Electronic

Pcote"", ",ght, "nct p"'""'

09 'reed"C' cc "'" Flectcoo"°coC't,ec

Frontier

Foundation

January13,2005
VIA FEDERAL EXPRESS
OVERNIGHT David M. Hardy, Chief

Record/Information Records
Federal Bmeau

Dissemination Division
Investigation

Section

Management

Department
935 Pennsylvania

of Justice
Avenue, N. W.

Washington,

DC

of

Thomas

J.

McIntyre,

20535-0001

FOIAfP

A

Criminal

Department

Division

Unit

of Justice

Suite 1127, Keeney Building
Washington, DC 20530-000

Melanie
Office of

Ann

Pustay,

Chief

Deputy

Infomlation

and

Privacy

Department

of Justice

Suite 570, Flag Building
Washington, DC 20530-0001

Marie

A.

0

'Rourke,

Assistant

Director

FOlA/Privacy
Executive Office

Unit
for United States Attorneys

Department

of Justice

Director

Room 7300,600 E Street,N.W .
Washington, DC 20530-0001

\

RE:
Dear

ACT REQUEST
Officers:

FREEDOM

OF

Freedom

of Information

This

letter

constitutes

a

request

INFORMAflON

for

agency

records

DELIVERY

under

the

Freedom

of

Information

5

U

.S.C.

§

552

("FOIA

").

It

is

submitted

on

behalf

of

the

Electronic

Frontier

("EFF").

The scopeof the federalgovernment'slegal authority and technicalability to conduct
electronic surveillance has been a matter of great controversy in the wake of the USA

454 ShotwellStreet. San Francisco, 94110 USA CA
0 +14154369333

0

+14154369993

0 www.eff.org

0

info@eff.org

Foundation

Act,

18

5

sounds,

4 I

Foreign

to

used

that

probable

question: using

DOl

which

Locater

For

an

In

expanded

has

publicly

As

'"

See

particular,

Intercept

application

Electronic example,

left

can

V.S.C.

used are

will

"The

PATRIOT

substantially

commerce."
pen-trap requires the ("URL Intelligence and state adequately cause?" "Can not surveillance § Uniting public and 3123 cannot it confirm it its under devices. ") a is the is Obstruct interpretation wiretap to ("pen-trap unclear unclear crucially Yet government and be be

of information

electromagnetic,

the most profound constitutional

addressing or signaling information"S ("DRAS

3127.
expanded
protective Surveillance 18 whether the authority collected the Strengthening V. The order to Terrorism whether public's S. contenr uninfonned the C. order,,).2 DOl it of of based § see public granted by collects 3122 PATRIOT privacy.

data,

in

Act

the

or

communication'

("P

definitions

intelligence

A

TRIOT',).I

of

photoelectronic by PATRIOT
Act has the interest what of a Act," on pen-trap refused DOl an of America The ("pen-trap probable I'm or 1978, electronic Pub. EFF in pen-trap believes considers reading an to

of

"pen

any

means

18V.S.C.§ 2511(12).

The

nature

register"

refusal

any

and

about

by

transmitted

transfer

to

Congress

of

provisions

and

privacy

regarding Internet communications

or photooptical

rights, is inestimable.

pen-traporder basedonly on a certification of relevance.
how

definitions in the context of Internet communications--whether PATRIOT's amendments--is a mystery to the public.

§ 216. Yet the DOJ's interpretation of those

scopeof this request. 3"'Contents', when usedwith respectto any wire, oral, or electroniccommunication, includesany information concerningthe substance, purport, or meaningof that communication." 18V.S.C.§ 2511(8).

enforcement agentsusing "pen registers"or "trap andtracedevices"asdefinedby 18 V.S.C.§ 3127(3)and (4) (collectively andalternatively,"pen-trapdevices"),pursuantto

Although Internetusersreasonably expectthat their online readinghabitsare private,the

The public has a right to know where the government draws the line between infonnation

2 Records regarding use of pen registers and trap and trace devices authorized under the 50 § 1801et seq.,are outsidethe

2
device L. by therefore answer answer cause, No. Providing

the

"trap

application")

Department

the

V.S.C.

of

communication,4

definitions

itself

on

signs,

and

a

advocates

in

executive

in 107-56

and

web

regarding

the

to

the

the

or

whole

seeks to

information")

authorized

that

trace

non-content

wake

public's

signals, know

web

address

Appropriate

(2001).

of

question,

at

or

disclosure

for

such

branch

device," without

of Justice

§

electronic

system that affects
whether very to collect which having simple Tools of the the devices URLs implicates Required to show

in

an

3127(3)

or

9/11.

writing,

part

as

interception

order

Unifonn

"dialing,

EFF

is

("DOJ")

by

using

before or after

mayor may not be gathered by law

interstate

and issued

surveillance

what

a

images,

wire,

Resource

(4)

the

routing,

of

to

types

under

were

or foreign

that may be collected with a

see 18 V.S.C. §

radio,

following agencyrecords,whetherin whole or in part and whetherin paperor electronic form, and including all recordsin your possession regardless the origin~ting agency: of
All records, including blank forms, prepared or collected by the DOJ,

Federal Bureau of Investigation ("FBI"),

or any U.S. Attorney's

Office in

connectionwith, in preparationfor, or in response any inquiry madeto the to
Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section ("CCIPS") of the Criminal Division by any U.S. Attorney or other DOJ or FBI employee DOJ's

regarding the use of pen-trap devices to monitor electronic communications or Internet-based wire communications6 (i.e., "Voice-over-Internet-Protocol" or
"VOW" communications). This request encompasses inquiries made at

the

time before or after PATRIOT's

enactment,

and includes

but is not limited

any

to

recordsconcerning"prior consultations"with CCIPS made in accordance
with the DOJ's U.S. Attorneys' Manual: Relevant inquiries may include but are not limited to the following:

a)

What

particular

types

of

infonnation

constitute

DRAS

infonnation

may be collected via a pen-trap device when monitoring electronic or
VOIP communications, and why? (E.g., "Are URLs dialing,

addressing or signaling infonnation that can be collected using a pen
register or trap and trace device, as those are defined by 18 U

§ 3127?")

b) What particulartypesof infonnation constitutecontentthat may not be
collected via a pen-trap device when monitoring electronic or

.S.C.

routing,

communications,

and why?!

