Ion of Chios Huxley, George Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies; Spring 1965; 6, 1; ProQuest pg.

29

Ion of Chios
George Huxley

I

ON OF CHIOS is remarkable not only for the extent of his poetical
and literary work but also for the valuable evidence his fragments
provide of social and political life under the Athenian empire at
the height of its power. We shall discuss his writings in the context of
Athenian imperialism and examine some of the problems of interpretation to which they give rise.! But first must be considered the
evidence for the length of his life and the extent of his travels.
In the Peace [832-37] Aristophanes mentions the death of Ion as
though it had occurred but shortly before. Trygaeus tells the slave
that men who die become stars in the sky; Ion the Chian too, he explains, is a star, whom everyone in Athens called the 'Aotos aU7~p,
the morning star. This, the Scholia explain, is an allusion to the 08~ of
Ion beginning
,

......

aotov

,

,./..,'

a€pO~OL7av

,

,

aU7€pa

I
,
\ I
\
I
''''
2
/-,€Lva/-,€v
a€I\LOV
I\€VK07TTEpvya
7TpOOpO/-,ov.

Aristophanes, then, shows that Ion was dead by the spring of 421 B.C.,
when the Peace was produced. The date of his birth is not easily
determined, but a hint is given by the poet himself in a story reported
by Plutarch in his Cimon [9.1-5]: UvvS€L7TvfjuaL 8E 7ep K{/-,wv{ CPTJULV
<>

II

Iwv

7TavTCf7TauLv /.1.f.LpaKwv i]KWV €ls 'A8fjvas

EK X{ov 7Tapa AaoJLESOVTL.

Plutarch in the Brutus3 uses JL€LpaKLOv of a youth under twenty-one,
and from the fragment in the Cimon we may infer that Ion came as a
1 This essay was read to a meeting of Hibernian Hellenists at Ballymascanlon, Dundalk
on 27th November, 1964. I am grateful for the helpful discussion at that meeting and
especially thank Professor H. W. Parke for suggestions made then. My debt to F. Jacoby's
masterly paper, "Some Remarks on Ion of Chios" in CQ 41 (1947) 1-17, will be obvious to
those who have read it. Most of the essay is printed here as it was read, but with some notes
and references added. I also thank Mr W. G. Forrest for reading the manuscript and suggesting several improvements. Any remaining errors are my own.
2 Schol. RV. Pac. 835 (=Ion Fr. 34, in A. von Blumenthal, Ion von Chios. Die Reste seiner
Werke [Stuttgart-Berlin 1939] p. 24). For the fiction or image of the dead amongst the stars
see the epigrams in Haussoullier, "Al:THP ... TENOMHN," RevPhil33 (1909) 5-8 and W.
Ludwig, "Plato's Love Epigrams," GRBS 4 (1963) 79-80.
327. For further examples of fLELP&.KLOV in Plutarch, see Wyttenbach, Lex. Pluto 2.1009
(a reference due to W. M. Calder).

29

and it cannot be before ca. CQ 41 (1947) 4. The dinner at Laomedon's was. 470." Hermes 71 (1936) 263ff. 6 ."6 The conversation at Laomedon's turned to a comparison between the victories of Themistocles and Cimon.: Bo'. L. "had whole-heartedly espoused the cause of Athens.v.' It is significant that Orthomenes. then very powerful. 7 Cf T. who came down from Phrygia and Lydia to pay large sums for their release. ~Iwv.Oov waLS" XWS" TO[ ih-' avl0"1K£v •Iwv. and earlier. when Themistoc1es was already in exile: the warm praise of Cimon suggests that he was already the victor at the Eurymedon.30 ION OF CI-llOS stripling to Athens. Cimon told how he proved himself cleverer than the Ionian allies after the taking of Sestos and Byzantium. 8 CQ 41 (1947) 1. was perhaps not yet: certainly the attacks of Ephialtes had not yet begun. See SEG XVI. Webster. Harpokration s. Possibly he was sent by his father Orthomenes to complete his education in the household of Cimon. 7 From these calculations it is likely that Ion was . from the flattery bestowed upon him by the guests. however. B. the latter of whom was evidently. for the poet's birth. perhaps father of an Ion. the dinner at Laomedon's may reasonably be placed in the years about 465 when Cimon was at the height of success and popularity. who had the nickname Xouthos 5 because he called his son Ion. and there is no need to date his birth as early as about 490. A Xouthos.2 (Miinchen 1934) 515-516. whom Ion admired greatly: but owing to Plutarch's abbreviation ofIon's own words it is not certain that Cimon took Ion along to dinner at Laomedon's: the young man may have been staying with Laomedon and have met Cimon at Laomedon's house when the great man came as a guest to dinner there.C. but the disaster of Drabescus during the Thasian war about 464 B. Cf Jacoby. who suggests the period 492/488 B. Whatever the date of the Eurymedon battle may be.C. sent his son to Athens at an impressionable age. in Jacoby'S words. Schmid-Stahlin 1. about a decade later than that. We can imagine him gently teasing the young Chiot with his story of how the Ionians chose the property of the Persians rather than the men themselves when he gave them the choice. "Sophocles and Ion of Chi os.392. it follows that he was born between about 485 and 480. appears in a Chiot epigram of the third or second century B. 497 and XVII. If Ion was between fifteen and twenty at the dinner party. Evidently he felt rather admiration than resentment at the triumphant progress of Athenian imperialism and.C. Later the Athenian general was able to ransom the Persians to their friends and kin.

Lysistrata 1138. Plut.12 Moreover Jacoby has argued attractively that the young man followed Cimon to the allied camp before Ithome as a member of his staff. the Sud a [s. the earliest example in Greek literature of memoirs.dT€POS f3aatA€vs aWT~p T€ 7TaT~p T€ refers either to Zeus or to a Spartan king as Jacoby thought. 13 The evidence for jacoby's theory lies in the drinking-song for an Eurypontid king of Sparta which Athenaeus [11. 10 Stesimbrotos. 14 Ion Fr.10. 2.ll and it is possible that he had remained in Cimon's entourage from the period of Laomedon's party until the desperate appeal of the Spartan Perikleidas for Athenian help.447D]. 8 He must have been in Athens on both occasions.8. "Jwv XL'os] remark that he produced his first tragedy in the 82nd Olympiad (452-449). Pluto Cimon 16. 11 Plut. Cimon had the admiration and respect of Ion. and. a genre which Ion may have invented. another was performed in the archonship of Epameinon. Alkmena. Prokles. and the Perseidai beginning with Zeus. 8 Schw. 9 Prevailing over the arguments of Ephialtes.14 p. Cimon 5. 12 Ar. who wrote affectionately of the general's great handsome face and thick curly hair.v. and we cannot reasonably doubt that Ion was in Athens on a visit when he heard Cimon appeal on Sparta's behalf. In addition.3.lO These metaphors have the immediacy of an eye witness. (=FGrHist 392 T 6). von Blumenthal 8 9 . 26 line 14. 13 CQ 41 (1947) 7-9. and his first plays may have been produced there at about the time of Cimon's return from exile. or to f3aatA€vs Oivos whom the Chian praises in another elegy also quoted by Athenaeus [1O. Since the elegy enumerates toasts to Herakles. Cimon 16.GEORGE HUXLEY 31 not more than about 65 when he died. and he was no doubt the host. the Chian described the speech in which Cimon exhorted the Athenians to help Sparta during the great helot revolt. as we learn from the Argumentum to the Hippolytus. a Herakleid descended from king Prokles of Sparta is obviously meant." said the general whose love of Sparta was so great that he called one of his sons Lakedaimonios. Cimon persuaded the people to send out a hop lite force: "Athens must not look on while Hellas is made lame and the city becomes unevenly yoked. FGrHist 107 F 6. In his Epidemiai or "Visits".463A and 496c] ascribes to Ion. 429/8. This holds whether the first line XaLp€TW ~J.

