Im

(x , y )

Complex Analysis
Complex number

r

z is a number such that

Ɵ

z=x +iy

Re

ℜ ( z )=x , ℑ ( z ) = y
x=r cos θ
y=r sin θ

|z|=r =√ x2 + y 2= √( ℜ ( z ) ) + ( ℑ ( z )) , arg ( z )=θ=tan−1
2

2

( xy )

z=x−iy
Properties:
2

(i)

z ∙ z=|z|

(ii)

z+ w=z+ w

(iii)

(iv)

x=

z+z
2

y=

z−z
2i
2 2

2

(i)

z=x +iy , z =x−iy ⇒ z ∙ z=( x +iy ) ( x−iy ) =x + y =( √ x + y ) =| z|

(ii)

z+ w=[ ( x+iy )+ ( a+ib ) ]=[ ( x +a ) +i ( y+ b ) ] =( x +a )−i ( y +b )=( x−iy )+ ( a−ib )=z + w

2

De Moirve’s Theorem:

( cos θ+i sin θ )n=cos nθ+i sin nθ

z=r e iθ =r ( cos θ+isin θ )
z n=1⇒ r n einθ =1 ⇒r n cos nθ=1, r n sin nθ=0 ⇒θ=0, r=1

2

2

1. y= 3 3 2 2 z n=1⇒ cos nθ+i sin nθ=1 z 2=1⇒ z=±1 z 4=1 ⇒ z=± 1.2. then If e =−1.iθ If e =1. y= 3 3 2 2 =cos 4π 4π −1 −√ 3 + i sin ⇒ x= . ℑ(z )≤|z| k =2. z =1 . z=cos 2π 2 π −1 √ 3 +i sin = +i 3 3 2 2 ∴ z=1. … θ= (2 k + 1 ) π . z=cos z≠w: 2kπ 2 kπ +i sin 3 3 4π 4 π −1 √ 3 +i sin = −i 3 3 2 2 k =0. then If 1 θ=(2 k + )π . and add 2 kπ ) e iθ =i .1. k=0. ω .± i 3 1 3 3 3 z =1⇒ z =( cos 2 kπ +i sin2 kπ ) ⇒ z= ( cos 2 kπ +isin 2 kπ ) =cos k =1.ω 2 .k =0.2. … (just find one value that works. where ω=e 2 iπ 3 We can show for complex numbers (i) ℜ ( z ) ≤|z|. then iθ θ=2kπ .2.1. … 2 Coordinates of the following: z=e z=e 2 iπ 3 4 iπ 3 =cos 2π 2π −1 √3 +isin ⇒ x= . k =0.

(ii) |z +w|≤|z|+|w| (iii) |z +w|≥|w|−|z| (i) ℜ ( z ) = x=≤ √ x 2 ≤ √ x 2+ y2 =|z|. ℑ ( z ) = y=≤ √ y 2 ≤ √ x 2 + y 2=|z| (ii) |z|=| z+ w−w|≤|z+ w|+|−w|=|z +w|+|w|⇒ |z|−|w|≤|z+ w|→(1) (iii) |w|=|z + w−z|≤|z+ w|+|−z|=|z +w|+|z|⇒ |w|−|z|≤|z+ w| ( ⇒|z|−|w|≥−|z +w|→(2) ) Combining (1) and (2) gives Stereograph Projection −| z+ w|≤|z|−|w|≤|z+ w|⇒|| z|−|w||≤|z+ w| .

y − yt . ⃗ OC =⃗ OA +⃗ AC r=a+ ( b−a ) t a=( x .1) r=a+ ( b−a ) t=( x . 0 ) + ( ( 0. z 1) b=(0.Note: ⃗ AC =t ( b−a ) .0. y . Using sphere equation: ( x12 + y 12+ z 1− And using equation of a circle: 2 1 1 = ¿ 2 4 ) 1 2 ) ) x 2+ y 2 =r 2 to solve for t: . y 1 .0. 0 ) r=( x 1 . y . y . 0 )) t=( x−xt . ⃗ OA =a . ∆ OAC .1 )−( x . z 1=t ( since centreof sphere is 0. t ) ∴ x 1=(1−t) x . y 1= (1−t ) y .0.