(E.g.," Are email subject lines 'content' as

definedby 18 U.S.C. 2511(8)?") §

means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the
for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other

6

'"

Wire

use

of

like

connection

facilities

communication'

between

the

point

of

origin

and

the

point

of

reception

(including

VOIP

that

the

of

such

connection

in

a

switching

station)

furnished

or

operated

by

any

person

engaged

use

providing

or operating

such

facilities

for

the

transmission interstate or

of

interstate

or foreign commerce."

communications
U.S.C. § 2511(1}.

or communications

affecting

foreign

18
with

7

See

United

States

Attorneys'

Manual

("US

AM"}

at

9-7500,

II

Prior

the

Computer

Crime

and

Intellectual

Property

Section

of

the

Criminal

Consultation

Division

for

Applications

for

Pen

Register

and

Trap

and

Trace

Orders

Capable

of

Uniform Resource Locators (URLs),
<http://www.usdoj .gov /usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title9/title9

"

available

DOJ employees and FBI
have repeatedly been questions about what constitutes 'content'
. "Any

at

.htm>

Collecting

instructed

to

address

such

inquiries

.

(CCIPS)

to

8

CCIPS:

must

be

coordinated

with

Main

Justice

[S]uch

questions

should

be

addressed...

to...

the

Computer

Crime

Intellectual

Property

Section

in

the

computer

context

(202-514-1026}."

Deputy

3

and

in

c) What particulardevicesconstitutepen-trapdevicesin the contextof
electronic or VOIP communications, and why?9 (E.g., "Is (x) software (y) hardware configured in (z) manner a pen register or trap and trace or

device, as those are defined

by 18 V.S.C. § 3127?")

This requestincludesbut is not limited to inquiries aboutwhetherthe following
types of information constitute content or DRAS

. URLs, . IP addresses, .
Email Email subject addresses,

. . . .
2.

Transport

protocols

lines,

used,

Ports accessed, Communication size in bytes,
Time and date stamps,

Any combination of the above
All policy directives or guidance issued before or after PATRIOT's effective date to any U.S. Attorneys or other DOJ or FBI employees regarding

or

information:

potential

or

actual

use

of

pen-trap

devices

to

monitor

electronic

or

communications,

including but not limited to any policy directives or

guidancerelevantto the inquiries cited above. 3:
All policy directives or guidance issued to any U.S. Attorneys or other DOJ or FBI employees regarding what constitutes "technology reasonably available

VOIP

the

[a governmentagency]that restrictsthe recordingor decodingof electronicor other impulsesto the dialing, routing, addressing, signalinginformation and

Attorney

General

Larry

Thompson's

May

24,

2002

Memorandum

on

Collection

and

Investigative

Use

of

'Content'

in

the

Operation

of

Pen

and

Trap

and

Trace

Devices"

("Thompson

Overcollection

Memo

"),

.

available

at

<http://www.house.gov/judiciary/attachD.PDF>.

"Agents and prosecutors with questions aboutwhethera particular type of
information constitutes content should contact. . . the Computer Crime

formerly

Intellectual
"Field Guidance

Property
on New

Section
Authorities

in the computer
That Relate

context
to Computer

(202-514-1026)."
Crime and

and

Registers

"Avoiding

CCIPS'

Electronic

Evidence

Enacted

in

the

USA

PATRIOT

Act

of2001"

Guidance "), available at <http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/PatriotAct.htm>
9 DOJ and FBI employees have been instructed to address such inquiries

.
to CCIPS. See

CCIPS' ,.Searching and Seizing Computers and Related Electronic Evidence Issues,"

XXX(C}(1), available at <http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/searching.html>
("Prosecutors or agents may have questions about whether particular devices constitute pen registers or trap and trace devices, and they should direct any such questions to the
Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section at (202) 514-1026 ")

4

("CCIPSField

to

utilized in the processing transmittingof wire or electronic and communications asnot to includethe contentsof any wire or electronic so communications" under 18V.S.C.§ 3121(c).
4,

All records, including blank forms, prepared or collected by the DOJ, the FBI,
or any U.S. Attorney's Office in connection with any and all instances

"overcollection" ("the collection of 'content' in the useof pen registersor trap and tracedevicesunderchapter206",10 under 18 U.S.C. § 3121 et seq.). i.e., 5
All policy directives or guidance issued to any U.S. Attorneys or other DO] or FBI employees regarding DO] or FBI policy on the avoidance

overcollection and the handling of overcollected content.
6.
All records, including blank forms, prepared or collected by the DOJ, the FBI or any U.S. Attorney's Office in connection with any potential or actual use

of

of

overcollected content, whether for an affirmative investigative purpose or otherwise.11
1.

with 18 V.S.C.
agency implementing an ex

All

records

collected

and

prepared

in

§ 3 123(a)(3)(A),

"where

the law

enforcement

parteorder underthis subsection [did so] by installing and using its own pen registeror trap andtracedeviceon a packet-switched datanetwork of a provider of electroniccommunicationserviceto the public." 8 All annual reports submitted to Congress as required by 18 V.S.C. § 3126,12
from January 1 st, 1999 to the present, and all records prepared or collected

accordance

order to prepare or complete those reports or any future report.
9..
Any other report or testimony to Congress made by the DOJ, the FBI, or any

U.S. Attorney's

Office,

whether

before or after PATRIOT's

enactment,

regarding the actual or potential use of pen-trap devices to monitor electronic or VOIP communications, all recordsprepared collectedin order to and or prepare or complete any past or future report or testimony.
10. All court decisions and legal pleadings filed by any party regarding any pen-

trap application seeking or any pen-trap order authorizing the collection of infonnation aboutelectronicor VOIP communications, whether before or after PATRIOT's enactment. This request includes but is not limited to all decisions and pleadings in every case where a pen-trap application sought or a
10 Thompson
II "[I]t is the policy

Overco//ection
of this Department

Memo.
that [overcollected) content may not be used for

any affirmative investigative purpose, except in a rare case in order to prevent an immediate danger of death, serious physical injury, or harm to national security." Id. 12"The Attorney General shall annually report to congress on the number of pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice " 18 V.S.C. § 3126.