o.. to share his mentor's admiration for "the Laconian city" which." 19 We may well have here an allusion 15 16 17 "Aus dem Leben des Dichters Ion. in the two lines at the end. Emp. 208]: KaKo. 7TO. when the king. I6 Koehler's dating of the Archidamos elegy therefore has nothing to recommend it.\. and the hand executes. p. Council governs.wv KvSp6TEPOV 1TLETa£ - 0 EVELO'Y}~ is just the kind of remark a high-spirited young man might make on his first campaign away from home. where he attended a dinner party at which the poet Sophocles was present as general.I 5 However. 679. 19 Sext. OV'T£va ~" ~ \ I () 1\ 1 JL£JLVE£ 'Y}/\Eta 1TapEVVO~ KEivo~ TWV aA.7T€arJ uTpaT<p apxn.17 A more fitting date for the Archidamos elegy is 463 or 462.ov" KaV 'EA7T. o?J yap .OVTJv. 107 von Blumenthal).A. in Ion's verses from an unidentified tragedy.~v .EV~ aWT~p TE 1TaT~p TE fit the situation.vlKTJv Tjj8f: KaTaA'7Twv P. 18 The presence of female company at Ithome is perhaps also implied by Eupolis." Hermes 29 (1894) 156ff.. who wrote of Cimon [Fr. having defeated the Messenians. the poet was in fact in Chios. 441 B.ION OF CHIOS 32 In view of the date of Ion's floruit the Spartan king honoured in the poem is Archidamos the Eurypontid.5] does record a conversation in which Thucydides son of Melesias neatly described to Archidamos his political wrestling with Pericles. and the reference to female camp followers. 24ff Bekker (=Ion Fr.. but he had evidently seen enough of Spartans. not wedded wives.\oym. we don't have any evidence that Ion ever mentioned Thucydides in his Epidemiai or indeed in any other work of his.pUt07TOT'T/' 8~ K&p. CQ 41 (1947) 9. ls I said that there is no evidence that Ion had been to Sparta.C. was investing Ithome -the words f3aa£A.~v O?JK ~v.a.va 7TvpY0Vra. "is not bastioned with words. and heard enough about them from members of the Cimonian circle. Pluto Cimon 9. Now U. but wherever drastic Ares falls upon the army. Koehler thought that the occasion of the elegy was a visit of Ion and Thucydides son of Melesias to Sparta after the latter's ostracism.T' iiv lv AaKf:8alp. W f3ovA~ p.lATJ" K&vloT' iiv &7Tf:KO'P. but Ion is not given as author and the story could well come from a pamphlet of Stesimbrotos the Thasian. £P.· ill' €OT' av ApTJ' V€OXp. A&Ka. Plutarch [Pericles 8. Xflp 8' l7Tfgfpy&~fTa. and at the time of the Samian revolt ca. .

and cf. The words f301JfJ~aa. if peripheral.S. 22 Pluto De prof in virt. Nor do we know how firm Ion's acquaintance was with Aeschylus. Phoenix 17 (1963) 163.. unlike Ion. who in the Dionysia of 468 preferred him to Aeschylus. who objected to the passage of the Athenian force through Corinthian territory.B. 10. then the likelihood that another anonymous fragment of the Epidemiai can be seen in Plutarch's Cimon [17. 26 Athen.R.21 That the Lachartos episode in Plutarch's Cimon may well come from Ion is also suggested by the fact that the Chian was held to have known Corinth well. He later remarks [17. p. Forrest.20 If it is granted that Ion was at Ithome in 463 or 462 before Cimon and his forces were dismissed. Herodotus 9.104.3 and 9. problem of Pentekontaetia chronology. and indeed the poet was awarded his first dramatic success by Cimon and his fellow generals. G.436F. 3-G. ''Themistoklcs and Argos. V. 24 In spirit Sophocles was a latter-day Cimonian. See also W.dVTOL 7TOALTLKa OUT€ oocpoS" OUT€ P€KT~PLOS". FGrHist 392 F 7.22 and in his own elegies he confessed his love for the Corinthian Chrysilla. G. being in Ion's words Ta . 13.8.1-3] is strong: this is the conversation between Cimon and Lachartos. For the problem of two expeditions see most recently W. was not close to the Cimonian circle: but Ion's testimony that Aeschylus took part in the battle of Salamis cannot be questioned.604D. N.S. Ehrenberg. He is said to have attended the Isthmian games in the company of Aeschylus. who. .26 For Sophocles Ion felt affection and sympathy. the Corinthian general. whom Teleelides in his Hesiodoi said that Pericles loved toO. 79DE. in general.99. Sophocles and Pericles (Oxford 1954). but we must here ignore what is a genuine. 10 (1960) 20 21 238. and &7117£' may mean that Plutarch thought the Lachartos episode to have taken place when Cimon was leading his troops on the return journey of the first expedition. 25 But in the age of Periclean dominance he stood apart from party politics with the other XP1JOTOt.3] that the Lakedaimonians again called for the help ofthe Athenians against the Messenians and helots in Ithome. Forrest. 23 Athen. 24 Ion. 25 Pluto Cimon 8.GEORGE HUXLEY 33 to the helot revolt in "Ap1JS" V€OXf-L6S"." CQ. Unfortunately we cannot be sure that Plutarch found in Ion's Epidemiai evidence for his belief that Cimon made two expeditions into Peloponnese: Plutarch definitely believed that there were two campaigns. because in Ionic V€OXf-L6v TL 7TOLE€LV means 'to mutiny'. 23 We do not know when Ion was in Corinth for the Isthmian games. 8. daughter of Teleos. but his presence with Aeschylus there cannot have been later than the Athenian's second departure for Sicily.

boasted that Agamemnon had taken ten years to capture Troy. the most powerful of the Ionians. Plut. 28 We would give much for an eyewitness account of Pericles from his contemporary Ion. Pluto Cimon 9.ION OF CI-llOS 34 Athenaeus preserves a long extract from the Epidemiai in which a dinner party in Chios which the two poets attended is described.3. Ion had compared Themistocles with Cimon unfavourably. but not a general. But did not my stratagem (the kiss) work out correctly just now?" Ion must have been delighted by the conversation at the party. 27 Sophocles as general had come northwards to Chios and Lesbos to summon ships to the aid of the Athenian force attacking Samos. who borrowed it from their noble Spartan friends' complaints about the servant problem) and of his disdain and contempt for others.'A{a (an expression perhaps current amongst philo-Laconians in Athens. for after stealing a kiss from a pretty youth at the Chian dinner party. 465. 29 30 . for it was well spiced with quotations from Simonides and Phrynichus. complaining of his JLO(JWV'K~ 0JL. Ion was outspokenly critical. in nine months. however. In spite ofIon's obvious sympathy for Sophocles. the political heir of Themistocles. and Sophocles' gentle refutation of some wooden criticism of Phrynichus by a pedant in the company won the admiration of his fellow tragedian from Chios. Hermes 71 (1936) 263ft'.30 The words used are definitely hostile. 31 Pluto Pericles 28. be declared still inconclusive.603E-604D (=FGrHist 392 28 Cf. F 6). ca. Evidently the generals had agreed that the poet's charm could be better used in persuading the allies to help them in fighting the Samians. whereas he had defeated the Samians. 31 Pericles may never have made so tasteless a remark: but it is significant that Ion believed (or at least reported) 27 13. but in fact there is no proof that Ion knew the Olympian statesman closely. there is no cogent evidence that the Athenian ever influenced the Chian poet in the subject matter or language of his tragedies. I think. gentlemen.1. Pericles says that I know how to be a poet. Pericles 5. Sophocles was aware of this. and the attempt to trace literary links between Ion and Sophocles must. The tone of these remarks hardly befits the period of Pericles' Olympian dominance: but Athenian Tories may well have spoken thus about him while he was in the ascendant. Pericles.7. he remarked HI am practising my generalship. Webster. but only so far as we know in the matter of his musical education 29: of Pericles. Ion asserted.