0< r < R .|w|<1. 2 2 2 2 |1−z w| −|z−w| =( 1−|w| )( 1−|z| ) .2 2 2 1 1 [ (1−t)x ] + [ ( 1−t ) y ] +(t− ) = 2 4 Then ⇒(1−t)2 [ x 2 + y 2 ] +t 2−t=0 2 2 ⇒(1−t) r −t ( 1−t )=0 ⇒ ( 1−t ) [ ( 1−t ) r 2 −t ] =0 1−t=0∨( 1−t ) r 2−t=0 ⇒ t=1. (1) Show that then z−w <1 |1−z w| (2) Let (i) z∧w be complex numbers such that 2 z≠w 2 w+ z |w| −|z| ℜ = 2 w−z |w−z| ( ) w+ z R2 −r 2 ℜ = (ii) w−z R2−2 Rr cos ( θ−φ ) +r 2 ( ) where iθ iφ z=r e . Deduce that if |z|<1. Ex.1) is mapped to N z 1= ∞ .∨r 2−t r 2−t=0 ⇒ r 2=t ( 1+ r 2 ) ⇒ t= r2 ( 1+r 2 ) r2 1+r 2−r 2 x ∴ x 1= 1− x= x= 2 2 ( 1+r ) ( 1+r ) ( 1+r 2) ( ) ( Similarly. r2 ( 1+ r 2 ) { ∞ } ∪C ↔ surface of sphere. w=R e .0. y 1= y ( 1+r 2 ) ) and (0.

∃ a nbd N i ∋ x i ∈ N i ⊆ S . S ⊆C . ϵ>0 Similarly. p∈ C is called a limit point if every nbd of S other than contains no points of x inside x i ∈ S . S ⊆C . say ¿ S} ) N . then there exists a nbd of Theorem: Let S. ϵ>0 ℑ a ℜ δ −nbd of a= { z ∈C : |z−a|< δ } ¿ Deleted nbd of a= { z ∈C :| z−a|<δ } } (deleting the point ‘a’ to get a ‘doughnut’) S ⊆C . S is closed iff every limit point of p S belongs to S.x=a ∈ R . for complex numbers. p (or every nbd of p is not a limit point. nbd of a a−ϵ Nbd ( a ) ={ x ∈ R :|x −a|<ϵ } . then S is called an open set iff S is open ⇔ for each Closed set: A subset Limit point: Let If S ⊆C is closed then S c is open. Nbd ( a )= { z ∈ R :|z−a|<ϵ } . x=a a+ϵ a ∈C . A point contains points of ∃δ−nbd of each p intersects with p . N . such that S.

that does not belong to S is closed and ∃a nbd of S . i.Proof: S is closed ⇒ all limit points of RTS: All limit points of S belong to S. for the sake of a contradiction. say N . Let S are in S . Then S. ∅ is open are there are no elements in open set (i. suppose that all limit points of closed. we have open spheres . Suppose that S is closed.e. r )={z ∈C : d ( z . R are open sets. of p ∋ p ∈ M ⊆ S c ⇒ Sc is open. say p . x+1)⊆R ) (eg Just like an open sphere in in C denoted by D ( a . S is z cannot be a S (by hypothesis) ⇒∃nbd . ¿ x ∈ R and find a nbd N such that x∈ N ⊆ R x ∈(x−1. M . that there exists a limit point of since S . it is sufficient to show that limit point of S c is open.r ) ={x ∈ R :d ( x . S belong to S ⇒S is closed. contradicting the hypotheses. no element x ∅ that contradict the definition of an such that every nbd of R is open as one can choose any element x is not a subset of ∅. □ How to show that ∅ .∋ p ∈ N ⊆ S c p∈ S c which is open. Then p . Assume. a ) <r } . Therefore the assumption is false and all limit points of S are in Conversely.a )< r } R .e. Thus S is closed. there exists a nbd of p that contains no points of S ⇒ p is not a limit point of S . B ( a . To show that z∈ S c .