5

in

of

pen-traporder authorizedthe collection of information on a computer network,and everycasewherea private litigant challengedsucha pen-trap
order. 13

1. Any agencyrecordscontainingthe following information, for the years1990 to the present: a) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/orimplemented, wherelaw enforcement requested installationor useof its own penthe trap deviceto monitor electronicor VOIP communications, whetheron the packet-switched datanetwork of a provider of electronic
communication service to the public or otherwise. 14

b) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/or implemented to
collect the URLs visited by a surveillance target, including the number

those to collect complete URLs, and the number of those to collect only a
specific portion ofURLs (e.g., while <http://www.eff.org/privacyl> is complete URL pointing to a particular web page, <http://www.eff.org> a

reveals only the second-level domain of a particular web site).

c) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/orimplementedto collect the IP addresses visited by a surveillancetarget,including the numberof IP addresses collected. d) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/orimplemented to collect the IP addresses visited by a surveillance target,wherethe IP
addresses could be readily translated into URLs or portions of

e) The numberof pen-trapordersapplied for, issued,and/orimplemented to
collect "tracing information indicating the source of requests to view

URLs.1S

particular URL",16 including the number of pen-trap orders applied for, issued, and/or implemented for each particular type of tracing information
collected, and the number of URLs that were monitored.

13 "Numerouscourtsacrossthe country haveappliedthe [pre-PATRIOT]

pen/trap statute

to communications on computer networks," and "certain private litigants have challenged the application of the pen/trap statute to such electronic communications based on the
statute's telephone specific language." CCIPS Field Guidance. See also, e.g., In United States of America, Cr. No. 99-2713M (C.D. Cal. Feb. 4, 2000) (McMahon, re Mag.

J.) (unpublished opinion, available at
<http://www.epic.org/privacy/carnivore/cd_cal_order.html>) (applying pre-PATRIOT

~n-trap statute to Internet communications).
V.S.C.

4 See 18 § 3123(a)(3)(A). 15Prior consultation with CCIPSis not requiredfor
would merely authorize collection of Internet Protocol

"applicationsfor pen registerorders
(IP) addresses, even if such of URLs." USAM at 9-7.500. IP

addresses

that

can

be

readily

translated

into

URLs

or

16Id.

6

portions

a

of

to f) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor. issued.and/orimplemented

collect tracing information indicating the sourceof requests access to a particular IP address. including the numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor. issued.and/orimplemented eachparticulartype of tracing information for
collected. the number of IP addresses that were monitored. the number

those
site. and

IP addressesthat hosted more than one second-level domain or web
the number of second-level domains or web sites affected.

g) The particular types of devices, including hardware and software and
DOJ, FBI, or any U.S. Attorney's Office for use as pen-trap devices

whether provided by the government or a third-party, approved by the
collect infonnation regarding electronic or VOIP communications, and the
to

numberof pen-trapapplicationsthat soughtor pen-trapordersthat authorizedeachparticulartype of device's usefor collection of such information.
h) The number and nature of facilities where a pen-trap device was

pursuant to a pen-trap order to collect infonnation regarding electronic or
VOW communications. In the context of telephones, the "facility"

used

be the particular phone line that was monitored; in the context of the Internet, facilities would include, e.g., particular email addresses,URLs,
or VOW telephone numbers that were monitored.

i)

The

nwnber

of

individual

persons

whose

communications

were

as a result of each pen-trap order to collect infonnation regarding electronicor VOIP communications, the total nwnber of such and individuals monitored for each year, including individuals not targeted by an order whose communications were incidentally monitored.

j)

The numberof individual communications monitoredas a result of each
pen-trap order to collect information regarding electronic or

communications,

and the total number of such communications

VOIP

for eachyear,including the communications individuals not targetedby of
an order whose communications were incidentally

Waiver of Processing Fees
The requester qualifies as a "representative of the news media," and fees associated with

the processing of this request must therefore be "limited to reasonable standard charges

for documentduplication." 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(4)(A)(ii){II). The requester is a news
media organization that "gathers information of potential interest to a segment of the
public" and "uses it editorial skills to turn raw materials into a distinct work, and

distributes them to an audience." National Security Archive v. Department of Defense, 880 F.2d 1381, 1387 (D.C.Cir. 1989).
EFF is a non-profit) member-supported civil liberties organization, advocating for the

protection of civil rights and free expression in the digital world. In that role EFF

..,

monitored.

monitored

monitored

would

of

publisheseducational and advocacymaterialsfor its 13,000members the public, via and a weekly email newsletterand <http://www.eff.org>,one of the most linked-to web sites on the Internet. The recordsrequested not soughtfor commercialuse,andthe requester are plansto
disseminate the information disclosed as a result of this FOIA request through

channels described above.

Waiver of Duplication Costs
Additionally, we request a fee waiver for duplication costs because disclosure of this information is in the public interest. The information EFF seeks is likely to

significantly to the public understanding government of activity. EFF is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)research educationorganizationworking to increase and citizen participationin governance issues.The requester making this requestspecifically to further the is public's understanding the government'suseof its surveillanceauthority within the of United States.
Although the DOJ has consistently praised PATRIOT as a key tool in the fight

contribute

the

terror that does not pose a threat to civil liberties, see, e.g.,
<http://www.lifeandliberty.gov>, the DOJ has failed to adequately inform the about its use ofPA TRIOT powers, see, e.g., Adam Clymer, "Justice Dept. Balks public at Effort to Study Antiterror Powers," New York Times (August 14,2002). Specifically,

against

assuring public that PATRIOT's expansion pen-trapauthority to the Internet"has the of provenaseffective at safeguarding Fourth Amendmentvaluesas it hasat bringing
terrorists to justice,"17 the DOJ has refused to publicly state whether or not it uses authority to collect URLs or other content-revealing information without probable that cause.

