Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business, Economics, Finance

and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6
Danang-Vietnam, 10-12 July, 2015 Paper ID: V574

An Analysis of Factors Affecting the Intention to Use
Mobile Payment Services in Vietnam
Pham Tan Tai,
Department of Information and Management,
Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
E-mail: genjitantai89@gmail.com

Gia-Shie Liu,
Department of Information and Management,
Lunghwa University of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
E-mail: liugtw@yahoo.com.tw
___________________________________________________________________________________

Abstract
The goal of this paper is to spot out factors affecting the intention to use mobile payment
service plan in Vietnam. This study attempts to analyze the impact of various variables
extracted from Mobility, Convenience, Compatibility, M-payment knowledge, Ease to use,
Usefulness, Risk, Trust, Safe to use on Intention to use mobile payment. Quantitative
questionnaire is use to measure responses of participants. The statistical analysis method
employed in this study is to apply Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to test all hypotheses.
The results indicate that the strong predictors of the intention to use m-payment are perceived
ease of use and perceived usefulness. All respondents showed that they do not care about risk
when they have intention to use mobile payment services. Mobility, Convenience,
Compatibility, and Mobile payment knowledge have impacts on Ease to use and Usefulness.
Among of them, Compatibility has the most significant impact on Ease to use and Usefulness
in the opinion of those surveyed. At the end of this paper, a set of suggestions is outline to be
investigated in the subsequent research works.
___________________________________________________________________________
Keyword: Mobile payment, Mobility, Convenience, Compatibility, M-payment knowledge,
Ease to use, Usefulness, Risk, Trust, Safe to use, Intention to use, Vietnam.

1

www.globalbizresearch.org

Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business, Economics, Finance
and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6
Danang-Vietnam, 10-12 July, 2015 Paper ID: V574

1. Introduction
The explosive growth of electronic payment requirements, especially to mention the
contributions of the internet as a key trade channels and extremely exciting potential power
but has not yet been fully exploited. Consumers previously are unfamiliar with the internet
and only treat it as a means of gathering information. But,

now consumers are gradually

accept this channel for purchasing decisions and their transactions. The increasing of
customer’s needs in mobility when payment for transaction has created requirement for a new
payment tool allowing the transactions more feasible and convenient (Ondrus and Pigneur,
2006). The current payment method gives consumers solvency that is beneficial in dealing
with medium and large amount of money. It is inconvenient for customers in small
denominations

of

coins

or

pennies

when

making

micropayments.

