# Profile contact ratio, Active profile diameter, Lowest and Highest

point of single tooth contact
In a pair of meshed and rotating gears, distance between the starting and
terminating point of contact of a tooth with the mating tooth on line of
action is called length of line of action
Ratio of the degree of rotation from starting to termination of contact of one
tooth to, the degree of rotation completed by next mating tooth at the same
time is called profile contact ratio. That is equal to, length of line of action
divided by base pitch. More than one teeth will share the load if contact ratio
is more than one. This factor is very important while calculating load
transmitting capacity of gears. Long addendum gears will have high contact
have a contact ratio of more than two. High contact ratio will ensure smooth
power transmission and load sharing by more number of teeth, but pressure
angle has to be less than standard addendum gear.
Diameter at the point of termination / start of contact by the mating gear
tooth addendum is called active profile diameter. There will not be any
contact with mating teeth after this radius. Hence profile accuracy after this
radius is not important. But true involute form is a must from addendum to
active profile point.
When gears are meshed and rotating together, a pair of teeth will make and
terminate the contact. Even though the contact ratio is more than one, only
one tooth can be in contact with mating tooth for a short degree of rotation.
Lowest point on profile where single tooth contact exists is lowest point of
single tooth contact and highest point on profile where single tooth contact
exists is highest point of single tooth contact.
Usually gear stresses are calculated by applying the load at the highest
point of single tooth contact ( lowest point of single tooth contact for internal
gears). If gears are of lower accuracy, more than one pair of teeth may not
share the load even though the contact ratio is more than one. Hence tooth
stresses has to be calculated by applying load at highest point tooth of
contact (lowest point of contact for internal gears). That is at the tip of the

22

rbg2 .L la Operating Pitch circle Base circle rlp Radius at lowest point of single tooth contact Radius of base circle- o Radius at highest point of single tooth contact rbp rap Outer radius- rop Pinion Ll a Pb (Pbt)-For helical gears rog2 .rbp2 .Lla + rbg2 = rag ( rop2 .rbg2 + ( rhp Operating Pressure angle Radius at start of active profile Crp = Operating center distance Outer radius- rop2 .( Sin o x Co ) = Ll a ) ( 2 rop2 .Pb )2+ r bp 2 ( = rlp 18 )2 rog2 .Pb + rbg2 = rlg )2 rop2 .rbp2 .rbp2 .Lla + Pb )2 + r bg 2 = rhg .External gears Gear rog Radius at start of active profileRadius at highest point of single tooth contact Radius at lowest point of single tooth contact rhg rag rlg Radius of base circle- rbg Co o Operating Pressure angle Base circle Operating Pitch circle Line of action Length.rbp2 .Lla + Pb + rbp2 = rhp rog2 .rbg2 .rbg2 .Lla + rbp2 = rap ) ( 2 ( rog2 .

Pb )2 + r = rli 2 bi 2 rop .la L Operating Pitch circle Operating Pitch circle o .rbp2 + ( Sin  o x Co) .Ll a + Pb 18 Operating center distance rii2 .For helical gears rop2 .Ll a + Pb 2 2 )+r bp 2 = rh p rop2 .rbp .Operating pressure angle o Radius at lowest point of single tooth contact rlp Active profile radius- rai Base circle Base circle radius- rbp Base circle Active profile radius- rap Inner radius- ( ( ( ( rop2 .rbp2 .rbp2 + ( Sin  o x Co) .Internal gearing Line of action Length.rbp + ( Sin  o x Co) 2 Radius at highest point of single tooth contact o Co rli Ll a Pb (Pbt ).rbp2 + (Sin  o x Co ) - ( ( Pinion rbi Radius at lowest point of single tooth contact Crp = Outer radius- rii rhi Base circle radius- Radius at highest point of single tooth contact )2 + r 2 bi = rhi rop rhp .Ll a )2+ r bp 2 = ra p 2 ) Ring gear 2 + rbi2 = rai 2 rop .rbp .Pb 2 2 )+r bp 2 = rl p rop2 .rbi2 = Ll a rop .

Span measurement in helical gears must be normal to the helix. but contact point (tangent point) must be on involute profile.5 Non corrected helical gears  Zn1 x n1 + 0. selected pin/ball has to make a contact near the mid point of gear profile. It is really not very important to make measurement at mid point of profile. if “ F  Sin  b x M n” Zx + 0. span measurements (base tangent length) or measurement over/between pins/balls.5 Non corrected spur gears N=  Cos -1 (d ) b D + 2k N=  Zn x n N= N= Zn1 = x Z + 0. Span measurement is not possible in helical gears. Similarly for measurement over pins/balls.5 Corrected spur gears + 0. Hence. For span measurement. instead of pins. Measurement can be taken at any point on the profile. small relief has to provided on measuring pin/ball. Balls are to be used for helical gears and balls are to be aligned with one of the gear faces while taking measurements. and should not touch the root. measurement over Pins will not give a accurate reading.5 corrected helical gears  n1 = Z Cos 1 1 = Tan 3 -1 ( (D + 2k) x Tan  D ) Tan -1 (Tan t1 x Cos 1) t1= Cos -1 22 ( db D + 2k ) . Tooth space width of internal spur/helical gears are established by controlling measurement between pins/balls. If pin/ball touching at the root. In helical gears. Usually tooth thickness of external spur / helical gears are established by controlling the base tangent length (measured by gear tooth micrometer). Pins are to be used for measurement in spur gears.Span measurement and measurement between pins/balls Circular tooth thickness and space width of gear tooth can be controlled by controlling. number of teeth to be spanned has to be established in such a way that the gear tooth micrometer flange will make contact as tangent near the mid point on the gear profile.

