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Questions to Think About

Equilibrium
Objectives:
Define and learn to solve problems in static
equilibrium
Define the 3 classes of levers and what each is
best suited for
Introduce stabilizing and dislocating forces
Introduce dynamic equilibrium and the technique
of inverse dynamics

Static Equilibrium
A system is at rest and will remain at rest
No translation or rotation is occurring or will occur
Conditions for static equilibrium
(from Newtons 1 st Law):

Fx = 0
Fy = 0
T=0

Net external force in x direction


equals zero
Net external force in y direction
equals zero
Net torque produced by all
external forces and all external
torques equals zero

Which of the following are better suited for moving


large loads? For moving loads quickly?
Using your back extensors to lift a load at
forearms length in front of you?
Using your arms to perform a push-up?
Why are the rotator cuff muscles important in
preventing shoulder dislocations?

Example Problem #1
During an isometric (static) knee extension, a
therapist measures a force of 100 N using a hand
dynamometer in the position shown below
Find the resultant knee joint force and torque.
KNEE
60
24 cm

m = 4.5 kg
Fdyn = 100 N

30 cm

Can use any point as the axis of rotation


Can solve for up to 3 unknown quantities

Levers

1st Class Lever

Most skeletal muscles act using the principle of


leverage
A lever system consists of:
An axis of rotation (or fulcrum)
A resistance force or load
An effort force
(the applied force that is used to move the load)
There are 3 classes of lever
Fload

Effort force and load force are applied on opposite


sides of the axis of rotation
Effort force and load force act in same direction
For equilibrium:
or:
Fload

dload

dload Fload = deffort Feffort


Fload =

deffort

deffort
F
dload effort
Feffort

Feffort
axis

axis of rotation

Mechanical Advantage
Mechanical Advantage =

deffort
dload

When Mechanical Advantage > 1:


Feffort needed is less than Fload
Point at which Fload applied moves slower and
shorter distance than point at which Feffort applied
Good for strength, poor for moving load quickly
or through large range of motion
Feffort
Fload

axis

Fload

Feffort

Mechanical Advantage
When Mechanical Advantage < 1:
Feffort needed is greater than Fload
Point at which Fload applied moves faster and
greater distance than point at which Feffort applied
Good for moving load quickly or through large
range of motion; poor for strength
A 1st class lever can have a mechanical advantage
greater than, equal to, or less than 1.
axis

Feffort

Fload

2nd Class Lever

3rd Class Lever

Effort force and load force are applied on same


side of the axis of rotation
Effort force applied farther from axis than the load
force (i.e. deffort > dload)
Effort and load force act in opposite directions
Good for strength; poor for moving load quickly or
through large range of motion

Effort force and load force are applied on same


side of the axis of rotation
Effort force applied closer to axis than the load
force (i.e. deffort < dload)
Effort and load force act in opposite directions
Good for moving load quickly or through large
range of motion; poor for strength

Fload

dload

Feffort

Feffort
deffort

dload

Feffort
Fload

axis

deffort

Feffort

Fload

axis

Fload

Stabilization vs. Dislocation

The Last Example Problem!

Muscles do not produce just torque; they also


produce stabilizing or dislocating forces at a joint.
Can decompose a force into components parallel to
(Fll) and perpendicular to (F) the joint surface
F points towards joint stabilization
F points away from joint dislocation

A person is holding her upper limb in the abducted


position shown.
Is the deltoid force stabilizing or dislocating?
What class of lever is this?
For equilibrium, is Fdeltoid greater than or less than F W ?

Dislocation:
F

Joint Surface

F
F
Fll

Fdeltoid

30

Shoulder
Joint Surface

Stabilization:

Fll

Hand
15 cm
30 cm

FW = 35 N

Dynamic Equilibrium

FhipX

Inverse Dynamics

Applies to rigid bodies that are accelerating


Conditions for dynamic equilibrium
(from Newtons 2 nd Law):
Net external force in x direction
equals mass times x accel.
Fx = m a x
Net external force in y direction
equals mass times y accel.
Fy = m a y
Net torque produced by all
external forces and torques
T=I
equals moment of inertia times
angular accel.
Net torque typically computed about the center of mass
Can solve for up to 3 unknown quantities

thigh

To compute joint forces


and torques, body broken
down into segments
FkneeX
Solve equations of
dynamic equilibrium for
each segment
leg
Analyze from distal
FankleY
to proximal
FankleX

Tankle

Tankle

FankleY

foot
FWfoot

Thip
FhipY

FkneeY
Tknee
Tknee
FkneeY

FWthigh
FkneeX

FWleg
FankleX

FgrfX
FgrfY

Slow Movements
Analyzing forces acting under dynamic equilibrium
requires knowledge of accelerations
If movements are slow: aX 0, aY 0, 0
In that case, can analyze using static equilibrium
Simpler to understand, but will produce errors

T = F W d cos + I m aX d sin + m aY d cos


aY
Dynamic (Fast)

Quasi-static (Slow)

FW d cos

aX

FW