Moreover, consumers must pay high costs for micropayments when using existing payment
services (Mallat et al., 2004). So mobile payments has been proposed as a new service tool
provided for micropayments in e-commerce and mobile phone creates a certain advantage to
customers when they have a need for small transactions (Menke and de Lussanet, 2006;
Ondrus and Pigneur, 2006). Mobile phone was found to be the means of payment that opens
new development opportunities for the mobile payment parties and participants.
Mobile payment is defined as a transaction method which money is transferred from one
person to another through a mobile device without intermediate. The most common way to
conduct transactions by mobile phone service is to send messages with predefined structure to
the object to be traded(Menke & de Lussanet, 2006). Payments for goods and services are
then charge to the customer’s mobile phone bill or deducted from prepaid airtime of prepay
subscribers. Instead of using a message to the transaction when using the old technology of
cell phone, the advent of smart phones provide a payment method by mobile phone through
internet connection of smart phone.
Research about factors affecting user’s intention to use mobile payment is considered
interesting to researchers and practitioners, because financial institutions, trusted third parties,
payment service providers, and system software and supporting service providers can benefit
greatly from enhanced understanding of the key factors underlying mobile users’ intention
(Dahlberg et al, 2003a; Dahlberg et al, 2003b; Lim, 2007; Ondrus & Pigneur, 2006).
Moreover, different user groups may perceive m-payment advantages differently and adopt
new payment technologies accordingly. There is a need to understand the user-group level
behavior, but there is little attempt to fill a gap in the user-group level research. In light of the
current state of the existing research on m-payment, the objective of this study is to
empirically access the determinants of the intention to use m-payment. In order to achieve this
objective, we propose a research model that consists of 6 independent variables (Mobility,
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2015 Paper ID: V574 Compatibility. Risk). The two variables that TAM model proposed are also the leading factors to measure consumers’ attitude toward new technologies. H1a: Mobility positively affects ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam. we propose mobility affects perceived ease of use and usefulness of mobile payment services. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. regardless counting time (Anckar & D'Incau. Therefore. marital status. space. three belief variables (Ease to use. It is a big advantage of mobile payment services to provide consumers the ability to use the services wherever they want and they can comparing to traditional payment methods (Amberg et al. 2002. 2001).2004). UTAUT) (Davis et al. Literature Review and Hypotheses Proposal 2. TAM model proposed two variables influencing consumers’ intention to apply new tools. Trust.2 Mobility Mobility is determinant used to measure the degree to which an individual perceives received benefits in the context of time.org . In the conventional electronic commerce. The new mobile payment method is flexible to use regardless of time and space and has a great fit in today mobile and active lifestyle. mobile payment is the service to allow users to access information accurately and effectively at any location. therefore. With the above rationale. We also use 6 control variables (gender. occupation. Among of them. customers can actually buy a product without the need of traveling to the store. May. Mobile payment knowledge. TPB. and one user acceptance variable. age) to analyze the impact on the dependent variable. 2008). It allows customers to access into the services through a wireless network and a range of mobile devices including smart phones (Au & Kauffman. Economics. By using the new payment tool.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. he TAM (Technology Acceptance Theories) emerged as the most influential model than the remaining models such as (TRA. in which transactions are conducted regularly via wireless internet.1 TAM model Many models have been used in previous studies about consumers’ behavior in using new technologies. 2. TAM should be considered as a useful model to study consumers’ reactions and behaviors when a new product is launched. 10-12 July. Safe to use). 3 www. 2004). Convenience. this study targets at the following question: What factors affect a user’s intention to use mobile payment? 2.globalbizresearch. income. One of the important elements of mobile technology is portability. Usefulness. and services access. 1989). H1b: Mobility positively affects usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam. all they need are to be in an internet-covered region and a cell phone (Ding et al. location. they are perceived ease of using and perceived usefulness.

3. In the context of small transactions.org . and ability to try out a new service. it is one of determinants of the success of mobile payment services (Xu & Gutierrez. Compatibility is a factor relating to innovation adopted for mobile payment services. it is one of the determinants of the success of mobile payment services (Teo & Pok. which is flexible in time and location. it helps consumers use the service more easily. and it also improves the performance of payments (Clarke. Perceived convenience can be define as agility. propose that convenience affects perceived ease of use and usefulness of mobile payment services. we propose that compatibility affects perceived ease of use and usefulness of mobile payment services. 2003). Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. mobile payment services offer consumers the ability to integrate the modern technology with the traditional payment methods via mobile device. Schreier and Prügl (2008) found that users with high level of 4 www.The convenience of the new tool offers users space. mobile payment services help consumers reduce transaction cost. Consumers can utilize the availability of the method in all situations to reduce the pressure of time (Mallat et al. H3a: Compatibility positively affects ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam H3b: Compatibility positively affects usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam 2. Economics. we. In addition. 10-12 July. 2006). Compatibility is the combination of the values of innovation. needs. 2004 . Thus. accessibility. the potential and available values. H2a: Convenience positively affects ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam H2b: Convenience positively affects usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam 2. 2015 Paper ID: V574 2.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. 2001). Convenience has been pointed out to be a benefit of using mobile computing. therefore. and availability of a service. Convenience Convenience is the ease and the comfort of use as well as the attainment of concrete benefits through the use driven from portability and immediate accessibility (Sharma & Gutiérrez. For the reasons above. 2004). customers’ expectations about the possibility of completing the work easier make compatibility a considerable factor that affects the perceived ease of use (Tornatzky & Klein. Mallat.5 Mobile payment knowledge Customer knowledge relates to their understandings. interoperability of mobile services with user needs and lifestyle.globalbizresearch. In addition.4 Compatibility For a new service as mobile payment. 2010). consumers’ ability to integrate it into their shopping habits and daily lifestyle is an important element. it also helps them eliminate the inconvenience of coins and currency. it is also the integration and effective operation of new technologies to enhance job performance (Lee et al. 2006). desires and goals when they use mobile payments. time and access speed. it raises the awareness of usefulness to customers when using the service (Ding et al. 2003). 1982).

