FLUID MECHANICS
David Pnueli and Chaim Gutfinger
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Technion  Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel
CAMBRIDGE
UNIVERSITY PRESS
PUBLISHED BY THE PRESS SYNDICATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE
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CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
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© Cambridge University Press 1992
This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 1992
First paperback edition 1997
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data is available.
A catalog record for this book is available from the British Library.
ISBN 052141704X hardback
ISBN 0521587972 paperback
Transferred to digital printing 2000
CONTENTS
PREFACE
1. INTRODUCTION
The Field of Fluid Mechanics
The Continuum
Local Properties in a Continuum
Body and Surface Forces
Stress at a Point
Definition of a Fluid
Units and Dimensions
Dimensional Homogeneity
Fluid Properties
Problems
2. STRESS IN A FLUID
The Momentum Equations
Index Notation
Moments on a Cube
Forces at a Point on a Plane
The Elementary Tetrahedron
Stress in a Fluid at Rest
Stress in a Moving Fluid
A Case where the Stress Is Not Constant
* The Stress Tensor
* Transformation of Coordinates  Vectors
* Transformation of Coordinates  Tensors
page XI
1
1
1
2
4
4
6
7
9
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19
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23
25
27
30
31
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36
36
37
VI
Contents
* Principal Directions
* Identical Principal Stresses  Pascal's Law
References
Problems
3. FLUID STATICS
The Equation of Hydrostatics
Manometers
Equation of Hydrostatics in Accelerating Frames of Reference
Forces Acting on Submerged Surfaces
Force on a Submerged Plane Surface
Forces on Submerged Surfaces  The General Case
Hydrostatic Stability
Problems
4. FLUIDS IN MOTIONINTEGRAL ANALYSIS
Thermodynamic Systems and Control Volumes
Reynolds Transport Theorem
Control Volume Analysis of Conservation of Mass
Conservation of Mass under Steady State Conditions
The Momentum Theorem for a Control Volume
Other Forces on the Control Volume
Angular Momentum Theorem for a Control Volume
Correction Factor for Average Velocity in Momentum Theorem
Problems
5. FLUIDS IN MOTIONDIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS
Differential Representation
Streamlines, Stream Sheets and Stream Tubes
The Material Derivative
Conservation of Mass  The Equation of Continuity
Newton's Second Law of Motion
Newton's Law of Viscosity
* Analysis of Deformation
Newtonian Fluids
The NavierStokes Equations
38
46
46
47
53
53
55
59
61
62
69
79
83
97
98
98
101
103
106
112
123
128
130
141
141
142
144
147
150
152
153
157
160
Contents
The Euler Equations
Solutions for Twodimensional Flows  The Stream Function
The Pressure in the Momentum Equations
Problems
VII
162
163
171
175
6. EXACT SOLUTIONS OF THE NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS 179
Flows between Parallel Plates
Timeindependent Flows
Timedependent Flow  The Rayleigh Problem
Steady Flow in a Round Tube
Flow in an Axisymmetric Annulus
Flow between Rotating Concentric Cylinders
References
Problems
7. ENERGY EQUATIONS
Bernoulli's Equation
Static, Dynamic and Total Pressures
Extension to Compressible Flows
Modifications of the Bernoulli Equation for Conduit Flow
Low Pressures Predicted by Bernoulli's Equation
References
Problems
179
184
187
190
193
197
201
201
213
213
219
221
225
232
234
234
8. SIMILITUDE AND ORDER OF MAGNITUDE
245
Dimensionless Equations
Similitude
Hidden Characteristic Quantities
Order of Magnitude
Estimates of the Characteristic Quantities
*The Concept of Perturbations
•Singular Perturbations
The Boundary Layer Equations
Buckingham's 71 Theorem
References
Problems
245
248
251
257
258
261
262
262
266
269
270
VIII
Contents
9. FLOWS WITH NEGLIGIBLE ACCELERATION
Flow in Narrow Gaps
Reynolds Lubrication Theory
Creeping Flows
Twodimensional Flows
Axisymmetric Flows
Stokes Flow around a Sphere
Stokes Flow around a Cylinder
References
Problems
10. HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWS  REGIONS FAR FROM
SOLID BOUNDARIES
Negligible Shear  The Euler Equations
Irrotational Motion
Potential Flow
References
Problems
11. HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWS  THE BOUNDARY
LAYER
Flow over a Flat Plate  The Blasius Solution
Von KarmanPohlhausen Integral Method
The Twodimensional Laminar Jet
References
Problems
12. TURBULENT FLOW
Reynolds Experiment
The Nature of Turbulence
The Equations of Motion in Turbulent Flow
Prandtl Mixing Length, Generalized Profiles
The Moody Diagram
Flow in Pipes
Flow through Pipe Fittings.
Noncircular Pipes
277
277
279
282
284
285
287
293
298
298
303
303
308
314
326
326
333
334
341
345
347
348
355
355
357
358
360
362
369
373
377
Contents
Coefficient of Drag
Flowinduced Lift Forces
Flowrate Measurement
Turbulent Boundary Layers
Integral Solutions for Boundary Layers
References
Problems
13. COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
Speed of Infinitesimal Disturbances  Sonic Speed
Propagation of Finite Disturbances
The Piston Analogy
Quasionedimensional Flow, Stagnation Properties
Nozzle Flow
Mass Flux through the Nozzle
The Design and Performance of a Nozzle
Tables of Onedimensional Compressible Flow
Nonisentropic Onedimensional Flows
Pipe Flow with Friction
Frictionless Pipe Flow with Heat Transfer
Shock Wave Relations
Oblique Shocks and PrandtlMayer Expansion
Lift and Drag
References
Problems
14. NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS
Flow of a Powerlaw Fluid in a Circular Tube
Flow of a Bingham Plastic Material between Parallel Plates
The Boundary Layer Equations for a Powerlaw Fluid
References
Problems
IX
378
380
383
389
390
394
394
401
401
404
406
408
412
413
416
420
421
422
426
428
432
435
436
436
443
448
450
453
454
455
APPENDIXES
459
INDEX
477
.
More effort has been made to reach a balance between exact and clear presentation. When a concept evolves from a previous one. It is believed that an important objective of engineering education is to induce the students to think in clear and exact terms. In places where this delicate balance cannot be achieved. the connection is shown. there may be programs of study in which certain parts of this book may be skipped. Care has been taken in this book to strictly observe the chain of logic. but the students who use this book are expected to have had two years of engineering education which include mathematics. physics. engineering mechanics and thermodynamics. e. As related later.PREFACE This textbook is intended to be read by undergraduate students enrolled in engineering or engineering science curricula who wish to study fluid mechanics on an intermediate level. to make them understand the basic principles of the subject. while at the same time to keep the mathematics under control such that the student's attention is not drawn away from the physics. the reason for it is clearly stated. from a pedagogical point of view it is important that these skipped parts are there and that the student feels that he or she has a complete presentation even though it is not required to read some particular section.. intuitive grasp of new ideas and creative application of these concepts. and the student is told that some of that material has to be further considered in more advanced courses. This book has been written with the intention to direct the readers to think in clear and correct terms of fluid mechanics. to induce them to develop some intuitive grasp of flow phenomena and to show them some of the beauty of the subject. No previous knowledge of fluid mechanics is assumed. and when a new start is made. However. XI . as where the turbulent boundary layer equations are derived anew. the physics prevails. Some of this balance is achieved by following the new concepts.g. In writing this book extreme effort has been made to present fluid mechanics in an exact manner.
with several examples solved. by examples of their applications. To aid in this decision. One reason for this is that the mathematics of frictionless flows is substantially simpler than that of viscous flow and that a fluid at rest really behaves like this. Also. and frictionless models in solid mechanics are in many cases fairly good approximations to reality. It then shows that under certain particular conditions the ideal fluid models may yield acceptable approximations. By then. A major objective of this book is to develop understanding and with it some intuitive grasp of . This book starts with the real viscous fluid. Moreover. Although the textbook has enough material for a twosemester course. Hence. Students who read fluid mechanics for the first time may wonder why this subject seems sometimes more formal and less intuitive than solid mechanics. fluid statics had been known long before all other branches of fluid mechanics. frictionless fluid. the student has a sufficient background and can place the ideal fluid model in its proper perspective. however. This can be achieved by first studying the mechanics of real viscous fluids and then considering simpler models which are special cases of the real fluid. it is understood that in most schools the realities brought about by the multitude of subjects in a modern engineering curriculum will limit the time allowed for fluid mechanics to a course of one semester. They are advised that most probably the encounter with fluids throughout their formal education is less extensive than the encounter with solids. Another reason is that the development of solid mechanics has preceded that of the mechanics of fluids. while still providing a coherent structure on which the interested student may in the future fill in the gaps and expand his or her knowledge of the subject. such that the new concept is reviewed from a less formal point of view. some of the advanced topics that can be skipped in a basic exposition of the subject were marked with an asterisk. The boundary layer concept is introduced as a necessary companion to ideal fluid flow. in most cases these approximations may be later improved by the introduction of corrections and by modifications of coefficients. Onedimensional compressible flow takes its place as both fast and compressible. An introduction to nonNewtonian flows is presented. The simplification resulting from the use of frictionless models should at best be applied by users who fully understand the limitations of the frictionless model. the instructor is faced with the decision of which parts of the book to exclude from the syllabus. The unqualified introduction of frictionless models in fluid mechanics may yield results which are totally wrong. These topics are included in the book for the sake of completeness as well as for a comprehensive treatment of the subject in the framework of a more advanced course. Slow flows are also treated as another extreme case of the general real fluid flow.XII Preface wherever possible. Fluid mechanics has historically developed around the concept of an ideal.
Preface XIII fluid mechanics. the pleasure of swimming in the sea of fluid mechanics compares favorably with that of walking in the field of solid mechanics. Once this first obstacle is overcome. .
.
with properties which have to be understood in a certain manner. Fluid mechanics has to deal with the mechanics of bodies that continuously change their shape. The beginner in the study of fluid mechanics may have some intuitive notion as to the nature of a fluid. INTRODUCTION The Field of Fluid Mechanics Fluid mechanics extends the ideas developed in mechanics and thermodynamics to the study of motion and equilibrium of fluids. or deform. and let S be a thermodynamic system which contains A. Let A be a representative point in the fluid. 1.1. the ideas developed in classical equilibrium thermodynamics have to be extended to allow for the additional complexity of properties which vary continuously with space and time. We. a notion that centers around the idea of a fluid not having a fixed shape. begin with the explanation of what a continuum is and how local properties are defined. namely of liquids and gases. as shown in Fig. The average density of the system S is defined as . neither the idea of a continuum nor that of a fluid have been properly defined. We then describe the various forces that act in a continuum leading to the definition of the concept of stress at a point. This idea indicates at once that the field of fluid mechanics is more complex than that of solid mechanics. The Continuum Consider a body of fluid. normally encountered in fluid mechanics.1. Similarly. Fluid mechanics bases its description of a fluid on the concept of a continuum. therefore. Let the volume of S be V and let the mass contained in it be m. The concepts of stress and continuum are then used to define a fluid. So far.
Thus a fluid may be considered a continuum in parts of the region or part of the time only.. ... i. „ . all properties of interest in the considered problem.e.e. These are outside the scope of the book.g.. ..1 Point A in a fluid. . When the continuum model breaks down. those used in statistical mechanics or statistical thermodynamics. A fluid which is a continuum with respect to all relevant properties. yet the density at each point in it is well defined. „. Furthermore. in examples where regions smaller than Veare of interest.g. . and then for another point. (1. A fluid in a region which contains only points for which convergence occurs. in which the density is defined everywhere. e. i.id PA is defined as the density at pointA.. The size of the "sufficiently small" Ve must contain at least such a number of molecules that guarantees acceptable deviations from the equilibrium distributions of their velocities.ffl. A thermodynamic system defined inside such a region need not be in equilibrium..e. It is noted that the continuum model may have to be abandoned in cases where very fine details of the flow are required. is denoted a continuum with respect to density.2) ^ BoJy. . Figure 1.. It should be noted that the existence of „. i. .Fluid Mechanics 01) We now proceed to shrink V around A. Indeed VE —> 0 is not considered at all. The requirements to be a continuum may be satisfied in one region but not in another or at one moment and not at another.2) is by no means assured. a continuum with respect to temperature. . These considerations may be repeated for another point B. A fluid can also satisfy the requirement of being a continuum with respect to other fluid properties. because for a very small Ve the loss of single molecules while further decreasing VE may cause large fluctuations in p. shall be denoted a continuum with no further qualifications. e. and so on. the limit pA must be approached for a finite Ve. resulting in pB. .. the limit in Eq.. v Ve Local Properties in a Continuum The mental experiment which has led to the concepts of density and continuum with respect to density can be adjusted to yield some other properties. If for a sufficiently small volume Ve containing A there exists a limit such that lim p = p A> (1. some other models may become appropriate. The flow of a rarefied gas is a typical example of such a case.
instead of the previous discrete/? values. thermodynamic pressure. Between two adjacent points of specification in that particular division.1. Introduction 3 such as temperature. The decision of what must be measured in these mental experiments is not always simple and is not necessarily unique. By considering this function as p. The same. The continuous p function has. What has been done so far is the establishment of a basis for translating physical reality into a form which is amenable to mathematical treatment. we consider regions of matter as continua of properties that change in a fairly smooth way. holds for other measurable properties. however. while describing a velocity profile of a gas flowing in a pipe. At a point where p is specified. The emphasis. the function interpolates between the two values and. Similarly. Hence. this function coincides with its value. of course. . Denote the considered property. does not change the approximation. Let a continuous function be defined such that for some reasonable subdivision of the region its values coincide with the values of p in the subregions. Properties which cannot be measured directly. which proves invaluable in what follows. etc. temperature can be defined as a result of a limiting process and with it the continuum with respect to temperature. the density. by changing somewhat the considered model now. wellbehaved mathematical function. Let this continuous function also have continuous partial derivatives up to some order to be specified as needed. which does not increase accuracy but is more amenable to analysis. What follows is an elaboration. but rather are calculated using other properties. The part lost in this translation process is the molecular structure of matter. With this understanding a continuum is now considered to have all its relevant properties defined everywhere. We may talk about density and temperature fields or velocity profiles. no error is introduced. A local property in a continuum is henceforth considered as the local value of this continuous function. A somewhat picturesque description of what has been achieved up to this point is that of the fluid being divided into many small subregions. the advantage of having derivatives and being integrable. is on the realization that such an experiment can be performed and that the concept of. In describing the density of a continuum we disregard the fact that matter is composed of very dense protons and neutrons surrounded by regions of zero density. fewer difficulties arise later in the analysis. The definition of such a function does not add information but rather smoothes out the description. therefore. by p. This description is indeed correct. This p is known in any subregion of the continuum. say. each of the order of Ve in size and each having a list of its properties. are assumed to be here defined only after the measurable properties have been defined. say. however. Hence. we disregard the velocity of any given molecule and treat the velocity profile of the continuum as a continuous.
. r what similar to those leading to the definition of the concept of the local properties. therefore. in the fluid at point A. electrostatics and electromagnetism. This is more complex than a single body force acting on a mass element.Fluid Mechanics Body and Surface Forces Forces acting on a fluid divide naturally into body forces and surface forces. The considerations here are someFigure 1. This limit is called the stress at point A. This disk has two sides. which depends not only on the location of point A but also on the direction of the unit normal n. Because each point in the fluid may belong to several surfaces. 1. several such surface forces seem to coexist at the point.e. Surface forces are viewed as acting on any surface defined in the fluid. force per unit surface area V* We now shrink S around A and look for a limit of the average stress. Henceforth. which lies in the plane of the disk and is. The component of the stress in the direction of this normal n is called normal stress and the component perpendicular to n.2. and therefore surface forces deserve some more elaborate consideration. The limit in Eq.. . Let a plane tangent to the surface pass also through A and a small disk be drawn on this plane. one of which is assigned to the outer normal n. Let the area of the disk be S and the force acting on its n surface be F.. . Body forces act at a distance and need not be associated with any transmission agent.. (1. . . Some typical examples of body forces are those of gravity. The average stress acting on the surface is now defined as the j. is called tangential stress or shear stress.2 A small disk tangent to a surface . ^ . In many cases they are the "effects" of external fields. the term stress is used as a short form for stress at a point. or point of contact. . i. The stress is a vector which depends on another vector n. . . tangent to the considered surface. including its boundaries. Stress at a Point Let a surface passing through point A in a fluid be defined. as shown in Fig. . .3) is a vector.
The temperature in the water changes from T = 20° C at the top to T = 10°C at the bottom of the container. p . Introduction Intuitively. The forces acting on the water are body forces and surface forces. is moving to the right with a constant velocity of 17 = 6 m/s. we do not expect it to be discontinuous. therefore. still. the normal stress may be considered as that tending to pull the disk away from the surface while the shear stress is the one that tends to shear the disk off the surface while sliding on it tangentially. Is the water a continuum with respect to density? With respect to temperature? What are the forces acting on the water? What are the stresses in the water? Solution The water is homogeneous and it is a continuum with respect to density. Although the water temperature does change from top to bottom. The pressure in the water changes continuously from p0 at the top surface.3 A body of water in a moving container. and its direction is that of the vector g. i. Example 1. hence well defined at every point. The body force. The water is.1 A body of water inside a container.z). increasing as we go down..3. . 1.1. g. a continuum with respect to pressure. is due to gravity. it is proportional to the mass of the water. In Chapter 3 we'll show that the hydrostatic pressure at any point in the body of water is given as p = po+ pg(2 . U = 6 m/s Figure 1. G. is constant. Its density.e. in the (k)direction. as shown in Fig. hence the water is a continuum with respect to temperature too.
Consider an experiment designed to use this definition to decide whether a given material is a fluid. Definition of a Fluid We are now in a position to introduce the definition of a fluid. which is thin and long. Fig. The terms continuum and shear stress which appear here make it obvious why this definition had to wait until now. 1. but the sinking takes many hours. Sn. It sinks to the bottom.2 A cylindrical rod is left on the surface of still water in a tank.gdm = VgpdV The surface force S acting on any plane in the water is due to the normal stress. it is the shear stresses on its circumference which resist the sinking. where the shear force is applied by means of a weight. Example 1. An example of such an experiment is shown in Fig.4.Fluid Mechanics dG . The experiment is repeated with tar instead of water. Is water a fluid? Is tar? .5. as explained in the next chapter. The same results are obtained. A fluid should not be able to support any shear stress while at rest. Let the material be placed between two parallel plates and be subjected to an external shearing stress. no matter how small. A fluid is defined as a continuum which cannot support a shear stress while at rest. top plate t\faterial sample attached to top and bottom plates Figure 1. Neglecting forces at the bottom of the rod. There are no shear stresses in this body of fluid. The material will be considered a fluid if the top plate moves to the right as long as a shear stress is applied.4 Material subjected to shear stress. 1.
Introduction Solution The water is a fluid. e. The decision concerning the tar depends on what the observer considers "at rest. fluid mechanics considerations must be used and the tar must be considered a fluid." Thus a vector is given by its three components. Because no matter what units are used to report the length of the pole. cannot be completely formulated by the use of pure numbers. Similarly. dimensions and basic units must be employed. Therefore. and a model of a solid fits better its behavior. the pure numbers describe quantities. "how much. The point of view underlying these transformations is that all observers must see the same physical phenomena.. However." With this in mind unit vectors are also identified as modifiers.e. It cannot support shear stresses while at rest.the physical dimensions of the vector. We now return to the 10foot pole and find what was involved in turning it .. which tell us "in what direction.e." If the whole situation is of interest only for a few seconds. if one "wouldn't touch it with a tenfoot pole" he or she would not touch it with a 3. the tar is approximately at rest. i. Transformations between different systems of units as well as between different systems of coordinates are possible. a vector viewed in different coordinate systems remains the same. what it represents. The dimensions are considered modifiers for the pure numbers.048meter pole either. The observers may choose their own means (units. for longer periods. as many other branches of science and engineering. coordinate systems) of reporting what they see.g. i. which are pure numbers." while the dimensions tell us "of what. (Can a house be put safely on tar?) Figure 1.5 Cylindrical rod before and after sinking. it is still the same pole.1.. no matter what systems the observer happens to favor. modified by the system's three unit vectors. to build a house on it. Units and Dimensions Fluid mechanics. but they may not tamper with the phenomenon itself. it does support shear stresses. and with some possible additional modifiers . Thus.
e.7854 L / g a l = 2 8 2 3 mi L 1.8 Fluid Mechanics into a 3.6) As seen from the lefthand side of Eq.048 meter stick. (1. we now rewrite Eq. In principle the description of a vector in various coordinate systems. Conversion factors similar to that of Eq.4) results in the length of the pole in meters: / = 10 ft x 0.3 A small economy car runs 12 km per liter of gasoline. Example 1. Performing this multiplication on Eq. However. (1.609 km/mi gal The decision whether to multiply or divide by "one. the conversion from one coordinate system to another.3048 m." i. (1. The original equation for the length / of the pole was Z = 10 ft.3048 m/ft is unity (a pure number).7) where again physical dimensions are treated as algebraic quantities. 12 km x 3. (1. one is restricted to multiplication only.e.5) as 1 = 0.3048 m/ft = 3. i.4) We also know that lft = 0.. by the conversion factor. (1.3048 m/ft. What is the car mileage in MPG (miles per gallon)? Solution Using the conversion factors in Appendix A. (1. is made such that the desired units are obtained after cancellation. (1.6). . is analogous to the conversion of units.. and more details of this operation are necessary. (1.5) Treating the dimension "ft" as an algebraic quantity.048 m. the value of 0.6) are presented in Appendix A. The following example illustrates the use of these conversion factors. because vector algebra does not have the operation of division. and multiplication by 1 is always permissible.
the equation h = jgt2 (1.9) to a different set of units. Thus.8) the value g=32.09 has dimensions of ft/s2.90t2. In order to convert Eq. such as to shorten repeated calculations or use more easily available data.1. must always be followed by a clear statement as to what units are employed.8) is dimensionally homogeneous and the constant 1/2 is dimensionless. Example 1. in SI units (i.09t2.4 Atmospheric pressure at sea level is pa= 14.3048 m/ft = 4. (1. has to be recalculated using the method outlined above.09 ft/s2 xO. (i 9) This equation. A dimensionally homogeneous equation has. the same dimensions for each term on both sides of the equation. this means that the numerical constants appearing in the equation are dimensionless. we substitute in Eq. where the term "psia" stands for pounds force per square inch absolute. A common practice in engineering is to write equations in a nonhomogeneous form.174 ft/s 2 . Introduction 9 Dimensional Homogeneity An equation is said to be dimensionally homogeneous if it does not depend on the system of units used. Here the constant 16.e.11) As demonstrated by this example.10) resulting in a new dimensionally nonhomogeneous equation h = 4. is nonhomogeneous and holds only for the case where t is given in seconds and h in feet. (1..7 psia. nonhomogeneous equations arise for practical reasons. This homogeneous equation holds for any system of units. What is the pressure in N/m 2 . although easier to use for repeated calculations. In practice. therefore. (1. Thus. in Pa (pascals)? . If.e. a new constant. International System of Units) this constant will be c = 16. (1. we obtain h = 16. It is rarely used in scientific presentations and. when used. c.90 m/s2.. i. for example.
y.13) The density of a fluid may change from point to point.2 = 14.94 slug/ft3. (1.10 Fluid Mechanics Solution Using the conversion factors in Appendix A the pressure is pa = 14.2 /ft2 x 10.7 lbf/in. However. A fluid whose density may be assumed not to vary with pressure is called incompressible.000 kg/m3 = 1 g/cm3 = 62.300 N/m2 = 101. The density may depend on both the pressure and the temperature. defined as the weight per unit volume. Hence. Hence.14) A quantity related to the density is the specific weight.300 Pa. Fluid Properties In this section some of the basic fluid properties used in this book are described.448 N/lbf = 101. if the fluid is of a single phase. the change in density will be almost everywhere continuous.764 ft2/m2 x 4. lbm/ft3 and slug /ft 3 . v: v=P (1. It has been defined as p= lim —.2 x 144 in. Most liquids may be considered incompressible. The density of water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is p = 1. Density.7 lbf/in. . v v V (L12) The units of density are mass per unit volume.4 lbm/ft3 = 1. Specific Weight and Specific Gravity The property density was used in the discussion of the concept of a continuum. Other units frequently used for density are g/cm3. The reciprocal of the density is the specific volume. in SI units density is measured in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3).
Fig. and its numerical value is equal to that of the density expressed in CGS (centimetergramsecond) units. for that particular experiment T = u. The term du/dy is called the rate of strain. The relationships between shear stress and the rate of strain are considered in detail in Chapter 5. both moving in the xdirection. If the difference in velocities between the layers is du.e.. We have stated that if the plate moves. i.18) can be generalized for two adjacent fluid layers separated by a distance dy. The more viscous the fluid is. h: T=^ .18) . (1. The dimensions of viscosity must be chosen such that Eqs. in g/cm3. the shear stress. The force per unit plate area. Viscosity While deciding whether a given material is a fluid..18) becomes T = //£ <U9> Equation (1.19) and (1. d18) h Equation (1. (1. Thus. exerted on the plate is proportional to the plate velocity V and inversely proportional to the gap between the plates.17) into an equality is called dynamic viscosity and is denoted by ji. Now.17) A h The proportionality constant that converts Eq.4 lbf/ft3. or simply shear rate. One of the plates was held stationary while the other could move pulled by a force acting in a direction parallel to the plate. i. 1. Introduction 11 r=pgThe SI units of specific weight are N/m3. Specific gravity is therefore dimensionless. T.e.X (1. the speed at which the plate moves depends on a property of the fluid called viscosity.19) is sometimes referred to as Newton's law of viscosity. the slower the plate moves. (1. The specific weight of water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is 7= 9806 N/m3 = 62.16) Occasionally one may encounter a term "specific gravity" which is defined as the ratio of the density of a given fluid to that of water.1. the material is considered a fluid. we used an experiment in which the material was placed between two parallel plates. (1.4. then Eq.
Shavit and C. of a fluid to its density. The forces between the molecules of a liquid decrease with an increase in temperature.1^.. is given in N/m2 and the shear rate in s"1. isothermal compressibility is defined as KTy=— 3  . It is related to other units of kinematic viscosity as 1 m 2 /s = 104 st = 10.22) The unit of kinematic viscosity is cm2/s and is called the stoke. l _ ^ = 0. (1.* Hence.e. v = tL P (1. for example. T. This is due to the more vigorous molecular movement at higher temperatures. pp.01 poise. or 1 centipoise. The viscosity of gases increases with temperature. (1. is called kinematic viscosity and is denoted by v. is defined as a relative change in fluid volume under the action of an external pressure.. (L24) «TT Vo Ap A more careful definition specifies under what conditions the compression occurs. Gutfinger. PrenticeHall International. so does the viscosity. i. which is written as 1 cp.12 Fluid Mechanics are rendered homogeneous.25) while adiabatic compressibility performed reversibly (i. In liquids the viscosity depends mainly on the intermolecular cohesive forces. 291 . the unit of viscosity becomes l M = 1 N^ m = 1 ^ . Thus. fi. "Thermodynamics — From Concepts to Applications". Hence. while in the CGS system it is g/cms and is called the poise. A. 1995.23) Compressibility and Bulk Modulus of Elasticity Fluid compressibility. The ratio of the dynamic viscosity.. p.764 ft2/s. . (1.e. as the shear stress.292.21) cm • s m•s The viscosity of water at room temperature is roughly 0. ms (L20) In the British system the unit of viscosity is lbm/fts. isentropically) is * See. K.
26) may be rewritten in terms of densities as if dp and The units of compressibility are reciprocal of those of pressure.29) which upon substitution into Eq. (1.. KT=. (1. a pressure increase of 1 atm results in a relative volume reduction of 1/20. (1.000.=Tpk The reciprocal of compressibility is known as the volumetric or bulk modulus of elasticity. Equation (1.24) and (1. atnr 1 . (1. m2/N. the compressibility of water at room temperature and atmospheric pressure is 5 x 1O5 atar 1 . Hence.27) yields. Introduction 13 Equations (1. For example. the isentropic bulk modulus is (1.1.g. The isothermal bulk modulus of elasticity is defined as {%) Similarly. for isothermal compressibility.30) P Adiabatic compressibility is found by using the isentropic relationship ppk = const. etc. e. The compressibility of a gas may be found from the perfect gas relationship 1 p = PRT.28) result in the following expression for adiabatic compressibility of a perfect gas: (L32> *.33) .31) together with Eq. (1. psr .31) where k = cp/cv.
1 In a certain city the amount of money people carry in their pockets is between $1 and $1. The average amount per person depends on the zone of the city. In trying to represent the city as a continuum with respect to solvency. Problems 1. 1. What are the surface forces acting on the six sides? What are the .14 Fluid Mechanics The bulk modulus of elasticity is expressed in units of pressure. a.0 m.01 m.2 such that the lower side of the cube coincides with z = 2. Fig.2.3 A body of water in the shape of a cube is selected inside the container of Fig. i.000. The side of the cube is 0. What is the body force acting on the fluid inside the cube? b. 1. Is the water a simple thermodynamic system in equilibrium? Figure P1. PI . In calculations of flow phenomena liquids are usually considered incompressible. while the bottom is held at 290 K. In many flows. The assumption of incompressibility holds for gases at low speed only. in Chapter 5. The concept of compressibility is considered some more in connection with the equation of continuity.2 A cylindrical container is filled with water of density p = l. Is it a continuum with respect to temperature? Explain. Is the water a continuum with respect to g density? Is it with respect to pressure? What is the height Aze of your VE if a deviation of 0.2 Water in a tank c. at speeds of up to 30% of the speed of sound. How are the answers modified for an and small cube. PI.000kg/m 3 up to the height h=5m. outside pressure of p0 6xlO7 Pa? d. amount of money per person.1% in p is negligible? b. The concepts of compressibility and bulk modulus of elasticity are used in the study of compressible flow. a gas may be treated as incompressible. The outside pressures a.e. find the smallest number of people you have to include in VE such that the error caused by one person going in or out of VE is less than 1%. and in Chapter 13 on compressible flow.. The top layer of the water is held for a long time at 310 K.
Is the whole cube in mechanical equilibrium? Is it a stable equilibrium? d. forg=0? e. Calculate and draw the average stress on that side of the block which touches the floor when this side is: a. Why do dimensionally homogeneous equations give more information? What is this information? 1.e. i.7 A falling body has its zcoordinate change in time as z = zo4..4. it is pulled with a force of 0.4 N per each 1N force pushing the block normal to the floor. when the block is drawn on a concrete floor. Is the equation dimensionally homogeneous? Rewrite the equation with V in cubic feet. The density of the wood is p= 800 kg/m3. Introduction 15 stresses? c. i.9t2. t [s] is the time and V [liters] is the filtered volume.5 A certain oil has the viscosity of 2 poise. Note that stress is a vector. Why is the answer here different from that in Problem 1. a. What is its kinematic viscosity in m2/s? 1. The 2 m x 3 m side. Can you rewrite the equation in a homogeneous form.5V+ 6.e.8 The following dimensionless numbers are defined: . Its density is 62 lbm/ft3. where t [s] is the time and z [m] is the height. The I m x 2 m s i d e .1. b. The coefficient of dry friction between wood and concrete is 0. Can you rewrite the equation in a homogeneous form? 1. Is the equation dimensionally homogeneous? Rewrite the equation with z [ft]. What are the forces and the stresses if the cylinder is put in space. What are the forces if the cylinder falls freely? How would you keep the water together? 1. 1.4 A boxlike block of wood has the dimensions o f l m x 2 m x 3 m ..6? b.2 t where V [liters/s] is the volumetric flowrate.6 A certain slurry is filtered at constant pressure at the rate of T> 52.
When the upper plate is pulled with the velocity V=40ft/min.16 Fluid Mechanics Re = dUp //i. the density. fi = 20 cp. v = 3 ft2/s.4. Prandtl number.2. ji. What are the numerical values of Re. p the fluid density in slug/ft3. . Find the volume. is the pipe diameter.18) find the viscosity of the fluid.9 Using Appendix A. the shear stress is T = 121bf/ft2. The following empirical equation gives the wall shear stress exerted on a fluid flowing in a concrete pipe: where rw is the shear stress in lbf/in.000kg/m3 is the fluid density. // = 77 lbfs/ft2. JX = 3 cp is its viscosity. 1. SI units. 1. k = 170 Btu/(hrft°F). Reynolds number. Peclet number. Rewrite the equation in terms of SI units. a= 0. (1. Using Eq.11 The distance between the plates in an experimental system.12 A metal sphere of 1 ft in diameter is put on a scale. change into the S. The scale shows a reading of 200 kg. British units. Pr = jXCj/k.1713 x 10 8 Btu/(ft 2 hr°R4). is h .10 p = 120 lbm/ft3. the specific volume and the specific weight of the sphere in: a. a = 12 ft/s2.5 Btu/(lbm°F) is the specific heat of the fluid and k = 0.I. cp = 0. in SI units. where U = 2 m/s is the flow velocity in the pipe. Pe = Re Pr.65 W/m°C is its thermal conductivity. the mass. as shown in Fig. h = 211 Btu/(hrft2. V the average velocity of the fluid in ft/s and r the hydraulic radius of the pipe in feet. 1. Pr and Pe? In what system of units? 1. p = 1. system: density thermal conductivity thermal convection coefficient specific heat viscosity viscosity kinematic viscosity StefanBoltzmannconstant acceleration 1. b. cp = 175 Btu/(lbm°F).1 in. d = 2m.F).
8 liters.1. What is the modulus of elasticity of alcohol? b. Introduction 1. subjected to a pressure of 500 atm at 25°C contracts to 28. a.13 17 A volume of 30 liters of alcohol. What is its compressibility? .
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each leading conveniently to some particular conclusions.1. A system is defined in classical thermodynamics as a given amount of matter with welldefined boundaries. because the shape is not a property of the fluid or of the location. We then consider the relations between the various stress components and proceed to inspect stress in fluids at rest and in moving fluids. Newton's second law of motion is used. and the results are the general momentum equations for fluid flow. the fluid is at rest. STRESS IN A FLUID In this chapter we consider stresses in a fluid. Systems of different shapes may be chosen simultaneously at the same point. 2. together with which they raise accelerations. This does not prevent the choice of a system with a certain particular shape.g. 19 . a cube and a tetrahedron.. i. Thus.e. of course. This results in a set of momentum equations. in relation to body forces. e.1.2. The choice means that imaginary surfaces are defined inside the fluid such that at the considered moment they enclose a system of fluid with a given shape. a cube. The system always contains the same matter and none may flow through its boundaries.. A moment later the system may have a different shape. and the choice is made for convenience. 2. unless. We start by setting the forces resulting from these stresses in their proper perspective. stresses and their corresponding surface forces and accelerations. Let a set of cartesian coordinates be selected and a system of fluid in the form of a small cube be defined. The Momentum Equations In this section we establish relations between body forces. which are needed later. two different shapes are chosen in this chapter. with its planes parallel to the coordinates directions as shown in Fig. As a rule a fluid system does not retain its shape. Consider a system consisting of a small cube of fluid. as shown in Fig.
The xcomponent of Eq.^k (x+Ax. Now let all forces acting on this cube be considered. Equation (2.1) where G denotes the total body force acting on the cube and S is the surface force resulting from the stresses acting on the six sides of the cube.1) is mar = (2. as n=i for positive xsurface. there is a positive xsurface located at x + Ax in Fig. z+Az) Figure 2. (2. Thus. These two surfaces are denoted. Newton's third law then requires T =T (2. and the zsurfaces are n = ±k. respectively.1) is a vectorial equation and may be rewritten in component form. (2. the two ysurfaces located at y + Ay and at y are n = ±j. 2. n = .1 and a negative xsurface at x.3) We denote the stress vector acting on the positive xsurface of the cube by .1 Small cube. Using Newton's second law we may write for our system ma = G + S. We denote the stress vector acting on a surface with the outer normal n by T n .20 Fluid Mechanics n. Similarly. yiAy. respectively.2) Each surface of the cube is named after the direction of its outer normal n.i for negative xsurface.
The force acting on this side is then (2.2. Fz We may now compute the xcomponent of the resultant surface force S acting on all the surfaces of the cube. Eq.and zsurfaces. we have on the other four surfaces y+Ay ~F y\y (2. y. It is comprised of the normal stresses acting on the xsurfaces and the shear stresses acting on the y.7) kTxz]AyAz. sx = Txx T x x+Ax *xx T AyAz + \Tyx y+Ay yx y AxAz+{ T 1 zx T z+Az M zx z\AxAy (2.and T. with the understanding that the first subscript indicates the surface on which the force or the stress acts while the second subscript is used to show the direction of the component. where the subscript x denotes the face of the cube. are recognized as shear stresses.and zcomponents of T^..8) = [iTzx+STzy+kTzz]AxAy. is therefore (2.10) .2). i. (2.e. lying in the xplane itself.. while Txy and Txz. (2.6) \x+Ax = [W« + }Txy + kTxz] AyAz while the force on the negative xsurface is Fx\x =[iTxx+jTxy + (2. respectively.. the one located at x+Ax. which is the stress acting on the positivessurface. thex. Thus. T^ and Txz are.9) Equation (2. Stress in a Fluid 21 Tx. =[\Tzx+jTzy+kTzz]AxAy.9) may be rewritten as Q &x T T x ± xx x+Ax xr Ax T x y+Ay Ay vx y i J z+Az~1zx z Az AxAyAz.5) It is customary in fluid dynamics to drop the parentheses around the F. The force on the positive xsurface. T^. Similarly.4) Fx=TxAyAz The term Fx can be resolved into components. (2. Here Txxis identified as the normal stress on the xsurface of the cube.
and zdirections. (2.11) and (2.13) Similarly.g. T1 zx\z+Az~lzx\z Az Shrinking the cube into a point. gz. (2.. dx dy dz (2. Returning to Eq. the x.2) is written for the small cube as max =axpAxAyAz.15) may be written in a more compact form by using index notation. The xcomponent of this body force acting on the cube is Gx=gxpAxAyAz. Let the subscript i have the range i = 1.e. let a general body force per unit mass g be defined.2) and division by Ax Ay Az result in —T x y Ay V —T l xx\x+Ax •'•xxlx Ax •" y+Ay 7' .2). for the y. x{ stand for x\ = x. + .11) The lefthand side of Eq.and zcomponents of the balance between forces and rates of change of momentum for a cube whose sides approach zero. Let also a repeated subscript indicate summation over that subscript.13). y y paz=pgz+^ dTrv crTm oT?v dx dy dz dT dT .^ + . (2. leads to dT^ dx dTvx dy dT. (2. They therefore hold at any point in the continuum and are called momentum equations.2. Index Notation Equations (2.13). (2.15) are. for g^ gy.r dz (2.15) Equations (2. (2.14) and (2.12) into (2. y. i.10). e. Ay^O and 4z>0.12) Substitution of Eqs. x2 =y.3.. respectively. x3 = z and g.14) dTxz (2.^z . .22 Fluid Mechanics Similar expressions may be formed for Sy and Sz. (2.14) and (2. (2. taking the limit as Ac>0.
This important feature of the stress matrix applies both for stationary and moving fluids. Fig.i sides of the cube. and compute the turning moments around this shaft. or Eq. is entirely equivalent to Eqs. are treated in Chapter 5. A* 23 (2. we imagine a shaft piercing the centers of the n = i and the n = .y have each the range 3. Both these problems.2.17) includes the acceleration a.15). the socalled stress components. T. the stress matrix: T ± *xy T T xx 231 T3 33 TX2 T yx T T< w T We now proceed to establish relations between the nine stress components at a point in one cartesian coordinate system and those at the same point in other cartesian systems.17). Because both i andy in T. Moments on a Cube In this section we show that the stress matrix is symmetrical.y represents nine numbers. To obtain the jccomponent of the moments. Let the moments acting on the small cube be now computed. which is not known. and the velocity must also be established. rotated with respect to the original one.(2.2. (2. But to take these derivatives. the momentum equations (2.e.13).17) The momentum equation. (2.15) may be written as (2.13) . From mechanics of solid bodies one expects this acceleration to be eventually expressed by the derivatives of the velocity of the system. Equation (2. which may be arranged in a matrix form. one must know where the thermodynamic system is at the time t + At. all nine of them.(2.16) Making use of these range and summation conventions.3.2. Stress in a Fluid A JiXJ = = 1. that of the acceleration and that of relating stresses to velocities. as given in Eq. connections between the stress components.17) could not be solved. 2.(2. It is yet another form of Newton's second law of motion as applied to fluids.. i. . Moreover. in the sense that T = T .
(2.20) into Eq. Ay Az_ 2 2 $J (2. .. (2. 2.j and n = ... XT s Note that the cube is small and in the limit it shrinks to a point. .18) and (2.2 Shear stresses on a cube.e. n = +j and n = +k. yield \( y+Ay^yz \y)\(Tzy\ z+Az+Tzy\z (2. . Figure 2. then implies that the y+Ay y stresses acting on the negative surface n = . let zk>0. i. (2. resulting in . . that of action and reaction. Computing moments we obtain i AxAz\^+ T.24 Fluid Mechanics The only contributions to the turning moment come from the z+Az shear stresses. AxAz ..14y u yz Vi JT (2.19) where Ix is the polar moment of inertia of the cube around the piercing axis. Ax Ay Az. Ay>0 and Az^0.2.21) yz Now let the cube shrink to a point.e. i. . We employ here the convention of taking the \ Tyz * stresses represented by the arrows as positive when they act on positive surfaces.19) and division by the volume of the cube. Newton's third law.18) 'yz y+Ay yj r z+Az Newton's second law of motion states that the angular acceleration cox of the cube is Mx = Ixcox.k are negzy ative.20) Ix =pAx $ J 44 Substitution of Eqs.. For greater clarity these shear stresses are shown in axis of rotation detail in Fig.
perpendicular to the original one.21) to Eq. and when the cube shrinks to a point. because there is nothing particular about the coordinate system used to derive it. Forces at a Point on a Plane In this section we find that once the stress matrix is known at a point in one cartesian system of coordinates. and the velocity vector does. and therefore the stress might depend on the plane. However. however.22).23) relates a stress on a plane to a stress on another plane perpendicular to the first plane. was necessary to define the stress.e. Stress in a Fluid TyzTzy = O 25 (2.. It is noted that normal stresses on the cube sides and body forces may also contribute to the moments. T =T T =T T =T (2 21) Equation (2.e. in going from Eq. That the forces should depend on the coordinates of the considered point is quite clear. the fluid properties may vary from point to point.23) holds at a point. (2. two additional relations are obtained.. surface forces acting at a point on a plane depend on the location of the point and on the plane orientation. a coupling between the stresses on the various planes passing through the same point.e. or at least a small disk of it. After all. This coupling is investigated in more detail in the next section. (2. and it seems reasonable that the stresses and the forces should also change. it can be shown that their contributions are of a higher differential order than those of the shear stresses. on the direction of its outer normal. When stress at a point was defined. The previous section. it seemed plausible that it should depend on the orientation of the plane's outer normal.2. indicates that there are fairly simple and quite clear relations between stresses acting at a point located on a particular plane and those acting at the same point on other planes. As stated earlier. i. i. There is.22) with Tyz and Tzy now acting at the same point. We already know that there are nine stress components Ty. We note that each of the three Eqs. (2. The plane. it is known at that point in all cartesian systems rotated with respect to the original one. Furthermore. i. which can be expressed in cartesian coordinates in the form of a 3x3 square matrix: . Thus the first equation states that the ^component of the stress acting on the xplane equals the ^component of the stress acting on the yplane. therefore. it holds in any set of orthogonal coordinates.. their contributions vanish. Repeating those considerations for My and Mz.
and yet Eq. once the stress matrix (2. 2. uniquely determine Tyx and T^ in the planes n = j and n = k.23) holds for any coordinate system. derived in the previous section. in turn. it is already uniquely determined at that point for all orientations. The .and z'coordinates while x remains the same. Thus the shear stress vector seems to determine the shear stresses Tyx and Tzx for all orientations of the coordinate system. Now let the coordinate system rotate around the . Thus one may choose a new pair of v. indicates that this matrix is symmetrical. in Fig.cplane coincides with the printed page.24) is known at a point for a particular set of coordinates.24) 122 31 In this matrix the subscripts 1.23) connects T^. Consider now the stresses at a point on the jcplane.25) These in turn uniquely determine TyX and T^x. 2. y. 2. with Tyr Therefore the components of the stress acting on one plane must be related to those acting on any other plane passing through the same point. z. (2.caxis. 3 stand for x. It is quite important to realize that this symmetry establishes a relation between a stress acting on a particular plane and those acting on other planes perpendicular to it.3 may be expressed in terms of its components as These components. In the new (primed) system the shear stress vector remains the same and only its resolved components change: (2. The shear stress vector T.3 Shear stress at a point. n = i. In the next section we develop the rules for this determination. Figure 2.3. respectively.23). . But Eq. (2.26 Fluid Mechanics M3 221 r (2. as shown in Fig. Equation (2. In other words.
