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Model Based on : T4/_______

ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS AND ITS CONTROL


VISHAL KUMAR MAHATO
CLASS XI B ROLL NO. 34 Adm. No. - 405
ABHISHEK KR. TIWARI
CLASS XI B ROLL NO. - 33 Adm. No.GUIDED BY- S. K. GUPTA

(Bio. Teacher of SVM Bhuli)

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About my Model T4
(Ecological Problems and its Controls)

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Our environment is constantly changing. There is no denying
that. However, as our environment changes, so does the need to
become increasingly aware of the problems that surround it.
With a massive influx of natural disasters, warming and cooling
periods, different types of weather patterns and much more,
people need to be aware of what types of environmental
problems our planet is facing.

Our Ecology
The branch of biology that deals with the inter-relationship amongst
organisms and interaction between organisms and their environment.

Ecological problems of the World

Fig.3 (T4)

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Air Pollution
Water pollution
Soil pollution
Noise pollution
Thermal pollution
Radioactive pollution

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Over Population
Traffic control
Global Warming
Increasing sea level
Melting ice cups
Decreasing Forest
area etc.

Gaseous/Air Pollution
The World Health Organization defines air pollution as The Presence of materials
in the air in such concentration which are harmful to us and our environment In
fact air pollution is the occurrence or addition of foreign particles, gases and other
pollutants into the air which have an adverse effect on human being, animals,
vegetation, buildings, etc.

Fig. 4 (T4) Air Pollution


Causes of Air Pollution:
1. Combustion of natural gas, petroleum, coal and wood in industries,
automobiles, aircraft, railways, thermal plants, agricultural burning, kitchen,
etc.
2. Metallurgical processing (mineral dust, fumes containing fluorides, Sulphides
and metallic pollutants like lead, chromium, nickel, beryllium, arsenic,
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vanadium, cadmium, zinc, mercury).


Chemical industries including pesticides, Fertilizers, weedicides, fungicides.
Cosmetics.
Processing industries cotton textiles, wheat flour mills, asbestos.
Welding, stone crushing, gem grinding.

Table : 1 (T4) : Important Air Pollution Sources and Emissions


Category
Chemical plant

Examples

Important pollution

Petroleum refineries,

Hydrogen sulphide,

fertilizers, cement, paper

sulphur oxide, fluorides,

mills, ceramic, clay

organic vapours and dusts.

products and manufacture


Crop spraying

Pest and weed control.

Organophosphate,
chlorinated, arsenic,

hydrocarbons, lead.
Fuel burning

Domestic burning, thermal Sulphur and nitrogen


power plants.

oxides.

Metallurgical

Aluminum refineries, steel Metal fumes (lead and

plants

plants.

zinc) fluorides and


particulates.

Nuclear device Bomb explosions

Radioactive fallout, Sr-

testing
Ore

Crushing, grinding, and

90, Cs-137, C-14, etc.


Uranium and Beryllium

preparation

screening

dust, other particulates,

Spray painting, Furniture and appliances,

Argon-41, iodine-131.
Hydrocarbons and other

solvent

dyeing, printing and

organic vapours.

extractions,

chemical separations, dry

inks,

solvent cleaning.

cleaning
Transportatio

Cars, trucks, airplanes and Carbon monoxide, nitrogen

railways

oxides, lead, smoke,

Waste

Scrap metal yards,

organic vapours, etc.


Smoke, soot, odours,

recovery

rendering plants

organic vapours, metal


fumes.

# Primary air pollutants and their effect:The major primary air pollutants are particulate matter, carbon monoxide,
CO2, H2S, hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, etc.
1. Fluorides: They are given out during refining of minerals (e.g., aluminum,
also from ground water). Fluorides cause fluorosis. In plants there is
chlorosis and necrosis and necrosis of leaf tips and leaf margins,
followed by abscission. In animals, fluorides bring about abnormal

calcification of bones and teeth (making them weak), frequent diarrhea


and swelling of knee bones. In humans there is mottling of teeth, weak
bones, boat-shaped posture, knocking knees. Gas-trointestinal and
2.

neuromuscular disorders.