because the Founding of Chios is sometimes called an elegiac poem. like a Tvpawls was far harsher than the old precepts of the Cimonian imperialists. 36 Plutarch does not. The Xlov KT{atS of Ion was a prose work. Von Blumenthal justly remarks (p. Untersuch.bs by Pedaritus the Spartan in Chios. "<the dark wine we now drink comes from Chios) which once Oinopion." Phoenix 18 (1964) 276. Ion remained a staunch friend of Athens. for whom the principal enemy was always Persia. 1 (Berlin 1880) 13 n. App. T7JV 7TOTE ~7JaEto7JS EKTLaEV 1 1<..2.v. he simply states that Ion was speaking about his own country. The evidence cited for the latter view is the single pentameter . Jacob y 32 insists that Ion's dislike of Pericles the man does not mean that he hated Periclean home or foreign policy. and the fragment perhaps comes from a drinking song composed for Athenians-Ion may have said. The harsh treatment of Samos must have caused him to wonder how Chios would be treated in the event of a dispute with Athens. CQ 41 (1947) 16. ascribe it to aXlov KTlaLS. and did not hesitate to quote it as an example of the statesman's ILEya'Aavxla. Bruce. for instance. son of an Ion. Yet the supposed boast may be no more than a piece of gossip amongst extremist clubmen in Athens which made its way to Chios in 439. however. knew that admiration for a powerful neighbour is consistent with local patriotism. As a Chiot Ion could condemn Periclean imperialism while still remaining a loyal friend of Athens. "Chios and PSI 1304.3. A. like some Irishmen. 35 It is as well to state this at once. and his party were killed for their aTTtKtap.GEORGE HUXLEY 35 that he had. Thucydides 8.4." . von einer elegischen X{ov KT[UL. as Pausanias' description of it [7. but I feel less confident. after one of his tragic victories.8] as a avyypa1>~ and the one surviving verbatim fragment show. 92 33 kann keine Rede sein. F. settled. 35 Ion. and the Periclean doctrine that the empire must be held. The man who was rich enough to send.14 and I.''' 1 which Plutarch quotes in the Theseus. For in 412 or 411 Tydeus.. 23): "Offenbar handelt es sich um eine gelegentliche Erwahnung in anderem Zusammenhange. Yet whatever doubts he may have had. if need be." It is significant that in Pausanias' long but rather disordered excerpt from the prose Xlov KTlaLS. and perhaps taught his son to love Athens too. 3' Suda s. See also Wilamowitz. a jar of wine to each of the Athenians34 expressed his love for his native island by writing its history. Theseus' son. Phil. II. FGrHist 392 F 3.a 0'LV07TLWV. 33 Ion. "Iwv Xw. 36 20.38.

ION OF CHlOS Oinopion is said to come from Crete but is not called a son of Theseus.Ep{s. 38 Etym. 94. unless Pausanias is abbreviating drastically. Such a division of the land recalls the 7TVPYO' or very ancient demesnes of Teos into which the land was for long divided. p. . The one verbatim fragment of the KT{ULS' of Ion perhaps refers to the coming of Athamas from Chios to Teos as founder: .3. S. T. 392 F 3). - Orion 38 here explains that A6yX'Y} is an Ionian word used by Ion in the X{OV KT{U'S and means /-J. Carians. 37 The inscription gives a list of sons of Oinopion different from that in Pausanias.40 Interestingly Ion regarded Chios as distinct from Ionia 37 RevPhil. When Oinopion was king. The Poet of the Iliad (Cambridge 1952) 9. and the inscription confirms the correction of the corrupt" AyEAOS' in the text ofPausanias to EaAayoS'. . came to the island to settle and also Abantes from Euboea. 12). -". SER. The great-grandson of Amphiclus was. Schwyzer. M. who came over from Histiaia in Euboea in obedience to an oracle from Delphi.6]. another son's name. killing some and forcing others to leave by treaty. king Hector: he fought against the Carians and Abantes in the island. but from central Greece [Pausanias 7. Hunt. he divided it into fifty parts.C. 'share'. "The Tribal Organization of Chios. published by N. 39 By making Athamas come from Chios Ion was attempting to stake a prior Chiot claim to territories in mainland Ionia." JHS 67 (1947) 68-76.. Mr. For a possible phratry Olvo7Tl8m in Chios. whom Strabo [633] names as a founder of Chios. Later Amphiclus. 695. Ion had nothing to say about Egertios. W." BSA 55 (1960) 189. G. see W. 25 Sturz (=Ion. "Feudal Survivals in Ionia. but both have Athamas (later to be founder of Teos) in common. but others considered him to have come to Teos. EK T'Y}S . Condoleon. Forrest points out to me that MYXaL are found (though with uncertain meaning) in a Chian Lex sacra (E. When peace came. not from Chios. It is interesting that. Hector caused the Chiots to join with the Ionians in sacrifices at Panionion. Ion or a predecessor patriotically claimed Athamas as a son of Oinopion the Cretan. Forrest. according to Ion. III 23 (1949) 5ff. 39 D. Dialectorum Graecarum exempla epigraphica potiora [Leipzig 1923] no. \ ' \ . FGrHist. Ion reported. Oinopion's parentage is left unstated also in the most interesting list of his followers and wives in an epichoric Chiot inscription of the first century B. took over the kingship from the descendants of Oinopion. The fragment about Teos may therefore imply that after Athamas was assigned Teos as his portion. \Vade-Gery. 40 For a conjectural dating of this eycnt see H.L EW I\OYX'Y}S l\oYXas 7TOLELV 7TEV77JKOVTa.

426E (=10n. A seer whose name is corrupted or lost in the text is said to have advised Palamedes that the Greeks would be able to sail if they drank their wine with water in the proportion three to one.cfVTL. Lycophr.2. 44 From Ion the local antiquarian we turn to Ion the philosopher and historian of philosophy.ap. (sci/.v 0 P. €va KvcfBov. and indeed the evidence for a pre-Ionic Aeolian substratum in the island is strong in its dialect. this need not come from the KTlut. sent his daughters Oino.. Anios was a grandson of Staphylos.£VOt Tep 7TOTep 3&0 OLVOV £7TLVOV 7TPO. whose text is corrupt. Professor Parke suggested to me that the passage may have something to do with the Oinotropoi of Delos.41 We perhaps have here an allusion to a Chiot custom of drinking their strong dark wine with more water in it-Melas. A last. perhaps from the Epidemiai. if the context of the fragment is Greek starvation during the siege of Troy. was perhaps so named in honour of the island's wine. who may well be the seer in the fragment of Ion.~oTJv Ep.v I suggest 'Avlwv a by·form of "AvtO. fragment. a view already held by Plato in the Crito. but in deference to local tradition he did not. in whom Ion may have also been interested owing to his ties with Oinopion. 570. 44 Schol.43 Anios. The fragment mentions Palamedes.lvw. -EAATJat 7T[voVatv TP£L. Athenaeus cites the fragment as being EV -rep 7T£pl Xlov. EV Tep ll£pt Xlov <PTJutv on t£vpJ.GEORGE HUXLEY 37 before Hector's time. A single sentence. ovo 7TPO. for t£vpJ. 2. obscure. Spermo and Elaiis to bring succour to the starving host at Rhoiteion.. who was sent by Agamemnon to Anios in Delos to find a cure for the famine 42 which affiicted the Greeks before Troy. one of Oinopion's sons. 200 Scheer). Diogenes however in an afterthought gives as evidence against the view Ion's statement that Socrates went to Samos with Archelaus as a young man.~Or/'. place names and traditions. Jacoby gives the following text of this passage: 7T£pt ot Ta&T7). whereas the Greeks used to drink in a stronger mixture. 4Z Von Blumenthal's 7TAOVTOV for 7TAOVV makes good sense in Athenaeus 10. and adds that according to Aristotle Socrates went to Delphi. refers to the Greeks at Troy.23] remarks that Socrates never left Athens except on military service. In view of the link between Palamedes and Anios (see below) that is very likely. attested for Delos by Diodorus 5.avT£&aaTo 7TAOVV £a£aBat TOL. Jacoby proposes" (Eigenname) 0 p. Kpcfu£w. Xpc!Jp. 7TPO. From Ion's own name we might have expected him to date the Ionizing of Chios as early as possible.cfvns naAap.79. Lye. na>. 7TlvT£ ~ £va 7TPO. is the earliest biographical evidence for the philosopher Socrates. the Cretan. 581 (vol. Tp£LS) •Iwv 0 7TOtTJT~. 43 Schol.' ot 0' E7TLT£Tap.~oTJv. five to twO. 7TlvT£ iJoaTo. FGrHist 392 F 2): strictly. p. . For t£vpwv ••• na)"ap. From the context clearly Ion meant that Socrates did not go to u Athenaeus 1O.426DE. Diogenes Laertius [2.