The exactscopeof the DO]' s legal authority andtechnicalability to conductpen-trap surveillanceof Internetcommunications beena matterof greatpublic controversy has sinceevenbeforePATRIOT's passage; newsarticles reflect the strongand continued public interestin the materialsEFF seeksin our request. See,e.g.,

.

Nick

Gillespie,

"Penned,

Trapped:

The

Absurd

Claim

That

Increases
(challenging

Your
DO]'s

Privacy."
characterization

Reason

Online
ofPA

(September
TRIOT § 216

4,2003)
as privacy-

enhancing;

available

at

<http://www.reason.com/links/linksO90403.shtml>);

17Anti- Terrorism
Hearing Before the

Investigations
Subcomm. on

and the Fourth
the Constitution

Amendment
of the House

after September
Comm. on the

PATRIOT

11. 2001:
Judiciary,

108th

Congo

28

(1993)

(prepared

statement

of

Viet

D.

Dinh,

Assistant

Attorney

while

for

the

Office

of

Legal

Policy,

Department

of

Justice).

See

<http://www.lifeandliberty.gov/subs/add_myths.htm#_Toc654821

also

02>

("[S]ection

General

216

enhancedthe privacy protections in the pen-register statute,"a statutewhich provides
for "robust oversight" of law enforcement and "ensures that law enforcement will be able

to collect non-contentinformation aboutterrorists' communications... ").

8

. .

Patricia

Cohen,

"9/11

Law

Means

More

Snooping?

Or

Maybe

New

York

Times

(September

7,

2002)

(reporting

on

debate

over

Less?"

of PATRIOT's
Kevin Galvin, "Rights

expansion of pen-trap authority to the Internet);
and Wrongs: Why New Law-Enforcement

Powers

Worry

Civil

Libertarians,"

Seattle

Times

(December

(discussing

civil

libertarians

objections

to

PATRIOT,

including

6,2001)

.
.

expansion of pen-trap authority);
Carrie Kirby, "Watchdogs Say Terror Bill Goes Too Far,"

Francisco Chronicle (October 25,2001) (noting civil libertarians objections to new surveillance authorities in anti-terror bill, including pen-trap authority);
Carl Kaplan, "Concern Over Proposed Changes in Surveillance, New York Times (September 21,2001) Internet (reporting on the

.

debateover proposed anti-terrorbill's impact on Internetsurveillance anddiscussing Internetpen-trapcontroversy); the
John Schwartz, "FBI Makes Case For Net Wiretaps;

.

System Faces Fire on Hill," The Washington Post (July 25, 2000) (describing controversy over FBI's use of 'Carnivore' to conduct Internet wiretaps and pen-trap surveillance); and
John Markoff, "Digital-Age Wiretapping Plan By F.B.I. Opposition," New York Times (August 11, 1997) (discussing Draws Internet

pen-trap surveillance in the context of a debate over the
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act).

Law

review

articles

also

evidence

a

continuing

controversy

over

the

'Carnivore'

application

San

its

impact

of

trap authority when applied to the Internet.
Surveillance Law After the USA PATRIOT Act:

Compare, e.g., Orin S. Kerr, Internet
The Big Brother That Isn '1,97 Nw. U.

pen-

Rev. 607, 639 (2003) (arguing the privacy benefits of PATRIOT's
trap statute) with Laurie Thomas Lee, The USA PATRIOT Act and

changes to the penTelecommunications:

Privacy

Under

Attack,

29

Rutgers

Computer

&

Tech.

L.J.

371,394

(2003)

the

constitutionality

ofP

A

TRIOT's

changes

to

the

pen-trap

The

public

interest

in

t.lte

materials

EFF

seeks

is

heightened

by

statute).

the

fact

that

(questioning

PATRIOT

need more information

provisionsare setto expire at the end of2005. Both Congress the public and on how PATRIOT powersare currently being usedin orderto fully debatethoseprovisions' renewal,or to advocatefor or againstthe expirationof additionalprovisions.
If EFF'
reference s request is denied in whole or part, we ask that you justify all deletions by

to

specific

exemptions

of

the

FOIA.

EFF

expects

you

to

release

all

many

portions

of otherwise

exempt

material.

We

further

ask

that

all

responsive

records

be

produced

as

they

are

identified

gathered, ratherthan delayingproductionuntil all responsive recordsare found. EFF is opento negotiatinga modification to this requestwhereproductionof all responsive documents would be unreasonably voluminous.However,EFF reserves right to the appeala decisionto withhold any information or to deny a waiver of fees. 9

and

segregable

L

Please also be advised that, by separate letter to Barbara Comstock, Director of Public Affairs for DOJ, we are requesting the expedited processing of this request. Notwithstanding Ms. Comstock’s determination, we look forward to your reply within 20 business days, as the statute requires under Section 552(a)(6)(A)(I). Thank you for your prompt attention to this matter. Please respond to Kevin Bankston, Attorney and Equal Justice Works/Bruce J. Ennis Fellow, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 454 Shotwell Street, San Francisco, CA 94110, telephone (415) 436-9333, ext. 126.

_________________________________ KEVIN S. BANKSTON Attorney and Bruce J. Ennis/Equal Justice Works Fellow Electronic Frontier Foundation cc: JOSHUA KOLTUN, Counsel for Requester DLA Piper Rudnick Gray Cary US LLP 333 Market Street, Suite 3200 San Francisco, CA 94105-2150 Direct tel. 415-659-7027 Direct fax. 415-659-7327 Main tel. 415-659-7000 Main fax. 415-659-7300

10

Related Interests

09 'reed"C' cc "'" Flectcoo"°coC't,ec

Frontier

Foundation

January13,2005
VIA FEDERAL EXPRESS
OVERNIGHT David M. Hardy, Chief

Record/Information Records
Federal Bmeau

Dissemination Division
Investigation

Section

Management

Department
935 Pennsylvania

of Justice
Avenue, N. W.