2003). and why the products/services are important to them. 2010). 1991). Customer knowledge can help them identify what mobile payment can do for them. Furthermore. 5 www. Trust is the willingness of individuals to take risks with desire that their needs will be met. the risk is the unexpected. 10-12 July. it will make customers increase the intent to use service (Gefen et al. customers will consider what they will gain from the tools comparing with what they are having at the time regarding the services’ quality. Marcketti and Shelley (2009) also pointed out that consumers’ knowledge of products has a significantly positive effect on their perceived ease to use. During that process. H5: Trust positively affects safe to use of mobile payment in Vietnam 2. The transactions conducted through a mobile network are vulnerable and more uncertain than traditional settings. Therefore. Thus. while making a transaction.org . Customers have a high confidence level for the mobile payment services will feel the honesty and reliability of the service providers. thus entail greater potential risk. Customers will use mobile payments easily and efficiently if customers have a high level of knowledge about the tool they are conducting for mobile payments. and monitor activities. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. (Dan & Jing. this is the concern of consumers when using a new service. H4: MP knowledge positively affects ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam 2.7 Risk For mobile payment systems. and those users would adopt new commercial products faster and more intensively than ordinary ones. Besides.globalbizresearch. Economics. Trust in the payment system will help reduce the need to understand. thereby allowing customers to use services easily and efficiently without much effort in translation of online service (Mu et al. and undesired loss (Pavlou. prices. 2009). It is the possibility that one party will perform their duties in an honest manner consistent with the expectations of the party trust (Kim et al.6 Trust Customer trust is a substantially important factor for the success of new services as mobile payment services. 1994). Risk is defined as the lack of security during paying process due to unexpected errors or transactions made without honesty between the buyer and the seller (Havlena and DeSarbo.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. etc. unintended.. 2011). the consumer is paying for the services they want. the research materials before have stressed the importance of risk perception. 2011). we propose that mobile payment knowledge affects perceived ease of use of mobile payment services. insurance of privacy. control. Risk is also regarded as the loss of information leading to financial losses due to the disturbing hacker (Ganesan. and is an obstacle for the development of mobile payment services. they expect their personal information must be guaranteed and not shared with any inappropriate parties (Zhou. we propose that trust affects the safety of using mobile payment services. 2003). 2015 Paper ID: V574 knowledge in an innovation tend to be ahead of its market trend and expect high benefits from innovation.

Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. 1991). Mobile payment is a form of online transactions. to learn and to use (Rogers. 1999). 1989). Thus. In the context of mobile technology. it is what customers have to take at a certain level of danger when trying a new service (Sweeney et al. and the uncertainty about the identity or the quality of products. thus usefulness is one of the determinants of the intention to use new services as mobile payment services by customers (Venkatesh and Davis. this is a significantly important factor affecting the intention to use mobile payment services of customers (Moore & Benbasat. Theoretically. 1989). Without appropriate measures. 2003). The ease to use is defined as the level at which users would believe that using a new service is simple. 1997). H6: Risk positively affects safe to use of mobile payment in Vietnam 2. In addition. the ease of use is perceived when a customer feel the new invention is not difficult to understand. Thus. and they can simply integrate many new applications of new services in their daily life activities. 10-12 July. It will include those transactions occurring between individuals unknown to each other which increase the risk of financial loss. Usefulness is defined as customer feeling about the potentiality of a new service to provide many benefits for them and to help improve their job performance when using the service (Mathwick et al. 2015 Paper ID: V574 The evaluation of risk level is calculated by the level at which an individual expects a possible negative results or errors when a transaction is being proceeded (Peter & Tarpey.8 Ease to use For the contemporary service as mobile payment. For this reason. the faulty transaction that is possibly occurred may result in unwanted loss for customers and potential larger costs for providers (Neumann. It will measure the willingness to adapt something new compared to traditional values of the 6 www.org . Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. we propose that risk affects safe to use of mobile payment services. ease of use is considered to be one of the important factors affecting the acceptance and use of the new technologies by users. risk is expected and acceptable. Perceived ease to use refers to the clear and understandable interaction that users experience with the new system. we propose two hypotheses: H7a: Ease to use positively affects intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam H7b: Ease to use positively affects usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam 2. customers will be concerned about the usefulness of the new services which is also a crucial factor in determining the customers’ adaption to the change. and it is also about how comfortable they feel when using the system to do what they want (Ndubisi et al. Consumers easily using the service will generate the highperformed results. one thing that customers will certainly question is whether or not it is easy to use. 2000)...9 Usefulness Beside the ease of use. 1962). 1975). easy. perceived ease of use is proposed to be an antecedent of the perceived usefulness (Davis et al. 2001). Economics. and effortless (Davis.globalbizresearch..