Now Archelaus belonged to the Cimonian circle. he wrote poetry on Cimon's lineage and. then Ion won his first dramatic victory. and those who assert that nothing at all can be said about the early intellectual development of Socrates are definitely misleading. It is. and we may perhaps infer that the fragment about Socrates comes from the Epidemiai. and the frequent assertions in the textbooks that Socrates took part in the Samian war miss the point of Diogenes' quotation from Ion and Aristotle. of the League treasury from Delos to Athens. "Religious Propaganda of the Delian League. of which Cimon was the chief Athenian representative.C. who argued from condensation and refraction in the world to the existence of a void. but a decade or so earlier to visit the great statesman and philosopher Melissos. the 82nd Olympiad. an elegy to console him for the death of his beloved Isodike." '8 ]HS 84 (1964) 48. and if we ask why Socrates visited Samos with Archelaus an answer is to hand: they went not to fight in the Samian war. about 452 B. About 452 Athenian visitors were sure of a warm welcome in Samos: this was a period of strong Samian friendship. doubtful that Socrates could be called VEOV OVTCC in 440 B. Aristotle [Physics 4. immediately after the transference. and anyway Porphyry45 dated the association between Archelaus and Socrates (though not necessarily the visit to Samos) to a time when Socrates was seventeen.ION OF CHIOS 38 Samos in 441/0 on war service. 47 Where Ion learnt to philosophize we do not know.C. See also J. of Sophocles. These were the happy years between Cimon's return from exile and his death in Cyprus. Diels-Kranz. and furthermore claimed that if there were u FGrHist 260 F 11c. but it is worth considering whether he may not have been taught some Pythagorean ideas by his father. Indeed we can go further and say that possibly Ion knew Socrates in Athens when the young Athenian was just beginning his philosophical studies with Archelaus. Barron. who later directed the defence of Samos against the Athenians under Pericles. Like Ion. '7 Pluto Aristides 25. who wrote an elegy about him [Vorsokr.. Socrates in fact was brought up close to the international philo-Laconian aristocracy. .3.9. besides. and perhaps a friend. Archelaus was an acquaintance.216B22] mentions a certain Xouthos. P. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker 9 60 B 1 (Archelaos). This is about the time when Ion was again in Athens. at the proposal of Samos.' 60 A 5a].46 It is a matter of no little interest that the young Socrates can be seen therefore to have associated with a Cimonian. according to Panaitios.

the constituents of the universe. in a passage not necessarily from the Triagmos.1. 207. which Pausanias mentions [5. Xouthos' name may also appear. 8. FGrHist 392 F 24c). since the Theologoumena Arithmeticae [po 44 Ast] assert that Ka£pos was the sect's name for the number Seven. remarking that while they were unlike each other. All things are triples. he may have had a Pythagorean's liking for the concept.11] remarks that Ion thought the moon to be transparent or icelike. B. '

tl t I ) . The worth of each thing is a triad.KpaTOS' Kat TVXT). Qu. Ion compared aocpla with TVXT). His Triagmos or "Triple Division" is perhaps the same as the work called Kosmologikos in the Aristophanes scholia [on Pax 835]. Ion himself was a considerable philosopher in the Pythagorean manner.9]. intelligence and strength and chance. ~Iwv 49 60 61 (perhaps from the Pinakes of Callimachus).. for Aetius [2. though corruptly. If A . air and fire formed a triple. The opening sentence is preserved in Harpokration. . and nothing is more or less than three.V. then either there would be no motion or the entire universe would rise in waves (KVJLall€'i). De gen.B. In Ion's opinion Kairos was the youngest of the children of Zeus.. Conv. evidently.1. 1. Part of the Triagmos was concerned with astronomy.14. but that he may in fact be a ChianPythagoreanis quite likely: Pythagorean ideas must have been acceptable in fifth century Chios. . apXT) " < . De fort.5o earth. part not. in a list of Crotoniate Pythagoreans in Iamblichus [Vito Pyth. being. as we are informed by Philoponos. Plutarch.lWll TaOE] <I\EY€£ /LOt TOV I\OYOV· 7Ta1lTa Tpta Kat 7T1\€£W J " <OVOEll OVOE> El\aaaw· E1l0S' €KaaTOV ap€TT) TpLaS'. Pythagoras also found a place in the book: according to Ion. the Samian sage ascribed some of his own poems to Orpheus. as the activity of the astronomer Oenopides and the mathematician Hippocrates suggest. 49 Another instance of his personification of abstract entities is his hymn to Kairos. Whether Ion's father was a Pythagorean or not.48 though in a sadly corrupt state. The title TptaY/Los perhaps is cognate with c1Y1lV/Lt 'break'. . In the Triagmos.~. p. IB Vito (=Ion. aVllEaLS' Kat. A possible restoration is as follows: T XALOS> [''''

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>.GEORGE HUXLEY 39 no void. 51 Ion re48 S.25. part illuminated. yet they were fashioners of things very alike. et COTTo p. " \ ' I "Ion of Chios thus speaks" (somewhat as Hecataeus before and Herodotus after him began their books): " . Rom.~." Here avvwts and TVX7J are conjoined: elsewhere. 316D. Diog. \ I . 267]. Laert.

whereas a seven-stringed instrument has but two scales of four.• In line 1 von Blumenthal prints . if o/L€V is Pherecydes.~_ '/"(j'L/LEVOS' -rvxn ." Hermes 69 (1934) 227. " EtTrEp IIV B ' " Ctyop7]S' E7'V/LWS' '(jpWTrWV I I Ctv yVW/LCtS' . who hast ten intervals.. Ion is saying that if Pythagoras is to be believed Pherecydes has a happy life after death. a7Tavlav J-LOfJaav a£Lp6p.a0-r0S' TrEpt" TrCtV7'WV ' (j KCtt"c E~E/LCt EV. Heraclitus was not enjoying bliss after death. having practised ta7'opl7] more than all other men."56 An eleven-stringed lyre has three KPOV/LCt7'Ct.. 26 von Blumenthal]. TPL68ov" 7TptV p. ~. Eisag. Ion's interest in 62 63 6( 66 W. Diog. .XOLl:ra.t/>wvo&aa. Kranz. b8£KaXop8£ Mpa.XOL. 8. 12 (Euclidis op."v£.55 describes the intervals of the eleven-stringed lyre. the successor of the seven-stringed instrument of Terpander.ova TagLv . TroAv/LCtBl7]v. o /L€V is Pherecydes. Kleonid... [TT}v] 8£Ka{3ap.54 whose genuineness has however been doubted. Hermes 37 (1902) 306 and F. &. Cf.pJ-L0vla. Appropriately for an admirer of Pythagoras. KCtK07'ExvlCtv. as they raised up their limited music. "Vorsokratisches II.~ EwE /. who asserted that he ETrOL~aCt7'O £CtV7'OV aocpl7]v. 53 As an exponent of TroAv/LCtOl7] Ion cannot have liked the Heraclitean doctrine TrOAV/LCtO[7] v60v EXEtv OU S. and in line 2 d [TeX.1. av(}pwTrWV /LaAta7'Ct Trav7'wv. ' " E Q' KCtL.].6 (needlessly placed amongst the dubia in Vorsokratiker 9 22 B 129).Harm. 56 . ~ \ .. Ion interested himself in musical theory. Kranz 52 appositely asked..216 Menge) [=Fr.lv a' £1TTaTovov cp&»'ov aLa Tlaaapa 7T!fVT£. But though Ion may well have praised the new lyre. •EM. . three triples of harmony tuned together.SaaKEt: possibly Ion's poem went on to say that unlike Pherecydes. The text is not quite assured. An elegiac fragment. Tpd. Laertius 8.ION OF CHIOS 40 turned to Pythagoras in one of his elegies preserved by Diogenes Laertius [1.119]: c'\ WS' ° /LEV 7]vope[l 7'E KEKCta/LEVoS' 7]OE KCtL CtLUOL t

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I . who is 0 8€ who must be mentioned later in the poem? And he reasonably suggested Heraclitus. because Ion's words TrEpt Trav7'WV avBpclmwv yVW/LCtS' elSE KCtt Eg€/LCtBEV look like a hit at the bitter criticism of Pythagoras made by the Ephesian philosopher. Formerly did all Greeks play thee with seven tones and scales of four strings. Wilamowitz. avp. RM 83 (1934) 376ff. °r . scales of four strings. Marx. but the sense is: "Eleven-stringed lyre. and ten intervals. it was left to Timotheus to exploit its revolutionary possibilities. -r 7'EPTrVOV EX ' l"'07'OV.£VOL •.