2. The tetrahedron is generated by the intersection of four planes: three with their outer normals .4. ii l \ \ Figure 2. perpendicular to the coordinate axes. where n1.4 Elementary tetrahedron and stresses. n2 and « 3 are the direction cosines of this normal. A small system of fluid in the form of a tetrahedron is drawn in Fig.24).e. ..j . Stress in a Fluid 27 The Elementary Tetrahedron We now proceed to obtain the rules which express the stress at a point on an arbitrary plane in terms of the components of the stress matrix Ttj in a given coordinate system. —j. —k planes will be general and hold for any plane. Thus. the expression obtained for the stress on the n plane in terms of the stresses acting on the —i. as given in the stress matrix (2. and therefore the fourth side represents just any plane. i. .i . with its normal n. The n vector may have any orientation. and the fourth with the outer normal n = in1+j«2+kn3.k .2. . It has three sides on which the stress components Ty are defined. and then a fourth side. The tetrahedron thus obtained is convenient for what we have in mind.
j plane.28) .k planes as Ax.(2. + T2n2 + T3re3. (2. Equations (2.4 shows the stresses which act on the n plane and on one of the coordinate planes. Then the net force acting on the system is (2. where hn is the "height" of the tetrahedron and An is its "base.ii. &n>0 and with it V/An.e. . (2. we note that Ax. and the equations yield the stresses on that plane. i. Denoting the area of the n plane as An and those of the . its remaining similar to itself is essential if the n direction is to be preserved. rr. Let the volume of the tetrahedron be V.28) Equation (2. these equations show how the stresses may be obtained on any plane passing through the same point. or Al=nlAn.27) is now divided by An with V/An=hn/3.26) and Newton's second law of motion requires pV(a . A2 and A3. remaining geometrically similar to itself while shrinking. .29) is recast in a more compact form. Once the stress matrix is given in any one coordinate system. T 2 n 2 T3n3 )An.j and . y and z projections of An. The shrinking is necessary because relations at a point are sought.29) r B 3 =Zl3»l+223*2+233*3 • Using index notation. (227) Equation (2. Tn2 =Ti2ni+ T22n2 + T32n3. A2 and A3 are the x.27) thus becomes Tn = T^. for a given Ty the stress vector T n on any plane n can be computed. Indeed. the . All one has to do is specify the plane of interest by its outer normal. Equation (2..28 Fluid Mechanics Figure 2. As a result of this shrinking. A2=n2An.n2 and n3 of the normal to the plane are known. (2 30)  The desired rule has thus been obtained.30) indeed show coupling between the stresses acting on the various planes passing through the same point. Eq. (2.g) =(!•„Tin. respectively.i . provided the direction cosines nx.28) may be also written in component form as Tnl=Tuni+T2ln2+T31n3. A3=n3An. Thus the stress matrix at a point in any one coordinate system contains all the information on stresses acting on other planes through the same point." We now let the tetrahedron shrink to a point.
T\ 3 Find the stress vector on the plane passing through P and parallel to the plane whose unit normal is Solution We are essentially looking for Ti.231 232 "2 1 3 223 = 1 1 2 3 2 1 233. (2.2 The stress matrix is given at the point P in the coordinate system x.28) yields the desired stress vector Example 2. T 2 and T 3 in Eq. Substitution of the components of the stress matrix into Eq. z by .28). (2. T n2 = These equations may be written in matrix form as n2 fl ~L7 6 7 2^1 21 7j 2^2 '2 13' 1 1 2 3 2 1 6 13 7 T 7J Substitution into Eq. y. Stress in a Fluid 29 Example 2.1 The stress matrix at a point P is given by 2]i l Tn 2\ •'22 .2.29) yields = 2n l 7l2+2n3. (2.
Eq.29) now reads T n2 n2 = (2. j . . T y =i The stress vector acting on the n plane is Tn = i(ra. they are known.1. is a diagonal matrix in all systems of cartesian coordinates: 2 ^ = 0 for i (2. + 3n2 + 2rc3) + k^ra. We correct r 3 1 from 1 to .32) must hold for all cartesian coordinate systems. b. e. (2. make a plausible correction. Thus a fluid at rest admits no shear stress and its stress matrix. (2. n = i«i + j« 2 + Solution a. + 2n2 +2n3).30 a. No. Fluid Mechanics 2] 2 2 3 " 222 223 ^32 r 33 = "1 1 1" 1 3 2 1 2 2 Is such a matrix possible? If not. Stress in a Fluid at Rest Here we show that in a stationary fluid the only remaining stress is the pressure and that this pressure stress is the same in all directions. Now the matrix may be right. we write down the stress vectors on the x. + «2 .n 3 ) + j(n.g. k.31) Furthermore. e. A fluid has been defined in Chapter 1 as a continuum which cannot support a shear stress while at rest.(2. Yes.24).g. Eq.32) We claim that because Eq. z planes.. Are the stresses known now on all the planes passing through P. respectively.. this matrix is not symmetrical. on the planes whose normals are i . b. Inspecting the stress matrix. y.
3 Given Eq. The force pulling the upper plate thus must be counterbalanced by a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. its outer normal and its stress vector in a fluid at rest. 2. as shown in Fig.5.2. with j and with k. which they do not. Figure 2.33) a result known as Pascal's Law: In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point is the same in all directions. Consider a fluid that fills the space between two parallel long plates.32) and the condition that it holds in all cartesian coordinates. as shown in Fig. viewed sideways. The lower plate is stationary and the upper one moves at a uniform velocity V under the influence of a weight. (2. With Eq. where Tn = nTn is due to T n being parallel to n.•'« > and the proof is complete. Stress in a Fluid 31 (2. Stress in a Moving Fluid A moving fluid can support shear stress.•'33 . These products result in and therefore _ _ _ •Ml .5 A plane. We now form the scalar product of this expression with i. Obviously there are no shear stresses and T n is parallel to n. Example 2. or the upper plate and the weight must accelerate.32) T n becomes Tn=iTnl+iTn2+kTn3 = inft j + jn2T22 + kn3T33 = nTn. 2. Consider now a rectangle of fluid Ax wide .•'22 .(2. Solution Consider a plane with its outer normal n and the stress vector on it. prove Pascal's law.6.
moving top plate weight Figure 2.. can be expressed by Newton's law of viscosity.35) . Hence the fluid adjacent to the upper plate. while that at the lower plate. The shear stress may be eliminated by substituting u (h ) = V into Eq. exerted on the viscous fluid by the upper plate. once the shear stress is known. Furthermore.34) VHence. where it touches the upper plate.6 Fluid in shear flow. Hence the shear stress on this fluid rectangle at the top.0 at y . (2. one must conclude that the shear stress is the same on all planes parallel to the plates. and we see how this stress transfers to the bottom plate. (1. the velocity at any point in the fluid can be calculated by means of Eq. The uniform stress.h. Tyx. is at rest.19): T y ^ ^  d19) Equation (1.e. We assume the pressure not to depend on x. at y . (2.0 to yield T (2. i. As the AA plane can be selected anywhere in the fluid.19) may be integrated with the boundary condition of u . at y . and therefore the shear stress on the AA plane is the same as on the top plate. moves with the velocity V. It is known from experiments that the fluid adjacent to a solid surface adheres to it. Eq.34). must be balanced by that at the bottom.0. force per unit area.34) T resulting in (2. the same considerations apply to a block which extends from the top plate to the AA plane.32 Fluid Mechanics bounded by the two plates.
the gap on each side of the moving plate is 0.2 m weight Figure 2. = — = = 125 N / m2. 33 (2.25 k g / m s = 6250 cp. Example 2. 2. What is the viscosity of the printing ink if the plate velocity is 1 cm/s and the length and width of the stationary plates are 20 cm and 10 cm.4 Viscosity of printing ink is measured by first coating a metal plate with the ink and then passing the plate through a gap between two parallel stationary plates.2x0. and the weight is 5 N. Fig. The velocity of the plate is measured by timing the descent of the weight between two marks on a yardstick.36) The flow just obtained is known as Plane Couette Flow or Plane Shear Flow.7.2.7 Measuring viscosity of printing ink.1 The viscosity of the ink is found by substitution into Eq. 2A 2x0.5xlO"3 = 6.5 mm. Stress in a Fluid u = \y. . In this section we examine a case where the stress in the moving fluid is not constant. • h = 0.35) 125xO. Solution The shear stress applied by the weight on the fluid on both sides of the plate is F 5 T Tyxv .5 mm T L = 0. (2. respectively. A Case where the Stress Is Not Constant In the previous section we considered the case of constant shear in a moving fluid.
plane Poiseuille flow.8. This force is balanced by the shear on the upper and lower sides: Tyx2AL. as shown in Fig. along the xaxis.8 Flow between two stationary plates.8. The pressure difference between its two vertical sides is AP^AL. AP/Ax. velocity profile shear stress profile Figure 2. extending from y to +y. Hence.38) . as shown in Fig.37) and by Newton's law du ( AP Integration now yields j Ax which with the noslip boundary condition u(h) = 0 yields the velocity profile h1 ( AP_ u=Ax (2. 2.34 Fluid Mechanics Consider the twodimensional plane flow between two stationary plates. L Ax and hence the force pushing it to the right is 2yAP y L T = 2y(— \ Ax (note that AP/Ax < 0). The flow in this case is induced by a constant pressure drop. In a way similar to the shear flow example we consider a rectangular fluid block of length AL and height 2y. 2. (2.
The stress at the walls is conveniently obtained from Eq.40) Example 2. The pressure drop in the fluid between the plates is given by 20 AL m The fluid between the plates is a. For glycerin: umax = 20 x — = 1. and that its magnitude is 4PW AL)2fi' Hence. shown in Fig.25 m/s. Solution The highest velocity in the flow is calculated from Eq. Water. (2.38) indicates that the highest velocity is at the midplane between the plates. ry a.001 = 0. (1.39). .5 2x0. For water: M mav = 20x—'• "max b. (2. at y = 0.19) together with Eq. Find the highest velocity in the flow and the shear stress on the plates for each fluid. Eq. i. \i = 0. 5 max ' 2x1. b. is 2h .5 Ns/m2.e. 2.2.8.38) may also be rewritten in terms of «max as (239) (2.38) set in the form T. (2.001 Ns/m2. Glycerin.. Stress in a Fluid 35 This flow is known as Plane Poiseuille Flow.5 The gap between the two plates. jj.667 x 10 m/s = 1 cm/min.2 x 0.yx AP_ ' AL' y=h AL J Note. the stress on the wall is opposite in sign to the stress in the fluid.005 m.(2.= 1. Inspection of Eq.
For any unit vector n at that point a vector T n is generated by the operation indicated in Eq. (2. The components of n and Tn are. n.005 = 0. the pressuredrop forces are eventually supported by the plates. * The Stress Tensor Equation (2. 2. the stress vector T n acting on any plane with its outer normal n may be directly obtained by the use of Eq.9 in terms of the e. system: S = Sieit where the summation convention holds. Because this operation is linear.38) the same as that used to compute Tyx on the walls here. (2. coordinate dependent. as an input for performing the operation. The operator Ty is called a tensor. Tvr = 20 x 0. however. (2. The stress matrix [7^] is the operator which is given at a point. In other words.30). and the result is the same for water and glycerin.30) may be viewed as an operator equation which requires a vector. Its components Ty are given by the stress matrix. Indeed. once the stress tensor components Ty are known for a given coordinate system.30) is preserved. T n . (2. 2.1 N/m 2 .30) holds quite generally.Vectors Consider the vector S given in Fig. That the result is the same for both fluids is not surprising and is brought by AP/AL being the same for both. must also remain the same.30). Equation (2.36 Fluid Mechanics The form just set does not include fi.7 to have y = h makes Eq. Eq. In other words. Under coordinate transformation not only do the vectors n and Tn remain the same. (2. choosing the fluid block in Fig. but the form of the relation between them. and because it relates to the stress vector T n . The basic rules for vector and tensor transformations are now derived. and therefore the components Ty must transform in such a way that the form of Eq. (2. its output is also a vector. The transformation of a vector is included as an introduction to that of the tensor. Let another system e'k be chosen. It describes a physical phenomenon and therefore does not depend on the coordinates used. it is sometimes called a linear vectorvector dependence. it is called the stress tensor. Eq. * Transformation of Coordinates . in .30).24).
9 Components of a vector in two coordinate systems. Stress in a Fluid 37 which the same vector assumes the form Because S = S'.2.Tensors The stress tensor Ttj yields the stress vector S for the surface with the outer normal n: In the rotated coordinates ejj. the relation becomes . Similarly Sm =S'n (en ' e m) S =S' Figure 2.41) which is the transformation rule for vectors. Scalar multiplication by e'k on both sides results in (2. * Transformation of Coordinates .
substitution of e k = ei {e'm • *i ) and of K = ( en into the expression for S' yields Comparison with the expression for S yields which is the rule for the transformation of a tensor component. with p being the pressure. We also suspect that in moving fluids the three normal stresses may not be the same. which is intuitively visualized as a negative normal stress. of course.e. In a moving fluid the normal stress on the plane with its normal n is Tnn. had been known as an experimental fact (and hence its being called a "law" rather than a theorem which can be proved) long before matrices were used. until we find a direction for which the plane suffers no shear stress. i. Now there could be a direction n for which In other words. we rotate n and with it. the plane. we call it principal: . the nth component of TB. since S = S'. However.38 Fluid Mechanics S' = e'mT^nn'n. We already know that in fluid at rest the whole stress tensor is expressible in terms of the pressure only. Pascal's law deals with the pressure.5. 2.e. When we find such a direction. as otherwise. Pascal's law. For a fluid at rest Tn=nTn=np.3. Similarly * Principal Directions Of the nine components of the stress tensor the three normal stresses are more intuitively visualized. i.. proved in Example 2. We consider again Fig. had they always been the same. Pascal's law would not be limited to fluids at rest..
Using linear algebra. i. (2.3. The condition for a principal direction may also be stated as the requirement that n and T n lie on the same straight line.2..46) (r33 It is noted that the stress tensor and the determinant of Eq. Stress in a Fluid 39 The Principal Directions of a stress tensor are defined as those in which all shear stresses vanish. The rotation needed to reach one of these principal directions is obtained from . TB = An (2. and therefore there are three principal directions.44) in component form as .. (2. This is a system of three linear homogeneous equations in three unknowns n/. Expanding the determinant results in the following cubic equation in X: A3 . i.2. It has nontrivial solutions only when the determinant of the coefficients vanishes. called the principal stress.e..e.X )nx + T2ln2 + T31 n3 = 0. (TnA) T{2 Tn ^21 (^22 ~ A ) T23 r31 T32 = 0. Thus A is the normal stress in the principal direction. (2. it can also be shown that these directions are orthogonal to one another. We now rewrite Eq. Substitution into Eq. z = 1.46) are symmetrical. (244) where Ty are the components of the stress tensor in the original coordinate system. (2.[ T n +T22 +T 33 ]A 2 + [T 22 T 33 T 2 2 3 + T 3 3 r n T3\ +TUT22 .30) yields or TijniXnj=0.7 ] 2 2 ] A ~LMli22'33 ~ L\21V>lT>\ + •i13'21i32 ~ i 13'22 i 31 ~ i l l i 2 3 i 3 2 ~ J 12 i 21 i 33j ~ u Linear algebra then yields that this cubic equation has three real roots A.43) with A being a proportionality factor which we already recognized as Tnn.
= 0 0 0 A2 0 0 0 (2. which may be manipulated to express x/y. In this system Eq. Example 2. they may be used as a cartesian system of coordinates. i = 1. the tangents of the angles of rotation.2.48) h The nonvanishing terms in the stress tensor in its principal directions were called principal stresses.2.3. X2 and A3.40 Fluid Mechanics xTn+yTn+zTn=XiX. Xj = 4.3. X2 = 1. . A.47) xT3l+yT32+zT33=Xiz. The particular direction depends on the choice of /. Thus the solutions A. (2.2.e. this yields the polynomial equation whose roots give the principal stresses Xx ..47) attains the form 0 0 0 ^22 0 0 0 ^33 . i. y/z and z/x. xT21+yT22+zT23=Xiy. M2 r32 7]3 3A 1 1 1 X 2 1 2 = 0. have the direct physical interpretation of being the three normal stresses in the principal directions.The determinant equation (2. (2.6 Find the principal stresses and the principal directions for the stress tensor 3 1 1 1 0 2 1 2 0 fedSolution We first look for the three principal stresses Xx. A Expanding.45) becomes ' l l ~* ^ J r3. i = 1. Because the principal directions are orthogonal to one another..
(2. +2re 2 .2 . Since ni is a unit vector. (2. and we obtain such that where i. Stress in a Fluid 41 Hence. The solution is «. Eq. y. J 1 . the solution of which leads to 1 . k and for A3. = 0 and n2 = n 3 . =0. n i ~ n2 + 2 « 3 = 0.2.45) 5/ij + n2 + «3=0. for Aj.45) yields 2n. Similarly. n} +re32 =1. nx + n2 n \ ~4re2 =0.[ + n2 + /23 = 0. in terms of the principal stresses our stress tensor assumes the form A. z coordinates. we find upon substitution into Eq. 1 " 1 . re. Letting ni be the direction associated with Xx = . =0. j . . 0 0 0 A2 tol 0 "2 0 0" 0 = 0 1 0 A3 0 0 4_ 0 We now look for three unit vectors n 1( n 2 and n 3 pointing in the principal directions. k are the unit vectors in the directions of the x. re. + 2rc 2 +2re 3 = 0 . =0.n 3 = 0.
7 The motion of the fluid between two parallel flat plates. the unit vectors ni. yx Hence {p\)2(pV/h)2=0. yy Figure 2. Example 2.10 Velocity between a stationary and a moving plate.10. T~. Solution Equation (2. corresponding to these directions. n 2 and n 3 in the principal directions have been obtained.46) yields for the present case = 0. the solution of which yields . The stress tensor at point B is given by T « Txy T yx T yy l pJ Find the principal directions and the principal stresses. with the lower one fixed and the upper one moving. 2.42 Fluid Mechanics which yields n 3= V6 •V6 • Hence.6 and 2. is described in Figs.
Example 2.45) yields h with the solution nx=ny.11 Velocity profile in a circular pipe.2. qe=0. Similarly for Xj one obtains nxny and a^ = .11. Fig. and h—f^P. The x. . ~2R Figure 2. Tyy——p. where {/ is the average velocity and R is the pipe radius. qz=2U\l\^j I. Hence tan ax=nxlny. 2.45°. Stress in a Fluid 43 P. (2. Substitution of A} and the expressions for the stress tensor into Eq. ax= 45°. y and r coordinates are related by x2 + y2 = r2.8 The velocity profile in a circular pipe is given by \2~ qr = 0.
p . r is the radius vector in the xy plane.. and all three principal stresses are —p. (2. {pX)2 =2a 2 . at r = r(i + j)/V2. Forr = R/2: T.= 0 p 2/iU/R p 0 p The characteristic equation.46). and find the principal stresses and the principal directions for r= 0.44 Fluid Mechanics Measurements and computations yield the following cartesian components for the stress tensor in this flow: T 1 xx ~ 1yy ~ ^zz ~ ~P> =T =0 =T =T = yz x zy j^ all at x = y. i. where a = 2fiU/R. and the remaining equation.e. Eq. Write the stress tensor. yields X3 = . r = R/2 and r = R. becomes p .X 0 2\xWR or 0 pX 2jiUIR 2nUIR 2\iWR = 0 pX (pX)[(pX)2a2]a[a(pX)] = 0. .V 2 a . The equation is satisfied by Xx = . Solution For r = 0 the stress tensor is p 0 0 0 p 0 0' 0 p All directions are principal.p .
44) becomes 0 + 0ann=0.V2a. Eq.n2 and . W3 = ^2n^ and where n 2 is n for A2. (2. anan + 0 = 0.Jlan^ = 0> with the solution n^ = n 2 . (2. For A2 = —p + ~j2a. Eq.cm3 = 0. with the solution n3 = 0. The three principal directions have thus been obtained. hence n 2 = ( r .2. To clarify the geometry of the results. The principal directions are set at 45° to the direction of the flow and in the 6 direction. Eq. arti + an2 . n3 = V2«j and where n 3 is n for A3.32) becomes V2a/i! + 0 .are3 = 0 .an^ = 0. nx = .32) becomes + 0 .1 J w~ vr where ni is nfor Ai. = 0' with the solution nj = ra2. Stress in a Fluid 45 For Aj = p. =0.1 ni=1 .42anx . O + Oann=O.k ) / V 2 and n 3 = (r + k) / V2. Note: nj • n 2 = nj • n 3 = n 2 • n3 = 0. (2. Note: A 1 +A 2 +A 3 =3p = T . 0 . For A3 = /> . it is noted that i + j = V2r.
. compressive. the normal shear stresses are identical. * Identical Principal Stresses . Boston.. The equality of the normal stresses at a point is a direct conclusion of this property: A!=A 2 =A 3 .Pascal's Law There may be situations where all the principal stresses are identical. Aris. The other results are the same as have been obtained for r=S/2." 2nd ed. the form of the stress tensor. Furthermore. no shear stresses are produced but the stress tensor is rotated. i. any coordinate system is principal. Thus.50) The result just obtained has been referred to as Pascal's law: In a fluid at rest the pressure at a point is the same in all directions.e. (2. 1962. 1965. (2. In that case all the directions are principal. when no shear stresses appear in any direction. Fung. "A First Course in Continuum Mechanics. (2. Frederick and T.49) becomes p = X = const.e." PrenticeHall. Chang. with zeros in the locations reserved for the shear stresses. References R. i. Thus.e.S. Tensors and the Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics. 1977. Y. PrenticeHall. is that of Eq.C.48). (2.46 Fluid Mechanics The sum of the normal stresses has been conserved. A fluid has been defined as a continuum which cannot support shear stress while at rest. for a fluid at rest. D. and the term used for it is pressure.. For r = R: a = 4jxU/R. Englewood Cliffs. . i. "Continuum Mechanics." Allyn and Bacon. Englewood Cliffs. Eq. "Vectors.49) The normal stress in a fluid at rest is negative.. Therefore. for a fluid at rest. in any coordinate system.
. a. The shear stress on the plate is measured as ^=0.34) . Eq. i. The two outer plates are stationary. The fluid has a viscosity of fi = 2 kg/(ms) and is Newtonian. (2. b. P2. The fluid has the viscosity fj. h X U h Figure P2. Find the force. per unit area of plate. (1. 0<x<2m. as shown in the figure.e. = 2 kg/(ms) and the density p = 1.332 Uxp where and x is the distance from the leading edge of the plate. U Figure P2.1.000 kg/m3. it obeys Newton's law of viscosity. P2.2.2 .36) and calculate the shear stress on the surfaces of all the plates.(2.47 2. The fluid far from the plate moves with a constant velocity U in a direction parallel to the plate.1 A unidirectional flow between three infinite flat plates is shown in Fig. This shear integrates into a force pushing the plate in the flow direction. Consider Eqs.2 A twodimensional flow past a semiinfinite stationary flat plate is shown in Fig. per unit width of plate.1 2. Stress in a Fluid Problems 2.19). needed to maintain the steady motion of the midplate.005m. Find the force. while the midplate moves at a constant velocity U=lm/s. 0 < J C < 10m. The gap between the plates is h = 0. acting on the regions 0<x< 1 m.
c. Can the continuum in which this tensor exists be a fluid? Hint: a fluid cannot withstand a positive normal stress.4 Consider again the twodimensional flow past a semiinfinite flat plate given in Problem 2. Express the vectors . a.48 2.2. 2. b. Write the twodimensional stress tensor at a point x.3 Fluid Mechanics Consider again the flow between the plates in Problem 2. which is rotated by it/4 with respect to the xy system. Choose a coordinate system x'y'.5m on the upper surface of the plate.6 Three coordinate systems are given as System 2 is obtained by turning system 1 by n/4 around the ziaxis. b.5 The stress tensor at a point is given as [I 4 4' 3 a.1. b. System 3 is obtained by turning system 2 by 7i/4 around the .t2axis. Write the twodimensional stress tensor at a point on the upper surface of the lower plate in the x'y' coordinate system. a. 2. which is rotated by n/4 with respect to the xy system. Write again those two expressions for the tensors at a point in the fluid midway between the lower stationary plate and the moving plate. Txx = Tyy =p = const.1. Choose a coordinate system x'y'. c. Write again those two expressions for the tensors at the point x = 5 m o n the upper surface of the plate. Find the direction in which the shear stress is the largest. 2. Write the twodimensional stress tensor at a point on the upper surface of the lower plate. and write the twodimensional stress tensor at the same point in the x'y' coordinate system. c. Measurements show that on all the wetted surfaces. Find the principal directions. Measurements show that on both wetted surfaces.
8 2. y^> 23). * 2 ).7 Four coordinate systems are given as (*i.e. Express the vectors i=ii. and the stresses in these directions.8.4. zo) is given by . {x2. z 4 ).10 The state of stress at a point (x^ yo. the directions in which no shear stress exists. y2. Why is the result different from that in part a? B Figure P2.. P2. Fig. 2. 3. 2. (*4> y4. A fluid enclosed in a pipe is compressed by two pistons. find the shear stress in the plane BB. System 3 is obtained by turning system 2 by n/4 around the x2axis. Assuming that the stress is uniform across the section.2.+7k 1 and 49 S = i2 + 2j 2 + 3k2 in all three systems. 2.9 The stress at a point P is given by the matrix 7 02 0 5 0 2 0 4 Find the principal directions. b. Find the shear stress on the plane BB. j = j i .8 a. k=Jt! in systems 2. i. fe. System 2 is obtained by turning system 1 by n/4 around the ziaxis. Stress in a Fluid R = 5i 1 +6j. y\> zi). A solid rod of crosssectional area A is subjected to a compressive force F. as shown in the same scheme as for part a. System 4 is obtained by turning system 3 by {n/A) around the z3axis.
50 Fluid Mechanics 100 0 0 0 0 50 0 0 100 Find the stress vector and the magnitudes of the normal and shearing stresses acting on the plane whose normal is 1 Is this material liquid or solid? 2. j . b. which .= 2.16 A flat plate of 1 m2 is put inside a wind tunnel. as shown in Fig. 2. Write the tensor in its principal directions and show that it contains no shear components. P2. the plate is held in place by a force of 50 N.12 to threedimensional flows by considering pairs from i. = j i + j 12' at the locations y = 0. 2.14 For the plane Couette flow find the stresses on the planes with the outer normals n.16. 2. y = h/2 and y = h.13 Extend the results of Problems 2.12 Show for a twodimensional field that if the fluid has no shear at all.11 and 2. Show that in a twodimensional flow field where the stress tensor is reduced to T T•v • = 1xx T x T xy A B C D A yy the two principal directions are perpendicular to one another.11 a.15 i + j V2 ' For the Poiseuille flow between two plates find the stresses on the planes with the outer normals n. all directions are principal. 2. k. When the tunnel is run.
which is essentially a flat plate of 1 m 2 . Find the stress on the two sides of the plate before the tunnel starts running. The intake side of the tunnel is open to the atmosphere. P2. Figure P2. The angle of attack is defined as the angle by which the plate is tilted up relative to the incoming flow direction. Find the approximate stress on the surfaces of the plate while the tunnel is running.2. the dynamometer balancing the plate shows a force of 50 N in the direction of the air velocity (drag force) and a force of 500 N in the upward direction (lift force). b. Find the approximate stress on the surfaces of the plate while the tunnel is running. Find the stress on the two sides of the plate before the tunnel starts running. b.17 . is put inside a wind tunnel such that its angle of attack is a.17. a. The intake side of the tunnel is open to the atmosphere. Stress in a Fluid 51 balances the drag force exerted by the air on the plate. a.17 A model of a certain airplane wing.16 2. as shown in Fig. When the tunnel is run. Figure P2.
.
relative to what? The definition of a fluid is therefore extended now to "at rest relative to any coordinate system. Therefore. FLUID STATICS The Equation of Hydrostatics Hydrostatics is a branch of fluid mechanics which considers static fluids.13). A fluid was defined in Chapter 1 as a continuum which cannot support shear stresses when at rest. fluids at rest. (2.13). therefore. are valid for a fluid static in noninertial coordinates too. contain no shear terms for the case of the static fluid and become dx Pascal's law states 53 . including Pascal's law. The momentum equations. (2.14) and (2. require some further considerations on this account. it may support no shear stresses. We start with the simpler case. The momentum equations.15). however. (2. however.14) and (2.15). (2. It is quite important to realize that this coordinate system is not necessarily inertial.3.. one may inquire further: "at rest" . i. where the system in which the fluid rests is inertial.e." The coordinate system itself may have any velocity or accelerations. do contain acceleration terms and may. At that stage this definition was quite adequate. all these relations. Now. Review of Chapter 2 shows that all accelerations and body forces drop out of the considerations leading to the relations between the stress components. and as long as a whole body of fluid is at rest relative to that coordinate system.
(3. Eq.1. It may be further simplified for the special case where g is the body force of gravity only and the coordinate system is oriented such that the direction of g coincides with the negative zdirection.54 Fluid Mechanics T =T =T l xx *yy x zz =D P> (3. (3. (3. (3.8) states that the fluid in all branches of the apparatus shown in the figure rises to the same level.4) For the special case of a fluid at rest with respect to a static or nonaccelerating frame of reference the acceleration vector is zero. The last two expressions in Eq.9) .5) Equation (3. (3. The simplest case is. 3.7) which may be integrated for any pg given as a function of z. pa = Vp+pg. using vector notation.kg.e.7) between some reference position zo and z yields P=P0+r {*„*)• (3. of course. (3. that of an incompressible fluid for which the specific weight y = pg is constant. With these simplifications it becomes dpldz = pg. (3.6) imply that the pressure p is not a function of either x or y. An experiment illustrating this fact is shown in Fig.5) is known as the equation of hydrostatics. For this case integration of Eq. = Q. i. (36) dp/dx = O. Denoting the elevation difference between zo and z by h. (3. g. Hence O = Vp+pg.8) becomes p = Po + yh.. hence dp/dz = pg. A corollary of Eq.2) K ' and we obtain dp pa ^T (3 3)  dp dz or.8) Here p depends on z only.
10) Figure 3.2a In order to find the pressure pA. as distinguished from the absolute pressure p. Manometers Manometers are instruments which measure fluid pressure. however. 3. This pressure is called the gage pressure. manometers will denote arrangements which indicate fluid pressures by the measurement of the heights of fluid columns in them and the application of Eq.2. as in Fig. We now survey several such arrangements. Fig. we write expressions for the pressure pB in terms of the liquid in the left and right legs of the manometer.1 Pressure in an incompressible fluid at rest depends on z only. 3.8). Sometimes one is interested in the pressure excess above that of the atmosphere. all shown in Fig.1.55 3. po is the atmospheric pressure. and is expressible in terms of the liquid column height: pPo = yh. 3. respectively. (a) The Simple (UTube) Manometer. (3. (3. Fluid Statics When the reference surface is the free surface. and Equating both equations for/?B> one obtains . In the context of this chapter.
for Fig.56 Fluid Mechanics (3.2 Manometers. Zo c. z=0 Figure 3.2b one may write thus indicating \h&tpA is below the atmospheric pressure by the amount yh. Similarly. 3. .11) This result could be inferred directly by noting that the pressure at z = ZA is the same in both legs. Po z Zo U::: o I a.
2e Computing the pressure for each leg. This is so because the hydrostatic pressure depends only on Az of each fluid and not on the number of wiggles of the manometer tube.2 5 ) + 7 4 5 (2 5 2 4 )+734(24 . 3. Fig. which because of the inclination results in higher precision. the Differential Manometer. It is then inverted to its shown position.14) This instrument is first completely filled with a fluid. Moreover. transmit the pressure without modifying it.3.16) j=i Equation (3.2 3 ) + 7 2 3 ( 2 3 . one obtains P = PA + 723(Z2 . The pressure drop across the orifice plate (pA pB) may be measured by the open stand .2 2 ) + 7 1 2 ( 2 2 . however. L is measured.Z3) + 745^5 . its contribution to the pressure difference might also be neglected. Fig.^ ) or n ^L7i(i+i){zi+izi) PA=Po + (3.2 4 ) + 756(26 . 3. 3.2d Because of the large crosssectional area of one side of this manometer. the density of which might be negligible. Fig. pA indicates the vapor pressure of the manometric fluid.2f. then the measurement of zA . Instead of measuring z0. Example 3. if one of the fluids is a gas. The gas column does. Fluid Statics 57 (b) The Barometer. 3.zi) + 7i2( z i  z i\ 2 P = Po + 734( 4 .2c Z O) (3.2 5 ) Elimination off yields/^: PA =PO + ysb{Z6 . If one assumes that pA is negligible. usually mercury because of its high density and low vapor pressure. zA is practically constant. Thus.zo directly yields the atmospheric pressure (c) The Inclined Manometer.16) also holds for the case shown in Fig. (d) The Multifluid Manometer.1 A liquid of density p flows in a tube in which an orifice plate is installed.
Express Ah in terms of Ahm. Ah = Ah m or Figure 3. i. in order to keep the manometer reading Ahm within reason. one must select a heavy manometric fluid. Find pA . say mercury.3 Pressure measurement.58 Fluid Mechanics pipes or by the Utube manometer. Fig. = PB + YmAhm + / V PA Hence b. What is the atmospheric pressure? . large Ah. b. For each stand pipe PA~PB= 7{hA hB) Comparing this with part a.3. The density of the manometric fluid is p m . for a large pressure drop. The barometer was calibrated and was found to give an exact reading at 760 mm mercury. Solution a.. a. closed at the top and immersed in a mercury reservoir of 40 mm diameter.pB in terms of the manometer reading Ahm. Now it reads 750 mm.4.2 A mercury barometer consists of a long glass tube of 4 mm diameter. Equating pressures in both legs of the manometer. Example 3. For small Ah one can amplify Ahm by selecting a manometric fluid with a density p m only slightly higher than p. 3. 3. Thus. as shown in Fig.e.
The exact rise in the reservoir is = 10 Flgure3.062 N / m 2 .1 mm. To obtain the exact pressure. Pascal's law holds for this case and no shear stress exists in the fluid.= 0. It went down by Ah=10 mm and therefore had to rise in the reservoir by AH=Ah(d/D)2 = l0(4/40)2 = 0.e.17) .a ) .e. and the momentum equations which describe this case take the form of Eqs.1) xlO" 3 = 100. (3. However. Consider the case where a body of fluid moves in such a way that there is no relative motion between the fluid particles.81 x [760 10 . This is sometimes referred to as a fluid in "rigid body motion. it went up in the reservoir.4 Mercury barometer. Fluid Statics 59 Solution The atmospheric pressure is approximately Glass tube d =4 mm p = yh = 13.81x0. As already stated.." A coordinate system may be chosen such that this "rigid body" is fixed to it. is at rest relative to it. (3. p = 13.750 = 100. The exact pressure is therefore Mercury reservoir D = 40 mm p = 13.4 N/m2..600x9.7 N/m2. or 0 = Vp + p ( g .600 x 9.102 mm and therefore.102] x 10~3 = 100. i.600 x 9.048. i. it is noted that when the column of mercury went down in the tube.3. The only terms left are pressure. this coordinate system is not inertial.4). Is the "exact" pressure above correct? Answer: No.0. Note: The outer diameter of the glass tube is 6 mm. .048. Equation of Hydrostatics in Accelerating Frames of Reference Hydrostatics is now extended to accelerating coordinate systems.81 x (760100.3) or (3.
It applies to a fluid at rest relative to a coordinate system having an acceleration a.5.4). respectively. originally filled with water to a level h. Eq. rotates about its axis of symmetry with an angular velocity CO. and the three components of Eq. (3.17). dz where dp/d6 = 0 implies that p is not a function of 6.a.17) are T Figure 3. Eq. The equation of hydrostatics in a nonaccelerating frame.17) is identical to the equation of hydrostatics. Solution The gravity and acceleration vectors for this case are.5). (3. (3. 2 a = erw r. The constant c is eliminated by the use of the boundary condition p(0. can thus be considered a particular case of Eq.5 Rotating bucket. (3.17). hence p(r. hence . The other two equations are integrated to p = pgz + f2(r). or rd9 o = *Pg. Example 3. The same/? must satisfy both expressions.z) = p0 +±pco2r2 pgz + c. 3. The following example illustrates the use of Eq. except for the body force term which is now replaced by g . After some time the water rotates like a rigid body. Find the pressure in the fluid and the shape of the free surface. ho) = po.60 Fluid Mechanics Equation (3. (3.3 A cylindrical bucket. as shown in Fig.
For any given body force g.. on the original volume of water in the bucket: Q . i.. p(r. Eq. (3.9). . .7). Fluid Statics 61 p0+±peo2r2pg(zh0).18) n being the element's outer normal. (3. Such detailed information may be necessary in the design of individual plates in the sides of boats or in flood gates of dams. and thus V fj r* The magnitude of ho depends. — \2nrdr.18) and (3. of course. (3. (3. (3.5) assumes the form of Eq. Equations (3.8) and (3.19) is literally used to compute the details of the forces acting on submerged surfaces.z) = The equation of the free surface zo(r) is found from the condition p(r. Integration yields _TJ 2 t Tut n w p 2 L — Tut i n_ and finally h o=h 7— Forces Acting on Submerged Surfaces The only stress present in a static fluid is the normal one.„ .5) is considered integrable.9).. Equation (3. In many cases gravity is the only body force present. the pressure. .. The force acting on an element of a submerged surface dS is then dF = pndS. (3.5).„_. hence For this case Eq.19) where h is the depth of the fluid below the p =p0 level. given by Eq. and integration results in Eq.8) or (3. The total force acting on the surface S is F = f pndS = j {Po + yh)ndS.19) are vectorial and may be resolved into their . (3.3. (3.„ .z0) = po.e.. Surfaces in contact with a fluid are called submerged surfaces and must satisfy Eqs... .
Here dSx is the projection of dS on the . Similarly from Eq. In this system the direction of the force coincides with the axis perpendicular to that plane and just one of the Eqs. (3. (3.20) (3.3.19) now simplifies to Eq.19).21) (3. that of the hydrostatic force on a plane surface. i.22).6. etc. (3..24) .62 Fluid Mechanics components.22) need be used. Equation (3. Fig. For this case one may choose a coordinate system such that two of its axes lie in that plane.23) Substitution of h = y sin a results in Fz =ysina[ ydS = yycSsma. Let the coordinate system for this case be chosen such that the surface coincides with the zplane.6. Force on a Submerged Plane Surface Plane surfaces. i.22) We first consider a special case of Eq. n dSz = kdS and the origin is at a pressure/? =po. flood gates of dams. The centroid of the surface is at C.19) Fx = jspdSx=js{Po + yh)dSx.20) (3. Figure 3.e. (3. as the one shown in Fig. 3.tplane. (3. Thus the xcomponent of the force in Eq..6 Force on a plane surface. (3. Thus the net force exerted on such a surface is due to the excess pressure above atmospheric. (3.e. One side of such a surface is usually submerged in the liquid while the other side is exposed to the atmosphere of p0. are represented by sides of liquid containers.18) is dFx=idF = p{i n)dS = pdSx. (3.
27 ) The surface integral in Eq.27) together with Eqs. by the use of a geometrical relation known as Steiner's Theorem. i.25) and (3. and iii. To represent the distributed forces correctly.26). Equation (3. passing through the centroid of the surface.yF). It is noted that for surfaces symmetrical with respect to the yaxis. also known as the center of pressure. have its point of application such that its moment about any axis parallel to the ycoordinate axis equals the total moment of the distributed forces about the same axis. xF comes out to be zero.caxis. 63 (3. The same. because the pressure field is not symmetrical about the xaxis.27) is identified as the second moment of the area. equal these forces in magnitude and direction. (3. 3.6.3. . Thus. Let a coordinate system parallel to the x. 3. however. y system but with its origin at the centroid c be x\ y\ Fig. With the point of application denoted (xF. yF). Fluid Statics FZ=PCS. the resultant force acting on a circular plate is 7tK1pc and its direction is normal to the plate surface.26) and pc = yyc sin a is the hydrostatic pressure at a depth corresponding to yc. Steiner's theorem then states (328) Equation (3. Requirement (i) is already satisfied by Eqs. for example. does not apply to surfaces symmetrical with respect to the .25) is particularly useful for surfaces with known centroids. have its point of application such that its moment about any axis parallel to the xcoordinate axis equals the total moment of the distributed forces about the same axis.28) and ( 3.6. (3. and requirement (iii) determines xF.24) yield the ycoordinate of the center of pressure. this resultant must i.. Ixx. ii. To find this point of application (xF. requirement (ii) implies that moments be taken about the xaxis: = j8 y2dS. Fig. requirement (ii) determines yF.e. ( 3 . This moment of inertia about the xaxis can be related to the moment of inertia about a parallel *axis. A resultant single force may be substituted for the distributed pressure forces acting on the total surface. (3. or the moment of inertia of the area with respect to the xaxis. which is defined by (3.25) where yc is the ycoordinate of the centroid of the area 5.