Then Let Now.r 1 ) ∧N 2=D ( z .r 1 ) ⇒ d ( z . r1 ) ⊂ D ( z .r 1 ) ⊆ S1 ∩ S 2 and Otherwise r 1 <r 2∨r 1 >r 2 . d ( a . Now. r 1 ) . are open sets. Let r 1=r−d ( a . d ( a . w ) <r 1 <r 2 ⇒w ∈ D (z . Then . Consider w ∈ D ( z . and N=D ( z . w )< d ( a . r 1 ) ⊆ D ( a . r ) . r 1 ) ⊂ S1 ∩ S2 and S 1 ∩ S 2 is open. r 1 ) ⊆ D ( a . z )<r⇒ r−d ( a . S 1 are open sets in S i .r ) ⇒d ( a .r ) D ( z . z ) . S 1 are open sets in S 1 ∩ S 2=∅ then C . z ∈ D ( a . Without loss of generality. z ) +d ( z .r 1 ) =D ( z . RTS: there exists a nbd. If 2.r 1) .r ) . suppose that D ( z . z )>0.r ) so that S 1 and Theorem: 1. of z ∋ z∈ N ⊆D ( a . a )< r } is open. r 2 ) ) Therefore S 1 ∩ S 2 is open. w )< r 1 . z )=r i. r 1=r 2 then D ( z . We have to show that D ( z . z )+r−d ( a . Otherwise S 1 ∩ S 2 ≠ ∅⇒∃ z∈ S 1 ∩ S2 ⇒ z ∈ S 1∧z∈ S 2 . If S 1 and C . either S 1 ∩ S 2 is open. ¿ i∈ N Si is open. Suppose that If N 1=D ( z . w ) ≤ d ( a . r2 ) ( let w ∈ D ( z . then Proof: (1) Suppose that S 1 ∩ S 2=∅∨≠ ∅ . r 2 ) . r 2 )∧z ∈ D ( z . z ) +r 1=d ( a . then S 1 ∩ S 2 is open. r 1 <r 2 .Open sphere is an open set: to show that Let D ( a . d ( z . Then ∃nbds N 1 ∧N 2 of z∋ z ∈ N 1 ⊆ S1∧z ∈ N 2 ⊆S 2 . D ( a . r ) is open. If N .i ∈ N . w ) <r ⇒ w ∈ D(a . z∈ D ( z . e . r )={ z ∈ C :d ( z .

S i . Proof: (by contradiction) Assume. Set of all interior points of ‘interior of S ’. of z ∋ z∈ N ⊆ Si ⊆¿i∈ N Si and ¿ i∈ N Si is open. then every nbd of Theorem: If many points of p contains infinitely S. finitely many points of p . contradicting the hypotheses. finite sets are always closed. are open sets. S if there exists an S is called the . S. Define r=min ⁡{r i :i=1. □ Result: Every finite set . has no limit points ⇒ set of limit points=∅ ⊆ S ⇒S is closed i. n . S . say z1 . … . … . S is the smallest closed set containing S ⊆C . z 2 . with Consider the distances r i=| p−z i| for i=1. Then the open set contains no points of S other than r D( p .2. N . z n . Therefore the assumption is false and every nbd of a limit point contains infinitely many points of S . N . of z such that z ∈ N ⊆ S . □ p is a limit point of S ⊆C . ) . Let z∈ ¿i ∈ N S i ⇒ z ∈ S i for some i ∈ N . S. (2) Suppose that ⇒∃nbd . a nbd of 2 p⇒ p is not a limit point of p. say N . for the sake of a contradiction. … . Note that Interior point: Let (called ‘derived set’ of S ).2. z is said the be an interior point of open nbd. that there exists a nbd of S .i ∈ N . S S=S ∪ D(S) .e.n } . D(S) =set of all limit points of Closure of S.

if ∃ k ∈ R∋|z|<k ∀ z∈ S { ni :n ∈ N }={i . p∋ p∈ M ⊆ Sc . M. S and S if every nbd. S . In above example. S is .e. 3i . Limit point of i such that i∈ nbd ⊆ S . There are no nbds of point Is S closed? No. i. Is S open? No. of p N ∩ S ≠ ∅∧N ∩ Sc ≠∅ . S is not compact. …} Note that 0 is a limit point of S. S is bounded as |z|<2 ∀ z ∈ S . (recall theorem S ) ⇔ compact. Boundary point: p∈ C is called a boundary point of contains points from both S c . Bounded set A set S= S is called bounded in C . S . N . 0.p∈ C is an exterior point of Exterior point: of S if there exists an open nbd. does not belong to S is closed iff every limit point of S belongs to Heine-Borel Theorem: Closed and bounded bounded but not closed. Therefore. 2i .

¿ k =1¿ n Sik ∋ S ⊆¿ k =1¿ n Sik . Si isopen∈R } and S ⊆¿i ∈ N S i=α . α−open cover of S . finite subcover of α . for every open cover compact. α ={ Si :i∈ N .Open cover- S ⊆R . α of S . if there exists a finite subcover then S is said to be .