as Homer describes (Iliad 20. The numbers 30 or 40 mean ten trilogies with or without the satyr plays.219-229).. avo1Tllm.v. 62 Quoted by the Berlin Photius S. like the aKo7To~ in the Odyssey60 who was stationed to look for his approach. aVETaL S' OSO~. ~Iwv Xios.[voJP. 45 in his edition. pp. 59 Clytemnestra is perhaps the speaker. where he is to serve the princess Omphale. Near the beginning a speaker offers somebody a cup won by Castor in a race.524. The creature Athenaeus 14. Cf von Blumenthal on Ion Fr. 57 The Omphale and the Agamemnon are the two plays of Ion of which substantial fragments survive. Grenfell and Hunt. and she may be addressing the watcher who is to look out for Agamemnon's return. whom he here addresses.i]. The {30pEtDV i7T7TOV was recognised by T. 60 4. The words i7T7TLKOV x). The date of the Agamemnon is unknown. Herakles is being brought by Hermes. s. but not to his Agamemnon: it would however suit the dying scream of the king well. a prize from Pelias.v.634c. as pay for some action. Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 1611 states that the following couplet came from the beginning of the play: opwv P. W. POxy 1611. {3oPEtDV [i7TJ7TOV. 40 von Blumenthal).EV fEpp. t1T1TLKOV X>. op. and if it owed anything to Aeschylus' play or suggested anything to Ion's Athenian acquaintance we have no evidence.468c-F (= Fr. The Suda 58 state that Ion wrote twelve plays. from the bounds of Pelops (that is.cit. but proof is lacking here tOO. see also von Blumenthal. but also asks whether anyone would not prefer the Oedipus of Sophocles to all the plays of Ion. or 30 or 40 according to others.t3oS'. The author of the JIEPL vtPov~ [33. 63 ap. and presumably twelve plays of the trilogies reached Alexandria. 28-29.62 The plot of the Omphale is recoverable. at least in outline. 61 Hesychius s. 59 Athenaeus 11. Phrygia) to Lydia.GEORGE HUXLEY 41 musical instruments reappears in a fragment of the Omphale. but they do not prove it. Allen63 as a horse of the breed which were sired upon the Trojan mares by Boreas.6l The line &7TpoaooK~Tw~ KaV07T'\Ot 7TOp(Jovp. 57 58 .EV [-r]]D7] JI€'###BOT_TEXT###7TO~ E~E'\a".E(Ja is ascribed to Ion. a satyr play in which the Lydian magadis was mentioned.v.{oo~ suggest that Ion like Aeschylus may have brought Agamemnon on to the stage in a chariot.5] remarks upon their smoothness and lack of blemish.

as the epitome of Peloponnesian simplicity and toughness.' EU1T£tUas' &Mil: 71ilh llaKTwAov po&s.258F]: Evtavulav yd. The queen also bids the Lydian women sing ancient hymns to the accompaniment of harps in honour of the guest [Athenaeus 14. no doubt to his astonishment.1. Zeus ordered Hermes to take and sell him as a punishment for the murder. 3. by contrast to Asiatic luxury. However. Because Herakles had killed his host Eurytus. IL£GOV . 70 von Blumenthal (=Etym. 68 von Blumenthal. The play opens with the god and the hero approaching the palace of the queen. '\ t:r £K""0PEt'T£. as von Blumenthal points out. 65 Herakles is evidently presented. • '. 7Tap(J'£VOt. these words may be addressed to a satyr. 64 So Hermes brought Herakles to Lydia and sold him to Omphale for three talents.634F]' Omphale or another Lydian then remarks that unguents and myrrh and the fashion of adorning their skin in Sardis are better than the way of life in Peloponnese [Athenaeus 15. Herakles explains that he must celebrate all year long-the time of his bondage. an easy task for a hero who in Ion's view had three unbreakable rows of teeth.959. a u FGrHist 3 F 82B. which here is amusingly called a feast or festival. to drink Pactolus water instead of wine.. 671.ION OF CHIOS 42 had been taken by Herakles from Laomedon after the sacking of Troy. 67 Tzetzes. See also Webster.. lL£uolL. However. KV7T£lV\a . He pours a libation....I. 66 .690B]. Hennes 71 (1936) 269. for the use of kohl as black to line out the eyes is mentioned in another fragment. Ion uses the Ionic word for it [Athenaeus 6. .al\ovs. 67 Whether in the midst of all this he was dressed as a Lydian maiden is not certain. . 42 and 51. 66 When the meal is cooked the burlesque continues with the gluttonous Herakles devouring the wood and ashes of the fire [Athenaeus lO.cit.60] belong to the Omphale was denied by von Blumenthal. Fr..paxvv KV7TaUUtV £s EG'TaAIL£VOS [Pollux 7.68 who remarked that a female KV7TaGGtS reached to the feet.501F]: ~ ....p 8££ ILE tiJv 0 P 'T ~ v eXy£tv. The queen appears and in iambic dimeters orders the attendant maidens to bring out the cups and the bowls with bosses in the middle [Athenaeus 11. Chi!. • ILTJPOV . That the words a ' \I\WOV ' .411B]. 81 Fr. and then is told. 68 Op. Mag.41) 71i8. as Pherecydes described. \ \ Kat. Lydian cosmetics also must have caught the poet's fancy.

as Hunt. There is however a tragic fragment on papyrus for which Ion may perhaps be claimed as author.GEORGE HUXLEY 43 maiden's KV7TaUat<. having got her husband out of the house at daybreak to do his king's business. as can be seen from his words " .. as in 0 opaaas. but he was prepared to consider a nonAthenian author. Apart from the fragment of the Omphale the papyri have added no new knowledge about Ion's tragedies. Such scansion is exceptional amongst the Attic tragedians (though we do find aV7Tvos in Aeschylus. €YP'T]aaov-ra. but is strictly observed by the earliest Ionian writers of iambics and would not be out of place in the poetry of a fifthcentury Ionian. In the fragment the queen speaks and recounts the events of the previous night. would reach only to the thigh of a Herakles. Without exception mute+ liquid make posltlon: we find TrpO€OpaJLEV. both because the style is plain and because it would be strange if no reference to a play by so famous an author on so remarkable a subject should have survived. is as Porson showed not admitted in Attic tragedy from Aeschylus' time onwards.69 but Sophocles is equally a possible author. The lengthening of augment before mute+ nasal is exceedingly rare in Attic. Lobel published70 a Greek historical drama whose subject was Gyges' usurpation of the throne of Lydia after he had seen Kandaules' wife naked.." The language of the fragment suggests.. . The matter remains undecided. Prometheus 32).C. but is 69 10 71 POxy 1083. Mr E. He suggested instead that Phrynichus deserved consideration. a subject made famous by Herodotus. aVTrVLa<. as Lobel and after him Page in his inaugural lecture71 point out. and it would be quite in lon's manner to bring the hero on in an ill-fitting tunic. the editor of the papyrus. pointed out. ProcBritAcad 35 (1949) 207-216. but such treatment of a final short vowel of a word coming before mute+ liquid is regular in early Ionian writers. 0 opaaas. A New Chapter in the History of Greek Tragedy (Cambridge 1951). Wilamowitz tentatively suggested that fragments of a satyr play about Phineus or Oineus may be by lon. The lengthening of 0. I approach with great reluctance the question of the name of the author of these verses. supposing him to have been an Athenian-or more exactly an exhibitor of plays in Athens-of the first half of the fifth century B. Lobel ruled out Aeschylus as author. an early date of composition.

94 von Blumenthal. for instance in Archilochus and Simonides of Amorgos. 5 (1952) 108-115. All these points were noted by Page.72 In favour of Ion's claim to authorship we can adduce the following facts. the solemnity of the queen's speech in the papyrus may have demanded few or no resolutions. though different from the normal sermo tragicHS. The papyrus has lines that are without exception endstopped. Compare -rlJLvWV 7Tpo-rpfj-ra 7TOPOP. Lloyd-Janes.fj-rCU O€ot (from the Phoenix). who however did not propose as a working hypothesis that the author was an Ionian of the first half of the fifth century.12. -fJJLlpas. Spaaas. The Chian did lengthen naturally short vowels before mute+ liquid. thus: aM' JJ Ovpl-rpwv -rwv8€ KWP. 4O)-8paa(Uv. and found them to be very similar." Mnel110syne SER. but to the play being composed by an Ionian for performance in Athens. 74 This is the sense required in the papyrus: Hthe sum72 H. "Gyges in Herodotus. 7.ION OF CHIOS 44 regular in Ionians. line 88paaa-need not be due to Attic disturbance of an Ionic text. a high proportion of his lines are end-stopped in the fragments.cit. and there are no resolutions. ProcCamPhi!o!Soc 182 (2) (1952-53) 36-43." CW 48 (1955) 48-50. and we cannot be sure that its author's practice was always as consistent as the papyrus suggests. iii. "De novo fragmento tragico in quo de Gyge et Candaule agitur. IV. A. In a letter of 5. Fr. Besides. On the other hand. considers Ion a possible author of the fragment. but prefers a Hellenistic date.3. I agree that the author is Ionian.19 (C 60)]." 73 Pollux 9.73 But his practice is by no means consistent.OV from the Omphale [Strabo 1. Nor would a historical drama surprise us in a poet who broke with Attic convention so completely as to give one of his plays not a heroic or contemporary title. which he glosses -r6V KaA€aav-ra. Kamerbeek. but doubt that he need be so early. AEXOVS.37. considers the pOSSibility that the fragment is by Archilochus. A Lydian theme is most appropriate for the Chian poet. E. c. Rarity of resolution is typical of Ionian iambographers. but simply the name Mlya LlpaJLa. Raubitschek. whose knowledge of Lydian ways was displayed to good advantage in the Omphale.1964 Professor Raubitschek informs me that one of his students has made "a more thorough investigation of the metrical peculiarities of the papyrus fragment and of the fragments of Ion. It is in the vocabulary of the papyrus that correspondences with Ion's fragments are interesting. but Ion used it too: Hesychius quotes from the <Ppovpot of Ion KA'Y}-rfjpa. suggests Ion. aV1rVtas. but Ion allows resolutions. . Atticisms noted by Lloyd-Jones (op. The last line (16) of the second column begins Now Aeschylus used KA'Y}-r~p in the singular. J. Aawv and in col.