31) This yields xF =—— J xydS = xy +xc.i xXy — *x'yr ^xcjc • (3.7b.29) Some moments of inertia IxV are tabulated in standard handbooks and may be used instead of the integration in Eq. Find the resultant force.30) Steiner's theorem is used again in the form T —T j _ C~ . (3. The force is obtained from Eq. (3. b. The moment of inertia of the rectangular plate about its centroid is .4 a.64 Fluid Mechanics (3.29). 3. Solution a. which is L/2 deep. 3. A vertical rectangular plate AA'B'B is set under water (p = 1. Fig.24) as F = ky(D • L) = .k SOOgDL2. yF. its direction and its point of application. The centroid of the plate is at C.33) Example 3. Find the resultant and its point of application.32) where the xcoordinate of the area centroid is defined by (3.000 kg/m3). (3. A larger plate is now shown in Fig. (3. For a plane surface not symmetrical with respect to the yaxis xp may be found in a similar way from FzxF=\ xdF = ysinaj xydS = ysinaIxy.7a.
M3 * sin a 2 sin a into Eq. drawn along AB (dashed line in Fig.7a). sin3 2sina 2L 3sina 2sinal sina I The point of application is again at twothirds of the plate and at twothirds of the maximal depth. 3. Equation (3.3.29) yields the ycoordinate of the center of pressure. The center of gravity of this triangle is 2/3 L deep.29) then yields the ycoordinate of the center of pressure yp ~ ycS +Jc ~ + JfLD 2~3 A D Figure 3. Note: A diagram of the pressure as a function of depth.7 Rectangular plate under water. F = kr— 2 sin a sin a Substitution of the moment of inertia and the ycoordinate of the centroid of the area. is triangular. Is there a connection? b. . respectively. r V .24) yields the force exerted on the plate. The point of application of the resultant is also 2/3 L deep. Fluid Statics 65 Equation (3. (3.
yT H IS A Front view O Side view Figure 3. Solution To find the force and its point of application on a plate with a circular hole. and connected by a pipe. Let the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the plate and to the circle. 1 2 2 2 In Example 3.66 Fluid Mechanics Example 3. are filled with water. The sought force is the difference between that of the rectangular plate and that of the circle.. . . Find the resultant force and the point of application of this force on the partition with the pipe. For the rectangular plate without the hole _ . Fig. L yllb 9. respectively.D = lm.5 Two reservoirs. 3.8 Two reservoirs connected by a pipe.440 N.810x4 2 x3 „ „ . „ „ R = L x b x r— = =— = 235.H = 3m. we perform the following steps: Find the force and point of application for the plate without the hole. Use the following dimensions: L = 4m. A and B.4 it was shown that the point of application is at 2/3L. b = 3m. Hence .8. Find the force and point of application for a circular plate having the same dimensions and location as the hole. The combined point of application is obtained by the requirement that the moment of the resultant force must equal the difference between the moments of the plate and of the circle.
The centroid of a triangle is at the point of intersection of its medians.326 XXx * Example 3. „„„ The resultant force on the plate with the hole is Fu = ~{Fl F2) = 235.29) yields nD4/64 T.9b.n Ji?i= — = 2.114 N.6 a. (3. This can be shown analytically by H H b Syc= j ydS= j y jdxdy= y=0 y=0 x=0 H jbydy... Find the resultant force representing correctly the effects of the hydrostatic pressure.4m. Fluid Statics 2i 67 „ .__ H = 9 .3. The inclined triangular wall in Fig.4403. y=0 .yFiFiyF2F2 F12 _ 2. 8 1 0 x 3 ^ ^ .810 N/m3). 4 4 For a circular plate nDA 64 KRA 4 and Eq. The point of application is found from Hence F .. The force on a circular plate the size of the hole is F _^ .114 = 212.667x235. D2 .6m is immersed in water (7=9. which is at onethird of its height. Solution a.114 _ 212.667 m.= 23.. Repeat part a for the triangle in Fig.3. L .9a with a = 60°. 3. H. b.02x23.44023.326 N.
x. I^ysina Fz S: L Vjr F =. hence y=o and by Eq. (3. In this case it is easier to obtain / ^ rather than Ix. (3. Similarly. Hence.27).68 Fluid Mechanics H y=o Figure 3. = 9.30).9 Triangular walls. (3. y=o 2 LH 2 (l 2 0 2 LH 24 and by Eq. .897 N..810xsin60° x72 203. 2 = 24 m 4 .24). by Eq. = 203.897 „ = 3 m.
810xsin60° x(72) i = = 1. Fluid Statics 69 Ixyysina 9. where yF came out to be at twothirds of the depth. completely submerged bodies (Su S2).30) I^ysina xv = — F Fz J —^rrydy = 2 Jy=o 2H 72m4. namely those belonging to a. 4 J i y o =8m .The General Case As shown in Fig. 407. h4 = 4. Hence Fz = y S y c s m a = y(±L# 2 )sina = 9.29) now yields 24 . 3. submerged surfaces divide into three distinct groups. (3.810x(±x4x6 2 )sin60° =407.794 Note: yF for case a is at onehalf the depth.5 m. yp = F 4x12 Similarly. Equation (3. floating bodies (5 3 .794 N.3. Here we have yc = 4 m. b.4. * Fz 203.5 m.x. From part a above + y2Ca x S = Ix.897 b. Forces on Submerged Surfaces .10. from a above Ixya = 24 = Ixy + xCa yCa x S = Ixy + 32. . S4). Compare this to the rectangular case. c. . S6). and yF for case b is at threefourths of the depth. Irv~\ y\ xdxdy = \ J *y Jy=o ix=b Finally. and submerged boundaries (5 5 .810xsin60° x24 xv = — = =1 m. by Eq. . x—= 2 4 8 9. Example 3. + 4 x 12 = IxV Ixxa = 72 = IxV + 48.
35) (3. which.. because it is bounded by surfaces of one kind only. upon substitution ofp from Eq.35).10 Submerged bodies. 3. Fx=jpdSx=j{Po + yzo yz)dSx.21).8).20) and (3. respectively. Figure 3. submerged surfaces. (3. (3. a. is given by Eq. (3. Completely Submerged Bodies (Slf S2> Fig. Fx and Fy are given by Eqs.e. (3. reads = j(po+yzoyz)ndS. (3.34) The horizontal components of F.10) The total force acting on a completely submerged surface. (3.19). It is convenient to carry . We therefore consider a body of this type first.70 Fluid Mechanics Of these the easiest to analyze is the completely submerged body.36) s s We now proceed to find Fx by integrating Eq. such as S1. i.
(3.40) (3. xB. is kVj(y B1 . Then the point (x^. on all z. (3.41) v Let Zb be defined as zB = ^ J z dV. i. the force applied to the boat by the hanging rock S.39) Hence xB=UxdV. and Fx vanishes.e.10 and once with a negative sign as viewed by the unhappy fish..7).38) where yV is the weight of the fluid displaced by the submerged body. as done in Eq. 3. The argument which led to vanishing horizontal resultants does not apply to the vertical component. the point with respect to which the moment of the forces exerted on the submerged body by the fluid vanishes.k J ^dV = k j ydV = kyV. Zb) comes out to be the . i. (3.J p n dS = .The vertical force given by Eq. (3. For 5] this vertical force is easily obtained by the application of Gauss' theorem to Eq. depends on z and cannot be set outside the integral over the single strip..=  jiPo + YZoyz) all strips jdSx. p.e.JVpdV = . Specifically. The pressure.38) is called buoyancy force The center of buoyancy of a submerged body is defined as the point of application of the buoyancy force. for an arbitrary choice of the origin of the coordinate system the xcoordinate of the center of buoyancy.19): F = . Fluid Statics 71 out the integration in two stages: first by performing it at constant z on horizontal strips of thickness dz and then by integrating over all strips. while that applied to the concrete block S6 by the float S2 is k V 2 ( y . is found by j v (3. s v v z v (3. The integral's total contribution is therefore nil.yB2). once with a positive sign as viewed by the happy fish in Fig. yb. The same result is obtained for Fy with the conclusion that completely submerged bodies suffer no net horizontal force.3. v and similarly (3. Denoting by YB the average specific weight of the submerged body.35) thus becomes F.37) one strip The integral \dSx over a single strip yields twice the projection of the strip on the xplane. Equation (3.37).
7 A quick and fairly accurate way to measure the density p of a solid sample is to weigh the sample in air and then again in a known liquid. The center of buoyancy thus coincides with the center of gravity of the displaced fluid. b. 3. in water . Find p if the ratio of the weight in water to that in air is G w /G a =0. . p = Pu. where Vpwg is the buoyancy force. Figure 3. Fig. in water. P Hence.1117 = 1.g.1117. Hence Gw Ga / P Pw p or = 10.11 Body balanced in air and in water.000/O. Then Ga=Vpg.72 Fluid Mechanics center of gravity of the displaced fluid.11. Considering this point as that at which the buoyancy force acts results in the buoyancy force correctly representing the fluid forces as far as forces and moments are concerned. e. and the sample could be made of nickel./0. Example 3.8883.953 kg/m3.8883 = 0..I 117 = 8. Gw = Vpg Vpwg = Vg(ppw). Solution Let the sample weight in air be Ga and that in water be Gw.
204. Gravity on the surface of the moon is about g/6. The volume of a 75kg astronaut wearing a space outfit is 0.4 = 188 N. The submerged part of the floating body is now defined as that part of the body bounded by its wetted parts and by the extension of the z0 plane into the floating body. The mass of the suit is about 50 kg. That part of a ship which is below the water line is an example of the submerged part of a floating body. Inspection of the analysis of the completely submerged bodies reveals that the same analysis may be repeated here for the computation of the horizontal components of the force. The vertical force Fz may be easily calculated using Eq. they are put with their space outfits at the bottom of a pool filled with water {pw = 1000 kg/m3).22): . (3. Example 3. b. 3.085 m 3 . Floating Bodies (S^ S 4 .02 m3 (neglecting the floats' own weight) in order to reduce the force by 392. with the conclusion that no horizontal resultant exists for the floating body. they stick out of the fluid.4 N. Should astronauts be equipped with weights or with floats to have them feel as if under moon gravity? Solution The force acting on the astronaut on the moon is 9 81 Fm = (75 + 50)^— = 204.3. Rather. Fluid Statics 73 Question: How do you perform this procedure for samples lighter than water? Answer: Tie a piece of metal to the sample.10) Floating bodies differ from completely submerged bodies by not being exclusively enclosed by surfaces in contact with the fluid. Fig. Floating bodies are always associated with a free surface of the fluid.8 In preparing astronauts for moving on the surface of the moon. The force under water is The astronaut needs floats of about 0. Let this free surface have the coordinate zo.4 .
6 m 3 . This last result for both the completely submerged body and for the floating one is also known as Archimedes' Law.12. From Fig. = Rsina.15 kg/m 3 . The center of buoyancy of the floating body is again located at the center of gravity of the displaced fluid. 3. but with V denoting the volume of the submerged part only. Thus the total force exerted on the floating body by the fluid is still F = kyV.yjshdSz = yV. .J g {Po + yh) dSz = jsp0 dSz . by Archimedes' law.74 Fluid Mechanics F* = . The buoyancy force obtained is again equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.38).9 Ice at 10°C has the density Pi = 998. The volume of sea water it must displace.000ton (106kg) spherical iceberg floats at sea. By how much does "the tip of the iceberg" stick out of the water? Figure 3. dV = nL2dz = 7rf?3sin3a da. The contribution of p0 on the upward acting force Fz cancels out by the downward acting po on the exposed part of the body. 3. as can be easily verified by repeating the considerations used for the submerged body. = R(lcosa).12. The salty water has a density of ps = 1. Fig. dz = Rs'mada. as in Eq.025 = 975.(3.207 m.12 Spherical iceberg.025 kg/m3. A 1. Example 3. is Vw=10 6 / 1. Solution The volume of the iceberg is which corresponds to a sphere of radius R = 6.
e. Hence. and the height of the part sticking out is 1 0 . 3.35) and (3.35) and (3. =144°.34) becomes A vertical ray entering S at a particular dSz may sometimes pierce S again.229 m.185 m. (3.207 m we obtain «. Fig. 75 «i V = J . 0 0 6 — ^ ^ 22 = 0. The surface Ss in Fig. the lower part of S5 cannot be thus girdled.001. The only somewhat simplifying statements which can be made for these surfaces are: For horizontal components: Equations (3. Fluid Statics a.c o s 2 a ) s i n a d a 0 ! + cos 3 «!) + J TCB? = 975. Each case of such a general submerged surface must be calculated separately by the use of Eqs.6 m 3 . 3. with dV the volume of the cylinder formed by . dSy.006 c.3. and therefore this part has its projections on the x. For an iceberg that is cubic. Submerged Boundaries (S5. where Az is the distance along the ray between its entry and exit points. Thus dFz becomes just ydV. There are therefore net horizontal forces acting on S5.10 is a more general example of such a boundary.91/3 = 10.262 m. i.. respectively. (3. When this happens.36) do not change if the surface S is replaced by its projections. dSx.rf?3sin3a da = TER3 J 7 l .006 m. z{ = 11. For vertical components: Equation (3.36).34).10) The plane surface has already been treated in detail in a previous section. However. Different surfaces which have the same projections in a certain horizontal direction thus suffer the same horizontal component of the force in that direction. for R = 6. The height of the part sticking out of the water is 2Rzx =1. 10.and yplanes canceled and does not contribute to the horizontal force. The upper part of S5 is completely girdled by horizontal strips. the two pierced dSz may be counted together in the integral to yield dFz= y (Az) dSz. S6. the side of the cube is l.
13. Examples for the use of these statements are illustrated in Fig. b. the resultant vertical force acting on this separated section is the buoyancy force corresponding to its volume. such that the correct moment results.14 Shapes of gates.10 Figure 3.14 shows three types of water gates. Figure 3. What is the resultant force of the water pressure exerted on each gate. 3. Example 3. When a part of the submerged surface can be completely separated from the rest of it by a surface formed entirely by such piercing rays. Surface Projection area Figure 3. Section cut by vertical rays Surface projection S*.13 Submerged surfaces. and what is its line of application.76 Fluid Mechanics the base dSz and the height Az. . Assume each gate is 1 m wide and that the depth of the water is H = 4 m.
xc ) = 0. hence dFx = pHsmada = yH2 (Icos a) sin a da.3.5441 x 9.7766 H.2146/H2. Using Eq.986N. = 0. we have from Example 3.2146 = 66. Fluid Statics 77 Solution For gate a p = pgh= yH(l~cosa).544l7H2 = 0.] = 0. (3. .810 x 4 2 = 85. The point of application of that force is at H/3. (. nil nil 0 o zcFx= j zyH2(lcosa)sinada = H3y j (cosacos2a)sinada dFz . where n = r.4 c _ H 3 F = = 0.7071 yH2 =110. Fz = I*'2yH2(cosacos2a)da = yH2 [ l . and its direction is perpendicular to the inclined plane.pH cos a da = yH2(I cos a) cos a da. For gate b.18)..403 N and = arctan = arctan 0. we have dE = pndS = pnHda.7°.
Note that in both cases a and c there is no moment about the center of the cylinder. Example 3.11 A float valve is schematically shown in Fig. force F must be applied to overcome the water pressure and the valve weight G. .6358x9.„= 360 . Fx = J* ±YH2(lcosa)smada = \ yH2[20] = \yH2. To open the valve. dFx = p^sinada = jyH2(lcosa)smada. 3 3 '\yH2) +(0. F z . is found by Archimedes' law as the buoyancy force acting on half the cylinder: We also know from solid mechanics that the center of gravity of half a circle is at xc=c — r = — H = 0. zcFx = J jzyH2(lcosa)sinada=^yH3j (l + cosa)(lcosa)sinada = i yH 3 J* (1 .1 ] = Hence _zxFx_H Fr 3 ' The force acting upward.810x4 2 = 99.15.78 Fluid Mechanics For gate c p= jyH(lcosa).cos2 a)sin ada = i ytf 3 [ 2 . In its closed position the sphere is pressed by the water pressure onto the valve seat.6358yH2 = 0. 3.3927yH2) = 0.792 N and finally (!.2122 H.arctan = 308°.
the valve must stay open until the flush tank is emptied.3. It is kept open by the buoyancy forces overcoming its weight G.. Hydrostatic Stability A completely submerged body or a floating one has its buoyancy force acting through its center of buoyancy in the positive zdirection. 3 = =7rxO.15 Float valve.Rsin (si 2 acosaWa or For R = 3 cm.03) = 8.O32(o.O3 x9. Fluid Statics 79 Once open.8107rxO.e.88 N . Solution The weight of the valve G should be less than that of the water it displaces. h = 30 cm.HN and F > G+ yrzR2[hf#) = 1. i. The applied force F should be F>G + y\ (hRsina)27tRcosaRsinada (sinacosa.3f x0.810 = l. Closed I I Open Figure 3. find bounds for permissible G and required F. It also has its weight acting through its center of gravity in the negative zdirection.H + 9. Given the radius of the ball R. .
Static stability is important both for structures which are apparently static. in which case the situation is denoted stable. unstable or neutral.. the relative positions of the center of gravity. it will roll. i.c. not move up or down only when these two forces are equal in magnitude.e. floating cranes.. e. it must have its center of buoyancy and its center of gravity on the same vertical line or it cannot be in equilibrium.d is in stable equilibrium. or the moment may tend to decrease a and diminish the roll. in which case the situation is called unstable. because they act along the same vertical line. change. The submarine with its cylindrical cross section in Fig. When this equilibrium exists. It is seen at once that a . such as ships or submarines.. which tends to further increase the roll angle a. Figure 3.16a. and for those which move at noticeable speeds. buoys. G. i.e. and the center of buoyancy.80 Fluid Mechanics The body can remain static.16c. B. Fig. while the forces themselves remain vertical. however. etc. 3.. buoyancy and weight is zero. it can still be stable. A moment may appear. Furthermore. a neutral equilibrium is inferred. It serves as a necessary condition in the design of the structures and also as an approximation for their dynamic stability near equilibrium. When the considered body rolls with the angle a. At static equilibrium the moment of the couple of forces.g. When no moment appears. 3. such as dams.16 A submarine and a sail boat with center of gravity below center of buoyancy.
is as good as any other and is still used by naval architects.e. while underwater. where waves usually strike. and one notes at once that as long as GM > 0 (i. Such a boat and a stable one is shown in Fig.17 A stable boat. a. M is above G). The point M in Fig. 3. Historically the line BG was provided by the mast. Some more examples of stable and unstable equilibria are shown in Fig. This results. This criterion. the a range of stable equilibrium has not been exceeded.17. For this reason most boats and all ships have their center of gravity in the vicinity of the water line.3.18. such a submarine would correct its position even from a roll of a = 180°. assuming that nothing has been shifted inside it while rolling. mainly boats that must withstand very large moments caused by high masts and large sails. can be in stable equilibrium only if its center of gravity is below its center of buoyancy. Indeed. this means that the ship will not capsize. because the wave's momentum is transferred to it quite above its center of gravity.16a. Unfortunately. 3. when a wave strikes from the side a boat so designed. 3. 3. and a ship master who knew his ship could estimate the metacentric height at different roll angles. Fluid Statics 81 submarine. b. however.. This manifestation of absolute stability seems very attractive and some sail boats are designed this way (Fig. . Neglecting dynamical effects. Figure 3.17 is obtained by the intersection of the line of action of the instantaneous buoyancy force with the straight line passing through the center of gravity and the center of buoyancy of the structure at equilibrium. the boat rolls through large angles. The length GM is called the metacentric height. however in the center of gravity being above the center of buoyancy.b).
Example 3. Because pw = 2pb. pb = 500 kg/m 3 . which is counterbalanced by the buoyancy force F = pwgxaxbxs.12 The rectangular block of balsa wood in Fig. where B is the center of buoyancy. Given: a = b = 4 m.18 Stable and unstable equilibria. where s is its submerged part. The buoyancy force is therefore F = pwga xbxc = 1.000 x 9.19 has the dimensions axbx 2c and the density pb. 2c = 2 m.900N.82 Fluid Mechanics Stable i ' Unstable Figure 3.806 x 4 x 4 x 1 = 156. Find the returning moment of the block as it rolls with small angles. 3. It is put in water of density pw. Also given from trigonometric considerations. pw = 1000 kg/m 3 . and the block sinks by c 1 m into the water. s = c. Solution The weight force of the block is W = pbgV = pbgxax bx(2c). .
3.1 Multifluid manometer.2 The inclined manometer shown in Fig. the returning moment is M a = F x QB = 156.2 is filled with water which reaches mark B on the inclined leg when the pressure tap is open to the .1 ? air N. Fluid Statics 83 When the block tilts at an angle a. Figure 3.900 x f a = 130. Problems 3. 3. P3. 30 cm water mercury Figure P3.1 What is the pressure at point A in Fig.19 Rolling block.750a Nm. P3.
estimate the thickness of the earth's crust that still behaves like solid. what is the pressure pi What is the error introduced by not measuring the water level drop in the wide leg? II D Figure P3. where H=3m and h = 0.5 A kerosene line is fitted with a differential manometer. What is the pressure at point 1? Which way does the pump pump? pump mercury Figure P3.3 3.P3. Fig. Assuming the upper solid layers of the earth to Figure P3.2 m.4 3. P3. pwater=lOOOkg/m3. Pkerosene = 900 kg/ltf. . The pressure at point 2 is 1. If d = 2 mm and D = 100 mm.4.3 is measured by the manometer shown.84 Fluid Mechanics atmosphere. mercury = 13600 kerosene All known materials behave like fluids at pressure higher than mercury 10. A pressure p is applied and the water level rises by L = 100 mm.5 g/cm 3 .3 The pressure difference between points 1 and 2 in the water pipe shown in Fig. given /V=100kPa.5 bars.000 bars. Find the absolute pressure at points A and B.2 3.00020.4 have a density of 2.
600 kg/m 3 . and the situation became that of Fig.8 What is the resultant of the forces of the fluid acting on the gate AB in Fig. pass through C? Figure P3. h. to make the line of action of the resultant force on the wall.UI> p H g = 13.6 force acting on the gate? What is its point of application? What should be the angle of the slope of the walls.75 m.5 m.8? What is the moment acting at point A? (Give the answer per unit width. a.6. b = 0.) Figure P3. P3. P3.8 . H = 660 mm.100 mm.7 The reservoir in Fig. Fluid Statics 85 Estimate its thickness below the bottom of the sea. assuming sea depth of 10 km. P3. rose on top of the mercury. What is the vapor pressure of the B fluid? Data: i/j = 760mm. 3.3. B = 1. p B = 850 kg/m 3 . M.6 A mercury barometer gave a true reading of Hx mm Hg.H. \^J~ 3.7 3. R. H = 6 m. The B fluid B liquid. What is the resultant Figure P3.7 has a gate with h = 1 m. A quantity of fluid B was then injected into the B vapor bottom of the vertical barometer tube.
Fig. What is the resultant horizontal force exerted on the stopper by the fluids? b. a.9 Fluid Mechanics A rectangular water channel is 4 m wide and has a circular gate as shown in Fig.10 3. R = 0. On each side of the wall there is a different fluid. A conical stopper plugs an opening in the wall.P3.287 kJ/kgK. What is the moment of all the forces that act on the stopper with respect to its midpoint at the center of the wall? p •> i too fcgfc' Mlillllliiii Figure P3. The gate is kept closed by a weight at point E. Find the height below which lies 99% of the mass of the atmosphere. . Figure P3.10 A tank is divided into two parts by a vertical wall.9 3. all through the atmosphere.9.86 3.10. P3.11 Assume air to satisfy pv = RT. What is the resultant vertical force exerted on the stopper by the fluids? c. and the atmosphere to be isothermal at 300°C. Neglect the weight of the gate itself and find what weight just keeps the gate closed.
R= 287 J/kgK at the constant temperature T = 300 K. Fluid Statics 87 3.13 has a diameter of 10 m and is filled with hydrogen at 0.3.370 kg/m3) is filled with water.14 3.14 is used to control the specific density of brine with p = 1100 kg/m3. Find the total mass of the balloon. Assume the atmosphere to be an ideal gas satisfying p = pRT. The total volume of the cylinder is 15.12 A spherical balloon with a diameter of 5 m floats in the air at a height of 200 m. Neglect the weight of the balloon itself and find what force it applies to the basket? What is its force when the balloon is filled with helium? Air. For d = 4 mm.7 liters and its weight together with the water is 16. pv = RT. Figure P3. The pond density varies as p = 1+0. 3. as shown in Fig. It is desired that variations of 1% in the specific density manifest themselves by variations of 1 cm in the height of the dry part of the float.01 v g/cm3 ( y is in m).15 The float shown in Pig.15 . 3.13 Figure P3.15.14 A cylinder with a bottom section made of lead (piead = 11.5 kg. hydrogen and helium satisfy the perfect gas equation. what is the weight of the float? Figure P3. The cylinder is placed in a solar pond.13 The balloon in Fig. Find the vertical location of the cylinder. The atmospheric pressure at sea level is 100 kPa. P3.1 MPa and 300 K. P3. P3.
. Its weight in air is W=4. Calculate the forces and moments that act on the cylinder (per unit length). P3.800kg. How high will the water level rise inside the bell? Will the bell sink by itself? Once sunk. P3. Will the cylinder rotate? Would it if it were an elliptical cylinder? Assume that the fluid does not flow from the tank through the seal. The air inside the bell is compressed isothermally.e. d=2m. as shown in Fig. A piece of wood floats in the oil.18 The diving bell in Fig.16 3. Figure P3. Calculate the force F exerted by the rope on the tank assuming the weight of the empty tank is negligible. i.16 Fluid Mechanics A wooden cylinder (y= 700 kg/m3) is shown in Fig. The atmospheric pressure is p0 = 10 5 N/m2. as shown.16.17 An open tank shaped as a truncated cone is filled with oil to its top.18 . P3. Neglect the volume of the metal of which the bell is made.88 3. and L =2 m. pv = const.17.18 is lowered into the water. will the bell float by itself? Figure P3. The tank is suspended from a rope and is partly immersed in water. — 6m D = 2m ieal Figure P3.17 3. D= 10m.
b. Find what force acts on the window.8. p silver = 10. He balanced the sphere on a scale using a cube of gold. P3. and it contains 6 m3 of air.20 A man named Archimedes had a 100g sphere which looked like gold. as shown by b in the figure. Z? = 5 m and C=3.300 kg/m3. and then took a bath. with a free surface.21.000 kg. The weight of the bell in air is W = 8.21 A boxlike barge is shown in Fig.000 kg/m3) is shown in Fig. what is its righting moment? Assuming the load to be waterlike. Figure P3. A window of a 60° circular arc sector is fitted in the bell as shown in the figure.5m. The air inside the bell is assumed to be compressed isothermally. P3. Being absentminded. what is the righting moment? How is the last result modified if the barge had a vertical partition dividing it into two equal halves? . When loaded. The bell is lowered into the sea until its bottom is 10 m below water level. How much silver should he add beside the sphere to have the scale balance in water? p gold = 19. a.3.19. Assuming the load to be well secured. P3.19 3. as shown in Fig. Its inside height is 3 m. D = 1 m. The barge rolls to the angle a= 15°. Now he suspects the sphere to be goldplated silver. he took the scale with him into the water.20 3. Fluid Statics 3.500 kg/m3.20.19 89 A steel bell (ps . Find the tension in the cable which holds the bell. Figure P3.
M = M(6).22 What is the restoring torque of the body that is shown in Fig.23 A safety gate is constructed as shown in Fig.21 3. b = 1 m.000 N Figure P3. Assume all other information that you need.23. .22 3. Find the moment the water exerts on the gate.7a Jl 0. At what water height hx will the gate open? water F = 50.90 Fluid Mechanics Figure P3. h = 4m. _3a ' ™—™ ~ Figure P3. The width of the gate is 1 m.23 A safety gate.2a f 1 . P3. 0. rr c.22? Sketch the torque as a function of 9. P3.
) Figure P3. Once the oil is again at rest (with respect to what?).26 A pipe inclined at an angle a=30° is closed at the bottom. Fluid Statics 3.2 g. What is the pressure. P3. at the axis of rotation? 3.26 . at the bottom of the pipe? What is the pressure. relative to the cart.P3. what is a? (Ignore the manometer inside the oil. Figure P3. P3. po. find at what angle /3 would a fluid rest. a = 50°. for a = 30°.26. Fig.24. what is a? What is a? What will the manometer show when the experiment is repeated without the oil? 3. pB. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. because of gravity.25 The tank in Fig.27. P3.27 A cart on wheels accelerates freely.24 3.24 accelerates at constant a.24 91 A rectangular tank containing oil accelerates at a = 0. Neglecting friction.3. It is filled with water and then rotated with co= 8 rad/s. From the reading of the mercury manometer. on a slope.
P3. Neglect the volume of the metal from which the bell is made. P3. with pV = const. 3. Fig. P3.2 and 3. The tank and the oil rotate as a solid body about the vertical axis.600 kg/m3.R= 0. has a mass of 1. is filled with water.30.28. A small hole is made at point A.28 small hole H=\m.e. and consider the hydrodynamic resistance of the water to the motion of the bell an additional margin of safety. Find the maximal value of q which still permits the bell to float back by its own buoyancy. as shown in Fig. 1.30 A cylindrical bell. Determine the angular speed of the tank.28 A cylindrical tank is filled with oil. pM= 13.500kg and an inner volume of 6 m3 while just touching the water surface. Find the pressure on the internal surfaces. i.29 A circular hollow top.. The bell inner height is H = 3 m. and the air inside is assumed to be compressed isothermally. The top spins about its vertical axis with an angular velocity of lOrad/s. A Utube filled with mercury is fitted in the tank as shown.75 m. .27 3. Given: p oil = 900 kg/m3. 3. Find the forces acting on the seams connecting the flat plate 1 with the cylindrical shell 2 and that with the conical shell 3. Fig.92 Fluid Mechanics Figure P3. The bell is pushed downward with the initial speed q m/s.29. Figure P3.
31 A chamber for testing windows.31ae. The windows can be set in three orientations as shown: horizontal (A). The windows themselves are plane and have the shapes shown in Fig.30 3. Fluid Statics V=6m 93 T H = 3m Figure P3.31 Figure P3.31 shows a chamber designed to test underwater windows. . vertical (B) and at an angle a to the vertical (C). Find the total force exerted on the windows. Solve the problem for all the windows and for each of the three orientations. its direction and its point of application.3. 10 m 12m Figure P3. P3.
When no ship touches the bumper. Note that while for the shapes in Fig. with a diameter of 0. 3. The density of sea water is p = 1050kg/m. oil (p = 850 kg/m). Find the force needed to keep the plug in the hole. P3.33 A research minisubmarine is designed to operate at a depth of 500 m in the sea. some ice and a piece of wood is set on a scale as shown in Fig.33.32.all variations are considered. Find the forces and the moments for the designs of these windows. The wet part of the windows has the shape of a section of a sphere .36. Find for what force and for what moment must the windows be designed.3 m. for the shape of Fig. 3. P3.34 Considerations of strength led engineers to consider spherical shells made of glass for the windows of the submarine in Problem 3.e. 3. i. 3. b. At the bottom of the tank there is a circular hole with the diameter of 0.35 A wharf is protected against being rammed by a ship by a bumper connected to a float as shown in Fig. the windows may look downward.32 direct integration is extremely difficult. and flat. to prevent optical distortion. sideways or in any other direction. The submarine operates at all orientations. .32 Repeat Problem 3. P3..36 lm Oil Water £ # C 2m Figure P3.31 for the case of the window given in Fig.35. Find the weight of the tank as shown by the scale. a. Neglect the weight of the empty tank.3 m blocked by a plug. P3. from a flat plane to half a sphere. The bottom area of the tank is 2 m2.31 the force and its point of application may be computed either by direct integration or by making use of the shape's moment of inertia together with Steiner's theorem. the force in the chain is 20 kN.94 Fluid Mechanics 3. The glass windows of the submarine are round.35 A cylindrical tank containing water (p = 1000kg/m). P3.
j Jj.••J I 11! Figure P3.J. c.3. Find the amount of energy taken from the moving ship as it pushes in the bumper by 0.36 a. Find the maximal resistance force the bumper can offer. Find the amount of energy absorbed by the bumperfloat system before this maximal force appears. Fluid Statics W'Mf 95 Ship iffW.vjtjr. .~.4 m. b.Jf.
.
.e. FLUIDS IN MOTION . There exist. such that while the individual fluid particles still elude identification. also vary from point to point in the field. and while doing so its location is better kept under control. quite a few cases where there are sufficient restrictions on the flow field.g. there are walls impermeable to the fluid. 97 . e. We then present the Reynolds transport theorem and apply it to obtain integral relations of conservation of mass and Newton's second law of motion for a control volume. equations that describe what takes place at each point at all times.. This approach is known as integral analysis. In most cases one tries to avoid the need for such an identification and presents the phenomena in some field equations. i. In most cases where integral representation is possible. When this is the case. some useful engineering results may be obtained by integrating the relevant properties over the appropriate chunk. much more difficult than the identification of a solid body or of a fluid particle in a static fluid. We begin this chapter with the definition of a control volume and with relations between thermodynamic systems and control volumes. The problem of identification of a fluid particle in a moving fluid is. however. We call the volume enclosed by these walls a control volume. There are cases where such an identification of a particle is made. which is called the Eulerian approach. is the subject of the next chapter. The moving fluid which cannot pass through these walls must flow along them.4. the analysis of these properties may become quite elaborate. This differential analysis. its velocity. whole chunks of fluid can be identified.INTEGRAL ANALYSIS Moving fluids are subject to the same laws of physics as are moving rigid bodies or fluids at rest. When the fluid properties. and then this particle is followed and the change of its properties is investigated. This is known as the Lagrangian approach. however.
In a moving fluid such a thermodynamic system will. At the time t it occupies the volume V. and for B identified with. All three laws are formulated for a thermodynamic system which is classically defined as a specified amount of matter with welldefined boundaries. in general. but as long as they remain well defined. This control volume formulation is done by the application of the Reynolds transport theorem.98 Fluid Mechanics Thermodynamic Systems and Control Volumes A very useful concept in integral analysis is that of the control volume. and therefore its rate of change in time vanishes. say a steel ball.1. Newton's second law demands that the rate of change in time of this component equals the xcomponent of the resultant force acting on the system. say. 4. and the first law of thermodynamics. the enclosure may still serve as a control volume. then B = \pbdV. The walls may deform and the openings may change dimensions. the xcomponent of the total momentum of the system. Had our system been a rigid body. i. in terms convenient to apply for control volumes. which states what takes place when a thermodynamic system moves through a control volume. It is the choice of a proper control volume which determines whether a particular problem can be treated successfully by integral methods. We note that B belongs to the system and that the system may change its location and its shape in time. which consists of an enclosure with welldefined impermeable walls and welldefined openings. Newton's second law of motion. Let B be some general extensive property of the thermodynamic system inside the volume V and let b be its specific value. continuously change its location and shape and will be hard to follow. for mass and momentum. the value of B per unit mass. that is. v (4. the notation dB/dt might have sufficed because it would be clear that we talked about the steel ball. The control volume may move in space and may even accelerate. Fig. The object of the general considerations presented here is to reformulate two of the three laws mentioned above. The three physical laws most important in fluid mechanics are conservation of mass.e. for a fluid system it is useful to emphasize that the . However.1) The theorem deals with the rate of change of B with time.. Reynolds Transport Theorem Let a thermodynamic system be chosen inside the fluid. We are interested in this because for conservation of mass B is identified with the total mass of the thermodynamic system.
conservation of mass states that a given system cannot change its mass.1.1). These changes are not arbitrary. System at t+At System at t Figure 4. which has the extensive property B as defined by Eq. depends on time because the considered thermodynamic system changes its location and its shape. (4. Fluids in Motion . They are determined by the flow field. which is called the material derivative of B.Integral Analysis 99 rate of change of B is sought while following the system. 4.3) In Eq.1 Thermodynamic system moving in velocity field. and the velocity vector is expected to appear in the expressions for the rate of change of B. (4.2). (4. leading to Dm _ D Dt ~ Dt (4.4. Thus the rate of change of the property B is DB D (4.2) For example. Consider the system of fluid inside the volume V(t) shown in Fig. This is done by writing DB/Dt.1 in Eq.2) the domain of the integration. The property B may depend . V. This may be expressed by substituting B = m and b .
the same at t and at t +At.1. Thus the rate of change of B becomes DB_= l i m B(t + At)B(t)_ Dt 4*>o At l i m BA(t + At) + BA. while the system moves with the flow field.. Referring to Fig. Thus the total change in the property B of the system that originally occupied regions A + A' is due to the time change of B inside A plus the flux of part of the system with its property B into region A" minus the flux that has left region A'.(t At^o f lim + At)BA. it is noted that the volumetric flow rate of fluid.(t + /U>o At At)BA(t)BA.(t) At dB dt ^ The first term on the righthand side of Eq.1. of course. but the specific property b in it may be different because b depends also on time. expresses the contribution due to the flow of the fluid. Since our considerations are for the limit of vanishing At. We look now for the rate of change of B. In Fig. while a negative q n denotes inflow..4) gives the change of B at constant position.e.(4. A.(t) or DB _ H m BA(t Dt At>o + At)BA(t) At BA. a flow from A to A". i. as expressed by Eq. As we see.100 Fluid Mechanics on time and location. passing through a differential area dS is the product of the area and the velocity component normal to the area: A positive q n denotes outflow. (4. is. flow from A' to A.1 we see the system at the time t and at the time t + At. B.e. dQ. The common part. 4. The second term. i. there is always a region common to both locations of the system.. This rate of change is DB/Dt.2). This term is just where the order of the differentiation and the integration may be interchanged because Vis fixed in space during both operations. The flux through dS is and the total contribution . This result is what would be expected had the fluid been at rest. as designated by A in Fig. 4. at the time t the system occupies the volume A+A\ while at t + At it extends over A +A ".. 4.
the details of the flow field are not known. DB/Dt. Such cases arise either because these details cannot be obtained or because they are not really required. Equations (4. Still.Integral Analysis B n m 101 j At>0 At jJS Thus the total rate of change of B for a system. is just 1. to be substituted for b. (4. is obtained by the rate of change of B inside the control volume plus the flux of the property B from the control volume.10) state the fact that the rate of change of B for a given material is due to the change of B inside a volume V(t) plus the net outflow of B through the boundaries of the volume. The mass per unit mass.9) becomes <4n> Conservation of mass requires that the system has the same mass.5) j (4.(4.4. (4. an overall inventory of the mass for a given volume is desired. Let B in Eq. only through the openings of the control volume.10) are known as the Reynolds transport theorem.9) be the mass of the system located inside the control volume at the instant of consideration. of course. Equation (4. This information can be obtained by an integral mass balance performed for the control volume using the Reynolds transport theorem. This flux can take place.9) now states that the rate of change of the extensive property B of the thermodynamic system.10) Equations (4.8) and by Eqs. m. at all times. (4. Control Volume Analysis of Conservation of Mass In many practical cases.(4.1) and (4. Suppose we have a control volume with the volume V. thus . Fluids in Motion . and Eq.9) . is DB dB + J s P&qndS. which just fills the control volume.8) . (4.
Thus. Eqs.13) Equation (4.g.13) may be rewritten in a slightly different form by noting that vpdV = mcv. (4. moving and accelerating control volumes.14) Jb o The surface integral in Eq. and So denotes the openings of the control volume. Both Eqs. Equation (4. When the flow through the cross section of each of these openings is uniform.14) stands for the total mass flowrate leaving through the control surface. where S' is where the system actually touches the walls of the control volume. Eq.102 Fluid Mechanics Dt ~°' which upon substitution into Eq. (4. (4. several pipes feeding and emptying a water tank. (pqn).14) indicates that the rate of mass reduction inside the control volume equals the total rate of mass leaving through the control surface. and the integration over the surface excluding these openings contributes nothing. where mcv is the total mass inside the control volume.13) is general and holds for deformable.13) and (4. However.. (4.13) and (4.% * = J_pqndS.. (4.12) becomes (4. e.11) yields (4. i. Hence . Obviously and Eq.=const. in many cases there is just a finite number of welldefined openings in the control volume.14) require the details of the velocity field to enable integration over the control surface.14) simplify to or  (4 15) ' . (4. through which there is no flow.e. provided that the velocity q is always taken relative to the differential surface ndS. at (4.12) Let the surface 5 which encloses the thermodynamic system be split into S = S'+S0.
12 The average velocity of the gas flowing through the critical section is 880m/s. does not change with time at steady state.32) = 53. and where q • n = qn is the component of the velocity vector normal to the corresponding area At. For steady state Eq.6kg. between two given points. Conservation of Mass under Steady State Conditions An important special case of Eqs.32 kg / s or dmcy = pqn\ dt = 12. Fluids in Motion .4. (4. This pressure drop.4 x 880 x 0. The solid fuel is used up after 20 s.01 = 12. Eq. Find the mass of the rocket after 20 s. At steady state there is no change with time of any property at any point inside the control volume..01 m2. that is. i. Thus.16) simplifies to 0 (4. 4. relative to the rocket. and its density is 1. Integration yields J 20 mCV2o =m CVo + J 2 0 (12.16) yields ^ ^ at = pqnAc = 1. d/dt = 0.1 A solidfuel rocket has a nozzle with a critical crosssectional area ofA2n=0. i=\ (4. As the rocket starts its vertical motion up at sea level. Solution The given gas velocity is relative to the critical cross section. where p = const.32) eft = 300 + 20 x (12.15) and (4. (4. again.18) . m 103 (416) i=i where the area So now consists of the sum of At. Fig. . (4. Ap.16) is that of steady state. for example.32 dt. timeindependent flow. the pressure. at a given point remains constant at steady state.Integral Analysis "^XMi. p.4 kg/m 3 . Therefore. its mass is 300 kg. although there may be a pressure drop.e.17) and for incompressible flows. Example 4.
and the average velocity. Such examples are pipe sections.18) should be taken algebraically with their proper signs. Water flows into the tank through a 0. through the control volume is constant and Eq.17). m = pVA.19) can be modified to apply to cases where (pq)i is not uniform provided that some average mass velocity Gt = (pq)t can be found.17) and (4. m. . The terms in the sums of Eqs. shown in Fig. (4. (4.6 m/s.17) becomes (4..2. etc.104 Fluid Mechanics In Eqs. (4. Water flows out of the tank through a pipe of 0. (4. (4. For the average values (4. p can be canceled out. pumps. 4. Figure 4.20) Equation (4.19) Equations (4.17) and (4. has a cross section of 5 m 2 .22) It is noted that in many practical situations it is easier to evaluate or to measure these mean velocities than to obtain velocity distributions over the openings. Here the mass flowrate. positive for outgoing flows and negative for incoming flows.21) i=\ For constant density flows. (4.18) apply and which have only two openings.20). nozzles.2 A cylindrical water tank.2 Water tank and piping. (4.17) and (4. Example 4. There are many examples of control volumes to which Eqs. used in Eq. turbines. In many cases the easiest quantity to measure is the mass flux.2 m diameter with an average velocity of qx .18) and (4.18) is defined in a way similar to Eq. V.1mdiameter pipe with an average velocity q2 = 12 m/s. (4. Define a control volume and find at what rate the water level rises in the tank. compressors.17) becomes P1V1A = PiV2A2 = m. (4. At is the crosssectional area normal to V{.18).
