# H83PDC – Process

Dynamic & Control
Lecture 3 –
Transfer Function,
Laplace Transforms & Linearisation

Lecture Outline
Transfer Function 
Laplace Transforms 
Multi-variable Linearisation 

H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control

Lecture 3 - 2

Applicable to
linear dynamic
behaviour only

Alternative
dynamic
model to
ordinary
differential
equations
(ODE)

Based on
Laplace
transforms

Transfer
Function
Models
To determine
the dynamics
behaviour of a
process after
changes in
input variables

Characterises
the dynamic
relationship of
two process
variables: input
(cause) & output
(effect)

H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control

Important in
design &
analysis of
control system

Lecture 3 - 3

Laplace Transforms
To inverting solutions
from the s-domain to
the t-domain

H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control

Lecture 3 - 4

The Laplace transform of a function f(t) is defined as:   = L () =  () .

the transform becomes a function of the Laplace transform variable. s  Inverse Laplace transform (L-1) operates on the function F(s) and converts it to f(t) () = L    H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 . s is a complex independent variable f(t) = a function of time to be transformed L = an operator. defined by the integral  Function f(t) must satisfy mild conditions that include being piecewise continuous for 0 < t < ∞  When the integration is performed. dt F(s) = symbol for the Laplace transform.5 .

Properties of Laplace Transform  It is linear operator  Apply the superposition principle: L   + () =() + Y(s)  Multiplicative constants can be factored out of the operator H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .6 .

Laplace Transforms for Simple Functions A. L  =   . Constant Function For f(t) = a (a constant).

   .

∞ =−   0  =0− −   =  H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .7 .

Step Function The unit step function is defined as. 0  < 0   = 1  ≥ 0 1 L () =  1 0 H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control t Lecture 3 .8 .B.

Derivatives  First Derivative   .C.

L =     Integrating by parts.  ∞ .

.

9 . L =  ()  +     0  = L () −  0 =   − (0) H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

10 . Second Derivatives !  φ L =L !   = φ  − φ 0 =    − (0) − φ 0 =  !   −  0 −  " (0)  n-th Order Derivatives #  #   −  #   0 −  # !  L =   # − # ! 0 −  #  (0) H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Where φ= "   =  φ  =   − (0)  0 − ⋯⋯ Lecture 3 .

Exponential Functions Where  > 0 L %.D.

=  %.

.

  =  (%& ).

  1 = − + 1 = + %& .

∞  0 H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .11 .

Trigonometric Functions 1 1 -.E.

L cos + = L + L -.

2 2 1 1 1 + = 2  − /+  + /+ Where -.

+ -.

12 . cos + = 2 / ≜ −1 1  + /+ +  − /+ = 2 ! − +!  = !  + +! H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

F. Rectangular Pulse Function <0 0   = 1ℎ 0 ≤  ≤ 4  ≥ 4 0   =    .

  .

5 =  ℎ .

  ℎ .

4 =− 6  0 ℎ = 1 − .

5  H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .13 .

L 7() = lim 1 . Impulse Function 7  = 0 for  ≠ 0  7   = 1 .G.

5 → 4  ℎ=  .

5 1 − .

5  .

5 7  = lim =1 .

14 . ∴ L 7() =  H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Unit IMPULSE Area=1 0 t Unit PULSE Area=1 0 t Lecture 3 .5 →  If the impulse magnitude (area twh) is a constant a rather than unity.

H. Ramp Function L  =   ∙ .

 =    ∙ .

   Where ∞   ∙ .

 = ?@  −  @ ? ?= 0  .

  @ = −  .

∞ 1 .

= − −  − ?  0   1 1 .

∞ =0− − −   0 1 = !   ∴  = !  ? =  @ = .

Slope = a 0 t 0  < 0   =   ≥ 0 H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .15 .

Example 1 Solve the differential equation using Laplace transforms: 5 Solution dy + 4y = 2 dt where y (0) = 1  dy  L  5 + 4 y  = L ( 2)  dt   dy  L 5  + L (4 y ) = L (2)  dt   dy  5L  = 5(sY (s ) − 1) = 5sY (s ) − 5  dt  4L ( y ) = 4Y (s ) 2 L (2) = s H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .16 .

5 + 0.4  = L−1   ( ) s s + 0 . 8   y (t ) = 0.5e −0.Substitute the individual terms: 5sY (s ) − 5 + 4Y (s ) = 2 s 2 Y (s )(5s + 4 ) = + 5 s 5s + 2 Y (s ) = s(5s + 4 )  5s + 2  L [Y (s )] = L   ( ) s 5 s 4 +   −1 −1  s + 0 .8t H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .17 .

18 . s+5 Y (s ) = 2 s + 5s + 4 s+5 α1 α2 = + (s + 1)(s + 4) (s + 1) (s + 4) Where α1 and α2 are unspecified coefficients  Multiply both sides by (s+1)(s+4) s + 5 = α1 ( s + 4) + α 2 ( s + 1) = (α1 + α 2 ) s + (4α1 + α 2 )  Equating coefficients of each power of s: 1 = α1 + α 2 − − − − − − − (1) 5 = 4α1 + α 2 − − − − − −(2) 4 1 α1 = . α 2 = − 3 3 H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .Laplace Transform: Partial Fraction Expansion   High-order denominator polynomial in a Laplace transform can be factored into a product of first-order terms Then the transform can be expanded into the sum of two partial fractions E.g.

