . addresses Kaji here by his first name plu\ the polite but relati vely fami liar -ku11.) (name-hon.. • omoimaslrite is the -te form of omoima.: I') ~ t'? ~>." Kum11·asaremmllita is the PL3 past form of kurawasareru." • Kagoshi ma is the name of a major city and a prefecture in southern Kyush u.t. and greeting has made it an all-purpose shorthand for those same expressions. It can be either formal or quite informal as suits the occasion." andfuiuc11i 11 J. but in thi~ case the syntax is in verted and it is stating the causc/rca\on for hb apology.

C" 1*1 ~ ~f ~ 1: 0) -? 91.c l' .t t 0) ~ ~ ·r M. l!i 1l' (J) lA • Ka11 Ryiisuke no Gi ' t. li .: L. ..t.~ 1't ~ li ..?.! l ' '/)( li irEJ~ -tt-c A *'t ~* . ~t li 1: ~ .t~~tt A ~ 7 l' l' It IJ ~R..ti: -c '.1JD .~ iE9: fl. l 20 Mangajin 1*1 ! fJ' ~ C.. .

1hi1e ktulawi! L 1: -9 0 -ne!(ai i'i!l 'r' ..) mtt V'lllll /maya Hawmura Naikaku li 1~$'~0) :1*7. "make a rcqucM/ask a favor.: }JIIifud~ (f) ." etc.cntially ~erves as a polite and formal "plea\c.) cannot think/believe " I can' t believe that I am suited to politics. li Warashi wa jibun !/me as for go se1p ni self (subj. have pa"t:d even at prc.." • ji1hi11 ("self/onc. so kono mama de ikeba is literally "if things go on like this''--+ ''at this rate." "I ·ust don' t think of my elf as suited to politic ..:el. in the fall we w ill probably have dissol ution Iof the Diet] and a general e lection.entence means "whether or nol [the described 'illlation exiMs/aclion take' pl." Kuda.) precarious/unsteady " R iisuke! Based on what I see oin on both inside a nd outside the government..ion cs.( . 0 Yamamoto: li•J tt .! "}-~ Ryiisuke-san! (name-han.) politics for muire iru 10 wa omoemasen.~ ~ '! \I'll :ehi riUiilw .. understood to be the 'peakcr who b making the n.. dlimo now-(emph. literally "thing' likeh.t M~ ~~¥: "t'LJ:1 o .1a11 ji1lti11 = "M'>.l) " Please.. the Hatomura Cabinet is looking increasingly vulnerable.uiwhilily ~omcthing lrmmin ...u (sound of sipping coffee) IT] c: U: JUI: .tiwency'').r· form of llllfllllli.111 (".lhilboku/ore jishin = "I myself:· ~art• jishi11 ="he him~elf.e the pcr-<ul him. /Ill 11 da.~.llt i' the PL3 form of ltiikai 1111'11 ("collap..u.. "um.. period lltalnlamcd-and-camc (j: ••·a jibcm iJ)iJt~L.: il' ') -c ~ .) if don'1 'land/run JO }r.:que'>t. '~hich after th.cep up")." Mangajin 2 1 . Yamada her.l.'ifi:k flh L -c 1..\ L"C !t t." Yamada-.