4. V2 Figure 4.094 m /s.1 2 xl2) = 0. Example 4. Fig.05 m with an average velocity Vl = 0.005 m. (4.4.0188m / s = 1. The rate of change in the water level. The sprinkler pipe ends with two nozzles. by the wetted part of the tank walls and by the free water surface. the sprinkler accelerates from co = 0 to co = 4rad/s. dz/dt.094 = 0. 2 2 X60.88 cm / s.Integral Analysis 105 Solution A convenient control volume is chosen as bounded by the entrance and the exit to the pipes. From Eq. Find the exit speed of the water relative to the nozzle. each of diameter d= 0.. the water level is reduced at a rate of 1. 5 Hence.2 m/s and enters a sprinkler.16) dm\ or 3V = .3 Water sprinkler.( 0 . Fluids in Motion . When the flow starts. Here qn2= 12m/s is negative because the velocity at the inflow points in a direction opposite to that of the outer normal to the surface. is found from and finally dz dt 0.3.88 cm/s.3 Water flows in a pipe of diameter dl = 0. .
(4. These forces can be .005. Examples of such forces are those acting on airplane wings. = 1. Assuming that half of the inflow leaves through each nozzle.18) yields = 0. Figure 4. pipe bends and weather vanes. 4.4 A twodimensional water flow divider is shown in Fig. normal to the opening.473/0. The flow at B. is approximately constant. Find qc. The area of the A opening is 0. qc= 0. The flow in through opening A varies linearly from 3 m/s to 6 m/s and is inclined with an angle a = 45° to the opening itself. turbine blades.2 m2/m.473 m 3 /ms.15 = 3.1 0.153 m / s .8 = 0.1 06 Fluid Mechanics Solution The acceleration is not relevant at all. Eq.15m2/m. and that of C is 0.14) qnc2A = <fAAAcos45° =  f Hence. Example 4. Solution The flow is incompressible. and the flow at C. that of B is 0. normal to the opening varies linearly from 3 m/s to 5 m/s. hulls of ships. The Momentum Theorem for a Control Volume The forces exerted by moving fluids on rigid bodies are important in many fields of engineering.4 m2/m. and from Eq.4. = 10m/s.2730. (4.4 Row divider. because the velocity sought is relative to the nozzle.
9) and (4.25). the notation qr. e. (4.26) yields another form for the xcomponent of the momentum equation. (4.. i. (4. is now applied to the property Bmu and b = u. Eq. Before doing this. Finally. (4.g. For this case Eq. is the velocity relative to the control volume. The Reynolds transport theorem. (4.23) Substitution of the body force.Integral Analysis 107 computed either by integrating the stresses at the boundaries or by an integral approach utilizing directly Newton's second law of motion. is easier to use. and the surface force. equals the rate of change of the momentum of this system: (4. Dt dt v v a (4. still written for the thermodynamic system.. (4. .9).. (4.24) becomes (425) in which u is the ^component of the velocity vector. in Eq. we want a momentum theorem that applies to accelerating control volumes as well as to ones which may be considered inertial systems.13).e.26) Comparison of Eqs.24) where g is the general body force per unit mass and T is the stress at the system boundary. Fluids in Motion . Newton's second law of motion applied to a thermodynamic system of fluid states that the sum of all the forces acting on the system. F B . it is noted that Newton's second law of motion requires that the coordinate system in which Eqs. q = \u + jv + kw.23).f pu dV+ f pu(qr n) dS. resulting in — f pu dV = ^. Consider now the xcomponent of this momentum equation.25) hold be an inertial system.n will be used to remind one that this velocity is relative to the control volume. (4. (4. i.25) and (4. Therefore. while q elsewhere is absolute. to remove any possible confusion. It is also noted that qn = q • n which appears in the Reynolds transport theorem. In many cases the integral approach. given in an inertial coordinate system.e. which relies on control volume analysis.25). body and surface forces. in Eq. in Eqs.23) results in a momentum equation of the form qdV.4. F s . (4.24) and (4. the vector q = \u + jv + kw is given in an inertial coordinate system. We would like to apply the Reynolds transport theorem to the integral on the righthand side of Eq.
(4. while the second term indicates the instantaneous flux of momentum through the surface 5. This theorem states that the rate of change of momentum in the control volume and the outflow of momentum through the control surfaces are balanced by the action of the body force and by the surface stress on the fluid. j v pgdV + J g T dS =  j y pqdV + j s pq(q r • n) dS. As before. At the walls q r • n = 0. where S" is the contact surface between the fluid inside the control volume and the walls of the control volume and So is the area of the openings. The y.29). moving or deforming. whether stationary. as it is now (hence the partial d/dt). (4. Equation (4. which encloses V. (4.30) holds for any control volume. (4.27).28) pg2dV + js TzdS = j ^ j y pwdV + js pw{qrn)dS.29) The three components of the integral momentum equation.27) the first term stands for the instantaneous rate of change of the total momentum enclosed inside the volume V. and therefore the momentum flux term applies to the openings only. (4.. Again it is emphasized that the velocity vector q r in the expression for the differential volumetric flowrate (qr. the surface S is split into S = S'+S0. and for a moving or deforming control volume it must be taken relative to the moving surface.28) and (4.e. The surface forces acting on the fluid in the control volume consist of those exerted by adjacent fluid layers and those acting on the fluid by the solid boundaries.27) On the righthand side of Eq. Thus Eq.and zcomponents of the momentum equation are obtained in a manner similar to that of the xcomponent and have the forms pgydV + js Ty dS = jjjv pvdV + js pv{qr • n) dS. .30) Equation (4.30) is known as the Integral Momentum Theorem for a control volume. Eqs.n) dS should be taken relative to the surface dS. s (4. These two operations are control volume operations. (4. (4. i.27) makes control volume analysis applicable for Newton's second law of motion. may now be combined back into a vectorial expression.108 Fluid Mechanics v pgx dV+JTxdS = jpudV dt s v + j pu(qr n)dS.
33) S' Then. There are situations in which Eq.e. ^ q d V . In such cases Eq.e.X [ Pi{<lr • n)A].n)dS.37) where the velocities on the righthand side are mean velocities.34) It is customary to resolve the stress T on the surfaces of the openings into normal stress. So S o (4.30) can also be split into those acting on the solid walls and those felt over the openings J TdS = J TdS+ j TdS. (4. may be evaluated by the use of mean values for the velocities.36) Equation (4. +R is the force applied by the fluid to the surface 5" of the control volume.30) and (4.31) The surface forces in Eq.35) So In many cases the last integral which represents shear force on the openings is very small and may be neglected.33). which is the resultant of all the forces exerted by the fluid passing through the control volume on the inner walls of the control volume. an expression for R is obtained. s (4. i. i. This equation is known as the momentum theorem for a control volume.32) So The integral over the solid walls equals the total force applied to the fluid system by these walls of the control volume.34) simplifies to R = $ pndS+l pgdV^jpqdV j pq{qrn)dS. (4. (4.4..Integral Analysis jpq(qrn)dS = jpq{qrn)dS. s s0 109 (4.J pq(q r • n) dS = ..36) can be further simplified.36) is used to calculate R.. by Newton's third law. (4. i.. One such situation is where the last integral on the right. In such a case we substitute . Fluids in Motion . (4. At are the opening . (4. Combining Eqs. let this integral be denoted R. (4. and into shear stress: J TdS = j pndS+ j rdS.j pq{qr. momentum flux through the openings. pressure.e. S S' (4.
38) in their ^component terms.6a. must have their correct signs. (4.5 Water enters a pipe bend with a uniform velocity.. when applicable. change Eq. P2 A 2n Figure 4.37).36) into R = pl{nA)lp2(nA)2+rng—{mq)plq1(qlrn)Al p 2 q 2 (q 2 r n)A2. We assign the coordinate x to the relevant direction and rewrite Eqs. Eq.39) where dSn is positive or negative according to the sign of (i • n). (4. Referring to the bend shown in Fig. In such a case there are only two terms in the summation on the righthand side of Eq.e.40) eft where the signs of A l n and A^ are those of (inj) and (in2).38) where average pressures have also been assumed.36) becomes P8x ~ ~*\v pUdV ~h J°"(Kr)rfSn» (4. say k. and u is the velocity in the xdirection.38) simplifies for a onedimensional SISO device to (4. (4.5 depicts a onedimensional singleinputsingleoutput control volume together with the various terms of Eq. of course.(4.375 x 105 Pa.e.1 m. when no details of the flow are known.no Fluid Mechanics areas and the summation is over all openings.36) and (4. the other known data are px = 3. (4. Another rather common simplifying situation is where the engineering device may be classified as a singleinputsingleoutput (SISO) device. qx= 5 m/s. all u values are algebraic. (4.5 Onedimensional singleinputsingleoutput control volume. = 0. Indeed. Equation (4. Hence. as scalar equations. i. and. the average velocities are more readily available because their measurements involve total flow rates only. . af. i. The two last simplifications.. Example 4. 4. Finally. Figure 4.40). respectively. some cases may be one dimensional.
n)A j Figure 4.p2(nA2) + mg . Solution The bend is a stationary SISO device.40 j . The control volume is conveniently chosen to consist of the bend itself and the two planes of the flanges. il pq. Find the force. R = P\(nA[) .4. (4. R.72i + 294.39.pq 2 (q 2r • n) = 2650. The total force. Fluids in Motion .(q l r .52 j .21) yields or H1 Xch) \QJQ5) For this uniform flow SISO device Eq. The size of the bend is such that it contains 4 kg of water between its two flanges. 111 d2 = 0. exerted on the bend by the water passing through it.24 j + 196.05 m.38) may be used.35i + 785.Integral Analysis p2 = 1. (4.6 Pipe bend and forces. hence Eq.5x105 Pa. exerted on the bend by the fluid is thus . for an incompressible fluid of density p.38) yields. (4. and Eq. The flow of the water is incompressible. R.pqx(qlr • n) .
32 = 18. requires (see Example 4.e. For a control volume moving in space.4 x 880 x 0.(4.1 the crosssectional area of the rocket nozzle at the exit is 0. The rocket is fixed on a horizontal test bench and fired. Figure 4. = 1. Solution The coordinate system selected is fixed to the bench.112 Fluid Mechanics R = (2847.07i +1040.19). A. . Example 4. (4.0144 m2. Ae x .6 In Example 4. ////////////A Pe A e.0144+ 1350x12. The case is onedimensional and Eq. the force exerted on the control volume by the fluid passing through it. .1 x 105 x0.32kg / s. The pressure of the gas at the exit is pe = 1. Thus. i. the horizontal component of the force which the gas flowing through the rocket applies to it.40) reduces to Conservation of mass. and the speed of the exhaust gas is ue = 1350 m/s. Find RH. _ _ _ _ __. 4.1) peueAe = pcucAc = m = 1. Other Forces on the Control Volume Equations (4.6b.7 Rocket on test bench.68 j) N.01 = 12. R — u e (p e u e A e ) . The various forces involved are shown schematically in Fig.216 N. (4. .. relative to the nozzle.34) . lxlO 5 Pa. Eq. R = PeAe + ue(peueAe).40) yield only R.
exclusive of the openings.. f np0ndS =j p0ndS. forms a closed surface. which may be quite different from 5".36) into Eq. on any surface. R is indeed the only force which the control volume suffers. Therefore pondS = 0. exclusive of the fluid inside it. Body force modifications are considered first. = R + mog + } g Pon dS (4.43) Substitution of Eq. We denote the total force which acts on a control volume by F. i. be mo. (4.4. which acts on the control volume.42 ) where the summation is over all the openings. and then We note that S" + So. and the modification due to the stress becomes F S" = 'Ispn dS = Is p°n dS = Po!L ( nA )i' ( 4 . and another which deals with body forces. and we also note that with p0 constant.43) results in an expression for the total force.41) The environment atmosphere comes into contact with the outside surface of the control volume. The stress at the openings is already accounted for in R. In many cases the approximation T = pn holds. Fluids in Motion . Let the mass of the control volume itself. F. The outside surface. . where ^represents the openings. in most cases control volumes are located within the atmosphere and are subject to body forces.e. With the general body force still denoted by g this modification becomes Fg=mog. (4. However. To obtain the total force which acts on a control volume two modifications are required: one which accounts for the environment pressure. In general the modification due to the stress on S" is S" where T is the stress on the outside surface S". the inner surface of the walls. (4.Integral Analysis 113 with no atmosphere around it and where all body forces are negligible. is denoted by S". and then F = R + Fg + F g .
i. Fs" = iPoA .061. Eq.07854) . that force that the bolts at the bend connections must support. By Eq.40) + j(l. The mass of the steel walls of the bend is 6 kg. =i(2.40i 196.45) where the signs of the various terms are determined as in Eq. 040.1 we know that the mass of the rocket and the fuel together is m + mo= 300 12.785.7 Consider the pipe bend in Example 4.671 + 785.jp0A2 = i(lO5 x 0.1 and Example 4.114 Fluid Mechanics V = l{pPohdS + fvpgdV + mog—jvpqdVl^Pq(qrn)dS.44) For the special case of a onedimensional singleinputsingleoutput control volume Eq. (4. and the atmospheric pressure is 105 Pa.35j). I PoA2n.847. Example 4.5 58. fo 1 2 Solution  From Eq.32* kg .  n. Figure 4.41)..86) = (2. (4. (4.8 More forces on pipe bend. (4. . (4.6.j(lO5 x 0.86j.8 We return to the rocket examples.5.e.07. i. Thus. From Example 4. Fg mog = (6x9.43) yields Fg+FS.40).42).40) may be modified to yield the total force as " (Pi ~ Po >A\n — \P%~ Po >™2n + (m + m o >8x ~ T \mu) ~ Pl M l M lrAre ~ P2M2M2r^2re > at (4.47 j)N.68 196. Find the total force which acts on the bend. Example 4. (4.001963) = (785. Example 4.81)j = 58.
6. Note that there is a vertical component of the body force. Neglect the aerodynamic resistance and find its acceleration. i. The rocket is fixed on a horizontal test bench and fired. The atmospheric pressure around the rocket is po = 105 Pa. Solution a.9 xlO 5 Pa. The test bench is held in place by a dynamometer.9 Total force on a rocket on a test bench. of (m + mo)g = (30012. the total resistance force becomes .943 120. Find the force read on the dynamometer. '//////////////A Figure 4.1 .Integral Analysis 1 1 5 and that % = 12.6. c. Since the pressure at the exit section Ae pushes the rocket forward. not using the results of Example 4.776N.e.0144 m 2 . the outer surface of the rocket not including its opening. b. We choose to solve this part anew.. (4. The rocket is set with its nose upward and fired.350 = 16.81 = 2. Defining the rocket as a control volume.1 x 105 Pa. relative to the nozzle.l ) x l 0 5 x 0. a.86*. The rocket is then attached to an airplane which flies at 200 m/s and then releases the rocket..32 kg/s.e.776 N. Fluids In Motion . we apply Eq. as in Example 4. Measurements in a wind tunnel show that when the wind speed is 200 m/s the pressure at the exit section Ae of the unfired rocket is pe = 0.4.45) with A\n = Ae. and the speed of the exhaust gas there is ue = 1350 m/s. i. downward.32x1.and obtain the force read on the dynamometer F = (pe  Po)Ae+ue(peueAe) = (1.0144 + 12. and the total resistance force which keeps the rocket in place is F= 16. p\=pe and MI = Mir = Me. Find whether the rocket accelerates. We also know that the crosssectional area of the rocket nozzle at the exit is 0. b. The pressure of the gas at the exit is pe = 1.32*) x 9. We start by looking for the total resistance force acting on S". The rocket engine starts at the moment of release.
e.072 = 144 N.45) states — .e.11 Fired rocket in flight. A coordinate system convenient now is one which moves with the rocket.776 + 0.216 N. =18. it would mean that indeed this uniform motion is realized.216 18.0144x0.. The sought acceleration is that of the whole rocket. Figure 4. This is also a onedimensional case. c. Next we assume the rocket to proceed with the constant speed of release. that of the fuel and the structure together. Wind ^ 200 m/s Figure 4..= 16. The rocket accelerates forward. and Eq.116 Fluid Mechanics Fs. Let this timedependent acceleration be a. Let the coordinate system be chosen stationary with x pointing upward.. R= 18. i. In this coordinate system R comes out to be exactly the same as in Example 4. i.9x 105 = 18.9xlO 5 = 16.10 Unfired rocket in wind tunnel.776 + ^ xO. Equation (4. (4.43) now gives the net force on the rocket as Fm = R + Fs.072N .6. If all forces acting on the rocket sum up to zero. 200 m/s.
9 A singleengine jet airplane flies at the speed of V = 280 m/s. The atmospheric pressure is pa = 105 Pa..e.32 V30012.0144 30012.1 m 2 .12 Vertical rocket.776. m is the mass of the fuel and m0 is the mass of the structure of the rocket: d . From Example 4.32* ~ 30012.A Pe A e Figure 4. The gas speed at the exit relative to the airplane is U= 650 m/s. Thus.1. . of course..0.p0 )Ae .Integral Analysis 117 where u is the instantaneous velocity of the rocket.3 m 2 .4.776 30012. (m0 + m)a = (pe . «= Example 4. with m = peue\.32*" The velocity of the rocket may also be obtained as tt . i.32*) This result.81*. Jo 12.lxlO 5 Pa. mn+m = 300 12. The fueltoair ratio in the engine is 1 : 20.32* 8+ 12. du —\mu) = urn + m— = um + ma.350 _ 16. F = (PePo)A ~{m + By Newton's second law F = moa = (pepo)Ae(m mo)gmamue. =0. ( 300 ^ adt = In 9.(m0 + m)g . + mo)gmamue . 0 . The specific density of the air at the inlet is p = 1. The exit cross section of the jet nozzle has the area of A2 . and _ O. is accurate only as long as aerodynamic resistance may still be neglected.mue.32* n. 16. The gas pressure at the exit is p2 = l. What is the horizontal force transferred by the bolts connecting the engine to the airplane body? . . at at hence. Fluids in Motion .32x 1. The welldesigned air intake of the engine has a crosssectional area of A.lxlO 5 xO.2 kg/m 3 . for small velocities and hence for small t values..32*. U c (p c U e A e ) m = 12. .
(4.118 Fluid Mechanics Fuel °2r = u Figure 4. The horizontal force transferred to the airplane body can be found from Eq. (4. we find the exit mass flowrate by using continuity. which for this case simplifies to In our case the intake air moves with respect to the control volume with a speed V.524 N.17).13. A2n = A2.45) yields the force that the engine applies in the xdirection to the airplane body.2x0. Solution Let a control volume be specified as consisting of the jet engine. in this case p\ = po.lxl0 5 lxl0 5 )1. Fig.3x(l.05x650280] = 3.05ml. .13 Jet engine and control volume. As the density of the exhaust gas is not given. Now the jet engine is assumed to be of constant mass and to move in the jcdirection with a constant speed.45). p^i1Aln =7h2=l. and by accounting for the added mass of the fuel in the exit stream. Eq.524 N = 16. Substitution into Eq. hence. Moreover. (4.1x(280)x[1.000N +13. F= A2(p2Po)ml[l05UV] = 0. 4. = mx and u2r = U.
Fig. Solution Let the pipe section between points E and F. Neglect flow losses due to friction. conservation of mass requires that as long as there is any flow. 4.Integral Analysis 119 Example 4. Denote the water level in pipe B by h. Figure 4.. approximately. before the wedge is inserted. of pipe A. The water in pipe A had to decelerate. be chosen as a control volume. approximately.14 Roman waterhammer pump. Once the wedge is inserted. i. Find h. Once steady state was reached. rising in pipe B up to the height h into an overflowservice tank C. The difference of the water level. Let the average velocity in this pipe at steady state and just before the wedge is inserted be uo. 4.14. the water must rise in pipe B. Fluids in Motion . which is L meters long. of the water in it at steady state. h\ between the water source and point F is needed to accelerate the water to the velocity u.14. u0. They let water run in pipe A from the source.e. as a function of the length. as they occurred in nature. The pressure above the water in pipe B is atmospheric. and of the velocity.10 The ancient Romans used a waterhammer pump. Then . to raise water above the level of their water sources. and so is. Fig. Then they used pipe D to lead the water to their houses. the pressure at point E. and assume all the pipes to be of the same diameter. L.4. they blocked the pipe with a wedge W.
the height of a water column.po be measured using a water manometer. ^ . and let this manometer be pipe B. jt Hence A .120 Fluid Mechanics dh dt = u.e. (4.. This is an approximation because h depends now on time. Since the control volume can have forces applied along its axis by shear stresses only.e. and since these are to be neglected.Ik "max ~Uov „ " ie i. Then T du One more differentiation yields dh= dt Ld2u g dt2 ' Substitution of dh/dt = u leads to 4dt + 2 wL = o.f pndS + \ f pgdV\ —^f pqdVT: at f pqudS 0 or Let pF ... i.36) yields 0 = . The solution of this linear differential equation yields = uocosUjt and which attains its maximum at \8t\n . R^ = 0 and Eq.
find the power transmitted and the velocity V at which this power becomes maximal. Note: A simpler argument can be offered.5 50 6. The vane moves away from the nozzle with the speed V.Integral Analysis 121 Examples are u0 = 3 m/s L (m) /*max ( m ) h' (m) 100 9. The Romans.3 Here h' is the height needed to accelerate the flow to uo. by the use of the Bernoulli equation derived in Chapter 7. however. Its calculation is explained in Chapter 7.0 50 11. Find the force exerted on the vane by the water jet. while their engineers appreciated very well the effect of inertia. did not know about this future glorious son of their land.15 Water jet and moving vane. Example 4. The pressure everywhere is atmospheric. although with the same level of approximation.11 The nozzle shown in Fig.7 uo = 5 m/s 100 16. 4. Bernoulli. flows along its surface and leaves it with the same relative velocity as at the point of their meeting. Fluids in Motion . You are an observer moving with the vane. . Just regard their battering rams and note the similarity between a horizontally moving beam stopped abruptly by a wall and a horizontally moving water column stopped abruptly by a wedge. B.5 1.2 0. The crosssectional area of the water jet is A m2.4. \ Control volume Stationary observer Figure 4. The jet meets a moving vane.15 ejects water at the rate of Q m 3 /s.
ur2A2n =(UV)Q. (4. continuity requires that its crosssectional area be conserved.40) yields The power transmitted is 2p This power has its maximum when dP/dV = 0.( [ / . u2=ur2(UV). Substitution into Eq. Thus urlAln = (U . The jet velocity relative to the vane at point 1 is url=UV. simplifies to R= p[uluh.40). where the flow leaves the vane. Now. and this velocity is assumed to be conserved until the jet meets the vane. in the inertial coordinate system moving with the vane Ul=url=UV.122 Fluid Mechanics Solution To solve the problem.V)Q.Aln+u2u2rA2n]. (4.V)A = . For a fluid of constant density at steady state and a pressure uniform everywhere in the control volume. which gives the force that the jet exerts on the vane. we use Eq. (4. Eq. . In our case The velocity of the jet as it emerges out of the nozzle is U = Q/A. is As long as the jet velocity remains constant.40) for a control volume which moves with the vane at the constant speed of V. or which leads to V = U/3. The relative velocity at point 2.
Equation (4. Due to the large number of such applications.Integral Analysis 123 Example 4. in the inertial coordinate system fixed to the ground. A natural and convenient choice of the control volume for such a machine is the machine itself.11 for an observer standing on the ground. yields R = p[uxulrAln The power transmitted is.40). once again. which again has its maximum at V = Ul 3. and this velocity is assumed to be conserved until the jet meets the vane. The velocity of the jet as it emerges out of the nozzle is U = Q/A. continuity requires that its crosssectional area be conserved.V) + V = 2VU. The velocities relative to the vane are still url=UV. turbopumps.( [ / .e. again. As long as the jet velocity remains constant. Thus. again without the gravity and the pressure terms.4.12 Repeat Example 4. Angular Momentum Theorem for a Control Volume Many applications of fluid mechanics are through the use of rotating machines. stationary with respect to the nozzle.V ) g . turbocompressors. it is helpful to . such as turbines. «!=[/. u2 = . ur2={UV). Fluids in Motion . ur2A2n=(UV)Q.( [ / .. etc. propellers. i. Solution The control volume is again chosen to move with the vane at the constant speed V. a r l A l n =(*7V)A = . Now.
. The radius of the turbine rotor is r = 0. This fixed center is then the origin for the radius vector r. under the integral sign.36). Find the . any point may be chosen as a center. The water enters at the center.2 m. simplifies the construction of the angular momentum theorem. A center is chosen in the plane of the figure.124 Fluid Mechanics prepare a form analogous to Eq. which are valid for a thermodynamic system. 4.16. This center may be any point. and with the angle jS = 25. at the rate of 2 kg/s. Example 4. this crossmultiplication may be done before integration. it becomes MR= j rxTdS+f So rxg(pdV)^j[(rxq)p]dVV M V j{prxq){qrn)dS (4. which is directly applicable to rotating control volumes. and Eq.46) is limited to rotating systems with a fixed center of rotation. The use of these relations.13 A small water turbine rotates at n = 200 rpm. since the angular momentum of the thermodynamic system is the sum of the angular momenta of the mass elements of the system. i. the direct application of Eq. Reference is made to the control volume shown in Fig. When the system is not rotating. V It is noted that this expression for the angular momentum may be obtained by crossmultiplication of r by q in the expression for the linear momentum: Explicitly. Because the center from which r stems must be fixed. The angular momentum of the thermodynamic system shown there at the time t is jrxq{pdV).2 m/s. and analogous forms exist there.46) So where MR is the reaction moment that the fluid exerts on the inner walls of the control volume. but once chosen. This form is known as the angular momentum theorem.e. Proceeding to do this in Eq. Note that p is determined by the geometry of the vanes of the turbine. The radius vector from this center to any element of mass in the thermodynamic system is denoted r. (4. it must remain fixed. (4. and leaves at the circumference with the relative velocity q r = 17.1. It is noted that the need for relations directly applicable to rotating coordinates exists in solid mechanics too.36). Fig.8° between the relative velocity qr and the circumferential velocity qc. (4.46) may then be used to calculate moments about that point. 4. (4.
2 x 13.x 0 .54 m / s .2 m/s. q 0 the moment of the turbine and the power. Hence.8°. what is the moment about point A just at the upper edge of flange number 1 for r 12 = 0.8° and a = 33. 4.2 = 4.46) yields Figure 4. Fluids in Motion .15 m? .5.6°.16 Water turbine.5 = 94.54xcosa x 17.2Asini3 = 2 kg/s. 60 Using the cosine theorem. 4. M = J p r x q o (q r • n) d S = 1000x0.6° =4. = <& + <Zr  = 4. 2 = 20.4. and the power is Power = I a>M I = 20. Fig.94 x 4.2 2 2x4. Neglecting air friction. leading to qo =13.2cos25. (4. Example 4.54 r . Eq.Integral Analysis 125 absolute velocity at the exit.2 W. M = 2 x 0.2 Nm/s = 94.2Asin/3.2 x 13.6. but p(q r • n)A = 1000 x 17.a =—sin.2 2 +17.54 x cos 33.16. Fig.2xl7.5 Nm. Solution . By the sine theorem q sin 180 .14 For the pipe bend considered in Example 4.6 = si V ' q0 13.94x0.11 = or = ^ .
/ 2)Al(pi P2) + rnA2{p2 p0) = 0.15x(o.15 = 8.83 = 226. (4. 4. qc circumferential velocity of sprinkler.00 Nm and J(pr x q)(q r • n) dS = ^. c.4m. Suppose friction disappeared altogether. given co= 4 rad/s.63 Nm.00 + 127. with qo absolute velocity of water.51.15 Consider again the sprinkler of Example 4.x 196. 4.35 + r12 x 785.0)xl0 5 = 108. The total moment is M = 108. J r xT dS = (d. and the projection of the arm is r=0.4 = 127.8 Nm. Find the moment acting on the sprinkler when the water is just turned on.0)xl0 5 +0. Fig. and the contribution of gravity to the moment is thus mgrn= 6x9. Find the friction moment at steady state. Find now the angular velocity of the sprinkler.4 2 = 0.05x(o. and q r relative velocity of water with respect to sprinkler.81x0.05 x 196. neglecting friction and pressure effects.05 2 ^)x(3. b.126 Fluid Mechanics Solution Using Eq. Its direction is counterclockwise. The mass of the bend together with the water within it is 6 kg.8.63 .025 2 ^)x(1.83 Nm.17.15 x 785.3751. The angle of its short nozzle relative to the radial direction is 45°.35 + 0. Example 4. a.42). Solution The velocity triangles for the sprinkler are schematically shown in Fig. .3.3.
b. qr= lOm/s.86Nm.4 mFigure 4. qo = 8. 0 5 2 x0.M = 2. At steady state the moment of friction just balances the moment of the water. . .b = 37. Short nozzle CO \ r = 0.393kg / s. b = 7.17 Velocity triangle for sprinkler. A> qc = 0.4 = 1. ql=<ll+ql 2qrqc cos45°. 4 a.2 x 1000 = 0. qc = cor = 4x0. which requires qc= qr I\[2 = 7.73° =2. so does the moment of the water.4 = 17. or [} = 45°.r x q 0 =0.68 rad/s = 169 rpm.Integral Analysis 127 The mass flux through the two arms of the sprinkler is m = . 45° . Mf = . M = 0.73°. c. Equation (4.11 Nm.94 m / s.0 .6m/s.4.19. sin/J = ( gc /g 0 )sin45°.J(r x q o )(pq r • n) ds = . As friction disappears.94sin37. qr = l0m/s.46 ) yields M = .07m/s = cor.07/0. co = 7.27°.r x q o m. Fluids in Motion . In this case rxq o =0.4 x 10 x rh x sin 45° = 1.19/n = 0.4x8.
conservation of mass then needs no correction factors at all.36). Hence the correction factor for the momentum flux becomes (4. Let the correction factor for the momentum be denoted f5M. as applied here to velocities.14) of the mass flux through the opening must be computed.. In many practical cases it seems desirable to use average velocities.. (4. and those results obtained using average velocities must be multiplied by correction factors to yield the correct results.48) . (4. jp(qn)dS. A. the integrals in Eq. i. rather than the detailed velocity profiles. however. Are the results thus obtained the same as those obtained by integrating the velocity profiles? In general the results are different. (4. raises a new problem. i..e. mean that in considerations of conservation of mass. must be evaluated. the integral in Eq.128 Fluid Mechanics Correction Factor for Average Velocity in Momentum Theorem To use control volume considerations for the conservation of mass. This possibility. Obviously. and let its evaluation be restricted to cases where q.e. while the flux obtained by integration is jpq(qrn)dS = lpq2dS. To use control volume considerations for the momentum theorem. jp(rxq)(qrn)dS. which may not be available. The momentum flux in terms of average velocities is (447) with qt being the average velocity.46).e. Let the term average. i. both integration of the detailed velocity profile and calculations based on the average velocities yield exactly the same mass flux. But suppose that the same average velocities are used to calculate the flux of momentum into the control volume. q r and n are parallel. 4> and in Eq. both the linear and the angular one.
. JJJ _ w max 2 The correction factor is obtained from Eq. Fluids in Motion .49) The correction factors obtained in Examples 4.e. Solution We first find for this flow the average velocity.49).16 and 4. Example 4. (4.Integral Analysis 129 (4. Find the correction factor for the momentum for this flow.17 The velocity profile in turbulent flow through a circular pipe is w= wmw\\rlR]in. Example 4. u7 = — = — or T nR1 A = \ wdA =—5"=f J A ^R2 w j 0 \l — \2mrdr m.17 can be used to estimate errors when the exact velocity profiles are not known.4. the volumetric flowrate Q per unit crosssectional area A..16 The velocity profile in laminar flow through a circular pipe is Find the momentum correction factor for this flow. i.
and a force F is applied to the small piston. The intake air temperature is 35°C. The air comes out of the air conditioner at 20°C and flows through a duct. The pressure is atmospheric at 105 Pa everywhere. PM= M 1 jfil. P4. how does it affect the velocity in the outlet duct? 4. What is the ratio of the crosssectional areas of the ducts? Assuming that some water has condensed from the air in the air conditioner. All pipes have the same diameter d=Q. Neglect friction and differences of heights of oil and show that conservation of mass and conservation of energy lead to .max)2jo max L = 1. Problems 4. q2 = 6 m/s to the right.130 Fluid Mechanics Solution The average velocity is here The correction factor is found from Eq.1. (4. P4.\ m. 4. for turbulent flow the correction factor can usually be neglected.817u. BJ Hence. In pipe 2. Fig. Find q3.49).020. also at 3 m/s.] 7ri?2(O. Can there be a flow with q2 to the left? What is q3 then? q 9 = 6 m/s qj = 10 m/s Figure P4.3.1 Three pipes.1 A system of pipes is shown in Fig.2 The average air velocity in the intake duct of an air conditioner is 3 m/s. The average flow velocity in pipe number 1 is qi = 10 m/s to the right.3 A pressure vessel is equipped with a small piston of area As and a large piston of area AL. The vessel is filled with oil.
The water flows through this hole with the velocity of qh=5 m/s. The steam speed in the pipe is 10 m/s. The hose is flexible and the nozzle is connected to it by a flange at G.5 A steam boiler is fed with water at the rate of 1 kg/s.7. pE= 98. The atmospheric pressure is 105 Pa. This is the principle of the hydraulic lift. Measurements show AF = 0. because of depth and downward motion of the submarine. Fig. For F = ION and AL/AS = 1. A fireman hose ends with a nozzle. 4.1 m2 . The pressure around the container is atmospheric.6.4 Compressed air is introduced into the ballast tank of a submarine and drives the water out of there with the rate of 2 m3/s when the submarine is at the depth of 10 m.000. the rate of water ejection becomes zero or even negative? 4. The effective size of the hole is A=0. qF = 8 m/s. find G.4. AE = 0. P4.Integral Analysis 131 G = ¥(AL/AS). as shown in Fig. What horizontal force acts on the container because of the hole? 4.6 A water container has a hole in its side. What is the flowrate of the ejected water when the same mass flux of compressed air is introduced at the depth of 100 m? Can there be a situation in which.01 m 2 . which way will it move? . What is the pipe diameter? 4.3 Hydraulic lift. Fluids in Motion .000 N/m 2 . What are the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on the flange? If the hose is not held. P4.7 Figure P4. Figure P4.0025 m 2 .000 N/m2 and so is the atmospheric pressure. It supplies steam at atmospheric pressure and 105°C at the same rate. pF= 578.6 Container with hole.
P4.9 A nozzle moves with the velocity \n.9. The nozzle can swivel to form different angles j8 between Vn and qer Find an expression for the force driving the nozzle in the direction of Vn. equals the speed of the fluid hitting the vane relative to the vane. 4. It ejects a jet which has the velocity qer. qer.8. relative to the moving nozzle.8? Are there /J values which do this? .8 A jet of fluid of absolute velocity qt emerges from a nozzle and hits a moving vane and then turns. 4. or this power. Fig. Find Vvfor which the force is the largest and one for which the power is maximized.8 Jet. P4. Are there Vn values which maximize this force. as in Problem 4. The speed of the fluid leaving the vane relative to the vane. and the power obtained by this force. Fig. The vane moves at the absolute speed Vv.7 Fireman hose. vane and velocities. Figure P4. Derive expressions for the force that the fluid applies to the vane and for the power developed.132 Fluid Mechanics IULIII Figure P4. qir.
and the nozzle exit area is 0. To prevent high stresses due to water hammer.Integral Analysis 133 4. Fluids in Motion . What is the maximum power obtained at 60 rpm? 4.25 m2. the valve at the end of the pipe must not be closed faster than at a certain rate.6 m/s. 4. Find the turning moment and the power.15 What are the estimated correction factors for Problems 4. 4.7.3 and 4. 4. a. a.9.14 A steel pipe of d = 0. which is also the velocity with which it sees air coming into its engine. The combustion gas leaves the nozzle at qr = 700 m/s relative to the airplane. What is the velocity of the rocket's jet relative to the ground? 4.14? . The density of the air is p.12 kg/kg air. 4. wall thickness of 6 mm and 1.9 is fixed to the circumference of a rotating disk. The flight takes place at such a height that atmospheric pressure and aerodynamic resistance are negligible. such that it still moves with Vn.10 The nozzle in Problem 4. exits through its central pipe. What is the acceleration of the rocket 1 s after release? b. The water flows at 10 m/s.13 and 4. The air intake area is 0.2 kg/m3. 4. 4.13 A ramjet airplane flies horizontally with a velocity of V = 600 m/s. The flux of the gas is 3 kg/s. Find the driving force and the power used.9 Moving nozzle and jet.= 1. and the mass of the rocket is 30 kg.000 N/cm2 (these pipes get rusty).17) is set cr inside a highpressure water tank such that now water enters through the nozzles at its arms and Figure P4.150 m. 4. 4.000 m long is used to supply water.. The rocket engine ignites and sends backward a horizontal jet of gas at a relative velocity of 280 m/s. Fuel is burnt at the rate of 0.10. and the nominal stress allowed in the pipe wall is 5.11 The sprinkler of Examples 4.75 m2.8.4.12 A rocket is released from a flying vehicle at a horizontal velocity of 300 m/s.6.3 and q 4. What is the minimal time required to close the valve? 4. The water flow through this central pipe is at 0.15 (Figs. Which way does the sprinkler turn? b.
and a good assumption is that the water does not leave the anchor at a relative speed higher than V. Fig. A. which is itself dragged by the waves and the wind. has a diameter of 0.134 Fluid Mechanics 4. It is made of heavy cloth and has the shape of a cone. An inventor who did not study fluid mechanics but had such a boat modified it by taking the outlet pipe 1. and the average velocity in it is 10 m/s. 10 m/s.17 Floating anchor. 4. B. It is tied to the rear of the boat and is dragged underwater by the boat. to 4 kg/s. is slightly below the hydrostatic pressure for this depth. that the pressure at the wide end is above hydrostatic by about OApV2. The centers of both pipes are 1. P4. the narrow end. P4.17 A floating anchor is a device used in lifeboats to keep the nose of the boat directed against the waves. 15 m/s.13 is doubled.4 m.4 m.17. Is this a good idea? . has the diameter of 0. as shown in configuration C in Fig. Hint: j3 remains the same.16 The flow rate in the water turbine of Example 4. Experiments show that the pressure at the exit. d = 0.e.5 m below the water level and the pressures at these centers are approximately hydrostatic.18 A shallow water boat is propelled by a pump as shown in Fig. Find qo. The moment remains the same. The water is thus forced into the anchor at its larger opening and comes out at the narrow end. and I q r I is doubled. Figure P4. i. 3 m/s. n and the power of the turbine. where V is the speed of the anchor relative to the water. 4. The outlet pipe. For di = 1 m.2 m. The inlet pipe. 20 m/s. estimate the resistance force of this anchor to relative speeds of 1 m/s.5 m into the air. Find the force that the pump and its pipes apply to the boat. with holes at both ends.. P4.18.18.
1 is 200. 4. The pump operates as in a. H{ = 2 m. i.15m. Will this increase or decrease the speed of the boat? v Figure P4..e.19 A boat moves in the water at a speed of 10 m/s propelled by a pump which takes in water at the front (point 1) through a suction pipe with the diameter of £>t =0.Integral Analysis ^v 7 135 7 A Figure P4..5 m. The pump operates as in a.4.25 m. Will this increase or decrease the speed of the boat? c. and that at the exit of pipes 2 and 3 is 100.19 A boat propelled by a pump. Fluids in Motion . Someone suggests to connect a short diverging cone at point 2 such that the exit of the water becomes through an opening of D4 = 0. Someone suggests to connect a short converging cone at point 2 such that the exit of the water becomes through an opening of D 3 = 0.e. and the relative velocity V\ is that of the boat. H2 = 2. Find the total driving force applied to the boat (i. the force which is transferred through the bolts which connect the pump to the boat). Find what force is needed to keep the pipe structure from moving. which is also the atmospheric pressure.20 The pressure at the entrance to pipe 1 in Problem 4. a.000 Pa. b. Vj = 10 m/s. 4.25 m and discharges the water at the rear (point 2) through a discharge pipe with the diameter D2 = 0. The pressures p{ and/?2 are the same as the hydrostatic pressures outside the boat.000 Pa. .2 m.18 A boat with a pump.
24. The pressure everywhere outside the water jet is atmospheric.23 4.21.P4.136 4. P4. Fig. and its velocity is conserved.21 Figure P4.22 8 m/s Vane Figure P4. g m/s —I— Vane Figure P4. The vane in Problem 4.04 m and the average velocity of 8 m/s.22. Assume the flow twodimensional and find the force acting on the vane and the power extracted by the vane.23 Fluid Mechanics A jet of water has the diameter of 0.23.22 4. But now conservation of relative momentum in the direction tangent to the moving vane determines how the flow is divided at the point of impact. as shown in Fig. Assume the flow twodimensional and find the force acting on the vane and the power extracted by the vane. P4.22 now recedes from the jet with the speed of 2 m/s. Find the force acting on the vane and the power extracted by the vane. The water still conserves its velocity after hitting the vane. and so it is inside the jet well before it hits the vane. however.24 . The water is assumed to spread at the point of impact with cylindrical symmetry.21 now recedes from the water jet with the speed of 2 m/s. The water now conserves its velocity relative to the vane after hitting it. Now. The vane in Problem 4. The water still conserves its velocity relative to the vane after hitting it. Figure P4. The water hits a stationary flat vane.21 4. as shown in Fig.24 The vane in Problem 4. Find the force acting on the vane and the power extracted by the vane. P4. Fig.21 is tilted by the angle nIA. conservation of momentum in the direction tangent to the vane decides how the flow is divided at the point of impact.