19 .Example 2 Solve the differential equation using Laplace transforms: dy d3y d2y + 6 + 11 + 6y =1 3 2 dt dt dt where y( 0 ) = y' ( 0 ) = y' ' ( 0 ) = 0 Solution  d3y  3 L 3  = s Y ( s )  dt   d2y  L 6 2  = 6 s 2Y ( s )  dt   dy  L11  = 11sY ( s )  dt  L (6 y ) = 6Y ( s) 1 L (1) = s H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

α 3 = − . 6 2 2 H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control α4 s+3 1 α4 = − 6 Lecture 3 .20 .Rearranging and factoring Y(s): 1 Y ( s )( s + 6 s + 11s + 6) = s 3 2 1 Y (s) = s ( s 3 + 6s 2 + 11s + 6) Factor the denominator into a product of first-order terms: s ( s 3 + 6s 2 + 11s + 6) = s ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) The partial fraction expansion: 1 Y ( s) = s ( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 3) = α1 s + α2 + α3 s +1 s + 2 + Solve for the unspecified coefficients: 1 1 1 α1 = . α 2 = − .

21 .Change to time-domain by inverting each term individually: y (t ) = L−1[Y ( s )]  1/ 6 1/ 2 1/ 2 1/ 6  =L  − + +  s +1 s + 2 s + 3   s 1 −1  1  1 −1  1  1 −1  1  1 −1  1  = L  − L  + L  − L   6 s 2  s +1 2  s+2 6  s +3 −1 1 1 − t 1 − 2 t 1 − 3t y (t ) = − e + e − e 6 2 2 6 H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

22 .General Procedure for Solving Differential Equations Time-domain ODE Initial conditions Laplace-domain Step 1 Take Laplace transform Step 2 Solve for N(s) Y(s) = D(s) Step 3 Factor D(s) & perform partial fraction expansion Solution y(t) Step 4 Take inverse Laplace transform H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

Laplace Transform: Limit Theorems  Final Value Theorem:  Allows determination of final steady state perturbation in y(t) lim y (t ) = lim sY ( s ) t →∞  s →0 Initial Value Theorem:  Allows determination of the initial condition in y(t) (often zero perturbation) lim y (t ) = lim sY ( s ) t →0 s →∞ H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .23 .

Example 3 5s + 2 Y (s) = s (5s + 4) Initial value: 5s + 2 =1 s →∞ 5s + 4 y (0) = lim[ sY ( s )] = lim s →∞ Final value: 5s + 2 y (∞) = lim[ sY ( s )] = lim = 0 .24 .5 s →0 s →0 5s + 4 H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

h-1.Transfer Function f(t) Process y(t) Single input and output process F(s) KG(s) Y(s) Block diagram Y(s) = KG(s) × F(s) F(s) = transform of movement in the FORCING variable Y(s) = transform of movement in the RESPONSE variable KG(s) = the TRANSFER FUNCTION K = the steady state gain factor (units of Y/F) G(s) = the dimensionless transfer function (where s has units of time-1.25 . s-1) H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 . min-1.

Development of Transfer Functions Example: Stirred-Tank Heating Process (Constant Holdup) Stirred-tank heating process with constant holdup. The density and heat capacity C of the liquid are assumed to be constant. Heat losses are negligible.26 . 2. 3. Liquid holdup V is constant because the inlet & outlet flow rates are equal. V Assumptions: 1. H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 . ∴ Their temperature dependence is neglected. 4. Perfect mixing ∴ The exit T is also the temperature of the tank contents.

Assuming constant liquid holdup and flow rates: dT V ρC = wC (Ti − T ) + Q (2-36) dt Suppose the process is at steady state: 0 = wC (Ti − T ) + Q Subtract (2) from (2-36): dT V ρC = wC (Ti − Ti ) − (T − T )  + ( Q − Q ) dt (2) (3) Simplify: dT ′ V ρC (4) = wC (Ti′ − T ′ ) + Q′ dt where the “deviation variables” are T ′ = T − T . Q′ = Q − Q H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 . Ti′ = Ti − Ti .27 .

Q′ & Ti′ G1 (process) has gain K and time constant τ G2 (disturbance) has gain=1 and time constant τ K = process gain H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .Take L of (4): ABC D "  − D " 0 = EC DF "  − D "  + G "  (5) At the initial steady state. T′(0) = 0 Rearrange (5) to solve for:  K  ′  1  ′ T ′( s ) =  Q s +  ( )   Ti ( s )  τ s +1  τ s +1  where K = 1 and τ = V ρ wC w In general form:       (6) T ′(s)=G1(s)Q ′(s) + G 2(s)Ti′(s) System can be forced by a change in either Ti or Q Both are first-order processes G1 and G2 are transfer functions and independent of the inputs.28 .

