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SlurrywallCommittee

HoustonWorkshop
Oct16th 2012

Introductiontodiaphragmwalls

Whatarediaphragmwalls?

Structuralretainingwallsexcavatedunder
bentonite slurry.
Bentonite slurrymaintainsthepanelsopen
duringexcavationandallowsplacementof
structuralreinforcementandconcrete.
Diaphragmwallscanbeconstructedbothinsoil
androcktodepthsexceeding300ft.

Historyofdiaphragmwalls
DesignedandpatentedinItalyinthe1940s,whereengineerswere
experimentingwiththeprocessoffillingrectangularpanelswithbentonite
slurryforstabilityduringexcavation.
Overthenextseveraldecades,diaphragmwalltechnologywouldcontinuetobe
refinedwhileitwasadoptedthroughouttheworld.

Diaphragm walls/slurry walls/cutoffwalls


Cutoffwallisawaterproofbarrierintheground.Excavated

andbackfilledwithbentonite slurry.
Slurrywallisalsousedforcutoffwallsexcavatedintrenches
withbackhoeswithlongsticks.
Diaphragmwall.Thetermwashistoricallyusedforcutoff
wallsbutisnowusedforstructuralwallstoo.
=>Ourfocustodayisstructuralwallsexcavatedinpanels
underaslurrybentonite andbackfilledwithconcrete.

Whenareslurrywallsused?

Deepexcavations
Difficultsoilconditions
Rigidsupportofexcavation
Topdownconstruction
Tobecomepartofthepermanentstructure
Selfsupportingshafts

ExampleofSlurryWallConstructionSite
2 Liebherr HS 855

Liebherr LR 1200

Clamshell Rigs

Support Rig

110 Ton Crane

275 Ton Crane

85 Boom

184 Boom

Manitowoc 12000
Hydromill Rig
120 Ton Crane
90 Boom

ConstructionPhases

1. Sitepreparation&pretrenching
2. Guidewall construction
3. Excavationoftheslurrywallpanels
4. Desanding ofthebentonite slurry
5. Placementofthereinforcingcage
6. Placementoftheconcrete

TypicalDiaphragmWallSequence

1 Guidewallconstruction
2 Panelexcavationunderslurry
3 Rebarcageplacement
4 Castconcreteunderslurry

Guidewall

joints

Bentoniteslurry

1.SitePreparation&PreTrenching

2.GuideWallConstruction

Guidewall ontheinsideonlyfortightsites

3.SlurryWallPanelExcavation
Slurrywallexcavationisperformedinpanels(typically
10to25long)withthefollowingequipment:

Mechanicalclamshells

Chisels

Hydraulicrigsandclamshells

Hydromill Equipment

Trenchisfilledwithbentonite slurry

Howdoesbentoniteslurrywork?
Itisacolloidaldispersionofpowderedbentoniteclaypowderinfreshwater.When
introducedintoatrench,ittendstopermeatethesoil,forminganimperviousfilter
cakeonthefaceoftheexcavation.Theheadofslurryinsidethetrenchkeepsthe
excavationstable.

5ftmin

Mechanical Clamshells

Percussionchisels

HydraulicRig&Clamshell

ExcavationEquipment
>Theguidesoftheclamshellcanbedirected
inanydirectiontocontrolfrontandback
deviationtendencies
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Hydromill/Hydrofraise/CutterEquipment

Howdoesthehydromillwork?
Reversemud
circulationrig
Vibrationandshock
freeequipment
Sizedaccordingto
site/depth
Cuttingdrums
equippedwith
tungstencarbide
tippedteeth
Drillmudisconstantly
screenedandde
sandedduring
excavation

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HydromillDesandingUnit

Hydromill slurrywall

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QUALITYCONTROLDURINGCLAMSHELL?
EXCAVATION
Verticality measurement and correction
Measurement of bentonite slurry properties
Documentation (excavation field reports, panel reports)

ClamshellExcavation
VerticalityMeasurementandCorrection

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Hydromill RealTimeVerticalityControl

4. De-sanding Operation
Itiscriticalforthesuccessof
theslurrywall!
Sandcontentneedstobe
reducedbelow5%orless,
beforeconcreteplacement

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5.SlurryWallReinforcement

Slurrywallscanbereinforcedby:
Rebarcages
Rebarcageswithposttensionedcables
Soldierpiles(SPTCwalls)

RebarCagePick

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SettingofReinforcingCage

SPTCWallsReinforcement

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6.ConcretePlacementbyTremieMethod

Thefollowingisrequired:
Lowsandcontentinthebentoniteslurry(5%,orlower)
Highslump(8to10),smallaggregate,cohesive
concreteabletoflowthroughtherebarcage
Sufficientclearancebetweenrebars(atleast6times
max.sizeofaggregate)
Goodservicefromconcreteplant

TypicalConcretePlacement

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SlurryWallPanelJoints
Formingthejointbetweenpanelscanbedonein
differentways:
Byusingtubes
Byusingsoldierpilesthatremaininplace
Byusingremovableendstops andextracting
them:
vertically
laterallyandwaterstopscanbeinstalledatthejoint

Bygrindingaportionofthepreviouslyconcreted
panel(hydromill method)

> Panelendstop=paneljoint
Circular endstops(tubesjoints)

> Soldier beam endstops

> FlatendstopjointCWS(with waterstop blade)

> Grinding ofadjacentpanelconcrete (hydromill)


Secondary
Primary

Primary

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Soldierpilesusedas
permanentendstops

Verticallyextractedendstops

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Laterallyextractedendstops
PVCwaterstops
Installedinprimaryandfollow
uppanels
Allowswaterstop insertionin
paneljoints
Guidesclamshellduring
adjacentpanelexcavation

Laterallyextractedendstops

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HydromillPanelJoint

SlurryWallConstruction
ExcavationtheFirst1020feetwithClamshell

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SlurryWallConstruction
ExcavationbyHydromill

SlurryWallConstruction
CageInstallation

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SlurryWallConstruction
ConcretingOperation

Challenges?

Difficultsoilconditions
Bouldersandmanmadeobstructions
Proximitytobuildings
Confinedworkareas
Lowheadroomconditions

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Boulders

ExistingFoundations&Manmade
Obstructions

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ProximitytoBuildings

Confinedworkareas

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LowheadroomConditions

HowAreSlurryWallsSupported
DuringMassExcavation?

Internalbracing
Tiebacks
Concreteslabs(Topdownconstruction)
Selfsupporting(Circularstructures)

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InternalBracing

BracingTrusses

CA/TRampD

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Tiebacks

SlurryWallSupportedbyTiebacks&
InternalBracing

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TopDownConstructionConcept
1.
2.

3.
4.

Slurrywallinstallation
DrilledshaftsorLBEs
(usuallysinglebiteelement)
installation.Thedrilled
shafts/LBEsaretypically
pouredtosubgrade anda
structuralsteelcolumnsis
embeddedintheconcrete
placedbelowsubgrade.
Thegroundfloorslabis
constructed.
Theerectionofthe
superstructuretakesplace,
whileatthesametime
excavationofthe
undergroundbasementcan
start.

SelfSupportingStructures
Circle

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SelfSupportingStructures
Ellipse

SelfSupportingStructures
Peanut

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Conclusions
WhyUsingSlurryWalls?

Slurrywallscanbeconstructedinaconfinedurban
environmentwheretherearedifficultsoilsconditionsand
rock
Theycanbecomepartofthepermanentstructureand
allowtopdownexcavation
Theyareversatilestructuresthatcanbeusedinavariety
ofchallengingapplications

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