All these details are enough.a. Ion's liking for the word 8pav is to be seen in the title of his tragedy MEya LlpafLa... €yp~aaov'Ta "being awake" used of Kandaules in line 4 of column ii is Homeric.~ \ • " I EyyVS 1Jovs 1JVtK OVOE1TW o~8' eXfLf3>.OS./. 12] is found in Aeschylus (Agamemnon 1204) but not elsewhere in tragedy except in the satyric Ichneutae of Sophocles.~ . "first rose to shine. afL7Jxavo. 108 von Blumenthal. 1. but yMcpapa is Aeolic for f3Mcpapa: conceivably an Aeolism of Chios? TO 8paa8ev EYVWV KaUJ 'Tts 0 8paaas a~p [col. K~8EaL1l KVKWfLEV€ show. In lines 10 and 11 of column ii the papyrus has J1TE~ 8' eXV1j~[8E Jcpa~s 'Ewacpopos TfjS 1TpWTOc/>EY[YOVS YJJ/-tEpaS 1Tp[0 J&YYEA. but to Mr Lobel's belief is not attested in Attic. ii. and usually 0 8pwv for 0 8paaas. The likeness between the queen's words and Ion's which began eXOLOV eXEpocpot'Tav aa'TEpa I ..1JS. The line in the papyrus is so unusual as to create serious doubts that an Attic tragedian could have written it. 5] is a surprising line.... . is TO 1Tpax8EV EYVWV Kat TLS -ryv 0 8pwv av~p. " Ion's interest in the planet Venus impressed Aristophanes. If anyone wishes to claim that the play belongs to the fourth or a later century he cannot be refuted.. because so little is known about the subjects and language 75 Fr. His interest in pre-dawn scenes can be seen also in a fragment from an unnamed tragedy in the Berlin photius ~ ~" . the harbinger of the first light of day ." says the queen. Attic tragedy uses 'TO 1Tpax8Ev for 'TO 8paa8Ev. is a group of letters inexplicable in Attic. fits well. In column i. What might easily have been written here. Lobel points out. but neither can he produce any cogent evidence for his view.1]. I think.:vs op8pos.GEORGE HUXLEY 45 moners went to fetch Gyges": compare Herodotus' words EKaAEE 'TOV rVyEa. I {-tELl/afLEV aE/UOV I\EVK01T'Tf::pvya 1TPOUPOfLOV I~ is noteworthy. 75 VVV 0 . . 6] is good Ionic for "being mentally distressed. In the first line7Ta{-tcpa. I ~aos Kap8tas KVKWfLE-v'lS [col. 1TpOTofJ "heretofore" [col.. as we have seen. "When Venus. But it is good Ionic and appears in Herodotus [1." as Archilochus' words 8vfLE. 7 yAEcp . ii. Page's supplement. to suggest that the author of the papyrus fragment was not an Athenian but an Ionian.122. 8vfL'.

" Hermes 81 (1953) Iff. the tale of Kandaules' wife was popular amongst the eastern Greeks about 450 B.ION OF CI-llOS 46 of Greek tragedy after 400. The extraordinary successes of Cimonian and Periclean Athens tend to draw our attention from the flourishing intellectual life of other parts of Ionian Greece in the fifth century. I trust that this paper has shown the fragments of his work and the evidence for his life to be rewarding objects of study. THE QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY OF BELFAST April. We know next to nothing about fifth-century Ionian tragedy apart from Ion: but if we are to assign the papyrus hypothetically. Lesky. an Ionian is the obvious claimant to authorship. who deserves to be well known.. As to whether Herodotus was prompted by the Gyges play to tell the story in his Av8tUK& we have no means of judging: but obviously. . Of the Hellenic intellect in all its variety Ion is a distinguished representative. "Das hellenistische Gyges-drama. 76 Arguments from general probability are notoriously compounded of ignorance and prejudice. as Herodotus shows. and I leave them aside. and it pleased equally the storyteller'S imagination of Herodotus and the author of the Gyges fragment.C. 1965 78 cf A.

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tl t I ) . The worth of each thing is a triad.KpaTOS' Kat TVXT). Qu. Ion compared aocpla with TVXT). His Triagmos or "Triple Division" is perhaps the same as the work called Kosmologikos in the Aristophanes scholia [on Pax 835]. Ion himself was a considerable philosopher in the Pythagorean manner.9]. intelligence and strength and chance. ~Iwv 49 60 61 (perhaps from the Pinakes of Callimachus).. for Aetius [2. though corruptly. If A . air and fire formed a triple. The opening sentence is preserved in Harpokration. . and nothing is more or less than three.V. then either there would be no motion or the entire universe would rise in waves (KVJLall€'i). De gen.B. In Ion's opinion Kairos was the youngest of the children of Zeus.. Conv. evidently.1. 1. Part of the Triagmos was concerned with astronomy.14. but that he may in fact be a ChianPythagoreanis quite likely: Pythagorean ideas must have been acceptable in fifth century Chios. . apXT) " < . De fort.5o earth. part not. in a list of Crotoniate Pythagoreans in Iamblichus [Vito Pyth. being. as we are informed by Philoponos. Plutarch.lWll TaOE] <I\EY€£ /LOt TOV I\OYOV· 7Ta1lTa Tpta Kat 7T1\€£W J " <OVOEll OVOE> El\aaaw· E1l0S' €KaaTOV ap€TT) TpLaS'. Pythagoras also found a place in the book: according to Ion. the Samian sage ascribed some of his own poems to Orpheus. as the activity of the astronomer Oenopides and the mathematician Hippocrates suggest. 49 Another instance of his personification of abstract entities is his hymn to Kairos. Whether Ion's father was a Pythagorean or not.48 though in a sadly corrupt state. The title TptaY/Los perhaps is cognate with c1Y1lV/Lt 'break'. . In the Triagmos.~. p. IB Vito (=Ion. aVllEaLS' Kat. 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>.GEORGE HUXLEY 39 no void. 51 Ion re48 S.25. part illuminated. yet they were fashioners of things very alike. et COTTo p. " \ ' I "Ion of Chios thus speaks" (somewhat as Hecataeus before and Herodotus after him began their books): " . Rom.~." Here avvwts and TVX7J are conjoined: elsewhere. 316D. Diog. \ I . 267]. Laert.