29 . Ti′= 0 then Ti′(s) = 0. Therefore. D′() = J () G′()  If there is no change in heater input. The effects of changes in both Q and Ti are additive because the Principle of Superposition is valid  The transfer function can determine the output response to any change in an input  If there is no change in inlet temperature. Therefore. D′() = J! () DF ′() H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 . Q′= 0 then Q′s = 0.

Solution The energy balance for the nominal conditions: EC DK − DLF = GK ∴ DK = 100℉ For inputs changes: DF" 90 − 70 20 1600 − 1920 320 "  = = and G  = =−     H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .32 Btu/lb°F. V = 1.60 ft3 Calculate the output temperature response. C = 0.30 . ρ = 62.4 lb/ft3.Example: Stirred-Tank Heating Process (Constant Holdup) When the stirred-tank heating process operates at steady state: Ti = 70°F. w = 200 lb/min. Q = 1920 Btu/min. if the inlet temperature is changed to 90°F and the heater input is changed to 1600 Btu/min.

5 + 1  0.5 + 1) (0.4) = 0.5 + 1) (0.5 min 200 1 ℉ Process gain.1 Vρ K= and τ = wC w (1.5 + 1) The corresponding time-domain solution is: D  = DK + D "  D  = 100 + 15(1 − !.32) Time constant. X = = 1.0156 320 1 20 D  = − + 0. U =  K  ′  1  ′ T ′( s) =  Q s +  ( )   Ti ( s )  τ s +1   τ s +1  (6) 0.6)(62.56 × 10 ! Btu/min (200)(0.5 + 1  " D" −5 20 15  = + = (0.

31 . ) H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

32 .Properties of Transfer Function Models  Steady-State Gain The steady-state of a TF can be used to calculate the steady-state change in an output due to a steady-state change in the input K=  y2 − y1 u2 − u1 (4-38) Order of a TF Model The order of the TF is defined to be the order of the denominator polynomial or equal to the order of the ODE H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

which is the input to G2 ^a _ = `a _ b _ ^c _ = `c _ ^a _ = `c (_)`a (_)b _ H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 . Additive Property A single process output variable (Y) can be influenced by more than one input (U1 and U2) acting individually or together ^ _ = `a _ ba _ + `c (_)bc (_)  Multiplicative Property Two processes with transfer functions G1 and G2 are in a series configuration and the input U(s) to G1 produces an output Y1(s).33 .

u ∂f ∂u (u − u ) y . exponential dependence of reaction rate on temperature  A linear approximation of a nonlinear steady-state model is most accurate near the point of linearisation  For a nonlinear dynamic model: dy = f ( y. the reference point for linearisation is the nominal steady-state operating point (K. u ) ≅ f ( y. ?K)  f ( y. u ) dt By using a Taylor series expansion. u ) +  ∂f ∂y ( y − y) + y .g.u The linearised differential equation in terms of y’ and u’: dy′ ∂f ∂f ′ = y + u′ dt ∂y s ∂u s H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .Linearisation of Nonlinear Models  Dynamic behaviour could depend on the process variables in a nonlinear manner.34 . e.

stream 2 is pure solute (x2 = 1). However.Example: Stirred-Tank (Constant Holdup) Assume the liquid volume (V) is constant but inlet composition x1 and inlet flow rates w1 and w2 can vary.35 . Mass & component balances: dV ρ = w1 + w2 − w dt dx ρV = w1 ( x1 − x ) + w2 ( x 2 − x ) dt H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

36 .Nonlinearities appear in equation due to the product terms w1x1 etc. Step 1 Find the steady-state values of x and w by setting the derivatives equal to zero and substituting the steady-state values: 0=E L + E L! − E L 0=E L (̅ − ̅ ) + E L ! (̅! − ̅ ) Step 2 Linearise about the nominal steady-state values:  ′ BA = BA   f f f =  − ̅ + ( − ̅ ) + (E − E L ) f f fE f + (E! − E L!) fE! H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .

The partial derivatives: f = −E L − E L! f f =E L f f = ̅ − ̅ fE f = 1 − ̅ fE! Step 3 Substitute the partial derivatives and introduce deviation variables: ′ BA = −E L " + E L  " + ̅ − ̅ E " + (1 − ̅ )E! "  H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .37 .

x’(0) = 0: BA "  = −E L "  + E L  "  + ̅ − ̅ g "  + 1 − ̅ g! "  Rearranging and dividing by E L: BA E L " ̅ − ̅ " 1 − ̅ " +1   =   + g  + g! "  E E L L E L E L Define: BA U= E L E L 1 − ̅ ̅ − ̅ X = .Step 4 Take Laplace transform of both sides of equation with the initial condition. X! = . Xi = E L E L E L H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .38 .

three input-output transfer functions can be derived: "   X " J  = " = U + 1   J! " "  X!  = = " U + 1 g!  " "  Xi  = = " U + 1 g  Ji H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .39 .Step 5 Gives the relationship for the single output and three inputs: " X X! Xi " "  =   + g!  + g "  U + 1 U + 1 U + 1 Also.

40 .General Procedure for Developing TF Models H83PDC Process Dynamic & Control Lecture 3 .