of teeth For odd no.of teeth Odd no.Z t rb Cos For Helical Gears Mop = 2 (q + ao ) b ( ( ) ) Cos ) 2xZ x 2q + 2 ao 22 For even no.External teeth b Pitch circle Base circle  b Even no.of teeth Measuring pin/ball All angles are in radians b = ( b = (t q= Mop = t D ++ ao rb -  ) Z For spur Gears  a o D + t+ rb x Cos b . of teeth .

2ao 22 For odd no. of teeth Cos b  Mbp = ) All angles are in radians 2xZ x 2q .Internal teeth b b Pitch circle Base circle   Mbp q b Even teeth Odd teeth Measuring pin/ball b = ( b = t D ( q= tt D ao +  + t - rb ao For spur Gears ) rb x Cos b rb ( ( ) ) Cos For Helical Gears Mbp = 2 ( q . of teeth .ao) For even no.

M Pitch circle  Base circle Helical Mn gear Mt All angles are in radians (N-1) 2 M= Z 2t + (N-1) 2 Mt = Z + D 2 tt D +2 rb + 2  t rb Mn =( Mt x Cos b ) 22 Spur gears Helical gears .

Tip interference .Internal Gearing Ring gear Tip interference Pinion Center distance In internal gearing. otherwise cutter will cut part of ring gear teeth near the tip of the addendum. It can be avoided by selecting proper gear cutting tool. or difference in number of teeth between ring gear and pinion to be increased. Tip interference may also pose a problem while generating ring gear teeth on machines. Avoiding the tip interference will only ensure the axial assy of pinion in to the ring gear and may not ensure the radial assembly of pinion. if difference in number of teeth between ring gear and pinion is very small. If radial assembly is required to be ensured. sufficient profile correction to be given to ring gear / pinion. Hence proper care to be taken while deciding number of teeth of ring gear and pinion to avoid Tip interference. Pinion teeth will interfere with ring gear teeth and this is called “tip interference”. 22 . This problem can also be avoided by giving required profile correction to ring gear / pinion. Difference in number of teeth between ring gear and pinion is also a deciding factor for assembling pinion and ring gear.

1 Sin 1 = p= -1 Clt = (1 .Internal gearing A Ring gear Clt A A Pinion p A 1 Co g Inner radius Ring gear rii Outer radius Pinion Operating center distance  rop (  = Cos . ) x rii ) Co 2 + rii2 .dii ) dii = Tan  dii .Tip clearance . dop  dop = Cos -1 + g All angles are in radians rbp rop ( )  dii = Cos -1 22 rbi rii ( ) .rop2 2 x Co x rii ( Clt must be positive to avoid tip interference Sin  x Co + -p rop ) i ( tp Dp ) g= +  .dop ( s Di +  . dii dop = Tan  dop .

rbp2 )  Lla If above condition is met. ( rop2 . This problem can also be avoided by decreasing the difference in number of teeth between ring gear and pinion. 22  . Ring gear teeth inner edge will try to dig in to the pinion profile near base circle.Internal gearing Pitch circle-Ring gear Pitch circle-Pinion Base circle Pinion Base circle-Ring gear  We encounter this problem In internal gearing. if difference in number of teeth between ring gear and pinion is too large.Interference of base circle . This problem can be avoided by providing positive correction to pinion or by increasing inside diameter of the ring gear. base circle interference problem will be avoided.

5 If addendum = module Zminimum = 20 2 Sin2  For helical gears substitute  with t 22 0 22. Under cut can be avoided by providing positive correction to pinions. No. Hence profile generation below the base circle is not possible. Under cut will increase the bending stress because of reduction in tooth thickness near root. and helix angle. number of teeth. hob will remove material from involute profile near base circle. when hob tries to generate profile below the base circle. Magnitude of under cut depends on pressure angle. of teeth ( spur gears) 32 18 0  14 12 -A .A= m Under cut Hob Pitch circle Base circle Under cut Pitch circle radius Pitch circle radius -m  Material removed from involute profile near the root diameter is called undercut.5 25 0 0 D 2 Min. To avoid under cut this condition must be satisfied Cos  x db Minimum number of teeth to avoid under cut 2 Cos2  x Z x m  (Z x m) . Usually this will occur while hobbing small pinions. number of teeth and helix angle will reduce the under cut.2A Pressure angle Zminimum = 2xA Sin2  xm 14. Increase in pressure angle. Helical gears will have less under cut when compared to a spur gear of same number of teeth and normal pressure angle.