The density of the blowing air is 1. a.000 N. the container transfers to the floor a force of 100.26.25 4. 137 Figure P4. It is fitted with an inlet pipe controlled by valve A and with an outlet pipe and valve B.5 m/s. Figure P4.26 A sailboat. The sail has an area of 20 m 2 and is set with the angle /J to the wind direction. Find the force vector the mast transfers to the boat. Valve A is opened. P4.26 A water container is open at its top. Find what forces are transferred to the floor a short time after: a. Valve B is opened. b. Find /3 which makes this forward component the largest. c. as shown in Fig. The velocity of the wind is 15 m/s. Note that only the component in the sailing direction of this force vector serves to advance the boat. as shown in Fig.4. . the flow in the corresponding pipe is 1 m3/s at the mean velocity of 10 m/s. Both valves are opened.15 kg/m3.25. When both valves are closed. Fluids in Motion .25 The angle between the course of a sailboat and the wind is a + p. When a valve is opened. For a + p = 60° find numerical values. b. c. P4. and the speed of the boat is 0.Integral Analysis 4. Assume that the wind is completely turned by the sail so as to become tangent to its backward direction and that the speed of the wind relative to the sail is conserved.
there is no vertical component. i. Now the bend and the flexible supply pipe must be held to prevent their motion. 4. P4. by . i. The inlet pipe has the diameter of 0.3 m.28 and 4. The manometric pressure in the water at point A is 187. and the mean velocity of the water there. The sprinkler is designed to run at 120 rpm.29 is made from some flexible material and looks as in Fig. show that a sailboat can sail upwind. point A.e.26..0m/s. when a+/3<n/2.29 For the dimensions. i.000 Pa. Does this mean that there are no moments at point A? 4.28 A pipe bend is shown in Fig. and that at the outlet.25 m. .27 Referring to Problem 4. pressures and velocities given in Problem 4. pressure. and that of the shorter one. is 100. AC.003 m. The water is assumed to divide equally between the two arms.28.5 m.31 shows a water sprinkler with dissimilar arms. For a given wind. The outlets are nozzles with diameters of 0. not for a + /3 = n. show that the greatest speed that the boat may achieve is sometimes not directly downwind.e.28 t.. Find the force necessary to hold them in place. The A inner diameter at the entrance flange. is 0.500 Pa.28 find the angle a for which the horizontal force in the bolts of flange A becomes the largest.. i. and the atmospheric ' . and the power obtained from the rotor is used to drive the sprinkler over the field.02 m. The mass of the pipe section between points A and B is estimated as 10% of that of the body of water inside the pipe. The bend angle is a= 0. The mean velocity of the water at point A is 5. The length of the longer arm.2 m. For bend angles of a=n/6 and a=n/4. P4.31 Figure P4. is 0.e. .' ^ Figure P4.30 Figure P4. is 0. find the mass of water in the bend section which makes the force in the bolts of the flange at A just horizontal. which is also the pressure at point B. Find the angles <X\ and Oq. point A. is 15 m/s.30 The pipe which supplies the water to the bend in Problems 4. just a cone. point B.e.30. Is there an angle a for which this horizontal force vanishes? Is there an angle for which the bend section pushes to the left against the water supply pipe? 4. is 0.. no bend.138 Fluid Mechanics 4. AB. 4.
sometimes referred to as an actuating disk. 4.34 A cheap blower has the vanes in its rotor made of flat strips of metal. Figure P4.33. P4. The air enters centrally and comes out at the circumference.4. The outer diameter of the rotor is 0.33 A ventilation scoop.lkg/m 3 . X c Figure P4.01 m. and when it rotates. still at atmospheric pressure. Calculate this power. with its velocity relative to the rotor tangent to the vanes. The angle between the tangent to the vane at the circumference and the radius is a =n/6.31 Asymmetric sprinkler. The inlet conduit has a diameter of r=0.04 m. The winds the ship is expected to encounter are not faster than 100 m/s.10 m. b. Fluids in Motion .0 m. Fig.Integral Analysis 139 which the nozzles must be set to maximize the power obtained. Find the power needed to run the blower. P4. Figure P4. One such scoop has an opening with the diameter of 1 m. •a. The density of the air may be taken as constant. Find the upward force for which the scoop must be designed.33 4. at l.32 A propeller has a diameter of 1.34 . and the velocity of the air there is 20 m/s.34. is used to ventilate compartments in ships. a. Fig. and the width of the rotor at the outlet is 0. Find the thrust of the propeller operating on an airplane flying at 400 km/h. The rotor rotates at 3000 rpm. It is designed for a nominal operation where a stream of air at atmospheric pressure enters the actuating disk at 400 km/h and leaves it at 750 km/h. it spans a disk. 4. Find the power delivered by it to the airplane.
Find the diameter of the water jet just before it hits the glass sphere. Find the velocity and the thrust when the nozzles are directed downward. Find the thrust added to the airplane by the spray. A little boy places a small glass sphere in the jet and enjoys seeing it balance there.35. b.140 Fluid Mechanics 4. Fig.002 m. The spray nozzles are directed toward the rear of the airplane and the spray comes out at a rate of 100 kg/s and at a speed of 20 m/s relative to the airplane.P4. Draw the velocity vectors of the spray relative to the airplane and as seen by an observer on the ground.36 A light airplane is used to spray cotton fields. The glass sphere has a mass of 0.01 kg.35 A round jet of water comes straight up from a nozzle in a water fountain. and its velocity there is 20m/s. 4. The jet diameter as it comes out of the nozzle is 0. a. . c.
which is traditionally called the Eulerian approach. The difficulty mentioned in Chapter 4.. temperature.e. The field point of view. and therefore identifiable. density. velocity. and in very many cases. cannot be alleviated any more by an integral approach and the concept of the field must be introduced. thermodynamic systems. In many situations details are meaningful and necessary.. with all its properties at each point and for any time. to obtain the differential equations of the field. etc. particularly engineering ones. the density at a particular point (x.y. and the problem of identification seems to have been successfully circumvented. must be translated into expressions which contain field concepts only. There is then a flow field. i. and enough information must be known a priori to supply numerical values for all the symbols in the equations of the integral analysis. the velocity. An analogous step has been taken in going from thermodynamic systems to control volumes in Chapter 4. that of identification of fluid particles. uses the same properties associated with fluid particles. to go from macroscopic thermodynamic system considerations to differential relations of the field properties. which are formulated for welldefined. however. or one considers the field velocity or the field temperature. There is still. The next step is. FLUIDS IN MOTION DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS Differential Representation Two conditions must be satisfied to make the integral analysis considered in the previous chapter useful: The sought information must be such that no details are required. e. therefore.5. One then considers the field density. i.e. The most important field properties are the density.. the pressure 141 .g. an intermediate step necessary before field analysis can be applied: the basic laws dealing with mass and momentum.z) and at a particular time. but assigns them to the field.. no a priori information is given.
Streamlines can intersect only at points of zero velocity.. and define it using field terms. those lines tangent everywhere to the velocity vector. which conveniently served as control volumes. using Reynolds transport theorem. all of which become now dependent variables. The differential equations of the field now contain these dependent and independent variables and express the basic laws of physics. A pathline is a line traced by a particle in the fluid. To enhance the geometric interpretation of the concept of streamlines." Now. such as a dust speck moving in a clear fluid.142 Fluid Mechanics and the temperature. i. briefly mentioned in Chapter 4. etc. The time history of a single fluid particle obtained this way is the particle pathline. such problems have already been addressed in the integral analysis. We note that both physical laws involved contain rates of change: the rate of change of the mass of a thermodynamic system is nil. two auxiliary concepts are introduced: pathlines and streaklines. The two differential equations sought are that which expresses conservation of mass and the other which represents Newton's second law of motion. A small particle. therefore. which is defined everywhere in the fluid. no flow through it. Once this has been achieved. we must find there natural control volumes. Streamlines. Also. .. We observe that in the integral analysis all the examples involved nonfluid geometries. such as pipes. We would therefore like to use some results already obtained for control volumes. can be photographed using a movie camera. we are ready to derive the differential equations that express the laws of conservation of mass and change of momentum. We therefore start our analysis by showing that indeed the flow field itself provides all the necessary control volumes. because the velocity vector is tangent to the streamline.e. The velocity field lines. We also note that the rates of change in both cases must be evaluated "while following the system. y. as otherwise a finite velocity vector would have more than one direction at a point. there is no velocity component normal to it and. airplanes. In timedependent flows the streamlines change in time. with the independent variables being the coordinates x. We then take up the concept of the material derivative. To apply our integral results to regions of pure fluid. are called streamlines. defined as continuous lines tangent to the field vector everywhere. For steady flows the streamline pattern is also steady. z and the time t. Stream Sheets and Stream Tubes The velocity in a continuum constitutes a vectorial field. and the rate of change of the momentum of a thermodynamic system equals the sum total of the forces acting on the system. rockets. A sufficiently smooth vectorial field admits field lines. at any moment.
Fig. 5.1 a. would cause all particles passing at the point of the needle to be dyed. We now return to streamlines and remember that because the field has the velocity vector defined everywhere. This curve is chosen not to be a streamline itself. A thin hollow needle. Stream sheet formed by streamlines intersecting a curve. slowly releasing a continuous stream of dye. A streakline is the locus of all the particles which have passed through a particular point. c. System at time t + At ni time I Figure 5. Consider a general curve drawn in the fluid domain. and this is their main usefulness: they both can be used to make streamlines visible. Stream tube formed by streamlines intersecting a closed curve. each and every point has a streamline passing through it. In steady flows both pathlines and streaklines coincide with streamlines. held in place in the fluid domain. These particles then form a dyed streakline in the fluid. Thermodynamic system moving through a stream tube. b. hence it is continuously intersected by .Differential Analysis 143 By seeding a fluid with many small particles.5. a large number of pathlines can be recorded simultaneously. Fluids in Motion .1a.
1) and let the change of the property b =b (x. the notation becomes D/Dt. this rate need not vanish for timeindependent flows. through a control volume.1c. The differences between the various derivatives can be explained in a more formal manner as follows: Consider a fluid particle moving with a local velocity: (5. (dpldt)h will suffice. In particular consider the thermodynamic system shown in Fig. stream sheets and stream tubes are thus very useful in the description of flows. and because its motion has been affected by the velocity field. forms a ring. Thus dp/dt is the rate of change of the density at a point.e. Fig. it has moved in a stream tube. but with quite different meanings.e. which is a threedimensional surface with no flow through it. All of these intersecting streamlines constitute a stream sheet.1b.z.t) of the particle be investigated.e. Both possibilities are meaningful.144 Fluid Mechanics streamlines. When the originally drawn curve is closed. z{) at time t but went elsewhere at t+At. The flow field is thus full of such partitions available for use whenever necessary. i. d/dt is used. It is shown at the time t and at the time t + dt. however.. The concepts of streamlines. i. 5. i. the same particles). The term Dp/Dt is the rate of change of the density of a thermodynamic system. J 1 . it can conveniently serve as a wall of a control volume. cannot use this notation without some additional qualification. Let the rates of change in time of the densities of both systems be investigated. The Material Derivative Let two problems be considered simultaneously: that of a steel ball located at the point (x. or it could mean the time rate of change of the density of the small sphere of fluid which was resident at (%. 5. y. .. i. yh z{) brought about because at the time t + At it is occupied by a fluid different from that of the time t. the stream sheet forms a tube with no flow through its walls. The notation adopted in fluid mechanics is such that when a rate of change at a point is considered. There is no doubt whatsoever as to which density is considered. A simple dpldt could mean the rate of change of density at the point (xx. and it vanishes for timeindependent flows.. z) and that of a similar "sphere of fluid" located at the same point in another set of coordinates. The investigator of the steel ball will probably use the notation dpldt to describe the rate of change of the ball density. The investigator of the moving fluid. the addition of a subscript. and even when several balls take part in the process. while for a rate of change observed while following the fluid system (system in the thermodynamic sense. It is noted that because there is no flow through the "walls" of a stream tube. called a stream tube.e.y.
When these laws are applied in fluid mechanics. db/dt. the derivative taken while following the fluid motion. (5. db db db „ _. respectively. Thus Eq. becomes = q .e. = M — + v— + w— . (5. the . i.7) Dt dx dy dz Equation (5.4). using cartesian coordinates. . (5. or by the direct operation of qVfc in the new coordinates.5) is quite general and holds in any system of coordinates. Eq.__. Its detailed form.__.4). *r (5.5) in cylindrical and spherical coordinates. db +q ^ db +q el^ db +q >Tz (58) and Db db db + q + q db db +q . Analogous forms in other systems of coordinates may be obtained by either coordinate transformations. Fluids in Motion . is Eq.5) becomes Db db Wt = dt ^ while for timeindependent flows it takes the form Db „.  and the rate of change of b in time. (5. (5. using vector notation. 9) (5 The basic laws used in thermodynamics and mechanics are formulated for thermodynamic systems. _2).V6 Db = db Dl i. starting with Eq. + qVb Dl ^ (5 5)   For the case of a static fluid.5. from the cartesian to the desired ones.Differential Analysis 145 The change in b with time and position may be expressed as b).. . Db Dt db dt db dx db dy db dz which may also be written. is dbfdb)(db)dx (db)dy (db)dz (db)dz (db)dy Now dxtldt is the rate of change in the coordinate xt of the particle and is therefore equal to qr This leads to the definition of the material derivative. as Db db = „.
on integrals over the thermodynamic systems. yielding an expression for the material derivative of the velocity vector of a fluid particle. while following the particle. Example 5. . The operator D/Dt has already been used in the formulation of the Reynolds transport theorem.5) is a common vectorial operation. has the simple interpretation of the acceleration vector of the particle. whereas (q>V )A had to be specifically defined here.. i.5). i. Here it applies to local properties. (5. Formally one may write for a vector A f f + (q.12) Dt dt dx dy dz In dynamics of solids the time rate of change of the velocity of a particle. that of while following the system. in which b may be any scalar property. with the same interpretation. that there it has been operating on extensive quantities..e. (5.e. However.+ u—. The material derivative may also be defined for a vector quantity. P.. This operator is defined by Eq.q)qx(Vxq). (5. is given by P = C + AxBt. i.+ w—.= —. will show this interpretation to be indeed valid in fluid dynamics too.11) In cartesian coordinates this vector may be written as Da da da da da .146 Fluid Mechanics point of view must still be that of the system.10) can also be written in terms of common vectorial operations.. expressing the material derivative of a scalar..e. and the operator D/Dt is used. taken while following the particle. We note. applied to a system. For the particular case of A = q.1 The price of fruit. however. (5. in Chapter 4.e. qVb in Eq. Eq. to give the correct acceleration vector in the field.e.+ v—. Considerations of Newton's second law of motion. the material derivative. (5. (5. and its detailed forms are therefore different. i. i.10) in which the operator (q*V) is taken literally as meaning: perform the scalar product of the vector q and the operator V in the particular coordinate system and use the resulting terms as an operator on the vector written to the right of the parentheses.V)A (5. The form of Eq. —.10) is quite similar to that of Eq.  ^ = f + ^V(q. (5.5)..
n d S = J y V(pq)dV (5.Differential Analysis 147 where x is the distance from its place of growth and t is the time that has elapsed since it was picked. written in terms of the flow field.16) dt Equation (5. For the special case when no transportation takes place. (5.12). (5. It is the differential form of the law of conservation of mass. which may be rewritten as qndS. Conservation of Mass .13) into = 0. Find the rate at which the price of fruit changes while it is being transported at a velocity v. B ~ 0 and DP/Dt = vA. hence ^ + V(pq) = O. Solution The rate of change in P is _=_+ £ = B+ A Dt ~ dt dt dx dt In our case dx/dt = v and thus. DP/Dt = B + vA. Fluids in Motion .15) Equation (5.14) transforms Eq.16) is known as the equation of continuity. . (5.15) can vanish over any arbitrary region inside a given domain only if its integrand vanishes at all points in that domain. (4.13) Application of the divergence theorem to the surface integral J s p q . (5. In other words the integration region V is arbitrary.15) must be satisfied by any thermodynamic system chosen in the domain of the fluid. v = 0 and Dt dt while for fruit which does not spoil easily. The integral of Eq. as Eq.5. (5.The Equation of Continuity The law of conservation of mass has already been presented in a form applicable to a control volume.
Eq.18) 1 rsinO i d(j> In some particular cases the equation of continuity assumes simpler forms. given here in cartesian coordinates.20) d(pu) dx  d{pv) dy   dz b. . (4.10) of the Reynolds transport theorem. may be put in the form Solution Using the form of Eq. In cartesian coordinates: dp  d{pu) < d{pv)  d{pw)=Q^ dt dx dy dz In cylindrical coordinates: dp  \d{rpqr) d  d [ [ \d{pqe) 96 dt r dr r In spherical coordinates: dp d dt 1 d(r2pqr) r2 ddr   96 Q dz i d(pgesine) rsind id dd ' (5. p=const: V q = 0. Timeindependent flows — steady flows. dp/dt = 0: (5. a.21) du dx dv dy dw _ dz Example 5.10). Incompressible flows.148 Fluid Mechanics Equation (5.2 Using the equation of continuity.16) is now rewritten in detail in the three most commonly used coordinate systems. show that for any specific property b the Reynolds transport theorem. (5. (4.
Measurements at two points. respectively. 1 and 2.20) thus becomes .3 Air flows at steady state in a square duct of constant cross section. Fig. Is the flow compressible? Solution The flow is one dimensional and time independent.2. The flow is assumed one dimensional. Eq. Equation (5. Fluids in Motion . which are 30 m apart indicate uniform velocities of ux . (5.30 m/s and u2.16). 5. makes the second term vanish.130 m/s. Hence Example 5.5.Differential Analysis 149 we apply the divergence theorem to the surface integral on the righthand side of the equation and obtain Substitution into the Reynolds transport theorem results in dV v yi or Now the first term inside the integral on the righthand side of the equation yields Db while the equation of continuity.
(5. Thus Eq. integration of the continuity equation. Measurements show that v = w = 0.21) applies for this case. A man who did not study fluid mechanics claims that "because of friction. (5. Is he right? 177////////////////////////7////////777. Hence Eq. Fig. the velocity may depend on y or z. the velocity of the fluid does not change in the jcdirection.2 Duct flow. ^ . p. u2 130 Example 5. pu = const. given above for this case." he expects the water to slow down along the duct. dx which implies that u ^ u(x). Newton's Second Law of Motion Newton's second law of motion states that the rate of change of the momentum of a thermodynamic system equals the sum total of the forces acting on this . dx dx dx Since du/dx is different from zero so must be dp/dx and the flow is compressible. Indeed. Therefore.2. z). On the other hand. 5.= 0. Because the flow is in the . v = w = 0. =0 or p— + ut.150 Fluid Mechanics d(pu) n du dp . 2 Figure 5. Hence. leads in the most general case to u = u{y. Solution Water is incompressible.4 Water flows in a square duct of constant cross section.21) simplifies to du — = 0. Furthermore d(pu) I dx = Q implies pu = const.^direction only.
Thus. Fluids in Motion ..24) and (5. . which we now suspect to be given by Eqs.e.. Newton's second law has already been applied to a small cube in Chapter 2.25) into Eq. is —J pqdV = j gpdV + j TdS. The unit vectors in cartesian coordinates do not undergo differentiation and behave like constant multipliers.29) to yield (5.5. . = \vgxpdV + \sTnxdS.13) (2. (5. — J pudV = J p—dV = j p — + u— + v— + w— \dV. Equation (5. to yield D r 7T7 f Du . Substitution of Eqs.28) is now rewritten in terms of its components as given by Eq.25) where the divergence theorem has been used again. (5.22) where g is a general body force per unit mass and T is the stress at the system boundary.24) The stress term Tx inside the surface integral of Eq. the change in the momentum of any thermodynamic system subject to both body forces and surface forces.22) holds in inertial coordinate systems only.Differential Analysis 151 system. In such systems the cartesian unit vectors may be considered constant. (2.11) or (5. T .15).— & . dy dz dx dTXY dTvv dTzy pay=pgy+—^ +^ ~ +^ 3 L . (5. . (5. resulting in the three components of the momentum equations (2. (5. . pax=pgx + ^ L + ^ .+ ^ .2). Let the xcomponent of Eq. i. (2.14) <"> 1 ^ where a. as defined in Chapter 1. are the three components of the acceleration vector of the small cube.?±& (2. y dx dy dz r)T dT r)T dx dy dz paz =pf L^ZL . (5. . (523) The Reynolds transport theorem may now be applied to the lefthand side of this equation (see Example 5.14). (5.22) be first considered: . (2. t [du du du du] JTT .23) yields .12).13).
(5.13) .15) was just a letter a.(5.27) . We have. Thus .27) . As they stand. some additional relations connecting stresses and velocities must be added to make this system of equations complete.4.. dy 52L dz (5.29) cannot be solved because they contain too many dependent variables. i. (5.29). The progress we made in attaining the Reynolds transport theorem and the concept of the control volume made it possible to express the acceleration. V. Experiments show that the force per unit area required to move the upper plate is proportional to the velocity of this plate. It is enlightening to compare these equations with Eqs. (2.29) relate rates of change of momentum to body forces and to stresses existing in the fluid. 1.(2. which represent this law in field terms. V is arbitrary and for the integral to vanish the integrand must vanish at any point of the domain of integration.e. Newton's Law of Viscosity Consider the fluid between the lower stationary plate and the upper moving plate. Therefore.(5. are nonlinear. and Eqs.15) look linear.(2.and zcomponents [ dv dv dv dv dt dx dy dz dw dt dw dx — + U—+V— + W — dw dy dw dz dTrv dx dTxz dx dTm dy dTv. however. (5. which in Eqs. du dt du dx du dy du dz dTxx dx  dTy: dy dTzx dz Similarly for the y. paid a heavy price: Newton's second law is linear.152 Fluid Mechanics r I f du I \_dt du dx J du dy du dz dx dy dz (5.(2. The proportionality constant that converts Eq.26) But because Newton's second law applies to any thermodynamic system. (2.17) into an equality is called the dynamic or absolute viscosity [i . and inversely proportional to the gap between the parallel plates. but Eqs. in field terms that are meaningful and correct.28) dz Equations (5. Eqs. h: F A V h The force per unit area exerted on the upper plate is equal to shear stress Tyx applied to the fluid by the upper plate.15). shown in Fig. (1.13) . (2.13) .27) .
water and petroleum.5. Fluids in Motion . Such fluids are called nonNewtonian. both moving parallel to the xdirection with the velocities u and u + du. the rate of deformation has to be considered in some more detail.32) states that in unidirectional flow the shear stress in a Newtonian fluid is directly proportional to the transverse velocity gradient. (5. however. Here the shear stress exerted by one layer of fluid on the other is proportional to its velocity relative to that of the other layer and inversely proportional to the distance between them. the fluid must undergo a motion which cannot look like rest to any . air..32). with the three equal normal stresses.j/J dy Equation (5. du/dy. Hence 1VX=U——.31) Equation (5. occupying the diagonal.Differential Analysis Tyx=nj. However. the definition of a Newtonian fluid as one in which the stress depends linearly on the rate of deformation may be generalized to threedimensional flows. such as soups.31) may be generalized for the case of two adjacent layers of fluid separated by a distance dy. To obtain this general relationship. respectively. blood and many liquid food products. To exhibit shear stresses. obey Newton's law of viscosity quite closely. Typical nonNewtonian fluids are paints. does depend on the fluid motion. (5. can be applied to unidirectional flows only. Fortunately. The diagonal terms in the stress tensor thus seem to contain a part which does not vanish in a rigidbodylike motion. 153 (5. Eq.32) is known as Newton's law of viscosity. the three most abundant fluids. there are more fluids that do not obey Eq. There is no obvious reason why real fluids should obey Newton's law of viscosity. a fluid whose only motion is like that of a rigid body does not suffer shear stresses. * Analysis of Deformation Equation (5. We start by noting two points: a. As a matter of fact. i. y (J. Equation (5. etc. the stress tensor for such motions reduces to a diagonal matrix. The magnitude of this pressure. As already shown. i. Because coordinate systems can move and rotate. the pressure.. jellies.e.e.32). also known as the rate of shear strain or the rate of shear deformation. with a zero rate of deformation.32) than those that do. A fluid has been defined as a continuum which cannot support shear stress while at rest with respect to any coordinate system. which defines a Newtonian fluid. polymer solutions and melts. and a fluid obeying it is called a Newtonian fluid.
We should therefore expect the deformation to transform accordingly. Suppose our analysis is finished. du . When our system of coordinates rotates the stress components transform as tensor components should. The difference between the xcomponents of the velocity u at points P and C which are very close together is . and its rate. du . we first seek the motion of point P relative to C.154 Fluid Mechanics observer. the normal stresses are also modified. Indeed. In order to describe this deformation. Figure 5. The shear terms in the stress tensor are taken as proportional to these rates of deformation.3. the rate of deformation. a symmetrical one with its principal directions coinciding with those of the stress tensor.33) . dx dy dz (5.3 System undergoing deformation. du . in such a case the transformation of a stress component would be just the transformation of a deformation component multiplied by the proportionality constant. du = —dx + —dy + —dz. 5. they must remain proportional to the deformation. We call such a motion deformation. However. These proportionality relations are the extension of the Newtonian fluid definition to threedimensional flows. with the modifications proportional to the rates of deformations. One way to satisfy this requirement is for the deformation to be a tensor. b. and we have those desired relations between stress and deformation. With these two points in mind we consider a fluid system that undergoes deformation as shown in Fig.
33) . To eliminate the effect of rotation.34) The motion of P relative to C depends. Similar relations can be obtained for cox and coy: To obtain this rotation.4 which describes a rigid body .4 Rigid body rotation in xy plane.35) The relative motion described by Eqs. Fluids in Motion .Differential Analysis 155 In general. dz dw dz (5. on the nine components dq/dxj and may be written as du dx dv dx dw dx du dy dv dy dw dy du dz dv •dr. dqi=ridxj. 5.35) the part that corresponds to a rigid body rotation.35) results from the combined effects of rotation and deformation. (5. (5.5. therefore.(5. A rotating rigid body which does not deform still exhibits relative motion between its points. we subtract from the relative motion of Eq. we consider Fig. (5. for the ith velocity component. dy dx Figure 5.
156 Fluid Mechanics rotating in the x y plane. dq<jef.39) az _ 1 (dw_ _ dv_ (5.42) The subscript ij denotes the plane in which the component of rotation is defined. (5. the rotational part of Eqs.36) dx Rotation in the x . one obtains du dv dx' (5. and thus dqrot =(tixdr = ift)2 dy + jcoz dx. and the tensor which gives the rate of deformation e. Eq. du . (5. (5. attains the more convenient form _ 1 ( dv du ~2\dx dy (5.36) and (5. (5. rot .43) We are now in a position to subtract the rotational relative velocity dqIot from the total relative motion.35) may be put as O) 13 0 a>2\ 0 O) 2 3 ®31 ft)32 0 •dr.40) COr = \(du dw (5. (Oyz = cox and co^ = coy. Using this notation.y plane may also be described as 00 = kcoz.37).37) Comparing Eqs.34) and (5. upon addition and division by 2.38) which. we obtain (5.35). dq. (5. The rotational velocity dq rot is given by . dv . Hence.41) With the additional notation 03^ = coz. . dy (5. We thus obtain the relative motion caused by deformation.
The relation has to be consistent with two premises: It must reduce to the elementary definition of a Newtonian fluid for unidirectional flow. dq. which so far related to onedimensional relations of the form of Eq. i.) £.45) Li3i 2 [dxj dXi This rate of deformation must now be related to the stress in the fluid.Differential Analysis 157 = dq .45).46) . is noted to be symmetrical. The components of this rate of deformation tensor may be put in the form (5.45) We.5. Eq. Eq. (5.44) The rate of deformation tensor. (3.e. as we have anticipated. Newtonian Fluids The definition of a Newtonian fluid. Fluids in Motion .dqv du du du Ik ~dy~ ~dz~ dv dx dw dv dy dw dv dz dw _ r/r c£i — 1 2 du dv dy dx t/l* VJ\J dv du 0 dx dy dw du\ dw dv dx dz) ydy dz 11 du dv^\ \(du dw du dx 2{dy+~dx) Cd+ dv du dv U(fo dw •dr = + 2{dx ~dy 'dy' 2{dz + if dw du^\ \( dw dv dw l\dx+~dz) l\dy+~dz ~dz~ du dw dz dx dv dw dz dy ft* •dr 0 (5.) 2 ^  dx. and it must simplify to the hydrostatic stress equation for the case of no deformation. l(<?g.2). y =— —— + . (5. (5. The relations that indeed satisfy these requirements are presented in the following section. Eq.32). (5. therefore.. may now be extended to threedimensional relations using the socalled rate of deformation tensor.32).. redefine the Newtonian fluid as one that satisfies (5. £.
27) .54) (5. Eq. Addition of the three normal components of the stress matrix results in Txx + Tyy + Tzz = p(l +1 +1) + 2fi V • q = 3p.29).2). (5.46) suggests a definition for the pressure in a moving fluid.(3.46).50) and (5. <9TW dx *yy .53) Equation (5. i. for vanishing strain etj.158 Fluid Mechanics in which the Kronecker delta 8^ equals unity for i=j and vanishes for / &j.55) (5.(5.50) is rewritten in tensor form as (5. Hence..56) . dy dz •+  dxrv xy dx . Eq. Eqs. Equation (5.51) Equation (5. the part expressing the deviation of the stress from pure pressure.49) P=— It is customary to separate out the pressure terms from the total stress. (5. The stress Ttj thus reduces to its pressure terms. The remainder of Ty.48) The V • q term vanishes for incompressible flows. to du du du du dx dv ~di du dx du dy dv dz] dp dy dw dt dw dx dw dy dw~\_ dp dz \ dz J drvx .46) is written in detail in cartesian coordinates as •if£ dx' _ f du {ddy T dz yy dv ddx dv dz (5. the thermodynamic pressure may be defined for an incompressible fluid as the average normal stress: (5.e.47) dw dy Equation (5.52) where IP is the diagonal tensor p 0 0 0 p 0 0 0 p (5.50) is used to modify the momentum equations. dx. " zy dz ' dxv dx dy dz (5. (5. is called the deviatoric stress and is usually denoted by T^. Thus (5.
51) expresses a fundamental relation between stress and rate of strain and is independent of the coordinate system used. (5. dw £ £yy du —.57) still hold.54) .5.51). but Eqs. dw Tzz = 2/J. —.Differential Analysis 159 which may be put in the symbolic more compact form Equations (5.58) du dv _ ~dy'.57) are quite general. T dx " £ dv . dy dz In cylindrical coordinates q = erqr +zeq6 £fc= 17' P £ee ~{rdd+r)' ( P £zz ~ dz' . (5.(5. Where the relations between ty and £y are nonlinear. the fluid is nonNewtonian. For Newtonian fluids the stress components are given by Eq.54)(5. The expressions for the stress and the rate of strain components in several coordinate systems are now written down: In cartesian coordinates q = iu + ji> + kw z du xz dy j' 2{ dz dx j o (5. = 2\l — . Fluids in Motion . Equation (5.
Together with the continuity equation they form a set of four equations which is complete for incompressible Newtonian flows. U /? / T*»=2u— ^ ^ +^ + ^i?sin0 ^ i? B J The NavierStokes Equations Equations (5..61) dw ~dz W These momentum equations are called the NavierStokes equations. V.160 Fluid Mechanics In spherical coordinates q = erqr +eeqe +e de K9 ua dR\R Hi? de dRKR 2_Rsin0 de _ 1 [" 1 dqe sing 3 f g» Yj 2i?sing <9<i i? ae^sin0j' P _  1 <?g9 [Rsine dip sing 3 Rd (5. in principle they are sufficient to solve for the four dependent variables p.56).60) e RR ~ "" ffl' '«"">* dR' I p nn D « « = h r — ^ L + rr. i. The NavierStokes equations require for their solution initial conditions as well as boundary conditions.e.60) may be used to eliminate the stress components from the differential momentum equations (5. u. They constitute a system of three nonlinear second order partial differential equations. The result is p <9a + du u du {d7 (dv dv "ITS dv hu (dw du Tx* v~dy~+ wTz W Tx" dw ^x~ dw + dv dz (5.+ ^ r r .(5. and w. The proper boundary conditions for the velocity on ..(5.54) .58) .
we obtain d2qr dt dr rdd dz d2qr 2 dqe r (5. the one containing Vx(Vxq). More is said on this point later. is a standard vectorial form for the incompressible NavierStokes equations and can be shown to be correct by expansion in cartesian coordinates. These may represent some real physical surfaces or they may be chosen quite arbitrarily. (5. and q. These conditions are also termed the nopenetration (qn= 0) and noslip (q. i.11 . = 0) viscous boundary conditions. as if V2 is the Laplacian operator applied to the velocity vector in cartesian coordinates. we first write these equations in their vectorial form as p ^ = Vp + p g .62) where qn is the normal component of the velocity relative to the solid boundary.e. The pressure. is its tangential component. Fluids in Motion . i. requires boundary conditions too.5. in Examples 5.e.Differential Analysis 161 a rigid boundary are <7 re =%=0. additional conditions are still required on some surfaces which completely enclose the domain of the solution. Expanding Vx(Vxq) in cylindrical polar coordinates and using the equation of continuity.66) .5.. The other form is symbolic and must be taken literally. the fluid is not completely confined./ i V x ( V x q ) = Vp + pg + /zV2q.e. e. V • q = 0 for incompressible fluids. which is also a dependent variable.63) The first form. We now proceed to express the NavierStokes equations in other coordinate systems. provided the velocity on them is known. i..14. To do this.g. (5.. When the region occupied by the fluid is not closed..
62). { 2 dqr 2cos0 i?2sin20 "^" + i? 2 sin 2 0 (5. . they have an important role as approximations and are generally easier to solve than the full NavierStokes equations. 2 dqR dj>2 R2d6 1 ^[R2i26 I + a R 1 dR Q R2sin29 I R dd I I Rsind dip dp+ f 1 d Rf^^A »\{ I d QQ f?2sin20 ^ 0 2 R2sin20 Q<p i?2sin20 + R ) 1+ R d ( s.162 Fluid Mechanics Repeating the process for spherical coordinates.(5. Far from a boundary.70) Historically the Euler equations were formulated earlier than the NavierStokes equations and were considered an approximation.902 R dR R i? 2 RR dG 1 d i? 2 ^0 R2 Rsin9 d<j> R R2sin9 R dd ' (5 67) " ) d dR)+R2sin6 d2ge . The Euler equations are further considered in later chapters. (5. (5.odqj}^ U 2 s i n 2 0 .61) .69) reduces them to a form called the Euler equations: P ^ = pgVp. It is noted that the Euler equations are of the first order and cannot in general satisfy both boundary conditions Eq. ~ 0 is a fair estimate. we obtain dt + aRR dqR dp M i qe dqR i R dQ dQ Rsind d§ dR I 1 d fr. and where /J.69) The Euler Equations Substitution of jx= 0 in the NavierStokes equations (5. It is therefore formally concluded that the Euler equations do not form a good approximation near a rigid boundary.
. which are parallel to the z = 0 plane. must decrease from left to right. which satisfy both the momentum equations and the continuity equation. Furthermore. Fluids in Motion . Thus the streamlines also represent stream sheets. with four streamlines denoted by the letters A. because stream sheets are not crossed by the flow. The mass flux entering at the left. with the velocity vector and the streamlines lying in this plane. 5. and any general step leading toward this goal is useful. i. dx (5.p].71) . The whole pattern may be shifted in the zdirection parallel to itself." i.. one can check whether it constitutes a solution by substitution into the equations.D. Furthermore. p. Such a flow can be described in the z = 0 plane. pq.B. the mass flux per unit cross section. How to find such a solution is another matter.e. Let streamline D be close to it and have the stream function y/ + dy/. show a flow pattern identical to that in the z = 0 plane. each sheet represents a certain mass flux per unit depth of stream sheet taking place "below it.5 be v^kg/m.5. There is therefore some relation between the convergence and divergence of streamlines and the vector pq. Because the distance between the two streamlines accommodating this mass flux seems in the drawing to increase.Differential Analysis 163 Solutions for Twodimensional Flows . A flow is defined as two dimensional when its description in cartesian coordinates shows no zcomponent of the velocity and no dependence on the zcoordinate. flowing between it and some particular stream sheet representing zero flux. [q. q. Given such a combination. Let the stream function corresponding to streamline C in Fig. Obviously.5 shows a representative plane for a twodimensional flow. barriers which are not crossed by the flow. say. This mass flux is called the stream function and is denoted by y/. From which follows up*L.The Stream Function Solutions of the NavierStokes equations result in velocity vectors. between.C. and the functions which affect this elimination are the stream functions. dy = idy)(up) = {dx){vp). z = C planes. ay vp = ^L. and pressures. This elimination is a formal step toward a solution. streamlines A and B must therefore come out at the right side without change.e. For twodimensional flows it is possible to eliminate the continuity equation from the system of equations by using only functions which satisfy the continuity equation. Figure 5. The z = 0 plane is therefore called the representative plane.
e.72).72) It is noted that substitution of Eq.5 Twodimensional representative plane and streamlines.17) satisfies the continuity equation identically. (5.71) and (5.73) . (5.71) and (5.72).71) and (5.72) in Eq.72) for incompressible steady flows is dw dy and v = . The analog of Eqs. It is customary to drop this constant for incompressible flows and to define \jf as a measure of the volumetric flowrate. to have the dimensions of [m 3 /(ms)]. (5. and so it does in Eqs. Indeed. (5.dx (5.71) or of Eq. (5. i. Using plane polar coordinates in the representative plane and letting = (rdd){qrp) from which follows 1 dw dw = " (5. (5. For incompressible flows p appears in the definition of the stream function as a constant coefficient.164 Fluid Mechanics Figure 5. conservation of mass which generated the equation of continuity is also the basis for the derivation of Eqs..
5 A twodimensional source of intensity Q. for twodimensional flows.udy = 0. Fluids in Motion . q = iu + jv + kw. distributed symmetrically in all angular directions. is defined as a singular point out of which a fluid flows at the constant rate of Q kg/sm. ds = \dx + }dy + kdz. One may check whether the form written above is a total differential. this is so because further reference to one first order differential equation.Differential Analysis _ldy ~~r~d6' dy/ ~dr' qr 165 (574) qe and the relations. Example 5. and therefore their mathematical consequences must be consistent. This is an alternative way to introduce the concept of the stream function. which implies that their components are proportional to one another. Finally it is noted that the tangent to the streamline. i. we obtain dy/ = —vdx + udy = 0 on streamlines.e. shown in Fig. Conservation of mass has led to both the continuity equation and the stream function.. whether dv _ du dy dx which is indeed satisfied by continuity. Write the equation of continuity in cartesian and in polar coordinates and . of course. v dx .6. Crudely speaking.21) identically. in steady twodimensional flows the use of stream functions is equivalent to "one differentiation and one substitution". It is also helpful to review the manner in which this equivalence has been established. dx_=d^=d£ U V 5 W or. is parallel to the velocity vector. becomes unnecessary. It is important to realize that the use of stream functions is equivalent to the inclusion of the continuity equation in the considerations. but the remaining equations increase their order by 1. Denoting this total differential as dy/. Thus there is some function which is conserved on the streamlines.e.. the continuity equation. satisfy Eq. (5. i.5. 5.
Because of the angular symmetry.6 Twodimensional source flow. is the more convenient. . In cartesian coordinates dx ay oz In polar coordinates For twodimensional flow w = qz = 0. The intensity of the source Q is related to qr by Q = 2nrqr. The stream function is constant along radii. In polar coordinates 1 dy _ Integration yields Also Hence/is a constant which just determines the location of 0 = 0. and the continuity equation becomes V. y / \ Figure 5. rqr= const. qr Q/2nr.166 Fluid Mechanics choose the convenient form for this case. retaining one term only: —(rg r j = O. therefore.q = 0. qe = 0. Assume incompressible flow. Find the velocity field and the stream function. Solution The flow is independent of time. The polar form. hence.
5.7. Find the stream function for this case in cartesian and in polar coordinates. (5. the cartesian stream function is given by Since y = rsinO. Eq. yields the velocity components qr=Ucos6. Fluids in Motion .7 Parallel flow at constant velocity U. shown in Fig. v = 0.73) yields dy "• which upon integration leads to yr = Uy + f(x). q$ .6 Parallel flow at a constant velocity U is shown in Fig..7.5. (5. the polar form becomes One may try to first express the velocity in polar form and then obtain y/. Hence. Figure 5. where/is found by the substitution of v = 0 into Eq. 5. v=— z = ~ f ~®> / = const.73). The polar decomposition of U. Solution Substitution of u = U into the definition of the twodimensional stream function.Differential Analysis 167 Example 5. The flow is formally defined by u = U.
2K Making use of Eq.7 What flow results of the superposition of source flow and parallel flow? Solution Addition of the stream functions of source flow and parallel flow.74) leads to 1 dw qr= Q —= H U cos 8. . (5. obtained in Examples 5. qr=0. i. The function/is obtained from the tangential velocity component leading t o / = 0.74) yields ^ = Ur cos9. (5. 5.8. and the stagnation point has been obtained. and the same result has been obtained. at point A the streamline splits and the velocity vector seems to have four different directions. q qr = u. dr For very large r the flow approaches that of the parallel flow. while for very small r it becomes the source flow. because only a vector of zero length may have several directions without indicating a contradiction.e. on \j/ = QI2. The flow is sketched in Fig.. As seen in the figure. qg = —^. a n d / = const. Example 5.6.5 and 5. for 8 = K.= Usin 8. This can happen only if the velocity vanishes there. 2nr Thus for r = Q/(2KU).168 Fluid Mechanics Substitution of the radial velocity component into Eq. 98 y/= Ur sin9f{r). yields O y/ = —8 + Ursind. Such a point of zero velocity is denoted a stagnation point. Indeed. respectively.
the flow is twodimensional and hence dy_= dy V_ h' = 2 V_ + c 2h Example 5. v = w = O.21) states du dx dv dw dy dz and is therefore satisfied by this flow. has the velocity vector . (5.6. and considered in Example 5. is given by u= .6. 2. Now« = 3y/73y. 2. with the lower one fixed and the upper one moving.5. Does the flow satisfy the continuity equation? Find the stream function for this flow.8 The flow between two parallel flat plates.8. Fluids in Motion . Solution The continuity Eq.8 Superposition of source flow and parallel flow. as shown in Fig.9 The steady flow between two parallel plates shown in Fig.Differential Analysis 169 i/=Q/2 u \/=Q/2 i/=Q/2 Figure 5. Example 5.
10 The source flow shown in Fig.170 Fluid Mechanics Find Dq/Dt.10) Dt [dr dt Or.5. (5. (5. Solution From Eq.10) ~Dt~~dt+\U~dx+V dy Example 5. where r Vxq = d d dr Q 2nr de 0 r d =0 dz 0 . another way.6. (5. has the velocity vector Find Dq/Dt. using Eq.11). Solution From Eq. 5. and considered in Example 5.
r3' The Pressure in the Momentum Equations We already know that the momentum equations are nonlinear. we have attempted superposition in Example 5. obviously. and so is the continuity equation. the pressure gradient.5. are linear.66).(5. because of the nonlinearity of the momentum equation. (5. Fluids in Motion . Eqs. (5.64) .(5. which yield r r r . The continuity equation is.74). Having two reasonable flow fields. Example 5. Example 5. obtained from the substitution of the combined velocity field. 2nr The form convenient in this case is the expression of the NavierStokes equations in cylindrical coordinates. which has resulted in a flow field which is indeed the superposition of those two fields. Example 5. and the parallel flow.71) . such as the source flow.5.5. On the other hand the relations between the stream function and the velocity components. This point is considered in the following examples. The velocity vector found there has been obtained without the use of the NavierStokes equations. However.6.Differential Analysis 171 and Hence. Eqs. Solution The velocity vector for the source flow is Q q = e a =e_ .7. satisfied.11 Consider the source flow discussed in Example 5. Substitute this velocity vector into the equations and evaluate the pressure field. is not the superposition of the pressure gradients corresponding to the two individual fields.