autera and Kaluscha. It is also about the amount of control that users have and the reliable level of providers. Likewise. Awamieh R. The survey is constituted by 34 item statements that represent 10 variables.globalbizresearch. H8: Usefulness positively affects intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam 2. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. 2006). the behavior of the users will be determined by the perception of a higher level of benefits achieved when using the service (Adams et al.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. we propose that usefulness affects intention to use mobile payment services. it also affects the intention to use mobile payment services of customers (Suh and Han.org . Therefore. 2015 Paper ID: V574 customers (Tan and Teo. they will comfortably enjoy the benefits that services provide. When users trust the safety of the service. Safe to use not only has been found to be a prerequisite for e-banking environment (Kassimand Abdulla. my friends and my family as well as e-mail 7 www. 2000). Therefore. customers need to feel safe when making a purchase and wait for the completion of transactions with no worry. 2002). companies. The significance of customer safety in general against e-commerce and e-banking in particular and is the critical factor when the risk level of economic transactions in a virtual environment is higher than in the traditional environment (Grabner-Kr. Research Method 3. 1992). The survey was conducted over the course of 16 weeks through schools. Customers have to believe that the transaction will be completed as expected and any data will not be shared with parties not fit (Chellappa and Pavlou. Safety of customers’ information is very important for all businesses to serve clients. Thus. customers will definitely be concerned about the safety issues when they have intention to use the service. 10-12 July.10 Safe to use Besides ease of use and perceived usefulness. 2003). perceived safe to use is the trust in any payment system that ensures user’s information to be confidential and secured with high levels. we propose two hypotheses: H9: Safe to use positively affects usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam H10: Safe to use positively affects intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam 3. researcher selected 9 factors that were found to significantly affect intention to use mobile payment. universities. 6 control variable questions are designed for demographical profiles of respondents. 2006). it becomes an indispensable element for the success of mobile payment services (Gefen et al. the perceived security can increase number of customers to make transactions in an online environment. with new services such as mobile payment services. According to Egger (2001). Therefore. safe to use significantly affects customer when using electronic banking services (Alsajjan and Dennis. C (2006) added that usefulness makes the user feel more advantages from new services. & Fernandes. 2002). Economics. 2003).1 Data After reviewing previous literature.

So the proposal model of this study will move into the research model with 7 factor (Mobi_Convenience.org . EFA(Exploratory Factor Analysis). Ease to use. 2014 to April. 2015. Figure 1: The research model with hypotheses Modifying the hypothesis proposed in the above literature review.SEM(Structural equation modeling) and Anova. the result has showed that Mobility and Convenience can be combined into one factor. H7: Trust-Safe to use positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam. CFA(Confirmatory Factor Analysis) .Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. Safe and Trust also can be combined into one factor. is used to measure responses/ rating of participants to all survey items. 10-12 July. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. H2: Mobile-Convenience positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam. Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Amos software is used for the data analysis.2 Research model and hypothesis After test the model was proposed with 90 samples and 4 rounds EFA (Exploratory factor analysis). H1: Mobile-Convenience positively affects Ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam. Usefulness and Intention to use). H6: Trust-Safe to use positively affects Intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam. Trust_Safe to use. 8 www. 3. Risk factor were deleted. The sample size is 604 respondents. reliability analysis. H4: Compatibility positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam.Quantitative measure. Mobile payment knowledge. H5: MP-Knowledge positively affects Ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam. H3: Compatibility positively affects Ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam.globalbizresearch. there are 10 new research hypothesis of the research model. Economics. in conjunction with fivepoint Likert scale (1= total disagree to 5= total agree). Set of statistical data analysis methods include descriptive analysis. Compatibility. 2015 Paper ID: V574 surveys from December.