Washington,

DC

of

Thomas

J.

McIntyre,

20535-0001

FOIAfP

A

Criminal

Department

Division

Unit

of Justice

Suite 1127, Keeney Building
Washington, DC 20530-000

Melanie
Office of

Ann

Pustay,

Chief

Deputy

Infomlation

and

Privacy

Department

of Justice

Suite 570, Flag Building
Washington, DC 20530-0001

Marie

A.

0

'Rourke,

Assistant

Director

FOlA/Privacy
Executive Office

Unit
for United States Attorneys

Department

of Justice

Director

Room 7300,600 E Street,N.W .
Washington, DC 20530-0001

\

RE:
Dear

ACT REQUEST
Officers:

FREEDOM

OF

Freedom

of Information

This

letter

constitutes

a

request

INFORMAflON

for

agency

records

DELIVERY

under

the

Freedom

of

Information

5

U

.S.C.

§

552

("FOIA

").

It

is

submitted

on

behalf

of

the

Electronic

Frontier

("EFF").

The scopeof the federalgovernment'slegal authority and technicalability to conduct
electronic surveillance has been a matter of great controversy in the wake of the USA

454 ShotwellStreet. San Francisco, 94110 USA CA
0 +14154369333

0

+14154369993

0 www.eff.org

0

info@eff.org

Foundation

Act,

18

5

sounds,

4 I

Foreign

to

used

that

probable

question: using

DOl

which

Locater

For

an

In

expanded

has

publicly

As

'"

See

particular,

Intercept

application

Electronic example,

left

can

V.S.C.

used are

will

"The

PATRIOT

substantially

commerce."
pen-trap requires the ("URL Intelligence and state adequately cause?" "Can not surveillance § Uniting public and 3123 cannot it confirm it its under devices. ") a is the is Obstruct interpretation wiretap to ("pen-trap unclear unclear crucially Yet government and be be

of information

electromagnetic,

the most profound constitutional

addressing or signaling information"S ("DRAS

3127.
expanded
protective Surveillance 18 whether the authority collected the Strengthening V. The order to Terrorism whether public's S. contenr uninfonned the C. order,,).2 DOl it of of based § see public granted by collects 3122 PATRIOT privacy.

data,

in

Act

the

or

communication'

("P

definitions

intelligence

A

TRIOT',).I

of

photoelectronic by PATRIOT
Act has the interest what of a Act," on pen-trap refused DOl an of America The ("pen-trap probable I'm or 1978, electronic Pub. EFF in pen-trap believes considers reading an to

of

"pen

any

means

18V.S.C.§ 2511(12).

The

nature

register"

refusal

any

and

about

by

transmitted

transfer

to

Congress

of

provisions

and

privacy

regarding Internet communications

or photooptical

rights, is inestimable.

pen-traporder basedonly on a certification of relevance.
how

definitions in the context of Internet communications--whether PATRIOT's amendments--is a mystery to the public.

§ 216. Yet the DOJ's interpretation of those

scopeof this request. 3"'Contents', when usedwith respectto any wire, oral, or electroniccommunication, includesany information concerningthe substance, purport, or meaningof that communication." 18V.S.C.§ 2511(8).

enforcement agentsusing "pen registers"or "trap andtracedevices"asdefinedby 18 V.S.C.§ 3127(3)and (4) (collectively andalternatively,"pen-trapdevices"),pursuantto

Although Internetusersreasonably expectthat their online readinghabitsare private,the

The public has a right to know where the government draws the line between infonnation

2 Records regarding use of pen registers and trap and trace devices authorized under the 50 § 1801et seq.,are outsidethe

2
device L. by therefore answer answer cause, No. Providing

the

"trap

application")

Department

the

V.S.C.

of

communication,4

definitions

itself

on

signs,

and

a

advocates

in

executive

in 107-56

and

web

regarding

the

to

the

the

or

whole

seeks to

information")

authorized

that

trace

non-content

wake

public's

signals, know

web

address

Appropriate

(2001).

of

question,

at

or

disclosure

for

such

branch

device," without

of Justice

§

electronic

system that affects
whether very to collect which having simple Tools of the the devices URLs implicates Required to show

in

an

3127(3)

or

9/11.

writing,

part

as

interception

order

Unifonn

"dialing,

EFF

is

("DOJ")

by

using

before or after

mayor may not be gathered by law

interstate

and issued

surveillance

what

a

images,

wire,

Resource

(4)

the

routing,

of

to

types

under

were

or foreign

that may be collected with a

see 18 V.S.C. §

radio,

following agencyrecords,whetherin whole or in part and whetherin paperor electronic form, and including all recordsin your possession regardless the origin~ting agency: of
All records, including blank forms, prepared or collected by the DOJ,

Federal Bureau of Investigation ("FBI"),

or any U.S. Attorney's

Office in

connectionwith, in preparationfor, or in response any inquiry madeto the to
Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section ("CCIPS") of the Criminal Division by any U.S. Attorney or other DOJ or FBI employee DOJ's

regarding the use of pen-trap devices to monitor electronic communications or Internet-based wire communications6 (i.e., "Voice-over-Internet-Protocol" or
"VOW" communications). This request encompasses inquiries made at

the

time before or after PATRIOT's

enactment,

and includes

but is not limited

any

to

recordsconcerning"prior consultations"with CCIPS made in accordance
with the DOJ's U.S. Attorneys' Manual: Relevant inquiries may include but are not limited to the following:

a)

What

particular

types

of

infonnation

constitute

DRAS

infonnation

may be collected via a pen-trap device when monitoring electronic or
VOIP communications, and why? (E.g., "Are URLs dialing,

addressing or signaling infonnation that can be collected using a pen
register or trap and trace device, as those are defined by 18 U

§ 3127?")

b) What particulartypesof infonnation constitutecontentthat may not be
collected via a pen-trap device when monitoring electronic or

.S.C.

routing,

communications,

and why?!