Solution The velocity vector obtained is q = iU. (5. . therefore. = const at r —> °°. the cartesian form of the NavierStokes equations. This flow can exist only if the obtained pressure is possible. Example 5. neglectingg. therefore. which then implies We also note that in the solution for the pressure there is no trace of the viscosity.172 Fluid Mechanics or taking g = 0. p = const. also satisfies the Euler equation (5. Again we find that the same velocity and pressure also satisfy the Euler equation. and we choose. Example 5.6.70). An acceptable boundary condition for the pressure is p = p«. and we now know the resulting pressure field. Eq. Check whether the velocity vector obtained there satisfies the NavierStokes equations. Q1 1 dp Integration yields Q2 The NavierStokes equations are satisfied.61). This pressure.12 Consider the parallel flow. These yield 0 = pgy —. or. An acceptable boundary condition may be p = poo= const at r —» °°.
— = —i—=sin0. Fluids in Motion .64) and (5.Differential Analysis 173 Example 5. yields \( 0.7. dr L r r r J I U sin 9 .^ .13 Consider the superposition of parallel flow and source flow. Substitution in Eqs. Solution The combined velocity vector is q = erqs + esqs . O q Hrr=Z 2m + Ucos9. qe =Usind. Find what pressure comes out when the combined velocity vector is substituted in the NavierStokes equations. 1 2KT or o s 2Tsm0H m0H 1 df QU . with g neglected.65)..5. dr QU .+ Ucos fll^T + ^sin 9 • — sin 9 . . Example 5. (5. division by r and substitution into the second equation yield QU . U 2 or Q2 P QU dp cosg = —T. r d9 d9 2 2 .U cos 0 .+ U cos 9\j sin fl r dp \U .— sin 2 0 r —— + IM—ocos0—5cos0 + 2^cos0 . I dp lizr2 r d9 The first equation may be integrated with respect to r to yield = p % + (27zr)22r2 2itr Differentiation with respect to 9.{ .
which is rather different from the superposition of the pressures obtained in Examples 5.61) states. The NavierStokes equations are satisfied. Equation (5.12. h y = w = 0. that the NavierStokes equations are not linear.12 to equal this pressure.14 Consider the shear flow of Example 5. Example 5. Find what pressure is obtained when this flow is substituted in the NavierStokes equations.174 Fluid Mechanics dd and / = const. with g neglected.11 and 5. .11 and 5. An acceptable boundary condition for the pressure is p = paa= const at r—>°°. dx dy hence. and so are the Euler equations. Again we note that the viscous terms do not appear here and that the solution satisfies the Euler equation too.8. Solution The velocity vector for the shear flow is q = \u = iV—. however. Thus finally. p is constant. and there is no reason for the superimposed pressures from Examples 5. We remember.
5.7 The flow in a round pipe is given by Check if this flow satisfies the continuity equation and find the pressure distribution. Find the velocity field and sketch the streamlines.5. freehand.0).1 satisfy the NavierStokes equations? How do you check this? Are there sufficient boundary conditions? If not. Are these streamlines? Pathlines? Streaklines? 5.4 A function F = F{x.Differential Analysis 175 Problems 5. What are the shapes of the streamlines? 5.0). Is this possible? 5. A sink of the same intensity is located at (5.5 A twodimensional source of intensity Q is located at (0. add the missing ones.1 satisfy the continuity equation. 5.2 Check explicitly if all the flows in Problem 5.7: . e. d. b. y/ = U(yx) \y = Ur2 y/ = Qe/(2x) yf = QG/(27t) \jf = Uy2 (Parallel flow) (Rigid body rotation) (Sink flow) (Source flow) (Shear flow) Find the x.8 For the flow in the round pipe given in Problem 5.y) is continuous and has at least three partial derivatives.5. Fluids in Motion . lines of flow. How does the flow look? Can the flow field so obtained be considered a flow around a rigid oval body? Explain.and ^components of the velocity field and draw. 5.1 Find the twodimensional flow field described by a. c. 5. Suppose one flow did not satisfy the continuity equation.3 Do all the flows in Problem 5. Can such a function always be considered a stream function? Does it necessarily satisfy the equation of continuity? The NavierStokes equations? Try some polynomials of various orders.6 Consider superposition of parallel flow and the sourcesink combination of Problem 5.
the NavierStokes equation and the viscous boundary conditions. 5. Compare with a above.13 Does any velocity field which looks stationary to any observer (not necessarily in an inertial coordinate system) satisfy continuity. Also given are points A(3. q = iw = 9i [m/s]. Find the shear stress at the wall and the total shear force at the circumference. 5. .7 and 5.B (3. b.176 Fluid Mechanics a.12 A square can half filled with water is set on a turntable and rotated with CO. and a sink of the same strength is located at point (5.8. Problems 5. Once it reaches solid body rotation. point (0. have the same wm3X. Find relations between a. b.l). between points A and C and between points B and C.2 = 1 a b The velocity in the pipe is suggested as q = kw. Find the pressure distribution. Substitute the velocity vector in the NavierStokes equations and obtain the pressure gradient. A parallel flow. 5.11 A can of milk completely full with milk such that there is no air bubble in it is set on a turntable and rotated with co.4). a.9. Write the velocity vector in the milk and check whether it satisfies the continuity equation. Calculate the volumetric flow [m 3 /ms] between points A and B. momentum and boundary conditions? 5.14 A twodimensional source of strength Q = 4 m3/sm is located at the origin. does the velocity field satisfy continuity. Problem 5. Compute the pressure gradient necessary to balance this force. 5. with *2 y Does it satisfy the continuity equation? The NavierStokes equation? The viscous boundary conditions? Find the pressure distribution in the flow. momentum and boundary conditions? 5.10 A circular pipe.9 An elliptical pipe has the inner contour ^2 .0). After some time the milk rotates like a solid body.l) and C (0. b and R such that the longitudinal pressure drops are the same. and an elliptical pipe.0).
05 m by 0. Find the stagnation points.5.15 The stream function in a certain region of a flow may be approximated by v = 4(x2y2).15. two or three dimensional? Are the viscous boundary conditions satisfied by this approximation? Is the continuity equation satisfied by this approximation? Find the shear stresses on the sides of the conduit. Fluids in Motion .17. Note that the moving system of the observer is also an inertial one.05 m Figure P5.5).18 Find the shear stress distribution in the region described in Problem 5.16 Find the shear stress distribution in the region described in Problem 5. a. c.19 Flow in a rectangular channel. Fig. as seen by this observer. The flow is viewed by an observer who moves with the velocity V = 3i. The velocity field in a certain region of a flow is approximated by Find the pressure distribution and the stream function in this region. a. Is the flow one. 5.19 A rectangular conduit has the sides 0.025 m and is oriented such that its sides are parallel to the zaxis.5. 5. b. b. 5. Find the velocity vector of the field. 0. q = ku> = 3ksin TO. Water flows through the conduit with a velocity which may be approximated by „. . P5. Find the velocity vector and the pressure distribution in this region. ny 0. Find the velocity at the point (2. d.025' sin 0. 5.Differential Analysis 177 has been added to the flow field. .17. 2.05 .19. 5.
05 0. Find the approximate pressure distribution in the flow. the pressure distribution and the shear stress distribution. c. JEX . Are the viscous boundary conditions satisfied? 5. = k 2sin xsin—— + 2 xsin—— . T r y „ x m \ q = ku. Draw the streamlines and the velocity distribution. Note that the shear forces on the sides must be balanced by the pressure forces.20 The side of the conduit in Fig. Find the shear stress distribution on the sides of the conduit and the approximate pressure distribution. The velocity field is now approximated by .y). I 0. Is the flow there two dimensional? b.178 Fluid Mechanics e. P5.025J a. Find the stream function there.19 located at x=0. a. 5.05m now slides in the direction of the zaxis with the velocity 2m/s. .025 0. b. Is the continuity equation satisfied by this approximation? c.05 0. .21 The velocity in a certain region of a flow field is approximated by q = iM = i(4sin. ( „ .
and approximate solutions must suffice. Some of these solvable cases are presented now as examples. In a few cases exact solutions can be found. nothing depends on the zcoordinate..6. In most cases all attempts to obtain an exact solution fail.e. 6.1 Parallel plates and coordinates. Flows between Parallel Plates Two parallel plates with the gap d between them in the ydirection are shown in Fig. are nonlinear and submit to no general method of solution. U Figure 6.1. The plates and the incompressible fluid between them are assumed to extend very far in the + ^direction. and the flow field is considered twodimensional. Each new problem must be carefully formulated as to geometry and proper boundary conditions. obtained in the previous chapter. i. EXACT SOLUTIONS OF THE NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS The NavierStokes equations. and then some scheme of attack may be chosen. The upper plate has 179 . with the hope of reaching a solution.
the velocity u depends on y and t only. qiu+jv. (5. With Eqs. bring to mind the possibility that perhaps the flow is unidirectional. the continuity equation. must satisfy the boundary conditions u{x. With Eq. (6. Rather it is an intuitive guess we pursue until we either find a solution or become convinced that it leads to no solution. Such a flow is denoted fully developed.. for this case are du dv f du {dt {dt du dx dx du) dy) dy) dp dx dx (dv dv dv) dp { + + v r (d u x + p 8 + 2 d2 [dx dy2 (d2v d2v) i + j (6.t) = v(x.21).t) = 0 (62) /g3v The continuity equation. In going along a constant y line we find the same u values.7) and (6.61). and the NavierStokes equations. Eqs.5) and (6.t).y. Eq.8) ff = O. together with the assumption that the plates and the fluid extend very far in the ±xdirection. t). (6.4).e. it repeats itself for other x values.. Eq. (5. i.e.d. y. The velocity of the fluid. (6. ( 6 J ) Equation (6.6) become du 1 dp d2 . Eqs. t). v(x. in which case we mark it as an unsuccessful trial. Eq. Whatever the velocity profile is at some xcoordinate.7). (6. i.t) = 0. The lower plate is stationary.180 Fluid Mechanics the velocity i t / . where u = u (x. y.v=v (x.d.7) is not an assumption. Hence.3). (6.6) The boundary conditions.0.t) = v(x. dx which upon integration yields u = u(y.8). where U may be a function of time. no further development. becomes (6.
6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations
pdy
y
181
(6.10)
At this point the NavierStokes equations, (6.9) and (6.10), may be simplified
by combining the gravitational force g with the effect of the pressure p. We
define the distance from some reference plane upward, i.e., in the direction
opposed to that of gravity, as
h = h(x,y,z)
and let
g = gVh
(6.11)
or
*
~ dx'
8x
Oh.
~ V
8
8y
g
OL
8z
~
8
V
For example, if h coincides with the coordinate y in Fig. 6.1 (implying that g is
directed downward), one would obtain from Eq. (6.11)
gy = g,
gx=8z=
0
Substitution of Eq. (6.11) into Eq. (5.63) yields for the case of constant p and g
^
nVx(Vxqj
(612)
One may now define a modified pressure,
P = p + pgh,
thus simplifying Eq. (6.12) to
and Eqs. (6.9) and (6.10) to
du
dt
0=
1 dP
P dx'
dP
dy "
d2u
1" V
7T »
dy2
(6.15)
(6.16)
The modified pressure, P, defined by Eq. (6.13), is most useful in hydrodynamics. In a fluid at rest the modified pressure is constant throughout, and a variation in P indicates that the fluid is moving. However, the use of this modified
pressure is limited to cases in which p is constant and the absolute pressure p
does not affect the boundary conditions. Thus, it may be used in any internal flow
182
Fluid Mechanics
of an incompressible fluid. In flows with free surfaces the use of the static pressure may be more convenient.
Elimination of g from the equations makes the solutions independent of the
orientation of gravity. Thus the solution for a vertical tube is the same as for a
horizontal tube provided both flows are subject to the same modified pressure
gradient, VP.
Returning to our problem, we note from Eq. (6.16) that P does not depend
on y. Now let Eq. (6.15) be rearranged,
d2u
du dP
if. 1 7 \
(61?)
In this form the righthand side of the equation does not depend on v, while its
lefthand side does not depend on x. Thus both sides can depend only on t, i.e.,
(6.18)
Equation (6.18) indicates that a necessary condition for a fully developed flow is
a uniform pressure gradient all through the fluid, i.e.,
!h=~te=F{t)'
(6.19)
We now proceed to solve Eq. (6.15) under various sets of boundary conditions.
Example 6.1
A fluid of density p = 1,000 kg/m3 flows between horizontal parallel plates,
Fig 6.2a. The x and vcoordinates are as shown, and the respective dimensions
are
i!=6m,
;c 2 =10m,
x3 = 14m,
d=l.5m.
The pressure is measured at points 1, 2 and 3, as shown, and the measurements are
Pi = 170,000 Pa,
p2 = 145,285 Pa,
p3 = 150,000 Pa.
Can the flow be fully developed? Find the modified pressure at points 1, 2 and 3.
Solution
Let points 1 and 3 have the height zero. The modified pressures are
PY = Pl = 170,000 Pa,
P2 = p2 +pgh = 145,285 +1,000 x 9.81 x 1.5 = 160,000 Pa,
P3 = p3 = 150,000 Pa.
6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations
183
The pressure gradient is
)
Ax) l2
= 2 , 5 oo
**
m
As shown, the pressure gradient is uniform. Hence, the flow may be fully developed.
Figure 6.2
Flow between parallel plates.
a. Horizontal, b. Inclined by 30°.
Example 6.2
The channel of Example 6.1 is now tilted by 30°, as shown in Fig. 6.2b.
Once again x4 6 m, xs = 10 m , x6 = 14 m, with x measured along the channel
axis. The pressure at point 4 is pA = 130,000 Pa. The flow is fully developed and
the same flowrate as in Example 6.1 is measured. Findp 5 and/?6.
Solution
Let point 4 have the height zero. Then
P 4 = p 4 = 130,000 Pa.
To have the same flowrate, the modified pressure must have the same gradient as
in Example 6.1. Therefore
P5 = PA + 2,500 x 4 = 140,000 Pa,
P6 = P5 +10,000 = 150,000 Pa.
Hence
p5 = P5 pghs = 140,0001,000 x9.81 x(4sin30° + 1.5cos30°) = 107,636 Pa,
184
Fluid Mechanics
p6 = Pepgfk, = 150,000 1,000 x 9.81 x 8sin30° = 110,760 Pa.
Timeindependent Flows
Let us first consider timeindependent flows. For this case Eq. (6.19) becomes
— =
= F = const.
dx Ax
(6.20)
andEq. (6.17) yields
d2u
AP
The velocity u is not a function of x, and this equation can be integrated directly
to yield the general solution
u=
— +C, — +C 0
Ax 2(1 \d)
\d)
2
(f. ?o\
\U.LL)
using the boundary conditions
y = 0,
U = 0,
(6.23)
y = d,
One obtains
u = 17,
d?_\y__(y^] rrfy)
(624)
The special case of U = 0 results in
(6.25)
which is known as plane Poiseuille flow, while the case of AP/Ax = 0 results in
d'
(6.26)
which is known as shear flow or plane Couette flow.
Several velocity profiles given by Eq. (6.24), including the plane Poiseuille
and the plane Couette flows, are shown in Fig. 6.3.
6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations
185
d.
Figure 6.3 Parallel flow, Eq. (6.24):
a. Plane Poiseuille flow. b. Shear flow
c. Flows with AP/Ax < 0. d. Flows with AP/Ax > 0.
Example 6.3
Find the maximum velocity, the net flowrate and the average velocity for
plane Poiseuille flow.
Solution
The velocity profile is given by Eq. (6.25) as
This expression attains its maximum at y = d/2. The maximum velocity, uo, is therefore
The velocity distribution may be expressed in terms of u0 as
d
\d
The flowrate per unit channel width, Q, is now obtained,
d
and by substituting the value of u0, this becomes
AxJUfl
186
Fluid Mechanics
The average velocity is defined as the flowrate divided by the distance between
the plates, d, i.e.,
_
Q
2
Example 6.4
Find the net flowrate and the average velocity for plane Couette flow.
Solution
From Eq. (6.26),
Example 6.5
The viscosity of glycerin at 10°C is /j. =2Ns/m 2 . A gap of 0.05 m between
two plates is filled with glycerin. One plate is at rest and the other moves in the
^direction with the velocity U = 2 m/s. Because of an adverse pressure gradient,
there is no net flow in the gap (see Fig. 6.3d). Find the pressure gradient.
Solution
The equation which governs this flow, Eq. (6.21), is linear, and therefore
superposition is permissible. Thus the flowrate for the flow under the combined
effect of pressure gradient and plate movement is the sum of flowrates for plane
Poiseuille flow (Example 6.3) and plane Couette flow (Example 6.4):
AP\ d3 Ud
~Ax)T2^ + ~Y'
For no net flow, Q — 0, and the required pressure gradient is
Ax
d2
0.052
= 9,600 Pa/m.
6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations
187
Note: The expression for the flowrate may be alternatively obtained by the integration of the velocity, Eq. (6.24), over the flow gap.
Timedependent Flow  The Rayleigh Problem
Let us now return to Eq. (6.15) but consider flows for which dP/dx vanishes.
Equation (6.15) now assumes the form
<6 27
!"$•
 >
Consider an infinite flat plate with an infinite domain of fluid on its upper
side, Fig. 6.4. The fluid and the plate are at rest. At the time t = 0 the plate is
impulsively set into motion with the velocity U and continues to move at that
speed. Thus the initial condition and the boundary conditions are, respectively,
u(y,0) = 0,
u(O,t) = U,
for
t>0.
This is known as the Rayleigh Problem, and again a solution is sought, in which
v = 0 everywhere and u satisfies Eqs. (6.27) and (6.28).
Fluid
Figure 6.4 Rayleigh flow.
To obtain this solution, we try to find a new independent variable r\ in the
form
r] = Byt"
(629)
and then to express u as a function of this single variable. Such a method of solution is called a similarity transformation. Thus if u  u(r]), then
du = dudn = n
dt dri dt t
du
dr]
6
188
Fluid Mechanics
^£ = 1 ^ * 1
dy
d2u
y
(6.31)
dri'
±1
2
0d
1 V
y
_
u
(6.32)
dr? '
Substitution into Eq. (6.27) yields
n du
v
d u
(6.33)
or
d2u
dr]2
n(y2S\du
riyvt) dr]
(6.34)
If u is to be expressed as a function of 77 only, no y or t terms should remain in the
differential equation, Eq. (6.34). We therefore choose 77 such that the combination y2/t is proportional to 772 and select a convenient B such that Eq. (6.34)
becomes
d2u
„
du
(6.35)
n
— 2 " + 2T] — = 0.
Comparison with Eq. (6.34) requires
The boundary conditions in terms of 77 are
"
= t/
w = 0
at
at
^ ^
(6.36)
77 —» 00.
Equation (6.35) may be rewritten as
u
which is integrated to
lnu'=?7 2 +lnC,
or
Another integration yields
(6.37)
6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations
189
The boundary conditions, Eqs. (6.36), then give
(6.38)
which can also be written in terms of the error function as
(6.39)
Obviously, for a given rj, u is uniquely determined. However, there are infinite
pairs of y and / which give the same r\  all those satisfying l = y/(zJvt). The
same u is thus obtained for all points on the y/[2\fvt) = const curve in the yt
plane. In this sense all these points are similar, and hence the term similarity solution.
Example 6.6
The kinematic viscosity of air at 25°C is va= 1.5xlO"5 m2/s, and that of water
is vM,=10"6 m 2 /s. A large plate immersed in water is suddenly set into motion at
U=5 m/s, and the resulting flow is similar to that of the Rayleigh problem.
How long will it take a water layer 1 m away from the plate to reach the
velocity of 2 m/s? Repeat for 3 m away and for air.
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
erfCn) 0.117 0.223 0.329 0.428 0.520 0.604 0.678 0.742 0.797 0.843
ri
erfOi)
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
2.0
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.1
0.880 0.910 0.934 0.952 0.966 0.976 0.984 0.989 0.993 0.995
Table 6.1 Short table of the error function.
Solution
Equation (6.39) states
u = U[l
erfri]
where 77 = y I {l.4vi\ In our case u = 2 and U = 5. Hence,
This . (6. The tube is filled with an incompressible fluid and extends very far in the ±zdirections.40) and there is complete circular symmetry about the zaxis.6 = y I (2 Vv£). because of the assumed complete axisymmetry of the flow.6 and from Table 6. (6. tWj = tWi x 3 2 = 1. the same yields . The boundary conditions are q =0 at r = R.9 h.42) and by Eq.— = 0. Steady Flow in a Round Tube We consider a round tube with the zcoordinate as its axis of symmetry. w 7] = 0. (6.44) w does not change with z and the velocity profile is the same everywhere.190 Fluid Mechanics erf(77) = l . Therefore 4xlO 6 4v For air. As in the case of flows between parallel plates. (6. (643) However.41) The continuity equation in polar cylindrical coordinates reads V q = —(rqr) + ^—q +—qz=0. w = w(r)only.e).1.737 h and t^ = ta] x 3 2 = 116. we start by trying the possibility qr=qe=0 everywhere. For 3 m. = 12.41) Hence qz=w = w{r. (6.1 h.
(6 52)  wn = . The first two equations indicate that P is a function of z only. with the boundary condition of Eq. therefore. also fully developed.64) (5.50) 2 For a flow in a tube of radius R. n (6. Az r dry dr ) ' which upon integration results in a general solution.45) dr 0=1 ^ r dG' 0 = (646) (r\ dr ) ' + dz r dry where P =p + pgh is the modified pressure. (6. one may show that dP (6. The volumetric flowrate may from o o Lnow^Rbe>obtained J (6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 191 flow is.54) . The NavierStokes equations (5.51) and (6.— VlTtrdr.49) /j. dz Az Thus the flow equation becomes (6. (6. The centerline velocity wo is obtained by letting r = 0.40) and finite velocity at the tube centerline. one obtains (6.66) become for this case of steady flow Q=dP_ (6.52) results in Q=jw(r)2nrdr=jw0 1. Az All and combining Eqs.6. and in a manner similar to the flow between parallel plates.48) AP —— = const = .51) The minus sign indicates that the flow is in the direction of decreasing modified pressure. w 1 (AP} 4fi{Az) 2 _ .
= 1. is just 48.53). Solution The pressure gradient is found from Eq.51) 2[iwo R • The total shear force per unit length of pipe is Fs=2nRTrz =4xnw0 =SK/M> = . (6.1 = 3. Az 8tf (6. 5 X 0.e..58) ' V Example 6.1 m/s. (6.77N.7 A heavy oil of viscosity /J.56) is known as the Poiseuille equation.0l m.54) or Eq.58).55) as 2 wo_ TTZ _ ^_QjnR = 1^_pL A TZR = ^_ (6_5?) or W = ^ . (5.000 N/m2. The average velocity w is found from Eq.55) AP' Equation (6.192 Fluid Mechanics which upon integration yields Q= KRW 2 ° or in combination with Eq. i. Find the shear stress at the pipe wall.8 ^ X 1 .52) (6. rz ~2{dz dr)2dr ~ ° 2R2 r=R R From Eq. The pressure drop over this length. with a mean velocity of w =0. (5.59) and Eq. Az 8x0. Find the pressure gradient.0052 (d/2)2 N/m2 m The wall shear stress is found from Eq. and show that the pressure drop is balanced by the shear forces.1x1.5 0. for Az = 1 . (6. (6.5 Ns/m2 flows in a pipe whose diameter is d=0. (6. and the .
which is assumed to be at rest. different. The inner cylinder does slide axially relative to the outer one. W (659) and with API Az= 0.77N = F. Eq.50) yields the velocity distribution.6. As in the flow between plates let us consider first a flow for which there is no axial pressure drop. This kind of motion may be encountered in dies for coating of wire with plastic material. The boundary conditions are now =0 at r = R0.0 . 0 1 2 x48.50) is obtained for the flow in a cylindrical annulus too. (662) . The maximum velocity is obtained at dwldr = 0. i. For this case Eq. The boundary conditions for the annulus are.61) 1 Next let us consider a case where both cylinders are stationary but there is an axial pressure drop.e.000 = 3. W which is the analog of the plane Poiseuille flow. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 193 force exerted by this pressure drop is Fpn = d2AP 4 = . s 4 Flow in an Axisymmetric Annulus Starting with the same assumptions as in the considerations of the Poiseuille flow.50) yields the velocity . (6. w = Vt at r = Rt. w=0 at r = Rt. Eq. (6. (6.. The volumetric flowrate is obtained as jR Q= (6. however. The boundary conditions for this case are =0 at r = R0..„_„ Hr'Ro) (660) which is the analog of the velocity distribution in plane shear flow.
d.60) and (6. (6. Poiseuille annulus flow.67) Superposition of the solutions Eqs. d.63) yields flows corresponding to combinations where one of the cylinders moves and an axial pressure gradient exists. °'max V o 1/ which can now be substituted in Eq. (6. a. U U Figure 6. b. Annulus shear flow. e.194 Fluid Mechanics . Shear minus axial pressure gradient.65) 1ln Again the volumetric flowrate is obtained as .2 A " 8/i (6. b.64) 2ln(Ro/Ri)f Ro *. (6.fa 2r Mr =0 or (6. 6. Such flows are schematically shown in Fig.66) Rr.5 Velocity profiles in pipe and annulus flows.63) to give the maximum velocity. Poiseuille flow. wo . . and the average velocity comes out as  Q Q ) 1+1 RR) o) In {RJRi) (6. Shear plus axial pressure gradient.5. c.
wp \R0) In (R0/Rt) ' Numerically computed values of the location of the maximum velocity.(6. and the flow is fully developed. for the annulus.6. 6. (6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 195 Example 6. To assess the modification caused by the wire. We use the subscript/? for the pipe without the wire and w for the tube with the wire..6. we consider the ratio of maximum velocity of the annular flow to that of the tube flow and the ratio of the average velocity of annular flow to that of the tube flow.2 for several ratios of Rt I Ro. (6.52) resulting in _t \{RilRof 1ln P. The temperature in the glycerin at the center of the tube is sought. i. and a suggestion is made to stretch a thin wire along the tube axis. Figure 6.58). the flow is an annular flow. The pressure gradient along the tube AP/AZ = dP/dz is given. max The ratio of the average velocities is found from Eqs.e. .8 An experimental system consists of a long tube of radius Ro filled with glycerin. As seen from the table.65) by Eq. Assess the modification. Solution With the wire in the middle.64).67) and (6. (6. the flow field is only slightly modified by the presence of the wire. values of (ww I wp)max and values of ww lwp are given in Table 6.6 Tube with wire at its axis. It is claimed that since the wire is very thin. The ratio of maximum velocities is found by the division of Eq. Eq. as shown in Fig. the modification of the flow is not small.
is Q = AVi.35744 0.16798 0. The thickness of the solid layer is 0.61475 0. This flow must equal the sum of the flow induced by the motion of the wire alone. ~K 0.61).74488 0.66) written for a flow under the influence of a modified pres .44352 0.30 0.04516 0. Example 6.05 0.1 mm.34093 0. Fig.94956 t^Jmean 0.58005 0.45456 0.50 0. 6. where A is the crosssectional area of the annulus formed by the plastic coating.01 0.7 Wire coating.54611 0. Solution The net flowrate of the molten plastic between the wire and the pipe must supply the coating.73553 0.06013 0. (6.32949 0.33417 0.66953 0.196 Fluid Mechanics R.00667 Table 6..10 0.2 Numerical values for u>max and wmean for annular flow in comparison to flow in a pipe at equal pressure gradient.7.02 0. Find the speed with which the wire is pulled upward.9 A metal wire of radius Rt = 2 mm is pulled vertically upward with the speed Vi through a long pipe of radius Ro = 5 mm.288 xlO" 6 m 2 . (6.60936 0. The latter can be obtained from Eq. and that of the flow downward due to gravity.12664 0. Eq.70 0. it carries on its surface a layer of plastic which cools and solidifies.40803 0.84554 0.78297 0.00500 0.65038 0.46365 0.53503 0.90 (y R rJ) max 0.25434 0. = 1.1mmthick solidified plastic coating moving upward with the wire at a speed V. Figure 6.20 0. The gap between the wire and the pipe is filled with molten plastic material of density p and viscosity [L As the wire comes out of the pipe. The volumetric flowrate of the 0.
0207 m/s = 2. at and a0. Flow between Rotating Concentric Cylinders In this case we again consider the annular region between two cylinders.16915pgE02 For p = 1. Ro = 0. Rn The term containing V.= pgAz Az This expression for pressure drop is substituted into Eq. the cylinders rotate with the angular velocities. as in the previous case. In our case of constant pressure po. This time.1 cm/s. leading to in(R0/R.6.000 kg/m3. however.66). and the boundary conditions are . which is combined with Eq. (6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 197 sure drop AP/ AZ. A = 1. g = 9. (6. we have P = P0+pgh and AP Ah — = PS—.288x106 m 2 gives 4 r = 0.002 m.16915 PgRo or _ 0. is extracted.61) to yield the expression for the flowrate induced by the motion of the wire coupled with the effects of gravity.005 m.) and substitution of Rt = 0.81 m/s2 and fi = 2 Ns/m2 we obtain Vi = 0.
73) simplifies to An instrument consisting of an outer stationary and inner rotating cylinder is called a Couette viscometer and is used to measure the viscosity of liquids. q0 can depend on r only. (6. Eq.198 Fluid Mechanics qr=qz = 0. (6. We assume qr = qz = 0 everywhere. (6. Eq.70).(5.71) for the velocity profile B (672) qe=Ar + —.64) . Eq. resulting in the velocity profile ^Q0)Rflr This is known as Couette flow . (6.71). i. Couette flow is the only example in this chapter where some nonlinear term remained in the equations at the solution stage. resulting in d/dz = 0 and d/dt = 0..70). . The NavierStokes equations (5. Eq.) with the solution of Eq. For the special case where the outer cylinder is stationary (n0 = 0) while the inner cylinder is rotating with an angular velocity Q.68) We consider the cylinders being long and the flow steady. (6. and obtain from the continuity equation Hence.7.68). the solution. The integration constants are evaluated with the help of the boundary conditions given in Eq.72). is still linear and that the nonlinearity appears only in Eq. (6. (6. (6.. (6.13). substituted become for this case <6J0) 0. (6.e.66) with the modified pressure. qe = R0Q0 at r = Ro. and even then as a given function. It is noted that the part actually solved. is now substituted into Eq. which is then solved for the modified pressure P by direct integration.
the velocity distribution is given by Eq. no = 0.51).74): . of course. c.6.f l / 2 . For £2j = 0 . fl. Solution a. on the outer cylinder. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 199 Example 6. (6. Find the velocity distribution. no = 0..and Ro.10 Two long concentric cylinders have the radii i?. and the shear moment per unit height of cylinder becomes The same moment acts..73) simplifies to The pressure distribution is given by Eq. QO = QI2. (6. The fluid between them has a density p and a viscosity fi. Consider the following cases: a.= . (5. (6. b. no = Q. the pressure distribution and the moments acting on both cylinders in cases a. Eq. b and c. Qi = Q. b. the inner surface. For nt = n..70) as q2 and The shear stress at. say. no = a. is. Eq. nt = 0 .
say. c. (6. 2{Ri The shear stress at. For Qt = a/2.51). the outer surface is.200 Fluid Mechanics The pressure distribution is dr r and \4 pQ2R? 'Q ' . r r e = 2 ^ = ^ . Eq.73) yields The pressure distribution is 2B? and . (5.^ and the shear moment per unit height becomes 2D2 j o for both inner and outer cylinders. Eq.ao = O/2.2 BL.
" Wiley.6. Hughes. 1960. New York. New York. say. What is the shear stress distribution in the fluid? ." 7th ed. McGrawHill. but not the pressures. )2 "(R.F. Lightfoot. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 2 '(R. the dynamics in the rotating system requires the inclusion of appropriate D'Alambert forces which modify the pressure. the inner radius is and the shear moment for unit height becomes 2 \M\ = 2itR0 Tr9 = 2 H o  Note that the moments come out to be the same in all three cases.N.1 The space between two long parallel plates (Fig. 2 The shear stress at. The upper plate moves with a velocity of 3 m/s and the lower plate is stationary. 1979. An explanation for this is that rotating coordinate systems can be found in which cases b and c are kinematically reduced to case a. Bird. However. DC. References R.1) is filled with a fluid of viscosity /j. Problems 6. Schlichting. H.P6.E. "Transport Phenomena. "An Introduction to Viscous Flow. Chapter 5. W. Washington.." Hemisphere. Stewart and E.B. W. "BoundaryLayer Theory.1 2 \ — + 1 2R ) \{Ro pQ' f +1 J 201 2 U. 1979. = 9xlO"3 dyns/cm2.
(2) 100 poise. b. D = 1 mm 1 d = 0. Calculate the shear stress on the wall and the flowrate of the glycerin. Fig.600 rpm and the viscosity of the fluid is (1) 10 poise. What will be the answers to part a if the wall leans at an angle a? Glycerin p = 1. What is the efficiency of this instrument as a hydraulic transmission of moment? „ .4 An instrument for measuring viscosity consists of a rotating inner cylinder and stationary outer cylinder as shown in Fig.2.26 g/cm3 .3 6.P6.2 Wire coating.9mm F V = 10 m/s H L = 0. .3 A laminar layer of glycerin slides down on a semiinfinite vertical wall.3.Fluid Mechanics U = 3 m/s h = 2 cm Figure P6. Simplify the flow equations for this case and calculate the force F required to draw the wire. P6.2 Coating of electric wire with insulating material is done by drawing the wire through a tubular die as shown in Fig. a. a. = 10 poise Fieure P6. What is the moment acting on the outer cylinder in the two cases? b. 6.5 m Figure P6. P6.1 6. Find the moment as a function or the rpm ° of the outer cylinder and the power transmitted.i Fluid 100 mm Figure P6. The viscosity of the coating material is 100 poise. The inner cylinder rotates at 3.4 Viscometer.4. r • r. .
As a result the upper plate. Both depend on L. Figure P6. The bottom is a rigid plate with a small inclination angle a. has the inner diameter of 0. and the constant water depth. The flowrate is 6kg/s. which carries a load F. A solution of sugar in water.P6. measured vertically. A very wide.6 A long pipe bend.7.5. flows through the bend. Find the shear stress at the bottom.5 6. atmospheric. The flow is assumed fully developed.. At point B the pressure is the outside pressure.6 Shallow water layer.025 m and is 2 m long. 6. Fig. . b. shallow layer of water is approximately two dimensional. Air is forced into the slot through a series of pipes C and comes out at the edges. Assuming laminar flow find the air supply pressure necessary to support F. 203 Figure P6.6. is h. a. which has the same density as water but whose viscosity is ten times that of water. c. Measurements show that the pressure distribution along the pipe is the same as that in a straight pipe of the same dimensions.6. Neglect gravity and calculate the forces transmitted through flange A. of course.5 Pipe bend. i.e. Write the boundary conditions at the bottom and the top of the layer. Fig.7 A twodimensional air bearing consists of an upper plate A that is 2L m wide and 1 m long and a lower plate B of the same size but with a slot in its middle. Write the simplified form the NavierStokes equations assume in this case. Fig. P6. is raised to the height h. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 6. and find the supply rate necessary to maintain the height h. P6. Solve the equation and obtain the velocity profile and the mean velocity.
2 — L\)IV and the force which the servomechanism must put out is F. b. B.9 The servomechanism in Fig. equipped with rods.7 Air bearing. find the mass flux between the plates. . U=lm/s d = 0. Fig. i. P6. the piston motion is approximately at a constant speed V and it moves until its side is flush with the sleeve edge.000 kg/m3 and whose viscosity is 11 = 500 poise. P6.05 m. What dp/dx is necessary to make the net mass flow vanish? c.8. Find dp/dx needed to double the mass flux of part a. a. moving inside a cylindrical sleeve. The servomechanism is filled with oil and a gear pump maintains a pressure difference Ap between the two sides of the piston.1. 6. The lower plate is stationary and the upper one moves in the ^direction with the velocity of 1 m/s. but in the other direction? d. 6. The time required for this motion is At=(L.e. What dp/dx is necessary to have the same mass flux as in a..05 m Figure P6. If dp/dx = 0.8 The distance between two parallel plates in a twodimensional flow. Once started. the total length of its travel from one edge to the other is L2—L1. is d=0.204 Fluid Mechanics 2L i r B C Figure P6.9 consists of a piston. A.8 Stationary and moving plates. C. The gap between the plates extends to infinity and is filled with a fluid whose density is p .
Find the pressure difference Ap the pump must maintain and also Q. Compute Ap [Pa] and Q [m3/s] for the gear pump. At = 5 s. la = 120 mm. = 20 poise.9 is sufficient for (d2d\)/di = 0. F.6.9 and 6.d\)ld\ « 1. Lx = 80 mm. The shear force is to the right for small V but to the left for large V. All the dimensions shown in Fig. Compare the results and decide whether the approximation of Problem 6. /j. di = 63 mm. F = 2000 N. i. .11 With reference to Problems 6. P6. The gap dj..9 without the assumption must now be considered an annulus.05. You may assume fully developed flow in the gap between the piston and its cylindrical sleeve and also that {di .d\)ld\ « 1. and so are At.e.10 Repeat Problem 6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 205 '////////////////////////A Figure P6. Note that the force applied to the piston by the oil consists of two parts: pressure on the flat surface and shear on the curved surface. using once the simpler analysis of Problem 6. fi. 6. 6. and the viscosity of the oil.9 Servomechanism.9 are given.10: d\ = 60 mm. .10.9 and once the more elaborate one of Problem 6.10 mm. the gap need not be considered as an annulus but may be taken as that between two plates. the volumetric flux of oil it must supply. .
1 m/s. wx. i. find the average velocity and the flowrate in the two pipes. the pressure drop is proportional to the diameter of the pipe raised to the power n.025 m and is 20 m long.13 It is suggested to change the pipe described in Problem 6.16. The average flow velocity is 1 m/s. per width of D. b. Find n.15 are now used such that the flowrate in the pipe is the same as that between the plates. Calculate the required pressure drop in these pipes. 6.12. .16 The pipe and the plates of Problem 6. c. _.. The pipe opens to the atmosphere. m q = kw = kGsin—sin—. For a pressure drop along the pipes which is only that used in Problem 6.17 The velocity distribution in a fully developed flow through a rectangular square duct with the sides D is.12. 6. Calculate the power needed to pump the fluid and compare with the pipe and the plates as in Problem 6.15 A fluid flows in a pipe which has the diameter D. 6.15. Calculate the pressure drop in this pipe and compare your result with that of Problem 6. Calculate the flowrate and the pressure at the entrance to the pipe. The fluid flows in a pipe which has the diameter of 0. Calculate the flow through this duct and compare with those in the pipe and the plates as in Problem 6. b. Calculate the ratio between the flowrate of the fluid in the pipe and the flowrate between the plates. a.e. Calculate the ratio between the power needed to pump the fluid through the pipe and that needed to pump between the plates. where C is a constant. . The same pressure gradient exists in both systems. 6. . approximately. Find 5. Note that for a constant flowrate. a.14 The same amount of fluid as in Problem 6. for the same pressure gradients.206 Fluid Mechanics 6. Also note that for a constant pressure drop the flowrate is proportional to the diameter of the pipe raised to the power s.3 kg/ms.12 The viscosity of a given fluid is ji = 2xl0. per width D. The same fluid flows in the gap between two parallel flat plates.0125mdiameter pipe. The size of the gap is also D. 6.12 must now be supplied through a 0. .12 and use two smaller pipes such that the flowrate and the average velocity of the flow remains the same.
" Using Eq. find an expression for Cf. without using again the error function.58). Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 6. It is necessary to measure viscosities in the range of /i=0. at r = 0.0504 m.15 m Figure P6.000 rpm Assume that even at the transient stage of the flow there exist velocities in the angular direction only and that for very short times the flow field between the two cylinders resembles the solution of the Rayleigh flow.19 The viscometer described in Problem 6. c.P6.18 6.58).0501 m is 90% of that of the surface of the inner cylinder.15 m. is used to measure the viscosity of water at room temperature. Now. w is the mean velocity and Cf is a "friction coefficient. The viscometer is used to measure viscosities in the range of /i=2xlO" 3 kg/ms.18.20 The pressure gradient in a laminar flow in a pipe is given by Eq. Calculate this new number.000 rpm a. but rather using the similarity properties of the Rayleigh flow.2 kg/ms but to have the range of moments measured unchanged. (6.0502m.18. An engineer wants to express the modified pressure difference between two points along a pipe by an equation of the form pw2 where L is the distance between the two points. Calculate this new diameter. The outer cylinder is stationary and the inner one turns at the rate of 3. The inner cylinder of the viscometer is suddenly set to rotate at 3. Another possibility is to keep the turning rate but to decrease the diameter of the inner cylinder. and its diameter is D. 207 0. find times at which this velocity appears at r =0. D is the pipe diameter. 6. (6. Find the time at which the velocity at r = 0. The inner diameter of the outer cylinder is Do = 0. b. The height of the inner cylinder is 0. .0503m and at r = 0.6.10 m.18 A concentric cylinder viscometer is shown in Fig. One possibility is to decrease the number of revolutions of the inner cylinder. before the suggested modifications are made. Find the range of the moments measured. = 0.11 m.
40 m. Find the shear stress and shear rate at the cylinder wall. The flow between the cylinder and the piston is assumed fully developed. P6. Findp2 for which the flow per unit width is 0. A piston in the form of a long cylinder moves into the fluid at the rate of 1 m/s. Find the velocity profile in the gap between the piston and cylinder.22 6.22.1: iv Figure P6.0N. c. which is 1 m further Figure P6.001. When flow starts.22. Find p2 for which the flow per unit width is (.23 Fluid Mechanics Two flat plates are set as shown in V = 2m/s Fig. The viscosity of the fluid between the plates is ]i . d. a. .21 along the plates.0.02 kg/nvs. P6. and the pressure ' \ at point 2. b. c. b. P6. '2 ojston cylinder .22 and calculate the time needed for the piston to travel 0.21.Ol in 2 m/s.21 6.0. The cylinder contains a fluid with the viscosity of /i= 3xl0" 3 kg/ms. and the length it can still travel is 0.0. P6.0 s. Find p2 for which the net flow between the plates is nil.2xlO"2kg/ms. The lower plate is sta—» tionary and the upper plate moves 4 to the right at the velocity of d=O. b. as shown. Suggest convenient weights to be used to push the piston down for the range of viscosities measured. provided it is pushed down with a force of 10.000 Pa. and is used to measure viscosities in the range 0. is p2. The pressure at point 1 is i 1 px= 100.208 6. Find all the points where the velocity of the fluid is zero. As a first step in the design use the dimensions of Fig. Find the force pushing the piston.1 m. A long cylinder with its lower side closed is shown in Fig. a.22 A viscometer is designed along the general form of the configuration shown in Fig. It is desired that the times to be measured are of the order of 10.60 m.10) m3/ms.10 m3/ms. the length of the inserted part of the piston is 0. a.