10-12 July. thus it can be concludes that the questionnaire has a high internal consistency. 4. (1998) presented the Cronbach’s α should be higher than 0. The reliability of this survey was tested for 7 factor based on framework structure of this study. Finally. and 0.899 All variables . About marital. Concerning profession. That means the measurements of these 3 factors are slightly high in reliability and the questionnaire has high internal consistency. Compatibility. Cronbach’s α of Mobile payment knowledge.955. Economics. the reliability of brand equity dimensions will be tested.org . Hair et al. the respondents are roughly evenly distributed. With income. this means that it has high reliability (Cronbach. 20 to 30 years old constitute the majority.9% of respondents earn about 8 millions of VND.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. 0.955 Intention to use . and Usefulness are especially high reliability of 0.6% earn about 5 to 8 millions of VND and 32. Trust-Safe to use.9% of the total respondents. Nunnally.898. 1978). the reliability of all variables in this study is . whereas 30 to 40 years old constitute 34. 52. Respondents residing in city constitute approximately 56. 0. 2015 Paper ID: V574 H8: Ease to use positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam.963 Compatibility . males (55%) dominated over females (45%).9%. H9: Ease to use positively affects Intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam. Results and Discussion 4. About gender. Moreover. Intention to use are 0.882 Trust-Safe to use . 37. 4. whereas those living in countryside constitute 43.5% earn about 3 to 5 millions of VND.935.2% is single and 47.923. 0.globalbizresearch. and 0.923 Mobile payment knowledge .8% is married. Cronbach’s α of Mobi-Convenience.1%. According to results of Table 1. Ease to use. H10: Usefulness positively affects Intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam. 1971.7. 9 www.2 Reliability measures The descriptive statistics and Cronbach’s α coefficient of this survey were showed in Table 1 below.8% of the respondents. respectively. The Cronbach’s α was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaires.1 Descriptive Statistics for demographics A total number of 604 responses were used in the analysis. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam.899.882.916. which is so high.916 Usefulness . at 40. In terms of age. 29.963.935 N of Item 7 3 3 6 4 3 4 30 First of all. Table 1: The Cronbach’s α Coefficient Variable Cronbach’s Alpha Mobile-Convenience .898 Ease to use .

228 7.921 16128.664 12.791 2.864 59.564 84. Gerbing & Anderson (1988) insists that Principal-Axis Factoring is relatively equal in their capacities to extract the correct model and is more commonly reported in social and behavioral science research reports than Principal components with Varimax rotation.896 63.695 83.342 10 .386 5.5 imply that factor analysis may not be appropriate (Gerbing & Anderson.428 435 .537 67.738 81. 2015 Paper ID: V574 4.5). Rietveld & Van Hout 1993.502 1.05 indicate the factor analysis is appropriate.000.892 2. 10-12 July. To ensure the practical significance of EFA. In other words.5 (Hair et al.008 36.769 5. Furthermore.906 11 .973 74. 1998). and Total Variance Explained must be over 50% (Gerbing & Andension.802 36.647 9 . High values of KMO (between 0. Table 3 shows that Total Variance Explained is over 74% (>50%).751 57.314 4. In this research.0) and Bartlett’s test with statistical significance level less than 0.259 10.375 1.008 10.909 . Factor Loading should be equal or higher than 0.921 (>0.597 5.359 5.568 35. which prove the appropriateness of factor analysis.509 1.426 2 3.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business.521 1..985 7 1.166 6 1. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam.234 88. Field.393 12 .228 35.460 8 . Bartlett’s test with statistical significance level of .705 79.3 The results of factor analysis In this research.509 4 2.5 and 1. 1988.876 12.361 4.710 66. Table 2: KMO and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy.213 47.088 6.204 1. Chi-Square Df Sig.446 1.128 3. Economics.469 1.441 4.987 3 3. 1998).192 6.199 5 1.625 6.823 1.927 3.761 71.370 1.org .919 48.878 10 www. 2000).380 76. KMO is an index used to examine the appropriateness of factor analysis.925 9.487 86.251 87. Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. EFA is applied to test the model with Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) and Bartlett’s test by using the Principal Axis Factoring with Promax rotation. which are showed in Table 2.globalbizresearch.000 Table 3: Total Variance Explained Factor 1 Rotation Sums of Squared Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Loadingsa Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 10. .644 13 . the factor analysis process with KMO is about .322 71.112 3.013 6. values below 0.