whereas a seven-stringed instrument has but two scales of four.• In line 1 von Blumenthal prints . if o/L€V is Pherecydes.~_ '/"(j'L/LEVOS' -rvxn ." Hermes 69 (1934) 227. " EtTrEp IIV B ' " Ctyop7]S' E7'V/LWS' '(jpWTrWV I I Ctv yVW/LCtS' . who hast ten intervals.. Ion is saying that if Pythagoras is to be believed Pherecydes has a happy life after death. a7Tavlav J-LOfJaav a£Lp6p.a0-r0S' TrEpt" TrCtV7'WV ' (j KCtt"c E~E/LCt EV. Heraclitus was not enjoying bliss after death. having practised ta7'opl7] more than all other men."56 An eleven-stringed lyre has three KPOV/LCt7'Ct.. 26 von Blumenthal]. TPL68ov" 7TptV p. ~. Eisag. Ion's interest in 62 63 6( 66 W. Diog. .XOLl:ra.t/>wvo&aa. Kranz. b8£KaXop8£ Mpa.XOL. 8. 12 (Euclidis op."v£.55 describes the intervals of the eleven-stringed lyre. the successor of the seven-stringed instrument of Terpander.ova TagLv . TroAv/LCtBl7]v. o /L€V is Pherecydes. Kleonid... [TT}v] 8£Ka{3ap.54 whose genuineness has however been doubted. Hermes 37 (1902) 306 and F. &. Cf.pJ-L0vla. Appropriately for an admirer of Pythagoras. KCtK07'ExvlCtv. as they raised up their limited music. "Vorsokratisches II.~ EwE /. who asserted that he ETrOL~aCt7'O £CtV7'OV aocpl7]v. 53 As an exponent of TroAv/LCtOl7] Ion cannot have liked the Heraclitean doctrine TrOAV/LCtO[7] v60v EXEtv OU S. and in line 2 d [TeX.1. av(}pwTrWV /LaAta7'Ct Trav7'wv. ' " E Q' KCtL.].6 (needlessly placed amongst the dubia in Vorsokratiker 9 22 B 129).Harm. 56 . ~ \ .. Ion interested himself in musical theory. Kranz 52 appositely asked..216 Menge) [=Fr.lv a' £1TTaTovov cp&»'ov aLa Tlaaapa 7T!fVT£. But though Ion may well have praised the new lyre. •EM. . three triples of harmony tuned together.SaaKEt: possibly Ion's poem went on to say that unlike Pherecydes. The text is not quite assured. An elegiac fragment. Tpd. Laertius 8.ION OF CHIOS 40 turned to Pythagoras in one of his elegies preserved by Diogenes Laertius [1.119]: c'\ WS' ° /LEV 7]vope[l 7'E KEKCta/LEVoS' 7]OE KCtL CtLUOL t 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I . who is 0 8€ who must be mentioned later in the poem? And he reasonably suggested Heraclitus. because Ion's words TrEpt Trav7'WV avBpclmwv yVW/LCtS' elSE KCtt Eg€/LCtBEV look like a hit at the bitter criticism of Pythagoras made by the Ephesian philosopher. Formerly did all Greeks play thee with seven tones and scales of four strings. Wilamowitz. avp. RM 83 (1934) 376ff. °r . scales of four strings. Marx. but the sense is: "Eleven-stringed lyre. and ten intervals. it was left to Timotheus to exploit its revolutionary possibilities. -r 7'EPTrVOV EX ' l"'07'OV.£VOL •.

as Homer describes (Iliad 20. The numbers 30 or 40 mean ten trilogies with or without the satyr plays.219-229).. avo1Tllm.v. 62 Quoted by the Berlin Photius S. like the aKo7To~ in the Odyssey60 who was stationed to look for his approach. aVETaL S' OSO~. ~Iwv Xios.[voJP. 45 in his edition. pp. 59 Clytemnestra is perhaps the speaker. where he is to serve the princess Omphale. Near the beginning a speaker offers somebody a cup won by Castor in a race.524. The creature Athenaeus 14. Cf von Blumenthal on Ion Fr. 57 The Omphale and the Agamemnon are the two plays of Ion of which substantial fragments survive. Grenfell and Hunt. and she may be addressing the watcher who is to look out for Agamemnon's return. whom he here addresses.i]. The {30pEtDV i7T7TOV was recognised by T. 60 4. The words i7T7TLKOV x). The date of the Agamemnon is unknown. Herakles is being brought by Hermes. s. but not to his Agamemnon: it would however suit the dying scream of the king well. a prize from Pelias.v.634c. as pay for some action. Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 1611 states that the following couplet came from the beginning of the play: opwv P. W. POxy 1611. {3oPEtDV [i7TJ7TOV. 40 von Blumenthal).EV fEpp. t1T1TLKOV X>. op. and if it owed anything to Aeschylus' play or suggested anything to Ion's Athenian acquaintance we have no evidence.468c-F (= Fr. The Suda 58 state that Ion wrote twelve plays. from the bounds of Pelops (that is.cit. but proof is lacking here tOO. see also von Blumenthal. but also asks whether anyone would not prefer the Oedipus of Sophocles to all the plays of Ion. or 30 or 40 according to others.t3oS'. The author of the JIEPL vtPov~ [33. 63 ap. and presumably twelve plays of the trilogies reached Alexandria. 28-29.62 The plot of the Omphale is recoverable. at least in outline. 61 Hesychius s. 59 Athenaeus 11. Phrygia) to Lydia.GEORGE HUXLEY 41 musical instruments reappears in a fragment of the Omphale. but they do not prove it. Allen63 as a horse of the breed which were sired upon the Trojan mares by Boreas.6l The line &7TpoaooK~Tw~ KaV07T'\Ot 7TOp(Jovp. 57 58 .EV [-r]]D7] JI€'###BOT_TEXT###7TO~ E~E'\a".E(Ja is ascribed to Ion. a satyr play in which the Lydian magadis was mentioned.v.{oo~ suggest that Ion like Aeschylus may have brought Agamemnon on to the stage in a chariot.5] remarks upon their smoothness and lack of blemish.

as the epitome of Peloponnesian simplicity and toughness.' EU1T£tUas' &Mil: 71ilh llaKTwAov po&s.258F]: Evtavulav yd. The queen also bids the Lydian women sing ancient hymns to the accompaniment of harps in honour of the guest [Athenaeus 14. no doubt to his astonishment.1. Zeus ordered Hermes to take and sell him as a punishment for the murder. 3. by contrast to Asiatic luxury. However. Because Herakles had killed his host Eurytus. IL£GOV . 70 von Blumenthal (=Etym. 68 von Blumenthal. The play opens with the god and the hero approaching the palace of the queen. '\ t:r £K""0PEt'T£. as von Blumenthal points out. 65 Herakles is evidently presented. • '. 7Tap(J'£VOt. these words may be addressed to a satyr. 64 So Hermes brought Herakles to Lydia and sold him to Omphale for three talents.634F]' Omphale or another Lydian then remarks that unguents and myrrh and the fashion of adorning their skin in Sardis are better than the way of life in Peloponnese [Athenaeus 15. Herakles explains that he must celebrate all year long-the time of his bondage. an easy task for a hero who in Ion's view had three unbreakable rows of teeth.959. a u FGrHist 3 F 82B. which here is amusingly called a feast or festival. to drink Pactolus water instead of wine.. 671.ION OF CHIOS 42 had been taken by Herakles from Laomedon after the sacking of Troy. 67 Tzetzes. See also Webster.. lL£uolL. However. KV7T£lV\a . He pours a libation....I. 66 .690B]. Hennes 71 (1936) 269. for the use of kohl as black to line out the eyes is mentioned in another fragment. Ion uses the Ionic word for it [Athenaeus 6. .al\ovs. 67 Whether in the midst of all this he was dressed as a Lydian maiden is not certain. . 42 and 51. 66 When the meal is cooked the burlesque continues with the gluttonous Herakles devouring the wood and ashes of the fire [Athenaeus lO.cit.60] belong to the Omphale was denied by von Blumenthal. Fr..paxvv KV7TaUUtV £s EG'TaAIL£VOS [Pollux 7.68 who remarked that a female KV7TaGGtS reached to the feet.501F]: ~ ....p 8££ ILE tiJv 0 P 'T ~ v eXy£tv. The queen appears and in iambic dimeters orders the attendant maidens to bring out the cups and the bowls with bosses in the middle [Athenaeus 11. Chi!. • ILTJPOV . That the words a ' \I\WOV ' .411B]. 81 Fr. and then is told. 68 Op. Mag.41) 71i8. as Pherecydes described. \ \ Kat. Lydian cosmetics also must have caught the poet's fancy.