11 turn' it into a vcrb.l (f) n' t· ." • arre iru i~ from wt ("fitJ. • :1' . J-requ~'' J: ! .u vo! 7\ugi 110 wnk1o ni Yamamoto: J31~(! ~' (hun.:~ItiL!." • •rakarwwi i' the negati ve form of u·akam.c (ernph." ( PL3) • 1111egai mean' "reque... thing '' (cmph. .u /. ''looking from'') is an expression for "judging from/based on .J ('UbJ." and ikeba is a conditional ("if/when") form of iku ("go/progress").u.a dli l.( Zu :..e.'' or "can under'tand/tell. often done in Japane." (PL2) .hilllll. t J-IJ' ~." "At this rate the rime minister will probably dissolve the Diet and call a (PL3) ~eral election this fall. which can mean e ither "underMand/wme to under. IVawshi jisltin ima 110 jibwtno slwku~wl I lll}'clf no" of occup<ill<ln hubj." 0 Yamamoto: ~1l'~A.J-IJ.uitability:· andjt111111~i i' 11' oppo~ite.omet hing like.: -1e form of a' .: ·•H.111 yo.plan..lti!ff:t Ryil. • mui1e iru is from muku (''suit/be suited [to/fori''). negati ve of 1a1." hen..tand.: {.L.. he uses hb lbtener's name in a '>illlation when an English speaker wou ld use "you. depending on the context . • iji lltile i~ the -II' form of iji 1/lrtl ("maintain/<. you really must run in the next election!" (PU) [:!f:fl"~A. . literal!) . common!) u~ed 111 combinauon with per.u. con.i:J.wke-wn ga la/anakert•ba ..elf. ·." • rikkiiho shile i' the -1e form of rikktJ/w 1111'11. I' m begging you.Sound FX: .) n~ clccluul 1n a' lur h) all me~n' ''·'"" "' canthdalc-lrcque. the potential form of omou (''thin k")." • name is a colloquial equiv:~lent of nado.j((!) m~l..a after a compli:te lhought/.1hire kiw is a complete thoughtl'>clllence (''I we I have 'u~taincd I it I for a 30-year period") modifying Kaji Mowlwmtw jilmn (''Kaji Motoharu·.1?.wmjt7 nenka11 iji shile kill/ Kaji Mmolwm 110 ( n<~rncJ (narne-hon...H i•J tt Muki j11m11ki ~ !v -c 1>: A 1111111e 'uiwbility un." Unless another subjccl is ~pecilied. a relati1ely polite reque'l.ta nd. (mean~) if go aurumn in as for di~solution geneml election i' probably "At this rate.cnt doubtful (c.!.1ilima. and (11o) l.::. \O it mean'> ." • .:rb often implie. '>O the expres."'(' ~ !1t€111J lll/la ima demo gimmt gojllllen 50 F' n"n ga luml/lni trul) aile tru no ka dii /. ~ l ' t A.f J01I' IIIJ ~:!1.) 5011: *f: ~> f..: /J..ddl'integratc")." • kono mama= ''unchanged from this." (PL3) f. -c--4 J: ni mo u·a/.. Sanjt7 nenkan iji ..(f)i£ -c: ~'It!!#\ 1: r.. .onal pronoun' and noun': ll'lllll.mi after the -1e form of a verb make-. n (f) lhl"(f) ~ :t~ nt . 1J· •U." • ll/lmwkereba i' n conditional •·. and ~1/(/ i\ the plam/abrupl pa\t fonn of kuru r ·come").uitability. islam suited (quotc)(emph.i-t o lu1kai shimasu. Kono mama de as is ikeba aki ni '"'' kaisan st1sellho desha..df til c1cn can't tel l 1111111 dt•... a candidate" .t" and adding sum/.uitlmatch" ). the constituency cultivated b) Kaji 1otoharu over the last 30 years will disintegrate.land a. COihliluency a' for will collapse " If you don' t run.mwuu lil. it .) " I have my own doubts whether or not my occupation t ruly suits me--even now after 50 years.a fitv'u'" "he1hcror no1 ~lvf.: referring to "standing" as a candidate) • "if you don't run .lain/J.• "become a candidate/run for office.) (name) cabinel/gov't as for internal & external circumstances from looking lemph.) " Suitability is the kind of thing that a person can' t judge by himself.knra mile (lit." (PL2) • m11ki i~ a noun form of m11l." (PL3) • jibwr ="oneself:' and it becomes "Ume/myself:' "he/him/himself:' "you/yourself. • omoemasen is the negative form of omoeru ("can think"). • hiikai sltima. the actwn continued from 'ometime in the pa~t until the pre~ent.elf') i-.'o wa naigai no jokyo kora mile abw w i. iJ'C:> l?-1: ~~ (> ~f.

1JD if> IIi 1l" (J) lA • Kaji Ryiisuke no Gi 22 Mangajin .

" hold/commence"): hirakem yiJ (11i) = ··so that I wt: I can hold.:01v-c- ~ n'l? !¥!f!til ~ L-~~tttlf -i!!v' lv-c'To o nirande ima kara junbi o shinakereba osoi n desu. and politicians.-t.) addressed to me sent letter is "It's a letter our father the Honorable Ka"i Motoharu sent to me 20 ears a o. (interj. a PLA humble equivalent of miseru ("show").. "seod"). • teishutsu shite is the -te fom1 of teishutsu suru ("submit").> J:-J ~~~ !. • sensei." (PL4) Letter: !i!:}~~Crn).. . and that is how it's being used here. Though Yamamoto doesn' t allow him to go on. M r. sent (it] to me 20 years ago") modifying tegami ("letter").O) . • shinakereba is a conditional ("if/when") form of shinai." • hirakem is the potential ('"can/be able to") form of himku ("open. including doctors. Mangajin 23 . . ~: M-::> "(*"( v't.~ . using the honorific prefix makes it even more polite. I want you to submit your resignation and return to Kagoshima. 0 Yamamoto: 20.ITJ Yamamoto: ~ -f-0) Sono toki l that ~ 1.:. • arimasu is the PL3 form of am ("exists" for inanimate things..)(J: Nijr7nen-mae ni anara no o-c!liclriue 20 yrs.htj:f.) "WeU .~ !v 1~4~ 0) aisarsu 110 pi'irii (riamc-hon. A11ata ni o-mise shitai is a complete thought/sentence ("[I] want to show [it] to you") modifying mmw ("thing").~ Rviisuke-sa11 110 shutsuba hirakem can open/hold ~~.) Kagoshima City .7 1 - !. writers.fi.2Ftj: /Mv' -c--t . lya . lll:.t

O raisei 1ra 10/0IIoere arimasu kara.