He also suggests that calculations for a concentric annulus having an inner radius of 0.12 m. a.  .24 1 • I ' ••. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 6. such that the shear force on the inside of its walls is just balanced by that on the outside. Find the better upper and lower bounds to the pressure drop. Assume the flow laminar and fully developed. i.1 m and an outer radius of 0. the force which resists the motion of the piston as a function of the speed of the piston.05 m3/s through the annular non gap with an inner radius of 0.10 m and an outer radius of 0. 209 V Water flows at the rate of 0.24. An experienced engineer suggests that calculations for a concentric annulus having an inner radius of 0. 6.e.• • 6. i.12 . The flow in this eccentric annulus is still 0. The wall of the inner cylinder is very thin and there is a downward flow inside the inner cylinder. The outer cylinder is stationary and the flow in it is upward..12 + 0.25. and find the ratio between the two flow rates necessary to keep the inner cylinder floating. both yield upper bounds to the pressure drop. Assume the flow is laminar and fully developed. Find the pressure drop along the annulus.25 A shock absorber is shown in Fig.003m eccentricity in the annulus described in Problem 6. Figure P6.0.e.26 Careful measurements show that there is a 0.003 m between the centers of the inner cylinder and the outer one. there is a distance of 0. b.141 m.0. Find the magnitude and location of the maximum velocity in the annular gap.003 m both yield lower bounds to the pressure drop. The viscosity of the fluid is lxlO.27 i . P6. The same fluid flows in the inner cylinder and in the annulus..100 m and an outer radius of 0. i..003 m and an outer radius of 0.3 kg/ms. Find the characteristic behavior of this shock absorber.003 m.003 m and an outer radius of 0.1 .12 m or an inner radius of 0.27 has an inner radius of 0.o.12 m or an inner radius of 0.6.24 6.10 m and an outer radius of 0.05 m/s and is still assumed fully developed. P6. The length of the annulus is 100 m.e. Neglect the weight of the thinwalled inner cylinder.1 + 0.n: £• t i '1 ji • A Figure P6.27 The vertical concentric annulus in Fig.
the density p may be thus obtained from pressure drop measurements.29 The pipe shown in Fig.30 . 6. Find expressions for the pressure drop between points 1 and 2 and between points 3 and 4. 6.03 m Figure P6.210 6.025 m. The pipe carries fuel with a viscosity of 2xlO3 kg/ms and a density of 900 kg/m3 at a velocity of 3 m/s.28 Fluid Mechanics A gas turbine can operate using several different fuels. P6.. Find the velocity of the pencil once it has reached steady motion. The fuel has the viscosity /I and the density p. find the pressure drops between points 1 and 2 and between points 3 and 4. The pencil is at first held in place.005 m3/s. though the viscosity and the velocity of the fluid are not known. P6.28 i.3 L 4 Figure P6. Water flows in the pipe at the rate of 0. Show that indeed r. Estimate the error made by not taking into account the effect of the edges in the calculation of the acceleration.28 has a diameter of 0. P6. 0. A scheme to do this is shown in Fig.30 A very long pencil of 1 cm in diameter is centrally located in a pipe.28. The pencil density is the same as that of water. b. Assuming fully developed laminar flow. Fig. and then it is released.e. a. Neglect the effects of the ends of the pencil and find its acceleration at the moment of release. It is desirable to measure the density of the fuel while it is flowing in a pipe to the combustion chamber. the lengths between points 1 and 2 and between points 3 and 4 are 2 m each.30.
6. Exact Solutions of NavierStokes Equations 6.30 m 0. Find the velocity of the midplate.31 . and the middle one can move in its own plane.31 211 Figure P6.31 shows three flat plates. 0. and that in the fluid below is 300 Pa/m. The xwise pressure gradient in the fluid above the moving plate is +300 Pa/m.50 m I Figure P6. The upper and lower ones are stationary.
.
e. Newton's equation md2xldt2 = Fx can be integrated by multiplication with dxldt = V to become m dx d x 1 d (dx\ dt dt2 ~ 2™'dt\dt) „ dx ~ x dt or (V2\ m d\ — = Fx dx . the equations of motion for frictionless flows. It seems that the notion of conservation of mechanical energy was first inferred from the integration of the equations of motion of solids. Vp + g. idealized for nofriction situations. i. i. that the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of a rigid body changes by exactly the amount of work performed on the body. hence the appearance of potential energy. (5.7. (5.e.1) 213 . The extension to threedimensional motions and to forces that correspond to potentials.70) with its lefthand side expanded using Eq. ENERGY EQUATIONS Bernoulli's Equation To obtain a clear physical appreciation of the various terms which appear in the energy equation. is not difficult. We use this result of classical mechanics as a guideline and begin by rewriting the Euler equation. and Eq. but still leads to the same result.11) becomes ^VgqxVxq 2 1. we begin our discussion by considering an idealized frictionless case. To simplify the analysis we consider only timeindependent flows. p (7.. The inclusion of rotational motions is slightly more complicated. which can be interpreted as the change in the kinetic energy being equal to the work of the external force..
(7.2) is s(qxVxq) = P (73) where d/ds means. h is the elevation potential." Equation (7. i.2) J P The expression in the square brackets is known as the Bernoulli polynomial. Let the body force g be expressible as g = gVh. Hence s(qxVxq) = 0' and therefore p (7. (6.4) J or q212 + pip + gh = B does not change along s. Compressible flows are considered later.11) Hence.e. We first seek the rate of change of this expression along a streamline: Let s be the unit vector tangent to a streamline. The scalar product of s with Eq.1) may now be written as q x V x q = Vp P or qxVxq = V \q2+^.5) In engineering practice the equation is sometimes divided by g. Since s lies on a streamline. 2 P 2 P (7.. the directional derivative. of course. 2 I (7. The vector s is parallel to q and therefore perpendicular to qx (V x q).214 Fluid Mechanics We further restrict the flow to be incompressible. the rate of change of the expression in the square brackets in the direction of s. B is conserved along streamlines.+ gh \..e. i. and the negative sign simply means that we want objects to fall "down. resulting in . for two points on the same streamline.
b. Each point on a Bernoulli surface can be reached from any other point on the same surface by going along streamlines and vorticity lines. and even when the flow in general is not frictionless. it is an algebraic relation between the dependent variables.e. and since all the streamlines in the domain of interest originate in the other domain.6) is known as Bernoulli's equation. is also perpendicular to £.7. e. Returning to Eq. respectively.. So far Bernoulli's equation (7.. The two most important flows satisfying the strong Bernoulli equation are those for which: a.2) then becomes + + gh =0 (7. 6 ) where all terms have the dimensions of length. Because q x (Vx q) = q x 2. Engineers use the expressions pressure head. static head and velocity head to denote these various terms. i. the same argument that led to the conservation of B on streamlines now leads to its conservation along vorticity lines. where the strong Bernoulli equation holds. not only on Bernoulli's surfaces. Because Bernoulli's polynomial is conserved along both these families of lines. i. Every point in the domain of interest can be traced back along a streamline to another domain.3).g.e. along the field lines tangent to £ everywhere. it is conserved on Bernoulli surfaces. the socalled vorticity vector. i. Equation (7.e. obviously. Equation (7. Streamlines and vorticity lines intersect and form surfaces. where B values are one and the same. B is conserved in the whole domain. It is a useful tool in calculations of flows... The flow field in this other domain may be trivially simple in many cases. This situation is said to satisfy the strong Bernoulli equation. (7. There are flow fields in which Bernoulli's polynomial has the same value everywhere. For such cases the equation is referred to as the weak Bernoulli equation.6) has been shown to hold on Bernoulli surfaces only. at a great distance in front of an approaching airplane. Because of the weak Bernoulli equation B values are conserved along streamlines. Energy Equations 2g 7 n Ig 215 ( 7.7) and. the streamlines carry with them their B values into the new domain. Mathematically. called Bernoulli surfaces. V x q = 0 in the whole domain of flow. the equations can still serve as a good approximation in many engineering situations. Bernoulli's equation is an intermediate integral of the equations of frictionless motion. . we now let s have the direction of Vx q = £.
For him B = p = po.2 Figure 7.const. A stationary observer located very far in front of the wing sees its environment at rest. The pressure near the wing. which therefore satisfies the strong Bernoulli equation. Derive expressions for velocity and mass flowrate to be used for the venturi tube. Figure 7.216 Fluid Mechanics Example 7.2 shows a device called a venturi tube. where the velocity is q. according to the Bernoulli equation.1 Wing in a flow field. Show that once the velocity field around the wing is known. The velocity of the fluid in section 1 is lower than that in section 2. V. the strong Bernoulli equation holds.1 Figure 7. which consists of a converging pipe section followed by a diverging section. which may then be used to calculate the pressure on the wing and hence the lift force of the wing. being B =pjp +V2/2. can therefore be obtained as Example 7. This pressure difference is measured and used to calculate the flow rate. For the second observer the Bernoulli polynomial on all streamlines very far in front is the same. . sitting on the wing. The device is used to measure the flowrate of a fluid in a pipe. which is to be analyzed for a constant velocity flight. sees the vicinity of the first observer moving toward him with the velocity of the wing. and the strong Bernoulli equation holds.1 shows an airplane wing. Solution All streamlines in the vicinity of the wing started very far in front of it. with its pressure the atmospheric one. Thus all these streamlines carry with them their Bernoulli polynomials all over the vicinity of the wing. which results in a pressure difference between the sections. A moving observer.
find how much water can be taken into the train and what resistance force is applied to the train.3. we have assumed j Because of continuity. into an open water tank laid beside the railway. 7.3 Old train engines operated without condensers and had to replenish the water in the boiler rather frequently.2 Venturi tube. For a train moving to the left with the speed Vj and a water tank which permits a 50 m run with the scoop lowered. . for simplicity. and hence 1'^ or {PiPi) v2=and Example 7. 1 2 Figure 7. One way to do this without having to stop the train was to lower a water scoop. as shown in Fig.6): + y = Ig + 7 2g where.7. Energy Equations 217 Solution Neglecting friction. we write Bernoulli's equation (7.
that 5 is much smaller than H and that V2 may be approximated by Vi=Vf2gH. Solution An observer sitting on the scoop observes a sheet of water of thickness 8{ entering the scoop with the relative velocity V{ to the right. The pressure terms cancel out because we assume the water to follow the wet . which is less than V 2 . and the water layer leaving the scoop is thicker. which takes the train t . Thus. the amount of water taken is SOSjb. To find the force transferred by the scoop to the train. is given by V^=Vl2(2HS22Sl)g. because of continuity.6). may now be written for a streamline connecting points 1 and 2: 7 ' 2g Y { 2 J 2g Hence the exit velocity from the scoop V2. The Bernoulli equation. we may use the integral form of the momentum theorem. Eq. The average height of the layer is 5j/2 from the bottom of the scoop. p0 being the atmospheric pressure. We assume.3 Water scoop. (4.218 Fluid Mechanics Figure 7. however.45). and its average pressure is p0 +7<5j / 2 . For a scoop b meters wide. relative to the observer.50IVx seconds to fill. (7.
7. We now define the following nomenclature: \pq\ px p2 is the dynamic pressure at point 1. at point 1. may be increased to p2 by the amount pqx 12. and the tank transfers to the train a force FT = ipb82V22. Static. it has the kinetic energy bS^pVi 12. half of the result obtained above! A student of fluid mechanics tells him that he has forgotten the kinetic energy lost in the tank and also the higher water level in the train. by about H. Thus the momentum ibp82V2 is destroyed in this tank. (7. for points 1 and 2 on the streamline Eq.. is the static pressure there. Dynamic and Total Pressures Consider a streamline in a flow along which the Bernoulli polynomial 2 p is conserved. i.5) holds. Still. ybd\. The Bernoulli equation now reads Relating to point 1 we see that by stopping the flow the pressure there.. This is not quite correct. This kinetic energy is imparted while the train moves 1 m. or the stagnation pressure. The water layer leaving the scoop. The resistance force is therefore A man who has not studied fluid mechanics reasons as follows: As the train moves ahead 1 m it scoops bd{p kg water.7. hence the resistance to its motion must be b8xpVi 12. . I I (7. i. i. Now suppose a point 2 is found with q2 = 0.3. enters a tank where it settles to the train velocity.. Energy Equations 219 back side of the scoop. px. This water has been at rest. but once scooped.e.5) Let the contributions of ghx and gh2 be so small that they may be ignored. Fig.e. but the error involved is not more than the mean hydrostatic pressure there.e. is the total pressure. this is not the resistance force applied to the train.
Point 2 has been used just to indicate the reason for choosing the names dynamic. This streamline must have a stagnation point there. is used to measure the speed of a fluid moving relative to the tube.4. The Bernoulli equation. 7. . and it is important to note that they arise from the Bernoulli equation.. Fig.4 A Pitot tube. We choose point 1 far upstream from the Pitot tube. static and total pressures. (7. and given qx andp 1. hence they imply the Bernoulli equation approximation. Fig. In many engineering applications one finds these terms useful.4. Their values do not depend on whether point 2 is physically realized. the pressure p is still pu because this streamline is not affected by the presence of the tube. manometer _. on the streamline which eventually hits the center of the hole in the inner tube. Find the relation between the pressure difference measured by the manometer and the speed of the fluid. 7. The holes in the sleeve thus measure pj. on whether there really exists a stagnation point on the streamline. H.5). The flow is incompressible.. The strong Bernoulli equation is assumed to hold.4 Pitot tube. The pipe and the sleeve are connected to a manometer. close to point 2 but on a streamline which bypasses the sleeve. Example 7. the static pressure. i.e. _. It consists of an inner tube with its open end directed against the flow located inside a sleeve with holes. point 2. The sleeve generators are parallel to the flow and the holes' axes are thus perpendicular to the flow direction. Therefore. and the fluid on this second streamline does not change its velocity as it moves parallel to the sleeve. „ Figure 7.220 Fluid Mechanics All these terms describe point 1. reads for this case Solution and indeed p2 is the total pressure at the stagnation point. their magnitude may be computed. Now at point H.
7. by Extension to Compressible Flows Let Bernoulli's equation (7. the velocity at point 1.9) suggests at once lp .V p = VF. and let the manometer show a reading Ahm. (7. F.4) be now extended to apply to compressible flows. This is a mathematical step and requires no additional physical laws. which we expect to satisfy . we have used . we define a pressure function. (7.2).9) (710) with all the previous results intact. In order to retain the gradient form for variable density. Energy Equations 221 Let the pressure difference be measured by a manometer in which a manometric fluid of density p m is used. Ahm. (78) p P \P which holds for incompressible flows only. and also v \f c Comparison of this rule with Eq. To obtain Eq. is related to the manometer reading. Then from Example 3. P With this function the Bernoulli polynomial becomes just (7. We now recall the Leibnitz rule for differentiation of an integral. qx.1 Pi'Pi _Pm~P and therefore.
(7. is a complete differential and therefore dp /pis also a complete one. The first and second laws of thermodynamics. and for this case the pressure function has a direct interpretation. Isentropic flows are therefore barotropic. is used instead of B. However.11) and with it Eq.222 Fluid Mechanics where in the last term on the right p is considered a function of p only.11) and (7. Flows in which the density depends on the pressure only are called barotropic flows. from Eqs. (7. (714) P The differential of the enthalpy function. (7. (7. iT. Furthermore.11) it is emphasized that the identification of the pressure function with enthalpy is a particular case.15) combined with Eq. These satisfy the form p = p(p). di in Eq.13) di = Up.10) hold for barotropic flows only. P .0) processes becomes (7. The most important family of barotropic flows is that of the isentropic flows. i. Generally for compressible fluids the density is a function of both the pressure and the temperature. Obviously. restricted to isentropic flows. Eq.14). (7.14). Returning to Eq. although a most important one.10) give the form B = i+± q where the term total enthalpy. In general and (dp/dp) is just the compressibility of the fluid multiplied by its density. state that Tds = didp. (7. as . (7. P which for isentropic (ds . there are some important flows where the density may be expressed as a function of the pressure only. i Po h (715> Hence the pressure function is just the thermodynamic enthalpy. and Eq. (7.12) k Examples for such flows are the isentropic flow (p/p = const) and the isothermal flow (p/p = const). with no restriction to ideal gas behavior. Isentropic flows serve as very good approximations for many real flows. combined.
000 . b.5) P P . The more general interpretation of F for compressible flows is. (1. find its average speed a. for a fluid which behaves like air. for a fluid which behaves like water. therefore.16) and P Thus Pi 1.28). The outside pressure is 105 Pa. Assuming the fluid flow out of the tank to be isentropic. (7. is 1.7. from Eq. ) v For air. Solution Let subscript i denote in and o denote out. (7. For water. from Eq. which for isentropic flows equals the change in its enthalpy. The pressure on the inside.5 p b.5xlO5 Pa. the elastic energy of the fluid.5 A tank filled with fluid has a hole in its bottom. then: a. Example 7. just near the hole. Energy Equations 223 given by Eq.
fci Wi0=iii0=~{RTi 1 Thus . Find the work obtained from the transfer of 1 kg of fluid through the engine. = i. I O For water: H=ei+Pi/Pi> io=eo+PolPo' where e is the internal thermal energy of the water.4 x 287x300 0. Solution From thermodynamics we know that for an isentropic process: w.0 For air: From Example 7.5 is fitted with an ideal engine.4 Pi = 257m/s.224 Fluid Mechanics Pi J Pi „ k\ k i Pol Let T: = 300 K.6 The hole at the bottom of the tank in Example 7. 10 a. Example 7. 5 x l 0 5 = 50 J. Also p does not change. Then ki 2k RTt kl 0. p  p ) = — l x 0 . Thus. = h Pi Po P b. —i .5. 000 1.4 2xl. Wi0= u L = ^ L .^ 2 . The engine is ideal and we do not expect e to change. through which the fluid expands isentropically from the inside pressure to the environment.
j j ^ A The average mechanical energy per unit mass is obtained by dividing Eq. and the resulting form is . the same value is obtained for all cross sections.5 the same energies were manifested as the kinetic energies of the emerging fluids. and indeed the difficulty is resolved in the same manner as in Chapter 4.963 J. i.18) by Eq.3. is modified. where the velocity generally varies between streamlines.e. be computed: f — + — + h pqndA = const.19). 10 = — x 287x300 1 0. In conduit flow.4 L5 In Example 7. The mass flowrate through A is just Jpq • ndA = pVA = const. (7.4 = 32. in Chapter 4.18) ) Because of the Bernoulli equation. .. The kinetic energy term.oa Z Y = 659. Average Velocities The results obtained so far for the Bernoulli equation are strictly applicable to streamlines only. it becomes more convenient to use the average velocity for the whole cross section. Let all streamlines be approximately parallel to the conduit axis. The situation is analogous to that of using the average velocity in the application of the integral momentum theorem. For this case /?//+ h is the same over any given cross section and therefore is not modified by the averaging process. Modifications of the Bernoulli Equation for Conduit Flow a. A. This average is also conserved along the conduit. We may check this by 6593 W . Let a conduit have the velocity distribution q and let the total flow rate of mechanical energy through its cross section. {{r 2g (7. A. however. Energy Equations 225 O4 1 1. by the introduction of an energy correction factor f3E .7. 50 which indeed comes out correct. (7.
In many cases pE may be taken as 1. while for a parabolic profile.51). and Eq. e.\dr = l6\ R Io [ R R Bernoulli's equation now reads A Hence 6 R \ + L2 4 6 8J =2. (6. in turbulent flows.e. From Eqs.57) with q the velocity. provided the correction factor. . PE= 2.g. (7.. Example 7. is used. (7.20) The kinetic energy correction factor pE is obtained from ! dA.7 Find how would the results in Example 7. (6. as in laminar pipe flow. has a velocity distribution as given by Eq.21) reads 2 R r" rdr o R = —~ 2 r3^5.2 be modified when the flow in the pipe is the viscous Poiseuille flow.53) and (6. Thus all applications of Bernoulli's equation to streamlines may be extended to conduits. Vj and V2 are the average velocities.+ 3 ^ 2 T.. Eq.226 Fluid Mechanics — + h + jiw E y 2g =const. i. f5E.2.21) For a uniform velocity profile PE=\.53). (7. ( 6. Solution In Example 7.
The ratio between the two is denoted the hydraulic efficiency of the pump.. for Poiseuille flow in a circular pipe.7. (7. the unmodified Bernoulli equation. .e. Friction is defined in thermodynamics. but rather that part of the power which actually reaches the fluid as work.22) is approximated by Eq. scaled to the dimension of length. When hf is small. and denoted friction head loss hf.e. per unit mass. The relation for two points separated by a pump thus becomes 2L + PE& + hl+ha=& + f}E& + h2 + hf. A pump increases the mechanical energy of the fluid. This deficiency is exactly the amount of mechanical energy dissipated by friction. To balance the equation. Example 7.23) where for negligible friction the fyterm may be dropped. Since Bernoulli's equation is a balance of mechanical energies. and one of its pronounced effects is to reduce the mechanical energy of the system. It is noted that the hw term is not the power required to run the pump. Suppose the flow passes through a pump. V2 times less than the mass flowrate in the original example. scaled to the dimension of length.. Energy Equations 227 and i.6). i.e. hf.. careful measurements always show the downstream total head to be deficient with respect to the upstream total one. is called the work head hw. b. Friction Head and Work Head Another correction required in conduit flows is for friction. scaled to have the dimensions of length ("head").8 Find an expression for the friction head. and this increase per unit mass. i. (7. (7. Eq. hf must be included: (722) The numerical evaluation of hf is considered in a later chapter.
6) simplifies to 2g l 2g n h=0 Figure 7.7 m/s. The tube is 10 m long. b. Frictionless flow. Solution a. point 2. assuming: h=llm V 1 a. 10 m We select a streamline connecting the top surface.5 Flow from a water tank through a vertical tube. Laminar viscous flow. 7. 32 = Ap = —jVL/i.9 Water is being discharged from a large tank open to the atmosphere through a vertical tube.5.16 m3/h. we obtain = V2x9. (7.012 xv2x 3. and its inlet is 1 m below the level of the water in the tank.2827u2 m3/hr = 4. _ Ap _ 32/i f y D2 V pg' Example 7. (6. including friction and velocity .228 Fluid Mechanics Solution From Eq. with the discharge. as shown in Fig. Hence. Bernoulli's equation between points 1 and 2. Neglecting the velocity v { at the tank surface. c. Find the velocity and the volumetric flowrate in the pipe.600 = 0. 1 cm in diameter. Find the maximum power obtainable under assumptions a and b. point 2. A turbine is connected at the tube outlet. and the flowrate is Q = Av = — x 0. b.56). point 1.8xll = 14. These two points have atmospheric pressure. and Eq. above.
8 = 0.8 x 11 = vi.8).2u2107. we differentiate P with respect to v and equate the derivative to zero.9m/s and Q = 0. . + 5 o. resulting in v2 =8. v = 10"6 m2/s.2827x8. 2 32xl0"6xl0 9. Energy Equations 229 variation across the stream tube.22). For this case the modified Bernoulli equation becomes hl=PEJ^ + hf+hw For negligible friction and /5E = 1 h =vi and the power of the turbine is P = mA Qh h 2 Substitution of hw gives P as a function of v2' To find the maximum power.(6.56) (see Example 7.9 = 2. _ Ap _ 32v2Lii 7 D2pg and obtain .. is Assuming laminar flow (j3£ = 2) we substitute fyfor the Poiseuille flow. c/a.012 or u + 3. hence „„ .7.516 m / s . Eq. (7. 2 32vL For water at 20°C. 2 2 0. Eq.
^ ^ .48m/s h.33xO.X 1 ° .8 Hence.48 = 47.8X0.8xl0 3 x8. = h— = 11.7 L 9 = 7.8x10 _ 4 3X10" ^ 3 ~ ' u2+2. c/b.8xll=8..8 9.012 and P max =9.33m.75 = 26.01 2 x4. 2# 2x9.133u32.15m "" 9. the maximum power is Pmax = 9.230 Fluid Mechanics dv 4 k { 2g resulting in 2 =lgh v l and 2 = Jx9.8x 103 x 7.75 = 7. A .8W. v = 4. 64 vLv ghx 3D2 3 2 gD2 2g j ' =Q 64xl0" 6 xl0 9.75 m/s. The work head including frictional effects is B E V* ' 2g and the power is h w h 4 32vL v 2 gD a ^ gDz 2g Now the power is maximal when dv V2 4 \ l .Ol2 x8. Hence ft = 1 1 . x 4..7 = 0.37x0.14W.
Solution We write the first law of thermodynamics for a control volume at steady state having heat and work interactions with the surroundings and a fluid entering the control volume at point 1 and leaving at point 2 as where m is the mass flowrate of the fluid. may be rewritten in terms of the work head input. W. Rewriting this equation per unit mass flow and rearranging yields q\ W . is given by i = e + p I p. the first law of thermodynamics takes on the form ^ + + ghl+ghw^ + + gh2 Dividing this equation by g renders it in terms of "heads. Hence. Q The work output.7." r 2g l w j 2g l [_ g rhg_ Comparing this with Eq. . the enthalpy. Also.23).23) is the Bernoulli equation for conduit flow modified to include friction and mechanical work. the mechanical energy of the fluid "lost" as friction is "found" in the internal energy of the fluid and in the heat transferred to the surroundings. (7. hw.10 Equation (7. we obtain an expression for the friction head Hence. where e is the internal energy of the fluid. as W = mghu. q\ . Compare this equation with the first law of thermodynamics written for a control volume applicable to this case and evaluate the friction head /iyin terms of the appropriate thermodynamic variables. i. Q the heat input and W the work output. Energy Equations 231 Example 7.
We con . From physics we know that gases cannot have negative pressures and that fluids boil once the pressure becomes lower than their vapor pressures. 7. hence Vi ~ 0. but this time between points 2 and 3: p p 2 2 Because of continuity. by the manipulation of either D/d or H. H.24) indicates that the pressure at point 2 may be forced to arbitrarily low values. We assume the height of the reservoir above the pipe.e. including negative values. We assume a very wide reservoir.. and therefore. Now we apply Bernoulli's equation again. Bernoulli's equation applied between points 1 and 3 yields p 2 p 2 H id D p ° *2 Figure 7.232 Fluid Mechanics Low Pressures Predicted by Bernoulli's Equation Consider the pipe and the reservoir shown in Fig.6. (7.24) Equation (7. v^=v^(D I d)A.6 Contraction in a pipe. and obtain which is not new (see Example 7.9). i. to be large and neglect friction in the pipe.
The vapor pressure of water at 30°C is 4246 Pa.0001. Example 7. Water from the main line flows in the larger pipe.000 Pa. is induced by a water tower 5 m high. and to ensure smooth operation.7. (7. 7. that Eq.11 A dentist uses a suction device as shown in Fig. D suction Figure 7. Energy Equations 233 elude.7 Dentist's suction device. the pressure must never drop below 5. which feeds the device. Such flow conditions require considerations which are too elaborate to be included in a basic text such as this. Find the highest D/d ratio.7. The atmospheric pressure is po — 105 Pa. (7. Eventually the water flows out to the sink. Solution Point 1 is chosen at the top of the water tower. may not be applied once they predict negative or even saturation pressures. therefore. we obtain p p 2 and for the lowest value of p2 = 5. which changes its diameter from D to d and back to D. The pressure in the main water line.000x9. and with it Bernoulli's equation. Repeating the analysis which has led to Eq.24).81x5 .000 Pa 5.24). at point 3.000 = 100.
Macmillan. Chapter 10." Wiley. Hauptman.H. Hughes. Sabersky. Bird. The pressure in the main water line. Find the suction pressure for d/D.234 Fluid Mechanics leading to '^1 =13 References R. Lightfoot. New York.1 Dentist's suction device. eventually the water flows out to the sink. "Transport Phenomena. Acosta and E. W. Chapter 3. 1960. 1979. D Figure P7. before the water enters the device. which changes its diameter from D to d and back to D.. "An Introduction to Viscous Flow. 1971. . P7. Water from the line flows in the larger pipe.1 A dentist uses a suction device as shown in Fig. AJ.8.N.1." 2nd ed. DC. Chapter 4. Washington." Hemisphere Publishing.F.G. Stewart and E. W. Problems 7.E.5xlO5 Pa.0. R.B. "A First Course in Fluid Mechanics. is pl = 1. New York.
e.4 A Pitot tube. a.5xl0 5 Pa and p{ . is used to measure the speed relative to a moving fluid.2 Before installing the water pipes in his new house.3 A pump is used to raise water into a reservoir.7. air. P7. Fig. Fig. propeller and diffuser as shown in Fig.5 A water turbine consists of an outer shell.105 Pa. b.5.4. Water is raised at the rate Q = 3 m3/min to the height h = 10 m. Energy Equations 235 7. For p2. while at point 3 it is 3 m. At point 2 the diameter is 2 m. Find the power required to run the pump and the value of the various terms of the Bernoulli polynomial at the entrance and the exit of the pipe and also at points in the water source and in the reservoir far away from the pipe. water.3. 7. a man measured the pressure in the main water line near the house and found it to be pi= 106Pa. the velocity of the water is 30 m/s and the pressure is 250 kPa.4. At point 1 the diameter is 1 m. What is the power of an ideal turbine? b. i. Note that for air it is not enough to know the dynamic pressure PD = ftPi Figure P7. The flow losses in the turbine are about 25% of the power of an ideal turbine. P7. find the flow velocity when the moving fluid is a.3 Pump raising water. 7.. Find the maximum rate of water supply he may expect. Both the water source and the reservoir have free surfaces. He then installed pipes with an inner diameter of 2 cm. What is the actual power? . are open to the atmosphere.1. 7. 7. The details of the Pitot tube are described in Example 7. The average velocity of the water in the pipe is 8 m/s.
236 Fluid Mechanics c. Figure P7.6 A twodimensional hollow body in the shape of an "igloo" rests on the ground. The curved part has a diameter D and a length L = nD/1. what is the moment acting on the outer cover and what is the direction of this moment relative to that of the propeller rotation? 2m Figure P7. Assuming that the average wind velocity along the curved part is given by calculate the lift on the igloo. Fig. If the propeller rotates at 900 rpm.6 Igloo in cross wind.6. P7. What is the ideal and actual power without the diffuser? d. 7.5 Water turbine. There is a wind of speed V= 40km/h. .
P7. Assume the velocity to be approximated by sin 7. Find the correction factors. Neglect friction and find the rate of the water flow out of the tank.5 m/s.ll.95) is to flow by gravity through a 1milelong pipeline from a large reservoir to a lower station.9 Water at 20°C is flowing through a 10cm pipe at 1.11 A tank 1.05 m. Note: The answer is not A^2gh.ll Tank with siphon. . The discharge rate required is 1. PM for the use of the average velocity in the momentum theorem. P7.10 Oil at 20°C (viscosity 900 cp. Now suppose the second point is 10 m above the first point. How far below the sur Figure P7. Calculate the diameter of the steel pipe necessary for these conditions. The inlet end of the siphon is h = 1 m below the surface. Fig. T I 237 h r Figure P7. the shape of the stream tube coming out of the tank is not cylindrical.8 A large tank of water has a hole at its side.7 Vena contracta. The hole diameter is c? = 0.25 m deep contains water. The difference in levels between the tanks is 14 m. specific gravity 0. h . Friction losses amount to 10 kPa. Fig.4 m below the water level. and the friction head between this point and a second point 10 m below the first is 3. can the flow take place? 7.7. the static pressure is 135 kPa gauge. for the flow in a rectangular duct of sides a and b. J5E for the use of the average velocity in the Bernoulli equation. At one point. Energy Equations 7. T 7. but rather curved. Find the static pressure at the second point.7.7 7.6 m 3 /min.5 m. This constriction of the cross section is called vena contracta.
13. . ^ . Fig.„.238 Fluid Mechanics face must the outlet end be placed to give a velocity of 0. Fig. . in principle. — — — • Because of continuity. p\.75 m / s? 7. Thus. Then choose a control volume containing sides 1 and 3 of the jump point. P7.. .13 An inventor who did not study fluid mechanics suggests to put a conical funnel in a fastflowing river and to place a turbine rotor at the funnel's apex. "the maximum attainable speed is quite finite. Fig. any speed can be attained at the apex.. i '1 '2 '3 Figure P7." Find this finite speed and explain what happens when the area ratio becomes larger than that corresponding to the highest possible velocity ratio.12 A fluid flows in a pipe which has a sudden increase in its cross section. Find q2 and h2. while the pressure at the surface is still p0.14. Hint: h2 < 0.12. Figure P7. P7. Identify situations when the Bernoulli equation cannot hold between the two sections. At section 1 the width of the channel is bh the height of water hj and its average velocity qx. „ _ ." says a student of fluid mechanics. P7. .. and use conservation of mass and the momentum theorem to find the new average velocity. At another section the channel width is b2. 7. tional areas.12.12 Sudden increase in cross section and control volume. the ratio of the river flow speed to the speed at the rotor is the inverse of the funnel cross sec. P7.14 Water flows in a rectangular channel open to air at po. . Fig. Assume that the pressure in the wider section right after the jump p2 retains its old value. . 7.13 Turbine with guide funnel. „. . "Not so fast. he claims. Find the head loss across the jump. Find conditions for h2 > hj and for h2<hj.
Find the force applied by the jet to the vane. . Choose a control volume and define it carefully.14 Sections of a rectangular channel. The vane recedes in the direction of its normal with the speed v = 6 m/s.e. Fig. as shown in Fig. c. All friction losses are negligible. Find the division of the jet massflowrate on the vane: the flux to the left and the flux to the right. 7.15 A stationary nozzle ejects a jet of water with the massflowrate of 200 kg/s and with the velocity ux = 20 m/s.16 A water turbine operates between two reservoirs open to the atmosphere. a. P7.. Find the maximum power obtainable by this turbine. Energy Equations 239 1 Figure P7. except at the pipe leading to the lower reservoir which is terminated with a sudden enlargement of the cross section.16. i.7.15. The water jet hits a plane vane with the angle a = 30° between the jet axis and the plane surface. and the total velocity head there.e. P7.15 7.. is lost. The environment pressure is constant and gravitation and viscosity effects are negligible. i. / a r = 6m/s Figure 7. how thick are ^ and <53. b. V22/2.
that of 0. its effect is negligible.8. An industrial washing machine which is located 3 m above ground level has a peak water demand of 0. and the water pressure there is 3xlO 5 Pa. The main line is 1 m below ground level. It has been argued that since this old piece is very short. The water then passes through a booster pump and is distributed into houses located 100 m above the main line.17 Fluid Mechanics The pressure in a main water line is 4xlO 5 Pa. The booster pump overall efficiency is 0. but to leave the old pipe section under the wall.020 nWs. . Find whether this effect is indeed negligible.19 A small length of the old pipe.012 m diameter in Problem 7. is laid under a wall. Find the power needed to run the booster pump. To increase the supply the pipe is changed to another having a diameter of 0. Find the diameter of the pipe leading from the main line to the machine.150 m and the mean velocity of the water is 10 m/s. Find the new flowrate.019 m. find the maximum flowrate that can be supplied. its diameter is 0. the water comes out at the speed of 20 m/s. T 12 m 80 m turbine 12 m 7.240 7.20 The mean velocity of water in a main line is 10 m/s. Water is supplied to a field at ground level using a pipe with a diameter of 0. 7. Neglecting friction. When a tap is opened in a house. In changing the old pipe for the new one with the larger diameter it has been suggested to change the pipe section between the reservoir and up to the wall. The atmospheric pressure is 105 Pa. 7.18 The water level in a reservoir is Fi ure P716 20 m above ground level. Friction head losses between the main line and the houses are estimated as 5 times the velocity head at the houses. The atmospheric pressure is 10 5 Pa.012 m. The 8 top of the tank is open to the atmosphere. to change the pipe starting on the other side of the wall.18.
23 Measurements show that friction losses in straight pipes are proportional to Ud. Assume that at a given velocity the friction losses in a pipe are proportional to the pipe's length.22 A twodimensional fluid jet hits a curved vane. and PDPE= 2.15m •600 m 100 m Figure P7.000 Pa. The water is then distributed through 0.000 Pa. where V is the mean velocity in the pipe. is constant.21 7. Fig. P7. 600mlong pipe.15mdiameter pipe and the 0. and find the pressure at point F.21 0.22 all pipes are closed except the 0.22.22 7. 25 m 20 m d = 0.025mdiameter pipes. Energy Equations 7.15mdiameter. and approximately proportional to pV2. Show that the thickness of the water layer.15mdiameter pipe is V= 0.P7.21.025mdiameter pipe designated by the letters DEF.7. and flows through a Figure P7. P7. Fig. as it follows the contour of the vane surface. The mean velocity of the flow in the 0. Thus the whole flow . In the system of Fig.15 m/s. where L is the pipe's length and d is its diameter. which recedes from the jet.025 m d = 0. 241 Vane Water comes out of a 25mhigh water tower. Measurements of pressure drops along the horizontal pipes yield PAPB1. one of which is 100 m long. open at the top.
Find how high must the jar be held above the bottle to have the water jet enter the bottle. a booster pump is installed at point B in Fig.02 m.25 is used under the conditions of Problem 7.0005 m3/s.P7. Find the distribution of the pressure inside the cone. as a function of the fluid properties and of the velocity.23. The mean velocity in the pipe is 10 m/s.25. At point F the pipe is open to the atmosphere. and its flowrate is 0. Figure P7. The water stream is assumed to have a circular cross section.28 Water is poured form a jar into a bottle.26 The booster pump designed in Problem 7. out to cool. 7.050 m diameter.24 Another pipe of 0. and then taking the form. 7. Its motor draws the same power as obtained in Problem 7. Finally the plastic is cut . Find the power needed to run the booster pump.150 m diameter and the narrow opening is 0. The booster pump overall efficiency is 80%. Find the distribution of the axial force along the walls of the cone. is opened.29 shows a conical nozzle connected at the end of a pipe.24.242 Fluid Mechanics is now through these two pipes.30 A production process consists of lowering a ceramic form into a bath of hot molten plastic. P7.27 Given a laminar viscous flow in a circular pipe.22. along the path ABCDEF. Find the flowrate.025mdiameter pipes. identical to that along DEF in Fig. Find the friction head. 7. such that the water coming out at point C is equally divided between the two parallel 0. At the exit to the atmosphere the water pressure is atmospheric. now coated with a plastic layer. The plastic solidifies as it cools.29 Figure P7. Find the flowrate under these operating conditions.025m diameter. 7. 7.25 It is necessary to double the flowrate of the water under the conditions of Problem 7. To do this. The diameter of the neck of the bottle is 0. Find the flowrate. ~^ "— ! o 05 m The wide opening of the nozzle is 0. b. expressed as length.29 a.22. 7. 7. both of which are open to the atmosphere. f. Find the mean velocity of the water at the exit.
Find the maximal pressure and jet velocity which still do not harm the ceramic form. A surface stress. Energy Equations 243 along predetermined lines. i. while a pressure of 10.e. a. Find the necessary velocity of the water jet. using a highspeed thin water jet..000 kPa results in pitting on the ceramic surface. while still on the form. . c. a pressure of l.000kPa. Find the pressure needed to produce the jet. is required in order to cut the plastic. b.7.
.
While these two goals are quite different from one another.29). adding "stars" to all dependent and independent variables. There are several goals for using dimensionless equations. the SI system.e. Such a process would result in Dimensionless Equations.. i. for some incompressible flow. and the momentum equations.g. that by an orderly and preplanned removal of this arbitrariness one could gain some additional information.21).(5. which thus depend on the system of physical units adopted. The role of these stars is to denote dimensional variables.27) . therefore. (5. Let us rewrite the continuity equation. such that when these same variables appear later without stars they are considered dimensionless: dx* dy* (du* ^* \U* p\ dz* ^du* 5x* ^du* i>y* hl>* ^du*) 5z*J hW* * dp* (d2u* HjU dx* ^{dx*2 = Pgxr T d2u* H2 dy* + d2u* dz*2) (8. (5.8. These terms represent numerical values. still this choice is just a convention and is highly arbitrary.2) 245 . two of the most important ones are similitude and order of magnitude.. We choose to show this procedure first. e. While there are some arguments why a particular system of units should be preferred. their various terms have physical dimensions. SIMILITUDE AND ORDER OF MAGNITUDE Dimensionless Equations All the equations derived until now are dimensional. It seems. both require an intermediate step consisting of essentially the same algebraic procedure which leads to dimensionless equations.
(8. because their definitions are quite different for similitude and for order of magnitude. w* = Vw (8. say. (85) T The first of these equations is really a definition of the dimensionless time t. Equation (8. i. dz ) and Eq. (8. v* = Vv. satisfies x* = Lx. then tJ. resulting in the disappearance of stars from these. seconds.5) .1) thus becomes — —.10) We now select some term in each equation and divide the whole equation by the group of physical constants and characteristic quantities that precedes it.e. .1) .4).+ — + L\dx dy (°. measured in m/s. t* = tr. which is measured in.246 Fluid Mechanics dw* dw*\ * dp* (d2w* d2w* (8. The problem of how to define the characteristic quantities will be considered later.3) d2w* (8. Here it suffices to assume that such characteristic quantities exist and that they are dimensional. A characteristic velocity V. Sx ~ SSx.4).9 ) =0..The starred variables.8). are now substituted in Eqs. (8.2) • du V2( du du du\\ ndp uV(d2u d2u d2u (8. a characteristic length L. Similarly. (8. (g g) meaning that we choose to measure length in units of L meters.(8. We now assume that some characteristic physical quantities have been defined and attempt to express the dimensional starred variables in terms of these characteristic quantities. y* = Ly.7) and a characteristic pressure n satisfies We also choose the constant of gravity g as the characteristic body force. Eqs. z* = Lz. satisfies u* = Vu. Thus if T is the characteristic time. which may be measured in meters.
and Eqs.8.12)are rewritten in their limensionless forms as dx dy dz du du — +u dt du du I ^ dp 1 (d2u hu— + w— = —Tff r Eu—+ —• — dx dy dz Fr2 * d2u d2u T + —=. dx dy dz Equation (8. and so must be the groups composed of the characteristic quantities which appear as multipliers in the equation.the time number. Eqs.the Reynolds number. all other terms in the equation have also become dimensionless.11)(8.10) divided by p^lL becomes L ~]du f du + \U rVJdt du \V [ dx (8. (8. (8. v = Fr .+ —Tr dx K&\dx2 dy2 dz2 The characteristic physical quantities are now hidden in the dimensionless numbers.the Euler number.9) divided by V/L becomes f£ + f i + ^ = O.11) du +W dy dz d2u The dimensionless groups which have emerged in the equations are recognized as — = D . Using these dimensionless numbers. Fr is the Froude number. VL = and li V2 = Re . Similitude and Order of Magnitude 247 The term now stands alone and is dimensionless. The selection of the characteristic quantities is considered now separately for each objective.13) and (8. . Because the equations we use are always dimensionally homogeneous. TV pV pVL = Eu .14) may be used for both similitude and order of magnitude analysis. Thus Eq. (8.
