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Equilibrium

Objectives:

Define and learn to solve problems in static

equilibrium

Define the 3 classes of levers and what each is

best suited for

Introduce stabilizing and dislocating forces

Introduce dynamic equilibrium and the technique

of inverse dynamics

Static Equilibrium

A system is at rest and will remain at rest

No translation or rotation is occurring or will occur

Conditions for static equilibrium

(from Newtons 1 st Law):

Fx = 0

Fy = 0

T=0

equals zero

Net external force in y direction

equals zero

Net torque produced by all

external forces and all external

torques equals zero

large loads? For moving loads quickly?

Using your back extensors to lift a load at

forearms length in front of you?

Using your arms to perform a push-up?

Why are the rotator cuff muscles important in

preventing shoulder dislocations?

Example Problem #1

During an isometric (static) knee extension, a

therapist measures a force of 100 N using a hand

dynamometer in the position shown below

Find the resultant knee joint force and torque.

KNEE

60

24 cm

m = 4.5 kg

Fdyn = 100 N

30 cm

Can solve for up to 3 unknown quantities

Levers

leverage

A lever system consists of:

An axis of rotation (or fulcrum)

A resistance force or load

An effort force

(the applied force that is used to move the load)

There are 3 classes of lever

Fload

sides of the axis of rotation

Effort force and load force act in same direction

For equilibrium:

or:

Fload

dload

Fload =

deffort

deffort

F

dload effort

Feffort

Feffort

axis

axis of rotation

Mechanical Advantage

Mechanical Advantage =

deffort

dload

Feffort needed is less than Fload

Point at which Fload applied moves slower and

shorter distance than point at which Feffort applied

Good for strength, poor for moving load quickly

or through large range of motion

Feffort

Fload

axis

Fload

Feffort

Mechanical Advantage

When Mechanical Advantage < 1:

Feffort needed is greater than Fload

Point at which Fload applied moves faster and

greater distance than point at which Feffort applied

Good for moving load quickly or through large

range of motion; poor for strength

A 1st class lever can have a mechanical advantage

greater than, equal to, or less than 1.

axis

Feffort

Fload

side of the axis of rotation

Effort force applied farther from axis than the load

force (i.e. deffort > dload)

Effort and load force act in opposite directions

Good for strength; poor for moving load quickly or

through large range of motion

side of the axis of rotation

Effort force applied closer to axis than the load

force (i.e. deffort < dload)

Effort and load force act in opposite directions

Good for moving load quickly or through large

range of motion; poor for strength

Fload

dload

Feffort

Feffort

deffort

dload

Feffort

Fload

axis

deffort

Feffort

Fload

axis

Fload

produce stabilizing or dislocating forces at a joint.

Can decompose a force into components parallel to

(Fll) and perpendicular to (F) the joint surface

F points towards joint stabilization

F points away from joint dislocation

position shown.

Is the deltoid force stabilizing or dislocating?

What class of lever is this?

For equilibrium, is Fdeltoid greater than or less than F W ?

Dislocation:

F

Joint Surface

F

F

Fll

Fdeltoid

30

Shoulder

Joint Surface

Stabilization:

Fll

Hand

15 cm

30 cm

FW = 35 N

Dynamic Equilibrium

FhipX

Inverse Dynamics

Conditions for dynamic equilibrium

(from Newtons 2 nd Law):

Net external force in x direction

equals mass times x accel.

Fx = m a x

Net external force in y direction

equals mass times y accel.

Fy = m a y

Net torque produced by all

external forces and torques

T=I

equals moment of inertia times

angular accel.

Net torque typically computed about the center of mass

Can solve for up to 3 unknown quantities

thigh

and torques, body broken

down into segments

FkneeX

Solve equations of

dynamic equilibrium for

each segment

leg

Analyze from distal

FankleY

to proximal

FankleX

Tankle

Tankle

FankleY

foot

FWfoot

Thip

FhipY

FkneeY

Tknee

Tknee

FkneeY

FWthigh

FkneeX

FWleg

FankleX

FgrfX

FgrfY

Slow Movements

Analyzing forces acting under dynamic equilibrium

requires knowledge of accelerations

If movements are slow: aX 0, aY 0, 0

In that case, can analyze using static equilibrium

Simpler to understand, but will produce errors

aY

Dynamic (Fast)

Quasi-static (Slow)

FW d cos

aX

FW

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