(E.g.," Are email subject lines 'content' as

definedby 18 U.S.C. 2511(8)?") §

means any aural transfer made in whole or in part through the
for the transmission of communications by the aid of wire, cable, or other

6

'"

Wire

use

of

like

connection

facilities

communication'

between

the

point

of

origin

and

the

point

of

reception

(including

VOIP

that

the

of

such

connection

in

a

switching

station)

furnished

or

operated

by

any

person

engaged

use

providing

or operating

such

facilities

for

the

transmission interstate or

of

interstate

or foreign commerce."

communications
U.S.C. § 2511(1}.

or communications

affecting

foreign

18
with

7

See

United

States

Attorneys'

Manual

("US

AM"}

at

9-7500,

II

Prior

the

Computer

Crime

and

Intellectual

Property

Section

of

the

Criminal

Consultation

Division

for

Applications

for

Pen

Register

and

Trap

and

Trace

Orders

Capable

of

Uniform Resource Locators (URLs),
<http://www.usdoj .gov /usao/eousa/foia_reading_room/usam/title9/title9

"

available

DOJ employees and FBI
have repeatedly been questions about what constitutes 'content'
. "Any

at

.htm>

Collecting

instructed

to

address

such

inquiries

.

(CCIPS)

to

8

CCIPS:

must

be

coordinated

with

Main

Justice

[S]uch

questions

should

be

addressed...

to...

the

Computer

Crime

Intellectual

Property

Section

in

the

computer

context

(202-514-1026}."

Deputy

3

and

in

c) What particulardevicesconstitutepen-trapdevicesin the contextof
electronic or VOIP communications, and why?9 (E.g., "Is (x) software (y) hardware configured in (z) manner a pen register or trap and trace or

device, as those are defined

by 18 V.S.C. § 3127?")

This requestincludesbut is not limited to inquiries aboutwhetherthe following
types of information constitute content or DRAS

. URLs, . IP addresses, .
Email Email subject addresses,

. . . .
2.

Transport

protocols

lines,

used,

Ports accessed, Communication size in bytes,
Time and date stamps,

Any combination of the above
All policy directives or guidance issued before or after PATRIOT's effective date to any U.S. Attorneys or other DOJ or FBI employees regarding

or

information:

potential

or

actual

use

of

pen-trap

devices

to

monitor

electronic

or

communications,

including but not limited to any policy directives or

guidancerelevantto the inquiries cited above. 3:
All policy directives or guidance issued to any U.S. Attorneys or other DOJ or FBI employees regarding what constitutes "technology reasonably available

VOIP

the

[a governmentagency]that restrictsthe recordingor decodingof electronicor other impulsesto the dialing, routing, addressing, signalinginformation and

Attorney

General

Larry

Thompson's

May

24,

2002

Memorandum

on

Collection

and

Investigative

Use

of

'Content'

in

the

Operation

of

Pen

and

Trap

and

Trace

Devices"

("Thompson

Overcollection

Memo

"),

.

available

at

<http://www.house.gov/judiciary/attachD.PDF>.

"Agents and prosecutors with questions aboutwhethera particular type of
information constitutes content should contact. . . the Computer Crime

formerly

Intellectual
"Field Guidance

Property
on New

Section
Authorities

in the computer
That Relate

context
to Computer

(202-514-1026)."
Crime and

and

Registers

"Avoiding

CCIPS'

Electronic

Evidence

Enacted

in

the

USA

PATRIOT

Act

of2001"

Guidance "), available at <http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/PatriotAct.htm>
9 DOJ and FBI employees have been instructed to address such inquiries

.
to CCIPS. See

CCIPS' ,.Searching and Seizing Computers and Related Electronic Evidence Issues,"

XXX(C}(1), available at <http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/cybercrime/searching.html>
("Prosecutors or agents may have questions about whether particular devices constitute pen registers or trap and trace devices, and they should direct any such questions to the
Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section at (202) 514-1026 ")

4

("CCIPSField

to

utilized in the processing transmittingof wire or electronic and communications asnot to includethe contentsof any wire or electronic so communications" under 18V.S.C.§ 3121(c).
4,

All records, including blank forms, prepared or collected by the DOJ, the FBI,
or any U.S. Attorney's Office in connection with any and all instances

"overcollection" ("the collection of 'content' in the useof pen registersor trap and tracedevicesunderchapter206",10 under 18 U.S.C. § 3121 et seq.). i.e., 5
All policy directives or guidance issued to any U.S. Attorneys or other DO] or FBI employees regarding DO] or FBI policy on the avoidance

overcollection and the handling of overcollected content.
6.
All records, including blank forms, prepared or collected by the DOJ, the FBI or any U.S. Attorney's Office in connection with any potential or actual use

of

of

overcollected content, whether for an affirmative investigative purpose or otherwise.11
1.

with 18 V.S.C.
agency implementing an ex

All

records

collected

and

prepared

in

§ 3 123(a)(3)(A),

"where

the law

enforcement

parteorder underthis subsection [did so] by installing and using its own pen registeror trap andtracedeviceon a packet-switched datanetwork of a provider of electroniccommunicationserviceto the public." 8 All annual reports submitted to Congress as required by 18 V.S.C. § 3126,12
from January 1 st, 1999 to the present, and all records prepared or collected

accordance

order to prepare or complete those reports or any future report.
9..
Any other report or testimony to Congress made by the DOJ, the FBI, or any

U.S. Attorney's

Office,

whether

before or after PATRIOT's

enactment,

regarding the actual or potential use of pen-trap devices to monitor electronic or VOIP communications, all recordsprepared collectedin order to and or prepare or complete any past or future report or testimony.
10. All court decisions and legal pleadings filed by any party regarding any pen-

trap application seeking or any pen-trap order authorizing the collection of infonnation aboutelectronicor VOIP communications, whether before or after PATRIOT's enactment. This request includes but is not limited to all decisions and pleadings in every case where a pen-trap application sought or a
10 Thompson
II "[I]t is the policy

Overco//ection
of this Department

Memo.
that [overcollected) content may not be used for

any affirmative investigative purpose, except in a rare case in order to prevent an immediate danger of death, serious physical injury, or harm to national security." Id. 12"The Attorney General shall annually report to congress on the number of pen register orders and orders for trap and trace devices applied for by law enforcement agencies of the Department of Justice " 18 V.S.C. § 3126.

