Carlstad, Julia M.1; Schroeder, Jason R.

2;
Beyersdorf, Andreas J.3; Blake, Donald R.2
1University

of Washington
2University of California Irvine
3NASA Langley Research Center
Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) 2015

NPS indicates that many parks have high levels
of ozone-maximums around 80 ppb
}  EPA mandates maximum ozone levels of 75
ppb
}  Ozone impacts human, animal,
and vegetative health
} 

King’s Canyon NP

Yosemite NP
NPS

High levels of ozone seen in situ above Sierra
Nevadas
}  Winds are moving to the East
}  NOx concentrations of 7 ppb in Madera
indicate urban pollution
} 

NPS
CA Air Resources Board

Yosemite NP
Sample
Region

Sequoia and
Kings Canyon NP

Topographic Map of Flight 5 Region
37.3
37.2

Latitude

37.1

37.0
36.9
36.8

36.7
-120.0

-119.8

-119.6

-119.4

-119.2

Longitude

-119.0

-118.8

Samples below
Flight 5: Flight Track Plotted with respect
Ozone
3000 to
ft AGL
Topographic
background

37.3

90
80

Latitude

37.1

70

37.0

60
50

36.9

40
36.8

36.7

30

Maximum O3
73 ppbv
-120.0

-119.8

-119.6

-119.4

-119.2

Longitude

-119.0

-118.8

Ozone Mixing Ratio (ppbv)

37.2

Samples below
Flight 5: Flight Track Plotted with respect
Ozone
3000 to
ft AGL

Box 1

37.3

Box 2

Box 3

Topographic
background

90
80

Latitude

37.1

70

37.0

60
50

36.9

40
36.8

36.7

30

Maximum O3
73 ppbv
-120.0

-119.8

-119.6

-119.4

-119.2

Longitude

-119.0

-118.8

Ozone Mixing Ratio (ppbv)

37.2

} 

OH radical reactivity can be used to indicate
ozone formation potential in proper
conditions

Jacob, D (1999)

} 

CO

} 

Methane

} 

} 

Non-Methane Alkanes: ethane, propane,
butane, pentane, i-pentane, hexane, heptane,
2,3-dimethylbutane, cyclopentane
Alkenes: ethene, propene, trans-2-butene,
cis-2-butene

} 

Biogenics: isoprene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene

} 

Aromatics: benzene, toluene
Atkinson, R; Arey, J. (2003)

Average ground elevation: 919 ft
Total OH Radical Reactivity: 1.7 ± 0.5 s-1 (1σ)
Flight 5: Flight Track Plotted with respect to Ozone
37.3
90
80

Latitude

37.1

70

37.0

60
50

36.9

40
36.8

30

Ozone Mixing Ratio (ppbv)

37.2

Topographic
background

36.7
-120.0

-119.8

-119.6

-119.4

-119.2

Longitude

-119.0

-118.8

Mixing Ratio (ppb)
Methane

1920

CO

117

Non-Methane 1.30
Alkanes
Alkenes

0.059

Aromatics

0.042

Biogenics

0.149

Total OH Radical Reactivity:
1.7 ± 0.5 s-1 (1σ)

Average ground elevation: 3379 ft
Total OH Radical Reactivity: 1.4 ± 1 s-1 (1σ)
Flight 5: Flight Track Plotted with respect to Ozone
37.3
90
80

Latitude

37.1

70

37.0

60
50

36.9

40
36.8

30

Ozone Mixing Ratio (ppbv)

37.2

Topographic
background

36.7
-120.0

-119.8

-119.6

-119.4

-119.2

Longitude

-119.0

-118.8

Large gradient across box

OH Radical Reactivity with respect to
Altitude in Box 2

10x10

Radar Altitude (ft)

} 

3

8

6

4

2
1

2

3

4

-1

OH Radical Reactivity (s )

5

Mixing Ratio (ppb)
Methane

1930

CO

112

Non-Methane 1.30
Alkanes
Alkenes

0.130

Aromatics

0.069

Biogenics

0.405

Total OH Radical Reactivity:

1.4 ± 1 s-1 (1σ)