as Hunt. There is however a tragic fragment on papyrus for which Ion may perhaps be claimed as author.GEORGE HUXLEY 43 maiden's KV7TaUat<. having got her husband out of the house at daybreak to do his king's business. as can be seen from his words " .. as in 0 opaaas. but he was prepared to consider a nonAthenian author. Apart from the fragment of the Omphale the papyri have added no new knowledge about Ion's tragedies. Such scansion is exceptional amongst the Attic tragedians (though we do find aV7Tvos in Aeschylus. €YP'T]aaov-ra. but is strictly observed by the earliest Ionian writers of iambics and would not be out of place in the poetry of a fifthcentury Ionian. In the fragment the queen speaks and recounts the events of the previous night. would reach only to the thigh of a Herakles. Without exception mute+ liquid make posltlon: we find TrpO€OpaJLEV. both because the style is plain and because it would be strange if no reference to a play by so famous an author on so remarkable a subject should have survived. is as Porson showed not admitted in Attic tragedy from Aeschylus' time onwards.69 but Sophocles is equally a possible author. The lengthening of augment before mute+ nasal is exceedingly rare in Attic. Lobel published70 a Greek historical drama whose subject was Gyges' usurpation of the throne of Lydia after he had seen Kandaules' wife naked.." The language of the fragment suggests.. . The matter remains undecided. Prometheus 32).C. but is 69 10 71 POxy 1083. Mr E. He suggested instead that Phrynichus deserved consideration. a subject made famous by Herodotus. aVTrVLa<. as Lobel and after him Page in his inaugural lecture71 point out. and it would be quite in lon's manner to bring the hero on in an ill-fitting tunic. the editor of the papyrus. pointed out. ProcBritAcad 35 (1949) 207-216. but such treatment of a final short vowel of a word coming before mute+ liquid is regular in early Ionian writers. 0 opaaas. A New Chapter in the History of Greek Tragedy (Cambridge 1951). Wilamowitz tentatively suggested that fragments of a satyr play about Phineus or Oineus may be by lon. The lengthening of 0. I approach with great reluctance the question of the name of the author of these verses. supposing him to have been an Athenian-or more exactly an exhibitor of plays in Athens-of the first half of the fifth century B. Lobel ruled out Aeschylus as author. an early date of composition.

94 von Blumenthal. for instance in Archilochus and Simonides of Amorgos. 5 (1952) 108-115. All these points were noted by Page.72 In favour of Ion's claim to authorship we can adduce the following facts. the solemnity of the queen's speech in the papyrus may have demanded few or no resolutions. though different from the normal sermo tragicHS. The papyrus has lines that are without exception endstopped. Compare -rlJLvWV 7Tpo-rpfj-ra 7TOPOP. Lloyd-Janes.fj-rCU O€ot (from the Phoenix). who however did not propose as a working hypothesis that the author was an Ionian of the first half of the fifth century.12. -fJJLlpas. Spaaas. The Chian did lengthen naturally short vowels before mute+ liquid. thus: aM' JJ Ovpl-rpwv -rwv8€ KWP. 4O)-8paa(Uv. and found them to be very similar." Mnel110syne SER. but to the play being composed by an Ionian for performance in Athens. 74 This is the sense required in the papyrus: Hthe sum72 H. "Gyges in Herodotus. 7.ION OF CHIOS 44 regular in Ionians. line 88paaa-need not be due to Attic disturbance of an Ionic text. a high proportion of his lines are end-stopped in the fragments.cit. and there are no resolutions. ProcCamPhi!o!Soc 182 (2) (1952-53) 36-43." CW 48 (1955) 48-50. and we cannot be sure that its author's practice was always as consistent as the papyrus suggests. iii. "De novo fragmento tragico in quo de Gyge et Candaule agitur. IV. A. In a letter of 5. Fr. Besides. On the other hand. considers Ion a possible author of the fragment. but prefers a Hellenistic date.3. I agree that the author is Ionian.19 (C 60)]." 73 Pollux 9.73 But his practice is by no means consistent.OV from the Omphale [Strabo 1. Nor would a historical drama surprise us in a poet who broke with Attic convention so completely as to give one of his plays not a heroic or contemporary title. which he glosses -r6V KaA€aav-ra. Kamerbeek. but doubt that he need be so early. AEXOVS.37. considers the pOSSibility that the fragment is by Archilochus. A Lydian theme is most appropriate for the Chian poet. E. c. Rarity of resolution is typical of Ionian iambographers. but simply the name Mlya LlpaJLa. Raubitschek. whose knowledge of Lydian ways was displayed to good advantage in the Omphale.1964 Professor Raubitschek informs me that one of his students has made "a more thorough investigation of the metrical peculiarities of the papyrus fragment and of the fragments of Ion. It is in the vocabulary of the papyrus that correspondences with Ion's fragments are interesting. but Ion used it too: Hesychius quotes from the <Ppovpot of Ion KA'Y}-rfjpa. suggests Ion. aV1rVtas. but Ion allows resolutions. . Atticisms noted by Lloyd-Jones (op. The last line (16) of the second column begins Now Aeschylus used KA'Y}-r~p in the singular. J. Aawv and in col.

All these details are enough.a. Ion's liking for the word 8pav is to be seen in the title of his tragedy MEya LlpafLa... €yp~aaov'Ta "being awake" used of Kandaules in line 4 of column ii is Homeric.~ \ • " I EyyVS 1Jovs 1JVtK OVOE1TW o~8' eXfLf3>.OS./. 12] is found in Aeschylus (Agamemnon 1204) but not elsewhere in tragedy except in the satyric Ichneutae of Sophocles.~ . "first rose to shine. afL7Jxavo. 108 von Blumenthal. 1. but yMcpapa is Aeolic for f3Mcpapa: conceivably an Aeolism of Chios? TO 8paa8ev EYVWV KaUJ 'Tts 0 8paaas a~p [col. K~8EaL1l KVKWfLEV€ show. In lines 10 and 11 of column ii the papyrus has J1TE~ 8' eXV1j~[8E Jcpa~s 'Ewacpopos TfjS 1TpWTOc/>EY[YOVS YJJ/-tEpaS 1Tp[0 J&YYEA. but to Mr Lobel's belief is not attested in Attic. ii. and usually 0 8pwv for 0 8paaas. The likeness between the queen's words and Ion's which began eXOLOV eXEpocpot'Tav aa'TEpa I ..1JS. The line in the papyrus is so unusual as to create serious doubts that an Attic tragedian could have written it. 5] is a surprising line.... . is TO 1Tpax8EV EYVWV Kat TLS -ryv 0 8pwv av~p. " Ion's interest in the planet Venus impressed Aristophanes. If anyone wishes to claim that the play belongs to the fourth or a later century he cannot be refuted.. because so little is known about the subjects and language 75 Fr. His interest in pre-dawn scenes can be seen also in a fragment from an unnamed tragedy in the Berlin photius ~ ~" . the harbinger of the first light of day ." says the queen. Attic tragedy uses 'TO 1Tpax8Ev for 'TO 8paa8Ev. is a group of letters inexplicable in Attic. fits well. In column i. What might easily have been written here. Lobel points out. but neither can he produce any cogent evidence for his view.1]. I think.:vs op8pos.GEORGE HUXLEY 45 moners went to fetch Gyges": compare Herodotus' words EKaAEE 'TOV rVyEa. I {-tELl/afLEV aE/UOV I\EVK01T'Tf::pvya 1TPOUPOfLOV I~ is noteworthy. 75 VVV 0 . . 6] is good Ionic for "being mentally distressed. In the first line7Ta{-tcpa. I ~aos Kap8tas KVKWfLE-v'lS [col. 1TpOTofJ "heretofore" [col.. as we have seen. "When Venus. But it is good Ionic and appears in Herodotus [1." as Archilochus' words 8vfLE. 7 yAEcp . ii. Page's supplement. to suggest that the author of the papyrus fragment was not an Athenian but an Ionian.122. 8vfL'.

" Hermes 81 (1953) Iff. the tale of Kandaules' wife was popular amongst the eastern Greeks about 450 B.ION OF CI-llOS 46 of Greek tragedy after 400. The extraordinary successes of Cimonian and Periclean Athens tend to draw our attention from the flourishing intellectual life of other parts of Ionian Greece in the fifth century. I trust that this paper has shown the fragments of his work and the evidence for his life to be rewarding objects of study. THE QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY OF BELFAST April. We know next to nothing about fifth-century Ionian tragedy apart from Ion: but if we are to assign the papyrus hypothetically. Lesky. an Ionian is the obvious claimant to authorship. who deserves to be well known.. As to whether Herodotus was prompted by the Gyges play to tell the story in his Av8tUK& we have no means of judging: but obviously. . Of the Hellenic intellect in all its variety Ion is a distinguished representative. "Das hellenistische Gyges-drama. 76 Arguments from general probability are notoriously compounded of ignorance and prejudice. as Herodotus shows. and I leave them aside. and it pleased equally the storyteller'S imagination of Herodotus and the author of the Gyges fragment.C. 1965 78 cf A.

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