5

in

of

pen-traporder authorizedthe collection of information on a computer network,and everycasewherea private litigant challengedsucha pen-trap
order. 13

1. Any agencyrecordscontainingthe following information, for the years1990 to the present: a) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/orimplemented, wherelaw enforcement requested installationor useof its own penthe trap deviceto monitor electronicor VOIP communications, whetheron the packet-switched datanetwork of a provider of electronic
communication service to the public or otherwise. 14

b) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/or implemented to
collect the URLs visited by a surveillance target, including the number

those to collect complete URLs, and the number of those to collect only a
specific portion ofURLs (e.g., while <http://www.eff.org/privacyl> is complete URL pointing to a particular web page, <http://www.eff.org> a

reveals only the second-level domain of a particular web site).

c) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/orimplementedto collect the IP addresses visited by a surveillancetarget,including the numberof IP addresses collected. d) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor, issued,and/orimplemented to collect the IP addresses visited by a surveillance target,wherethe IP
addresses could be readily translated into URLs or portions of

e) The numberof pen-trapordersapplied for, issued,and/orimplemented to
collect "tracing information indicating the source of requests to view

URLs.1S

particular URL",16 including the number of pen-trap orders applied for, issued, and/or implemented for each particular type of tracing information
collected, and the number of URLs that were monitored.

13 "Numerouscourtsacrossthe country haveappliedthe [pre-PATRIOT]

pen/trap statute

to communications on computer networks," and "certain private litigants have challenged the application of the pen/trap statute to such electronic communications based on the
statute's telephone specific language." CCIPS Field Guidance. See also, e.g., In United States of America, Cr. No. 99-2713M (C.D. Cal. Feb. 4, 2000) (McMahon, re Mag.

J.) (unpublished opinion, available at
<http://www.epic.org/privacy/carnivore/cd_cal_order.html>) (applying pre-PATRIOT

~n-trap statute to Internet communications).
V.S.C.

4 See 18 § 3123(a)(3)(A). 15Prior consultation with CCIPSis not requiredfor
would merely authorize collection of Internet Protocol

"applicationsfor pen registerorders
(IP) addresses, even if such of URLs." USAM at 9-7.500. IP

addresses

that

can

be

readily

translated

into

URLs

or

16Id.

6

portions

a

of

to f) The numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor. issued.and/orimplemented

collect tracing information indicating the sourceof requests access to a particular IP address. including the numberof pen-trapordersappliedfor. issued.and/orimplemented eachparticulartype of tracing information for
collected. the number of IP addresses that were monitored. the number

those
site. and

IP addressesthat hosted more than one second-level domain or web
the number of second-level domains or web sites affected.

g) The particular types of devices, including hardware and software and
DOJ, FBI, or any U.S. Attorney's Office for use as pen-trap devices

whether provided by the government or a third-party, approved by the
collect infonnation regarding electronic or VOIP communications, and the
to

numberof pen-trapapplicationsthat soughtor pen-trapordersthat authorizedeachparticulartype of device's usefor collection of such information.
h) The number and nature of facilities where a pen-trap device was

pursuant to a pen-trap order to collect infonnation regarding electronic or
VOW communications. In the context of telephones, the "facility"

used

be the particular phone line that was monitored; in the context of the Internet, facilities would include, e.g., particular email addresses,URLs,
or VOW telephone numbers that were monitored.

i)

The

nwnber

of

individual

persons

whose

communications

were

as a result of each pen-trap order to collect infonnation regarding electronicor VOIP communications, the total nwnber of such and individuals monitored for each year, including individuals not targeted by an order whose communications were incidentally monitored.

j)

The numberof individual communications monitoredas a result of each
pen-trap order to collect information regarding electronic or

communications,

and the total number of such communications

VOIP

for eachyear,including the communications individuals not targetedby of
an order whose communications were incidentally

Waiver of Processing Fees
The requester qualifies as a "representative of the news media," and fees associated with

the processing of this request must therefore be "limited to reasonable standard charges

for documentduplication." 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(4)(A)(ii){II). The requester is a news
media organization that "gathers information of potential interest to a segment of the
public" and "uses it editorial skills to turn raw materials into a distinct work, and

distributes them to an audience." National Security Archive v. Department of Defense, 880 F.2d 1381, 1387 (D.C.Cir. 1989).
EFF is a non-profit) member-supported civil liberties organization, advocating for the

protection of civil rights and free expression in the digital world. In that role EFF

..,

monitored.

monitored

monitored

would

of

publisheseducational and advocacymaterialsfor its 13,000members the public, via and a weekly email newsletterand <http://www.eff.org>,one of the most linked-to web sites on the Internet. The recordsrequested not soughtfor commercialuse,andthe requester are plansto
disseminate the information disclosed as a result of this FOIA request through

channels described above.

Waiver of Duplication Costs
Additionally, we request a fee waiver for duplication costs because disclosure of this information is in the public interest. The information EFF seeks is likely to

significantly to the public understanding government of activity. EFF is a nonprofit 501(c)(3)research educationorganizationworking to increase and citizen participationin governance issues.The requester making this requestspecifically to further the is public's understanding the government'suseof its surveillanceauthority within the of United States.
Although the DOJ has consistently praised PATRIOT as a key tool in the fight

contribute

the

terror that does not pose a threat to civil liberties, see, e.g.,
<http://www.lifeandliberty.gov>, the DOJ has failed to adequately inform the about its use ofPA TRIOT powers, see, e.g., Adam Clymer, "Justice Dept. Balks public at Effort to Study Antiterror Powers," New York Times (August 14,2002). Specifically,

against

assuring public that PATRIOT's expansion pen-trapauthority to the Internet"has the of provenaseffective at safeguarding Fourth Amendmentvaluesas it hasat bringing
terrorists to justice,"17 the DOJ has refused to publicly state whether or not it uses authority to collect URLs or other content-revealing information without probable that cause.