Average ground elevation: 6652 ft
Total OH Radical Reactivity: 0.8 ± 0.3 s-1 (1σ)
Flight 5: Flight Track Plotted with respect to Ozone
37.3
90
80

Latitude

37.1

70

37.0

60
50

36.9

40
36.8

30

Ozone Mixing Ratio (ppbv)

37.2

Topographic
background

36.7
-120.0

-119.8

-119.6

-119.4

-119.2

Longitude

-119.0

-118.8

Mixing Ratio (ppb)
Methane

1900

CO

106

Non-Methane 1.30
Alkanes
Alkenes

0.084

Aromatics

0.052

Biogenics

0.163

Total OH Radical Reactivity:

0.8 ± 0.3 s-1 (1σ)

Average Total Maximum
Reactivity (s-1) Reactivity (s-1)

Minimum
Reactivity (s-1)

Biogenic
Influence

Box 1

1.7 ± 0.5

2.3

0.7

24%

Box 2

1.4 ± 1

4.8

0.5

39%

Box 3

0.8 ± 0.3

1.7

0.5

31%

n=16

n=12

n=20

Flight 3: Flight Track Plotted with
respect to Ozone Concentration
34.2

Samples
below
3000 ft AGL
80

Latitude

34.0

70
60

33.8

50
40

33.6

30
Maximum O3
92 ppbv

-118.4

-118.2

Ozone Mixing Ratio (ppbv)

90

Topographic
background

-118.0
Longitude

-117.8

-117.6

Mixing Ratio (ppb)
Methane

1960

CO

115

Non-Methane 3423
Alkanes
Alkenes

0.068

Aromatics

0.076

Biogenics

0.010

Total OH Radical Reactivity:

1.1 ± 0.6 s-1 (1σ)

} 

Biogenic influence in the Sierra Nevada
mountains is statistically significant

Box 1
Box 2
Box 3

P-value
0.001
0.02
0.0001

Average ground elevation: 233 ft
Total OH Radical Reactivity: 1.1 ± 0.6 s-1 (1σ)

n=48

n=16

n=23

} 

} 

} 

OH radical reactivity for low and midelevation sites in the Sierra Nevada mountains
is higher than in LA, indicating high levels of
ozone formation.
Biogenic compounds have a significant
influence on ozone formation potential in the
mountains that is not seen in LA.
Protected lands are still being damaged by
anthropogenic air pollution impacting the
health of visitors, vegetation, and wildlife.

Professor Don Blake
}  Dr. Jason Schroeder
}  Blake-Rowland Lab
}  Dr. Emily Schaller
}  Rick Shetter
}  NSERC
}  Sean Freeman
}  Snake ‘n’ Blake team
} 

} 

} 

} 

} 

} 

} 

Air Quality Information. National Park Service. Web. 30 July
2015.
AQMIS Madera County. Air Resources Board. Web. 30 July
2015.
Atkinson, R; Arey, J.“Atmospheric Degradation of Volatile
Organic Compounds.” Chem. Rev. 103 (2003): 4605-4638.
Print.

Elevations and distances in the Unites States. US Department
of the Interior. Apr 2005. Web. July 23 2015.
Jacob, D; Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry. Princeton
University Press, 1999. Print.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards. US Environmental
Protection Agency. Oct 21 2014. Web. 27 July 2015.

} 

} 

} 

OH radical reactivity for low and midelevation sites in the Sierra Nevada mountains
is higher than in LA, indicating high levels of
ozone formation.
Biogenic compounds have a significant
influence on ozone formation potential in the
mountains that is not seen in LA.
Protected lands are still being damaged by
anthropogenic air pollution impacting the
health of visitors, vegetation, and wildlife.

Overall Average Reactivity (s-1)

Biogenic Influence

Box 1

1.8 ± 0.7

18%

Box 2

1.9 ± 1.5

33%

Box 3

1.1 ± 0.4

23%

Los Angeles

1.6 ± 0.6

2%

http://www.intechopen.com/books/atmospheric-aerosols-regional-characteristics-chemistry-and-physics/productionof-secondary-organic-aerosol-from-multiphase-monoterpenes

Analysis of aerosol concentration due to
biogenic and anthropogenic sources
}  Analysis with NOx, hydrogen, oxygenates,
sulfates
}