249 . Table 4: Pattern matrix of variables Factor 2 3 4 1 Mobi_Conven6 Mobi_Conven3 Mobi_Conven7 Mobi_Conven5 Mobi_Conven4 Mobi_Conven2 Mobi_Conven1 Trust_Safe5 Trust_Safe6 Trust_Safe2 Trust_Safe1 Trust_Safe3 Trust_Safe4 Easetouse2 Easetouse4 Easetouse3 Easetouse1 Intention4 Intention3 Intention2 Intention1 Usefulness2 Usefulness1 Usefulness3 Compatibility2 Compatibility1 Compatibility3 Knowledge1 Knowledge2 5 6 7 .232 .720 .180 .406 99.290 .globalbizresearch.170 .878 .677 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Axis Factoring.741 .141 .906 .442 98.768 .881 22 .255 .965 91. When factors are correlated.564 25 .205 21 .846 .451 98.339 1.135 .793 .954 17 .093 . Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam.568 97.020 .480 23 .Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business.358 99.798 94.133 . Economics.920 .941 .203 .900 . sums of squared loadings cannot be added to obtain a total variance. 2015 Paper ID: V574 14 .851 92.981 90.924 .883 .793 11 www.690 30 .828 93. a.927 28 .901 .861 .org .721 .921 .310 100.047 24 . 10-12 July.122 .716 .989 16 .155 .634 19 .033 26 .294 .943 .131 90.881 .598 96.805 18 .107 .676 95.008 15 .945 .332 29 .484 27 .919 .773 95.780 .937 .517 97.689 1.240 .432 20 .857 .468 98.859 .

CFI = 0. Intention2.776 Rotation converged in 6 iterations. The goodness-of-fit of CFA is used to further assess the unidimensionality and convergent validity among the constructs. 1981). Comparative Fit Index (CFI). then the constructs are unidimensional except for the correlation between variable errors. TLI. RMSEA = 0. Additionally.globalbizresearch. Trust_Safe5 and Trust_Safe6. Trust_Safe2. Ease to use (Easetouse1.518 (<3). Usefulness2.05). Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization .9). Knowledge3). Easetouse3.9 (Bentler & Bonett. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. All factors are reliability for the next analyzing steps if GFI. and CFI are equal or above 0. Easetouse2.959.05 is excellent) (Steiger. Two factors including Trust and Safe to use are group into a component and the new component is named as Trust_Safetouse that includes Trust_Safe1. Intention3. Mobi_Conven2.964 (>0.org . Mobi_Conven3. According to Steenkamp & Van Triijp (1991). Two factors including Mobility and Convenience are group into a component and the new component is named as Mobi_Convenience which includes Mobi_Conven1. CFA is applied with following indexes: Chi-square. Mobi_Conven5. these evidences.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. Economics. Chi-square/df. Tucker & Lewis Index (TLI). 1990). 2015 Paper ID: V574 Knowledge3 Extraction Method: Principal Axis Factoring. the result of Figure 3 demonstrates the unidimensionality among the constructs. Knowledge2. prove the validity and reliability of measurements. TLI = 0. Usefulness3).904. Trust_Safe4. 10-12 July. 1996). and RMSEA is equal to or less than 0. Easetouse4). the factor analysis has pulled out 7 major factors from 30 variables whereas the number of factors in the initial research model is 10. 4. Usefulness (Usefulness1. Intention4) are initially kept as a final format of the questionnaire. Trust_Safe3. Therefore. Chi-square/df is equal to or less than 2 (Chisquare/df ≤3 can be accepted in some cases) (Carmines & McIver. Mobi_Conven6 and Mobi_Conven7. Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA).4 Confirmatory Factory Analysis (CFA) Confirmatory Factory Analysis is a better method to assess the validity and reliability of measures (Bagozzi & Foxall.050 (=0. Compatibility3). as the goodness-of-fit are good. 12 www. Mobile payment knowledge (Knowledge1. Chisquare/df = 2. which are GFI = 0. Table 4 also shows that items of 5 remaining factors which are alternatively Compatibility (Compatibility1. Compatibility2. Intention to use (Intention1.08 (RMSEA ≤ 0. According to Table 4. 1980). Mobi_Conven4.