The exactscopeof the DO]' s legal authority andtechnicalability to conductpen-trap surveillanceof Internetcommunications beena matterof greatpublic controversy has sinceevenbeforePATRIOT's passage; newsarticles reflect the strongand continued public interestin the materialsEFF seeksin our request. See,e.g.,

.

Nick

Gillespie,

"Penned,

Trapped:

The

Absurd

Claim

That

Increases
(challenging

Your
DO]'s

Privacy."
characterization

Reason

Online
ofPA

(September
TRIOT § 216

4,2003)
as privacy-

enhancing;

available

at

<http://www.reason.com/links/linksO90403.shtml>);

17Anti- Terrorism
Hearing Before the

Investigations
Subcomm. on

and the Fourth
the Constitution

Amendment
of the House

after September
Comm. on the

PATRIOT

11. 2001:
Judiciary,

108th

Congo

28

(1993)

(prepared

statement

of

Viet

D.

Dinh,

Assistant

Attorney

while

for

the

Office

of

Legal

Policy,

Department

of

Justice).

See

<http://www.lifeandliberty.gov/subs/add_myths.htm#_Toc654821

also

02>

("[S]ection

General

216

enhancedthe privacy protections in the pen-register statute,"a statutewhich provides
for "robust oversight" of law enforcement and "ensures that law enforcement will be able

to collect non-contentinformation aboutterrorists' communications... ").

8

. .

Patricia

Cohen,

"9/11

Law

Means

More

Snooping?

Or

Maybe

New

York

Times

(September

7,

2002)

(reporting

on

debate

over

Less?"

of PATRIOT's
Kevin Galvin, "Rights

expansion of pen-trap authority to the Internet);
and Wrongs: Why New Law-Enforcement

Powers

Worry

Civil

Libertarians,"

Seattle

Times

(December

(discussing

civil

libertarians

objections

to

PATRIOT,

including

6,2001)

.
.

expansion of pen-trap authority);
Carrie Kirby, "Watchdogs Say Terror Bill Goes Too Far,"

Francisco Chronicle (October 25,2001) (noting civil libertarians objections to new surveillance authorities in anti-terror bill, including pen-trap authority);
Carl Kaplan, "Concern Over Proposed Changes in Surveillance, New York Times (September 21,2001) Internet (reporting on the

.

debateover proposed anti-terrorbill's impact on Internetsurveillance anddiscussing Internetpen-trapcontroversy); the
John Schwartz, "FBI Makes Case For Net Wiretaps;

.

System Faces Fire on Hill," The Washington Post (July 25, 2000) (describing controversy over FBI's use of 'Carnivore' to conduct Internet wiretaps and pen-trap surveillance); and
John Markoff, "Digital-Age Wiretapping Plan By F.B.I. Opposition," New York Times (August 11, 1997) (discussing Draws Internet

pen-trap surveillance in the context of a debate over the
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act).

Law

review

articles

also

evidence

a

continuing

controversy

over

the

'Carnivore'

application

San

its

impact

of

trap authority when applied to the Internet.
Surveillance Law After the USA PATRIOT Act:

Compare, e.g., Orin S. Kerr, Internet
The Big Brother That Isn '1,97 Nw. U.

pen-

Rev. 607, 639 (2003) (arguing the privacy benefits of PATRIOT's
trap statute) with Laurie Thomas Lee, The USA PATRIOT Act and

changes to the penTelecommunications:

Privacy

Under

Attack,

29

Rutgers

Computer

&

Tech.

L.J.

371,394

(2003)

the

constitutionality

ofP

A

TRIOT's

changes

to

the

pen-trap

The

public

interest

in

t.lte

materials

EFF

seeks

is

heightened

by

statute).

the

fact

that

(questioning

PATRIOT

need more information

provisionsare setto expire at the end of2005. Both Congress the public and on how PATRIOT powersare currently being usedin orderto fully debatethoseprovisions' renewal,or to advocatefor or againstthe expirationof additionalprovisions.
If EFF'
reference s request is denied in whole or part, we ask that you justify all deletions by

to

specific

exemptions

of

the

FOIA.

EFF

expects

you

to

release

all

many

portions

of otherwise

exempt

material.

We

further

ask

that

all

responsive

records

be

produced

as

they

are

identified

gathered, ratherthan delayingproductionuntil all responsive recordsare found. EFF is opento negotiatinga modification to this requestwhereproductionof all responsive documents would be unreasonably voluminous.However,EFF reserves right to the appeala decisionto withhold any information or to deny a waiver of fees. 9

and

segregable

L

Please also be advised that, by separate letter to Barbara Comstock, Director of Public Affairs for DOJ, we are requesting the expedited processing of this request. Notwithstanding Ms. Comstock’s determination, we look forward to your reply within 20 business days, as the statute requires under Section 552(a)(6)(A)(I). Thank you for your prompt attention to this matter. Please respond to Kevin Bankston, Attorney and Equal Justice Works/Bruce J. Ennis Fellow, Electronic Frontier Foundation, 454 Shotwell Street, San Francisco, CA 94110, telephone (415) 436-9333, ext. 126.

_________________________________ KEVIN S. BANKSTON Attorney and Bruce J. Ennis/Equal Justice Works Fellow Electronic Frontier Foundation cc: JOSHUA KOLTUN, Counsel for Requester DLA Piper Rudnick Gray Cary US LLP 333 Market Street, Suite 3200 San Francisco, CA 94105-2150 Direct tel. 415-659-7027 Direct fax. 415-659-7327 Main tel. 415-659-7000 Main fax. 415-659-7300

10

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