no item of factors in this model needs to be deleted.915 .877 .Trust_Safe Trust_Safe3 <--.862 .globalbizresearch.Mobi_Conven Mobi_Conven3 <--.891 .837 . Table 5: CFA Result – Standardized Regression Weights Estimate P Mobi_Conven6 <--. which standardized regression weights are higher than 0.Trust_Safe Easetouse2 <--. all the items of factors should be kept in this research for the next step of the data analysis process. Economics. 1998).org .735 . Table 5 demonstrates the convergent validity among the constructs. In other words.Trust_Safe Trust_Safe6 <--.886 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 13 www.Trust_Safe Trust_Safe4 <--.Easetouse . Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam.Trust_Safe Trust_Safe2 <--.05 (Gerbing & Anderson.Mobi_Conven Mobi_Conven7 <--. 10-12 July.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business.5 with the significant level lower than 0.717 . Therefore.Mobi_Conven Mobi_Conven2 <--.Mobi_Conven Trust_Safe5 <--.858 .Mobi_Conven Mobi_Conven4 <--.925 . 2015 Paper ID: V574 Figure 3: CFA result Furthermore.729 .726 .Mobi_Conven Mobi_Conven5 <--.860 .Mobi_Conven Mobi_Conven1 <--.922 .Trust_Safe Trust_Safe1 <--.

4.Easetouse Easetouse1 <--. H9: Ease to use positively affects Intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam. H8: Ease to use positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam.Compatibility Compatibility3 <--.859 .849 . 10-12 July.org .929 .873 .756 .Compatibility Knowledge1 <--.Easetouse Easetouse3 <--.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business.globalbizresearch.827 . Economics. H3: Compatibility positively affects Ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam.878 .Intention Usefulness2 <--.942 .Intention Intention2 <--.Knowledge Knowledge2 <--.844 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** From above-mentioned statistical analysis.Knowledge ***.Usefulness Usefulness1 <--.Intention Intention3 <--.933 . 2015 Paper ID: V574 Easetouse4 <--.Easetouse Intention4 <--.843 . H7: Trust-Safe to use positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam.5 Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and Hypothesis Testing Structural Equation Modeling is applied to test hypotheses about the relationships between factors in the research model. H2: Mobi-Convenience positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam. H4: Compatibility positively affects Usefulness of mobile payment in Vietnam.Knowledge Knowledge3 <--. There are 10 research hypotheses of the research model.Usefulness Compatibility2 <--.Intention Intention1 <--.885 .Compatibility Compatibility1 <--. the initial research model with previous hypotheses is kept as below. H1: Mobi-Convenience positively affects Ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam.Usefulness Usefulness3 <--.786 . H10: Usefulness positively affects Intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam.825 . Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam.The regression weight has significantly different from zero at the 0.953 .001 level (two-tailed) . 14 www. H5: MP-Knowledge positively affects Ease to use of mobile payment in Vietnam.938 . H6: Trust-Safe to use positively affects Intention to use mobile payment in Vietnam.

TLI larger than 0. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam.000.6 Hypothesis Testing Table 6: Results of hypotheses testing _______________________________ ______________________________________________ 15 www.08 standard. the relevance of the model with measured data can be acceptable. 10-12 July.953.968. 4.globalbizresearch. and it needed improving by setting up covariance for couples of error again based on Modification Indices. Therefore.810.896 and TLI=0.9 while GFI are close to 0. The other indexes as CFI is 0. All indexes are satisfied to the conditions. The Chi-square/degree of freedom is 2. 2015 Paper ID: V574 Figure 4: Structural Equation Modeling analysis after adjusting theoretical model The model of SEM in Figure3 has Chi-square statistic of 1026.9 and RMSEA is 0. Economics.org . GFI= 0.054 below the 0. degree of freedom is 389 with p-value = 0. three indices CFI.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business.732 lower than 3.

Regression weight of Intention on Trust_Safe is .org . 7. two belief variables (Usefulness.001. To achieve our objective. Regression weight of Intention on Usefulness is . Thus. The results show that among the four external variables of the system. Regression weight of Easetouse on Compatibility is . Regression weight of Easetouse on Mobi_Conven is . MP-Knowlwdge positively affects Ease to use. 8. Ease to use positively affects Intention to use. it will increase the intention to use mobile services payment by the users. Therefore. Thus. The hypothesis H9 is supported. Regression weight of Usefulness on Compatibility is . 16 www.186 with p-value less than . The hypothesis H6 is supported.05.062 with p-value=0. Regression weight of Usefulness on Easetouse is . 10. The results also show that the characteristics of mobility along with the convenience of mobile payment services increases awareness of the ease of use and usefulness of the system. 5. 9.436 with p-value less than . Regression weight of Intention on Easetouse is . The hypothesis H8 is supported. 6.364 with p-value less than . Thus. Economics.The consumers with high compatibility felt it is useful and easy to use mobile payment services. 3. Mobi-Convenience positively affects Ease to use. The hypothesis H4 is supported. The hypothesis H5 is supported. Trust_Safe to use).072 higher than . The hypothesis H2 is supported.045 less than 0. The hypothesis H7 is not supported. Thus.359 with p-value less than .001. Compatibility positively affects Usefulness. Mobile payment Knowledge.072 with p-value=0. Discussion and Conclusion The main objective of our study tries to determine the factors that affect the use of mpayment. The hypothesis H1 is supported. Thus. The hypothesis H10 is supported.005.001. Usefulness positively affects Intention to use.001.182 with p-value less than . Trust_Safe positively affects Intention to use.001. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam. Regression weight of Usefulness on Trust_Safe is .001. Thus.001. 2. Compatibility. Thus. Regression weight of Easetouse on Knowledge is . Compatibility has the most significant impact on Ease of use and Usefulness . Thus.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. 2015 Paper ID: V574 Based on standardizing regression weights and p-value estimation in Table 6. researcher can argue that: 1. Ease to use positively affects Usefulness. 5. 4. Regression weight of Usefulness on Mobi_Conven is . 10-12 July.353 with p-value less than . The hypothesis H3 is supported. a research model is proposed and consists of four external variables (Mobi_Convenience. Ease of use). Thus.Trust_Safe to use does not significantly correlate with Usefulness.236 with p-value less than .001.globalbizresearch. and one dependent variable (Intention to use m-payment). Mobi-Convenience positively affects Usefulness. Compatibility positively affects Ease to use. Thus.233 with p-value less than .

Besides that. the number of mobile subscribers surpassed fixed subscribers. they gradually use this channel for purchasing decisions and their transactions. opening up development opportunities for those participants. many limitations and risks are affecting the intention to use of consumers. but instead they use it more effectively than those with low-level of knowledge. m-payment service providers can enhance these system characteristics without additional costs by taking advantage of the declining cost of mass producing. Between two variables. the providers can creates a reasonable strategy for the development of mobile payment services. But now. The emergence of mobile phone services were found to be potential for the next generation of new payment. Compared to traditional offline payment. thus resulting in greater adoption by users. The explosive growth of electronic payment requirements. The usefulness could further be enhanced by providing better mobile payment services without increasing the complexity of the m-payment services. Therefore. Although mobile payment services have many advantages such as fast. For this reason. Besides. Based on the results. It made their intention to use services higher. 10-12 July. Even in Vietnam also had the idea that within the next 3 to 5 years the number of mobile subscribers will exceed the number of fixed subscribers. The results indicated that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness exerted significant effect on the intention to use m-payment. and higher compatibility makes the service easier to use and more efficient comparing to older people. Perceived usefulness in turn had a positive effect on the intention to use m-payment. young people have higher intention to use mobile payment services than older people have in Vietnam. the growth for opportunities of m-payment abound. is extremely exciting potential but has not yet been fully exploited. the results also indicate that the young people have more opportunities to access the service. Consumers previously unfamiliar with the Internet and only used as a means of gathering information.globalbizresearch. through the rapid development of Internet.org . convenient. we propose the factors affecting the intention to use mobile payment services by consumer in this study. the belief in the safety and stability of service also made customers feel more secure about service helping them use services with comfort and ease. which is beneficial to the users and themselves. In many countries. 17 www. Economics. It is an opportunity for the development of mobile services. 2015 Paper ID: V574 The mobile payment users with high-level knowledge did not find it difficult to use mpayment services. As telecommunications technologies advance. perceived ease of use was the greater predictor on intention to use mobile payment. cost savings. Finance and Social Sciences (AP15Vietnam Conference) ISBN: 978-1-63415-833-6 Danang-Vietnam.Proceedings of the Second Asia-Pacific Conference on Global Business. In addition.

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