8.1 Steadyfilmflowon vertical wall. (8. (8. The solution of Eq.16) is . 8.1a) L=S.16) The first boundary condition is recognized as the noslip viscous boundary condition. Elliptical conduit Figure 8. Equation (8. gx = 1. The second boundary condition expresses the fact that there is zero shear at the gasliquid interface. L [m]. Plane wall b. Eq.15) with the boundary conditions of Eq. the constant of gravity.1a.15) with Re _L2g " Fr2z " Vv The expression for N contains two physical constants. The boundary conditions that the velocity. the thickness of the film.14) becomes in this case 1 d2u 1 With the coordinates used in Fig.248 Fluid Mechanics Similitude We begin by considering a particular example of steady unidirectional vertical film flow shown in Fig. the average fluid velocity. and we choose them to be (see Fig. must satisfy are at —0 Q d~ at = \. It also contains the characteristic length. (8. and the equation takes the form dy2 0. a. 8. These must be selected now. (8. (5. g [m/s 2 ]. v [m 2 /s].62). u. and the characteristic velocity. V [m/s].1a. the ^component of the dimensionless NavierStokes equations. and the kinematic viscosity of the fluid.
and corresponding equality of all similarity parameters. the velocity there is N/2 times the average velocity.17). Equations (8. and du/dn0 at the free surface. At this point it is clear that the characteristic length may be chosen as the small axis of the ellipse.17) The boundary conditions are of the form u = 0 on the solid wall. As already seen. Here similarity of geometry is also a necessary condition. one must start with the definition of the characteristic quantities. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 249 which relates the dimensionless velocity to the dimensionless vcoordinate. We note that when an equation is written in its dimensionless form. And also they must have the same similarity parameters.e.17) is also oneparametric.1b: + dy2 dz1 N \ V¥x2) (8. u = N/2. for example. In this example the cross section of the conduit is elliptical. Fig. by listing the various dimensionless groups that have appeared. The characteristic physical quantities used to construct the similarity parameters can be chosen arbitrarily. This conclusion is now generalized: The similarity of two problems requires similarity of geometry. yet they have the same velocity distribution. i. provided it is chosen in the same way for all cases. Consider Eq. provided they are well defined and correspond to the same geometrical locations in both cases. it is necessary to first have the equations set in their dimensionless form. This similarity permits one to experiment with a model and apply the results to real life flows. (8.e. These flows need not be identical.. for similarity conditions. i. i. or as the large one..e.e. similarity of boundary conditions.. (8. Thus. When looking for similitude. i. 8. with similar ellipses. At this point it seems helpful to consider an additional example. they must both have elliptical cross sections. conditions for similarity here must be formulated more carefully.15) and (8. They must have similar boundary conditions. . the same boundary conditions applied on corresponding surfaces on both boundaries. with all corresponding lengths having the same ratio. at y = 1.8. they must have geometrical similarity. For two cases to be similar. i.16) have one similarity parameter. which is recognized as the same problem with the flow taking place on the inside surface of an elliptical conduit. Although Eq.. the similarity parameters can be identified by simple inspection. We express this result by stating that a condition for the similarity of the velocity distributions in two such flows is that they have the same similarity parameter N . at the free edge of the film.e. Let two flows have the same N value.. which has its implication when the characteristic quantities are chosen.
Sea water streams into the intake nozzle. and the hydrostatic pressure at the equivalent depth outside the ship. 8.e. the model must be geometrically similar to the ship's system.po.250 Fluid Mechanics Another way to state this is that two problems. with the required pumping power supplied by the main motion of the ship.1 Steamships use sea water to cool their condensers. are similar.. i. Solution Obviously. point 1 in the figure. A and B. similarity requires that Res = ReM. Sea water intake » » ' I l'uinn I V ' / T . and proceeds into the condenser. On the other hand. VSLS = VMLM. the relative kinetic energy of the incoming water.VMLM/vM. or V M = M The characteristic pressure n is chosen as the pressure difference between a point just before the pump. Example 8. Eus = EuM. Find conditions for similarity. and because both run in water. The designer idea is that at the cruising speed of the ship the pump would run idly. and . Therefore: VsLs/vs . A model is tested in a water tunnel. if their dimensionless formulations contain no clue as to whether it is problem A or problem B that has led to the formulation.2. condenser Figure 8. Thus n = p\. The intake of the sea water may be designed as shown in Fig. Using the subscript s for the ship's system and M for the model.2 Cooling water intake. at other speeds the pump must do some pumping. accelerates there into the pump.
for the xand ycomponents. Under such circumstances the actual number of parameters that must be kept similar may be smaller than the apparent one. 8.= .3 Cylindrical conduit.E u — + — — T + —T + —T (8. Let the crosssectional area of the cylinder be Ac and its circumference be Cc. Fig. Consider a cylindrical conduit of arbitrary cross section.8. These missing characteristic quantities must therefore be defined using other quantities. An example of such a case is the incompressible flow in a cylindrical conduit.+ V— + W. The important thing to notice here is This characteristic length is called the hydraulic diameter. u—. A characteristic length may be defined as* D = AAJCC.3. . „. Hidden Characteristic Quantities There are cases where several similarity parameters do appear in the dimensionless equations but some of the characteristic physical quantities do not occur in the formulation of the problem. The number 4 appears just to make it the regular diameter for a circular cylinder. and a characteristic velocity may be chosen as the average velocity in the cylinder. B Figure 8. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 251 or During the test the pump of the model must be run such that this condition on the pressure is satisfied.18) dx dy dz dz Re ^ dx dy dz ) where P is the modified pressure. V =—f wdA. with the cylinder generators parallel to the zaxis. which are not written. The dimensionless zcomponent of the timeindependent momentum equation (8. There are two additional equations.14) is dw dw dw _ dP I f d2w d2w d2w  / n .
Because the dimensionless continuity equation (8. Everything works out without the \ too).252 Fluid Mechanics the appearance of the two similarity parameters: Re = ^ . i. must apply to both flows. and indeed that same constant. The Euler numbers. come out now to be Eu.20) and they are automatically the same. It seems that for two cylinders of similar cross section the flows would come out to be similar when Rej = Re 2 . Eu= * . say Cf.e. however. we do not have to do anything physical to make them the same.. . Solving for or measuring the pressure drop along one cylinder. =—*• = —. (8. Rei=Re2. we have now complete similarity between the two flows. Co times the characteristic pressure (the only unit to measure dimensionless pressures).11) contains no additional similarity parameters and the x and y momentum equations contain the same parameters as does the zcomponent equation. We know that there is going to be a pressure gradient along the pipe. We notice. for a section of length L*=DL we expect the dimensionless pressure drop to be CfL and the dimensional one to be Nothing important changes if the characteristic length is taken as the largest diameter of the crosssection and the characteristic velocity as the largest velocity. however. The knowledge of the details of the flow in one cylinder gives us the details of the flow in the second one. Far from the zone of entrance to the cylinder we expect this pressure drop to become constant per unit length (i. One finds a variety of values to choose from. provided Eq. Now for similarity.19) holds. (The \ is put there just for consistency with the Bernoulli equation.e. but its magnitude is not known a priori. all of which are well defined.. that while the characteristic length and the characteristic velocity emerged rather naturally. 1 pV? 2' Eu9 = — V = 2 pV22 2 (8. Thus. per characteristic length measured along the cylinder axis*). supplies at once the same information for the second cylinder. Euj = Eu 2 . the statement of the problem does not suggest a particular characteristic pressure. say. We therefore define the characteristic pressure n in terms of the characteristic velocity n = jpV2.
5 m.8.2 A duct has a rectangular cross section.e. = = \Jr /\r . ( 6 Z. Find the dimensions of the model.667 v v Now for the model _ 4A M M ~ 77— ' U and for similitude.4 m3/s water. Solution Let the characteristic length for the duct be chosen as its hydraulic diameter. It is proposed to construct a smaller model first and to find experimentally what pump is required for the fullscale duct. (8. Find the pressure gradient in the fullscale duct. 7 4m/s. A 1x0. and can be obtained.21) are dimensional. Since Eu = 1/2 holds for all these cylinders Cydepends on Re only. It is to be used to transfer water at the rate of Q = 2 m 3 /s. Experiments with the model just found yield a pressure gradient of APM = 30. i. for instance. The pump available for the experiment with the model in the laboratory delivers QM = 0. Cf=/(Re). D = 4A= C 4x ( lx0. Example 8. with the sides 1 m by 0.5) 2x1 + 2x0.5 The Reynolds number for the flow in the duct is then R c _ V D _ 2..000 Pa/m. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 253 L* pV2 — O rLdil.5 The characteristic velocity is chosen as the mean velocity. _ QM M ~"I" > V . The results apply to all similar cylinders provided Cf is taken for the same Reynolds numbers as in the tested cylinder. by a set of experiments using one particular cylinder. Note that D and V in Eq.± ) for all similar cylinders.
we find APMM = 30.02 x — x — x 4 2 = 240 Pa . we conveniently use Eq. The model is.2x0. 0. Solution Let the characteristic length. L.02.133 2 hence Cf= 0. (8.6m. when the chicken is moved through a blast tunnel where very cold air is blown on it to chill it very fast. Also M AM 0.1 and To evaluate the pressure drop. withL* = l m . 0. The differential equation governing the cooling process is given as K dt where T* is temperature. with the sides 0. Larger chickens stay in the tunnel longer than smaller ones. then the smaller side is b/2.1 m. be some welldefined length of the chicken .667 2 The pressure gradient in the main duct is 240 Pa/m. t* is time and a [m2/s] is the thermal diffusivity. Assuming all chickens similar.f x —!— x ^ ^ x 20 2 .2 m and 0. Example 8.254 Fluid Mechanics or C M =0. For the fullscale duct Cf is the same. Similitude also requires similarity of geometry. and CM = 2(6 + 6/2) = 36 = 0. For the model. Let the larger side of the model be b. rectangular. With L* = 1 m we find AP = 0.21). find similarity rules and deduce how long should a chicken of each size stay in the tunnel. therefore.3 An important step in the preparation of frozen chickens is just after cleaning.000 = C.6.
Solution The governing equations are the continuity equation and the NavierStokes equations. Find the corresponding air speeds in the wind tunnel. and the characteristic time. . The similarity dimensionless numbers are. 10 and 25 m/s is to be obtained by the use of a model. Then. Example 8. For the Reynolds number.is the Fourier number. Let the mass of a chicken be m and its density be p. 2 x*. its width). and the equation becomes —— = FoVTT. Thus conditions for similarity for two chickens are Foj = Fo 2 .4 The force of air resistance to a train moving at the speeds of 3. be the time it has to stay in the tunnel.y*. Then t* = tx. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 255 (e. the Reynolds number and the Euler number.8.p 2 . in air.. 2 V* =V /L2. therefore. The model is run in a wind tunnel. m m2 ( L x3 p2[ L2 Assuming a\ = a 2 and p\ .z)L.y. Find the relations between the forces measured on the model and those which will act on the fullsize train.g. for geometrically similar chickens. The linear dimension of the model is 1/5 of that of the train.587 times the time of stay of the other.z* = (x. the condition for the equality of the Fourier numbers becomes A chicken which is twice the mass of another should stay 2 2/3 = 1. T. where Fo = ^ .
To find relations between the forces. 771 ___ 771 v. Equality of VMIVT=LTILM. vM Let the characteristic length be the height. Then LT = HT. relate to the dimensional ones. . F.256 Fluid Mechanics ReT=ReM. Le. A We assume pT = p M .e. At similarity FT = FM. H. ^ ^ We assume p\ = P2. we choose n = {pV2. F*. Note the high speeds of the air flowing past the model. With this the condition for the equality of the Euler numbers is satisfied automatically. substitution yields F* =F* The force acting on the model is the same as that acting on the train.. because Eu T = 2 . Eu M = j . Also ATIAM the Reynolds numbers gives Jp jp w = L^/ L2M. We define a characteristic force by Thus the dimensionless forces. Hence. and assume vT = vM.. VM2 = 10x5 = 50 m/s.1 _ \T I. Vm =25x5 = 185 m / s . F = Ftp i. we need the dimensionless forces. For the Euler number EuT=EuM. which are equal in similar problems. and since the problem has no typical characteristic pressure. LM=HM and The corresponding speeds in the wind tunnel are V M 1 = 3 x 5 = 15m/s.
but now we make an effort to choose the characteristic quantities such that all terms containing dependent variables are of order 1.ll) In its dimensionless form. (8.E u — + — — r + — r + — T \ . we have . (X. dt dx p dx ydx dy dz O(l) 0(100) 0(1. The following example further illustrates this point. (8. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 257 Order of Magnitude The previous section deals with similitude and shows how solutions of particular cases can be extended and applied to whole families of similar flows. for simplicity we assume v = w = 0 and consider flows in which body forces are negligible: du * du I dp \d u d u v <* ..14).8. The first question is considered under the heading of the proper choice of the characteristic quantities. However..22) becomes _ du du „ dp I (d2u d2u d2u\ Q — + u—..23) Assuming success in our effort to enforce order 1 on all terms containing dependent variables. Two distinct questions arise in this procedure. (8. as in Eq. with the order of magnitude of each term indicated by a number written below it. again. the similarity parameters. The first one is the correct estimate of the order of magnitude of the various terms in the equations. (8. Let Eq. For many of them no exact solutions are known. obtaining. The order of magnitude of each term in the dimensional equation is reproduced in the dimensionless equation by the dimensionless parameters associated with the term.000) 0(1.000) /o „. One may try then to drop the smaller terms and to solve the truncated equation. the equations are written in their dimensionless form. experiments are not practical and approximate methods must be used. there are many varieties of flows that a fluid dynamicist is compelled to consider. A way to affect an approximate solution is to identify in the equations some terms which are quite smaller than the other terms... The second question is whether dropping a small term in the equation results in a small error in the solution. the second comes under perturbations but is still closely connected with the characteristic quantities chosen. The dimensionless groups.= . i.2) be rewritten. Here. hopefully. become now the order of magnitude parameters.e. Eq. dt dx dx Re{dx2 dy2 dz2) .. an approximation. + u —TT = — — fw+v\ +—W TT + +U r +iPT V —"W + + TW .
and clearly. We must remember. Hence. e.22) or Eq. divided by 100. The proper selection depends on the understanding and the information the selector has on the physics of the problem.e. In trying to make all dependent variable groups of order 1..25). i.. that the object of the whole procedure is to simplify the equations. it is a physical truth. Under certain circumstances. the relative correct order of magnitude is transferred to the dimensionless parameters. (8.23) may be obtained neglecting the du/dt term on the lefthand side. the flow field at point A which is at a distance L from a submerged body which is an ellipsoid of axes 2a. 2c.01).g. 8.22) describes a certain physical phenomenon i.23) must be the same as in Eq. and therefore we must have a method to estimate these orders of magnitude a priori.258 Fluid Mechanics and since the u du/dx term has no coefficient. the whole equation must have been rescaled with respect to it. The investigated phenomena must be sensitive to variations in the selected characteristic quantity. however. b or c are not characteristic lengths and should not be . b or c. 2b. however. and therefore the relative magnitude of the four terms in Eq. a few helpful indicators for a reasonable selection.. Eqs.000 /100) = 0(10). (8. the flow at the point of consideration is quite insensitive to variations in a. now. Equation (8. 12 = 0(1/100) = 0(0. (8. There are. Fig.4. Consider. which can be presented rather generally. Under these conditions a. Estimates of the Characteristic Quantities Until now we have taken the order of magnitude of the various terms in the equation as known.e. At this point it seems that an approximate solution to either Eq. This is by no means an automatic procedure. the criterion of "well defined but otherwise arbitrary.000 /100) = 0(10). (8. i. Eu = 0(1. for large L. (8.22). completely fails here. for instance. and there are examples of disagreement on this selection." which applies in our similarity considerations. The major difficulty here is the selection of quantities that are really characteristic of the problem and thus have the correct order of magnitude. ( 8 25) 1 / Re = 0(1. This physical truth cannot be changed by nondimensional formulation.
Figure 8. where the characteristic pressure had to be constructed in terms of pV2. When scaling a derivative. A second derivative is scaled as a first derivative of a derivative.ux and the characteristic length y2yx.71): dr r dr r with the boundary conditions. Example 8. When no characteristic quantity is apparent. say du/dy. we assume here that the flow at least "feels" the presence of the body. iv. iii. ii. and since only one scaling is permitted. there exists at least one point where du/dy = Au/Ay. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 259 chosen as such. Although du/dy may vary in this region. An example of such a situation has already appeared in incompressible pipe flow.8. A possible reasonable choice for this case is the distance L between the ellipsoid and the considered point. . a fair scaling is Au/Ay in the region of interest. The characteristic velocity in such a case is uj . and so on to higher derivatives. it might as well be this one. provided the constructed combination has the right dimensions and satisfies the sensitivity test. through the q = 0 boundary condition on the rigid body surface.4 Submerged ellipsoid.2 and 1 being subscripts for the limits of the region.5 The flow between a stationary inner cylinder and an external rotating one is given by the differential equation (6. such a quantity may be constructed using other characteristic quantities and physical coefficients.
. The scaling of r* itself is done by /?. the difference of the velocities between the two cylinders. e r = \\ — \r. Now rules (ii) and (iii) yield dq*e = coRo dqg dr* 8 dr ' d2q*e dr*2 = 0)R0 d2qe S2 dr2 ' where we keep our convention that starred variables are dimensional and nonstarred ones are not. dr2 Now for e « r dr 2 r 1 the approximation becomes .71) yields 2 2 8 ) dr S • U M 2 H!) ) dr U 4KK=°. Hence. {e Substitution of all the dimensional scaled quantities into the differential equation (6. between the cylinders. = wR0. or through division by 0}Ro/8 .260 Fluid Mechanics qe = 0 at r Rt. the inner cylinder. 5 R = R O i> and select it as the characteristic length. Using order of magnitude considerations. find an approximation to this flow for small dimensionless gaps. qg = wR0 at r =R0. e. is chosen as the characteristic velocity.. where R Rl ° Solution With rules (ii) and (iii) in mind we denote the gap between the two cylinders by 8. because r* = /?. the outer cylinder.
values. i. Qo = CO. dr with the dimensional solution qe=aR( and when e is not very small compared to 1. Let this expansion hold for a whole region of points. and y may now be considered a function of a at that particular point. the approximation d2qe  edqe _ Q dr 2 r dr with the dimensional solution Both approximations may now be compared with the exact solution qe = coR0 obtained from Eq. Let this y (a) have a series expansion in a.Xi.26) may also mean that the partial derivatives cfy/<9x( and higher ones do appear. (8. Thus . also known.. say a = 0.8.= 0.73) for i2(. The whole problem may be reformulated and solved anew for different values of the parameter a.. Equation (8. i. at a particular set of x. be known at a particular point. but still e2 « becomes 1.a) = 0. *The Concept of Perturbations Let a differential equation have the form F(y. around the given value a = 0 . The equation is assumed to be accompanied by sufficient boundary conditions. of course. (6. for a continuous region of x( values. The dependent variable y at this point is.e. and the uniqueness and existence of the solution are also implied.e. xt are independent variables and y is the dependent variable. Similitude and Order of Magnitude d 261 < • = 0.26) where a is some parameter. Let the solution of this equation for a given a.
so as to result in an equation of the same differential order as the original one.262 Fluid Mechanics ( ) a2y2(xi. near a boundary it is simply wrong and cannot serve even as an approximation. It will therefore be used here only in the particular cases necessary to obtain the boundary layer equations. The Boundary Layer Equations Consider the dimensionless NavierStokes equations written out for twodimensional timeindependent flows: . 0) is used as an approximation to y (xh a) provided a is small. the better the approximation.28) Equation (8. 0). Therefore. Eq.27) is a series solution of Eq.e. In some difficult cases the series is terminated after y0 {xt.. The solution of this new equation cannot satisfy all the boundary conditions.. i. is even more complicated than the regular perturbation considered before. (8. However. Singular perturbation. (8. by definition. It may happen that the deleted term is the highest derivative and the equation left after the perturbation is of a lower order. is obtained by a "perturbation" in the original equation (8. This approximation is said to have been obtained by perturbation in the original equation (8. the concept is quite general and is used in the solution of differential equations.0) + . The solution at that point. (8. A solution in the form of Eq.0) = 0.26)..28).26). This new process is called Singular Perturbation. i. and the smaller this perturbation is. The equation is considered "perturbed" by the substitution of zeros for small order of magnitude terms. 0) must satisfy Eq.26) with a = 0: F(yo.e. (8. The process of perturbation as described in the previous section has the effect of deleting some terms from the equation. Then y0 (xt.27) is therefore called a perturbation solution.Xi. perturbation in the highest derivative of the equation. near the boundary the perturbation process must be modified and performed very carefully. by setting a = 0.26) around the point a = 0. *Singular Perturbations The solution of a differential equation satisfies. Far from a boundary it may still be an approximation.27) and yo(Xj. Still.. The number of the boundary conditions to be satisfied depends in general on the order of the equation. (8. simply because the evaluation of additional terms is not practical. (8. both the equation and the boundary conditions.
It seems reasonable to choose U as the characteristic velocity and because v. Similitude and Order of Magnitude du du _ dp 1 !d u ~~dx • Re{dx2 dx'"dy . the kinematic viscosity of the fluid.g. We look for the perturbed form of the equations for Re —>°°.(8. (8.70). we still need only to select the characteristic length. The Euler equations. This situation is considered in Chapter 9. 263 du ' dy2 '' ! f^V. Let a coordinate system be chosen as in Fig. However. therefore. Very large Re tend to make the second derivative terms negligible.= 0. We assume the rigid surface to be generally flat.5..29) . U.+ T . cannot be the correct approximation near a rigid boundary. and our region of interest is in the vicinity of rigid boundaries.>_ T. Their derivation. with y normal to the rigid surface.31) reveals that extreme values of the Reynolds number may indeed lead to such approximations: Very small Re enhance the relative importance of the second derivative terms. qt=0 (5. already mentioned as Eq. (8. This changes the NavierStokes equations into the Euler equations. being a singular perturbation.(8. are further treated in Chapter 11. the Reynolds number is almost determined. is known. e. The xcoordinate points along the surface and coincides with the direction of the velocity.*. . Inspection of Eqs..31). It is impossible to use here a regular perturbation where Re —> °° is simply substituted in the equations. called the boundary layer equations. 8. follows here. The resulting approximation. (8. making them dominant." . however.i (8 29) ' (830) together with the continuity equation du dv "5.31) dx dy In many practical cases these equations cannot be solved analytically.62) on rigid boundaries. Thus close to a boundary the perturbation associated with Re —» °° is a singular perturbation.. the Euler equation is of the first order and cannot satisfy the two boundary conditions qn=0. A singular perturbation must therefore be performed.. a flat plate in parallel flow.. which leads to the Euler equations.29) . The two boundary conditions do not permit this. and approximate formulations become very useful. Then the nonlinear terms may be neglected. (5.8. This direction is followed in Chapter 10. We consider again Eqs. at some distance far from the rigid surface.*.
. Redy2 We note that for a fixed l i m I Rp Re > «. i. To find the rate at which this second derivative must diverge. We expect now that with increasing Re this 5thick layer becomes thinner and thinner. so as to make . =0 . d2u/dy2 cannot be held constant but must also become infinitely large. dy2 where 8 is the thickness of the layer near the boundary over which u changes from Uo to zero. Hence. then d2u/dy2 must also diverge. quite similar to one another except that each flow has a Reynolds number larger than the flow which has just preceded it.5 Boundary layer flow. No help comes from the d2u/dx2 = 0 term. I K e d2u/dy2. we refer to the sections on order of magnitude and estimates of the characteristic quantities and find. In other words. to keep l/Re(<92w/<9y2) finite as Re —>°°. Thus this term vanishes even without Re—>°°. On the rigid surface u = 0 because of the noslip boundary condition. under rules (ii) and (iii).264 Fluid Mechanics U u ^*. as Re—>°°. for all x. " Y 0 6 Figure 8. u =0. For flat surfaces du/dx=d2u/dx2 = 0 because u is constant. say because U —» °°. We must therefore direct our efforts at 4 = o. the flow must also have larger d2u/dy2 values. The problem we are faced with is what relations must exist between I/Re and (d2u/dx2 + d2u/dy2) such that for Re —> °° and at very small y this second derivative term is not completely lost. when we consider a series of flow fields.e.
To find the order of magnitude of v inside the boundary layer. Eq. The whole change in the velocity takes place in this narrow layer near the boundary. i.30) reduces to . i.35) yields the order of magnitude of dp /dY as (8..33) to make it —+ — .34) 1/2 The ycomponent of the velocity. i. is of order Re . Because 8 does not appear explicitly in the equations we proceed as follows: Let a new ycoordinate. called the boundary layer.8. Equation (8.. Inspection of this relation reveals that Re82 or <5Re1/2 must remain finite.32) This makes 1 d2u = d2u Re dy2 ~ dY2 ' which no longer depends on the Reynolds number. u = VRe" 1/2 (8. We now proceed to substitute Y and V in Eq. the pressure does not depend on y and therefore does not vary across the boundary layer. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 265 Re>~LRe 8 finite. The layer 8 over which u decreases from Uo to 0 is very thin..e.e. we must define V = uRe 1/2 . be defined: Y = yRe2.0 dx dY ~ (8. (8. say Y. to have both terms of the same order.36) and for Re —> °° this term vanishes. which becomes For large Re. Hence. of order 1.30). and thus does not vanish. y = YRe  \ (8.31) to obtain dx and to keep this equation meaningful. we substitute y=FRe 1 / 2 in the continuity equation (8. (8. of order Re 1 / 2 .e. v.
i H 5(8. dp/dx = dp/dx.37) The same substitution in Eq. say k = 10.41) — +— =0 (8. We need data for several combinations of sphere diameters. (8. where ._ J^ = 0. and therefore a certain range of the Reynolds number is chosen and k experiments are performed. and as an example consider the determination of the drag force acting on a sphere moving in a liquid.266 Fluid Mechanics . Had we not known that the Reynolds number was a similarity parameter for this case. fluid viscosities and sphere velocities.29) yields U du dx ' ( d2 dp EU dx + e dx2 ' du dY d2u ° dY2 (8. u=U at yRe 1/2 >°°.42) together with the boundary conditions u =v=0 at y = 0. w— + y — = Eu._ . Equation (8.38) thus becomes du du _ dp 1 d2u . so we may turn to experiments.29) and (8. Similitude has more applications. Re^\d2u/dx2) vanishes. In dimensional form the boundary layer equations are du_ d}£__}_dp_ <22M dx dy dy2 p dx . we would have had to choose a range of velocities.37) constitute the boundary layer equations. (8. (8. (8.)r> £° (8. and because dp/dy also vanishes. At this stage we do not know how to solve this case. and to come out with the same coverage we .38) For Re>°°.o ori. a range of viscosities and a range of diameters.yRe1/2 > °° means the outer edge of the boundary layer.39) dx dy dx Re dy which together with Eqs.43) (8.44) Buckingham's n Theorem In a previous section similitude has been motivated by the need to apply results obtained for a model to a similar reallife situation.
47) . Then for Eq. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 267 would have had to perform k? experiments. i.j. in their dimensionless form. which are dimensional. But is there a way to hunt for them when even the governing equations are not completely available? The Buckingham's n theorem indicates such a procedure. that might affect the phenomena. Imagine there exist two sheets of paper. including some n. and similarity parameters have now gained the additional role of information concentrators. ajnj ~ 0 (8. in this example the concentration is a hundredfold. The engineer knows how to get them from the governing equations. The difference between 10 and 1. What should worry one is the chance of missing some important similarity parameter. j=i • • (8. it is important to know the largest number of dimensionless parameters that the procedure can produce. An engineer therefore views similarity parameters as quite desirable. for t to cancel out of the equation. in the form L 6 '. Unfortunately we cannot read the paper. But note: all the similarity parameters on the experienced engineer's paper are reproduced by the procedure. On one an experienced engineer has written down the correct set of governing equations.45) to be dimensionless. in the form t"'.000 of them. To avoid such a mishap. This game may also produce some dimensionless combinations which are not on the engineer's list.. Suppose some of the physical quantities Qj.. Qn/ . = n Q]J n= (845) If all rij are adjusted such that n comes out to be dimensionless. we require that m OJWJ + a2ri2 H = 2 . and a product is formed: . This is so because all relevant physical quantities are presumed listed.000 is very significant. which are. 1.8. dimensionless numbers. (8. as already shown. These extraneous parameters are bothersome but not dangerous because the experiments would prove them irrelevant. of course. On the second sheet we have listed down all the physical quantities.46) Suppose some of the Qj contain the dimension of length. The engineer therefore sees right away the various similarity parameters.e. Now we start a procedure: each physical quantity Qj is raised to some power n. There may be many combinations of rij values. then again m + b2n2 + • • • = X tyj =0.. we consider the procedure successful.= 0 values. include the dimension of time. that satisfy the rules of this game..
and therefore have a list of mr dimensionless groups. but whenever the governing equations are available they would be preferred as the source of the similarity parameters. the instantaneous velocity of the sphere.47). and therefore m = n2 = • • • = rij = • • • = nm = 0 is also a solution. when we find mr linearly independent solutions. quotients and powers of dimensionless groups are not counted as new groups. An experienced engineer does use the n theorem when necessary. Solution The following quantities are presumed to affect the phenomenon: D[ m ] ps [kg / m3] Py[kg / m3] V [m/ s] //[kg/ms] the diameter of the sphere.46) and (8. .46) or (8. Find the similarity parameters of the problem. the density of the sphere material. Thus.47) reveals that all the equations are homogeneous. The number of the remaining solutions is therefore mr. and this is a direct result of the requirement that the solutions for the rij combinations be linearly independent. and the total number of independent dimensions be r . be m. which is the n theorem. the density of the fluid. Thus Buckingham's n theorem is indeed a powerful tool which facilitates the establishment of similitude even when the governing equations are not known. Inspection of Eqs. due to ignorance. The main pitfall in its application is the omission.6 A sphere submerged in a liquid is released and sinks down. (8. or floats up. ignorance is not a harsh word but rather a call for caution. Now a set of r linear equations for m unknowns has in general mr + l sets of linearly independent solutions. Let the total number of physical quantities. It is noted that in a situation where even the governing equations cannot be formulated. Like most powerful tools it must be handled with care. the viscosity of the fluid. and therefore of rij. we may be assured that all the similarity parameters from the wise engineer's paper are included in our list. This trivial solution yields no similarity parameter and therefore may be ignored. of some physical quantities which affect the phenomenon. then there are r linear equation for the m variables rij. It is noted that products.268 Fluid Mechanics Thus each additional dimension contained in some of the Qj produces an additional linear equation similar to (8. Example 8.
Rather than plow through the steps leading to the formal solution of the set of equations. let us try to guess these parameters. References G.D. Cole. W. PfPs and the reader may check that indeed all three are dimensionless. i.. J. "Hydrodynamics. Similitude and Order of Magnitude g [ m / s2 ] 269 the acceleration of gravity." Blaisdell. Birkhoff. Waltham. Fact and Similitude." E. a Study in Logic. and the ratio between the relevant terms is the Reynolds number. The number of physical quantities is m = 6.J. the fluid undergoes acceleration and viscous effects.8. and the Buckingham n theorem reveals when one may stop guessing because enough parameters have been found. "Physical Similarity and Dimensional Analysis. 1953. and the number of involved dimensions is r = 3. "Perturbation Methods in Applied Mathematics. Arnold & Co. MA. We may therefore expect three dimensionless parameters. 1955. 1968. The second parameter presents the ratio between buoyancy and viscous forces. This approach permits one to use some physical intuition. T [ s ]. The sphere does accelerate. Let our guess be DVp. New York. London. the first parameter.. and the third one gives the ratio between buoyancy and the sphere's own acceleration. A clue to the selection of the list of physical quantities is also a clue to the guess of the similarity parameters: As the sphere moves." Dover. during which acceleration is important is within the range of interest another dimensionless group emerges pgDr and when a glass container of diameter B is used in the experiments.e. and when the time. . Duncan. the dimensionless group D/B must be included.
Kline. "Dimensional Analysis and Theory of Models. (b) in a water tunnel. Streeter (ed. Holt. 8.2 Complete similarity between a ship model and a fullsize ship requires the same Reynolds and Froude numbers. plane Poiseuille flows and combinations of the two.25.L. Van Dyke." McGrawHill. H. Langhaar." in V. 1951. L. 1959. "Perturbation Methods in Fluid Mechanics. CA." Wiley. Problems 8.I. Suppose that Re = LV/v=llxlO 8 and Fr1=gL/V2 = 33." Academic Press. Find rules for the interpretation of the results. Sedov." McGrawHill. SJ. New York. Find rules for the interpretation of the results. Assuming a model 1/100 the size of the ship. 1961. "Similarity and Dimensional Methods in Mechanics. "Similitude and Approximation Theory. "Handbook of Fluid Dynamics. 1975. The car runs between 50 and 100 km/h. Stanford.). New York. 1965. "Dimensional Analysis. New York. 8. 8.3 Find conditions for similarity for timeindependent flows between parallel plates: shear flows. New York. can you design an experiment having full similarity? If not. It is suggested to test air resistance to the motion of the car by running the model (a) in an air tunnel. why? Could you design a fullsimilarity experiment for a submarine? 8.270 Fluid Mechanics M.D. Find rules for the interpretation of the results. M.5 Find conditions for similarity between annulus flows where the inside cylinder does not have the same center as the outer one.1 A model of a car is 1/4 of the length of the car itself. . Find the running speed in each tunnel and the interpretation of the measured resistance forces.4 Find conditions for similarity between Rayleigh flows.L." Parabolic Press.
The idea was to let it swim inside blood vessels. 8. Find its similarity parameters using Buckingham's n theorem. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 271 8. (6.6 Find conditions for similarity between Couette flows for two rotating cylinders.12 Assume you have not seen the solution of the Rayleigh problem: the suddenly accelerated flat plate. 8. Find rules for the interpretation of the results. 8. The cylinder is made of soft iron.11 It has been suggested to construct a cylinder with a bullet head on one side and with a thin soft plastic fishtail on the other.23). find conditions under which the shear flow part can be neglected and conditions for which the Poiseuille flow part can be neglected. Figure P8.8. Find times for which the flow field is approximated by the Rayleigh flow and times for which the plane shear flow is a good approximation. Find times and regions of flow where the phenomenon is approximated by the Rayleigh flow. Eq.10 A cylindrical drum full of fluid is suddenly set into rotation at the angular velocity co. A top view of the cylinder is shown in Fig. Find the similarity parameters for this magnetic fish. it can have neutral buoyancy. Find times for which rigid body rotation is a good approximation.7 For the flow between parallel plates.8 A plane shear flow has been demonstrated by the instructor setting the upper plate suddenly into motion at its full velocity. using the differential equation (6. Check your results using Eq. Check the similarity parameters with those obtained . 8. (6. Repeat for nonconcentric cylinders. 8.24). Do the same for the outer cylinder.21) and the boundary conditions.11. By making it hollow. and when placed in a periodic magnetic field.ll Cylinder with tail fin. it wiggles its tail and moves forward.9 For the Couette flow between concentric rotating cylinders find conditions for which the rotation of the inner cylinder may be ignored. 8. for medical purposes. P8.
16.3 but not here). The purLift pose of the test is to obtain drag Drag forces and lift forces acting on the L* wing at various flight speeds. the time it stays in the tunnel. P8. At what speed must the model be run? b. A model 1/8 the size of the body is run in water and yields a drag force of Fd= 300 N. Fig. 8. As it falls down. Once these drops reach a certain size.16 while lift forces act in the direction perpendicular to that velocity. its thermal conductivity. What is the drag force on the submerged body? 8. Support Drag forces are those acting on the wing in the direction of the velocity of the oncoming air.880 kg/m3. For oil For water p.3 the physical quantities that affect the cooling rate of the chicken are D[m] p [ kg/m3 ] c [ kJ/kg°C] k [ w/m°C] h [ w/m2 °C] T[s] its size. specially equipped airplanes release a body of water above the fire. Find the similarity parameters of the problem using Buckingham's n theorem. /x.272 Fluid Mechanics from the differential equation. The details of this phenomenon are to be investigated experimentally. = 0. 8. the water is broken into smaller and smaller drops.13 In Example 8. Using Buckingham's n theorem.15 In fighting forest fires.14 A submerged body is designed to move in oil at the speed of 2 m/s. These . a. 8.16 An airplane wing is tested in a wind tunnel. /i 2 = 0. its density. (assumed infinite in Example 8.082 Pas. p 2 = 998 kg/m3. find the similarity parameters of this phenomenon. and note the clue they give you toward the exact analytical solution. . its specific heat. they do not break any more. the heat convection coefficient.082 Pas. Figure P8.
into the sand. Translate them into the forces which will act on the fullsize wing. To find the drag force on the balloon. 8.19 A model of a ship's propeller is first tested in a water tunnel. Black olives just proceed down. P8. When a green olive passes the eye.02mdiameter sphere was held in water moving with the velocity of lOm/s. The fuel applies forces to the ship and these forces are to be measured experiFigure P8. air is released from a nozzle deflecting the green olive to Figure P8. Find the similarity parameters for these experimental forces and the way to translate them into the fullsize ship forces. the fuel motion inside the tank is rather complex. Find the similarity parameters of this method.17. Similitude and Order of Magnitude 273 forces are measured on the model. with the water running.5 N. Find the speed of the wind past the balloon which corresponds to the experiment.18 While a fuel tank in a ship is used.21. The drag force on the sphere was measured as 6. Olives drop down in front of an electronic eye. Water 8. . As the ship rolls. an experiment was conducted in which a 0. 8.17 mentally. is to push a water hose. in order to set posts. Formulate the translation of the model experimental results into the real propeller performance. Find the drag force on the balloon at this wind velocity. 8. Find the similarity parameters for the propeller alone and for the assembled propeller. P8. it must have a free surface.17 One way to drill holes in sand. using a model.20 A weather balloon has a diameter of 2 m and is to be used in air at 20°C. and then it is assembled on a ship's model and tested again.8.21 A sorting machine for olives is shown in Fig.21 A machine for sorting olives. 8. Fig.
24 A new hull design for a ship is to be 100 m long. 8.010m3/s and discharges it at 200. Only the Froude number is conserved for similarity. The experimental investigation of these tanks utilizes water instead of oil. pulling it in the downwind direction. It is suggested to let the oil flow through settling tanks. The effect of the wind may look like a force distributed along the wire. gravel and sand. because it is impractical to conserve the Reynolds number too. 8. Find relations between the radii of the old and new air jets. Neglect viscous dissipation . Assume that satisfactory settling has been achieved in water and give the major design parameters for the oil in terms of those for the water. which can accommodate towing speeds of up to 2 m/s. A model is 3 m long. or it may take the form of oscillations. Find the similarity parameters for this size. Find similarity parameters. 8. between their velocities and between the distances the rejected green olives travel.000 N. If the pump rpm is increased to 3. Find to what ship's speed corresponds the 2m/s speed of the model and what are the ship and the model Reynolds numbers at these speeds. find the flow rate and the discharge pressure at which the new operating conditions are completely similar to the first ones. It is necessary to construct a similar system for olives which are twice the linear size of those treated now. on the trajectory they have traveled and on the surface tension of water.23 Electrical wires are subject to stresses caused by winds. 8. The model is connected to a car by a wire. and at a speed of 140 km/h the force in the wire is 1.000. 8. Find the necessary similarity parameters. A correction is later made for the different Reynolds numbers.26 Some crude oil comes out of wells mixed with pebbles.25 The size of raindrops depends on their speed. because water is clear and the settling process may be viewed.22 A glider model is 1/10 of the fullsize glider. 8. Find the speed of the fullsize glider relative to that of the model and the power expended by an airplane pulling the glider at that speed. The model is tested in a tow tank.000 Pa above atmospheric pressure. and because crude oil entails continuous cleaning of instrumentation. in which most of these solids sink down. a.274 Fluid Mechanics another bin.27 A turbopump which runs at 2000rpm takes in water at atmospheric pressure at the rate of 0. A 1/50 model is to be tested in a wind tunnel.
with 2.000 rpm. and if they can. b. The turntable is suddenly set into rotation. 8. P8. and set to 3. Find the times for the old and the new drums. find the size and the number of revolutions of the paddle wheel. It is suggested to scale up the process to twice the amounts of liquids mixed.30 Paddlewheel mr.000 rpm. After 30 seconds the water inside the drum turns with the drum in a solid body rotation.31 Find the similarity parameters for the water hammer described in Example 4. Find how long it will take the water in a drum twice the linear size of the old one. 8.30 Two fluids flow into a cylindrical mixing chamber where they are mixed at steady state by a paddle wheel that rotates at 50 revoluMixture tions per second. Because the original mixing is quite satisfactory. set to 2.28 A cylindrical drum completely filled with water is set on a turntable. tions and to keep the cylindrical mixing chamber height but to increase its diameter by V2.000 rpm.29 The water in Problem 8.000 rpm.er.10.28 is changed to glycerin. 8. 275 Find the ratio of the powers necessary to run the pump in the two cases. 8. Fig.000 and 3. Find how long it will take the water to reach solid body rotation if the drum is suddenly set to 3. a.000 rpm. . at 2. Find if these suggestions can satisfy similarity.30. complete similarity is favorable.8. Another suggestion was to keep the old structure but to have the flowrates in the piping increased by 2. Similitude and Order of Magnitude b. One design suggestion was to increase all piping to twice their cross secFigure P8. to rotate like a solid body.
.
as long as the gap is much smaller than the radius of curvature. obtained by the solutions of approximate forms of the NavierStokes equations. 9. Indeed..9. If the upper plate moves. and if they exist. We already know that these terms contribute much to the difficulties one encounters in the solution of the equations. and in this context we must ask if there exist real flows in which the acceleration terms are negligible. The lower plate is set stationary along the xaxis and the upper plate may be inclined to it with the small angle a. Flow in Narrow Gaps Consider the twodimensional flow of an incompressible fluid in the narrow gap between the two plates shown in Fig. the first idea that comes to mind is to remove the terms which cause the greatest difficulty. FLOWS WITH NEGLIGIBLE ACCELERATION The nonlinear terms on the lefthand side of the NavierStokes equations result from the acceleration of the fluid. the nonlinear acceleration terms. we have noted the relative ease with which exact solution have been obtained in Chapter 6 for fully developed flows. For simplicity we assume the plates to be flat.1. how do we identify them? The answer to this enquiry is that there are at least two such families of flows: flows in narrow gaps and creeping flows. where a ifcomponent of the velocity also exists. Here we present the simplest examples of gap flows and limit the analysis to twodimensional flows between flat plates. i. As we now look for approximations.e. The results obtained in this analysis may be extended to cases where the plates are curved. its motion is re277 . Another possible extension is to threedimensional flows. Our subject here is fluid mechanics. where those nonlinear terms vanish.
the mean velocity in the ^direction.21).1) Ld A B Figure 9.2).4) . (5. in the vicinity of the middle of the gap. be defined.3) The boundary conditions for v on both plates are v = 0 at y = 0 and at y = 8. Hence du U He (9. is approximately du ua «\u\. Eq. The largest value that I v I may attain. (9.2) The equation of continuity.1 Flow in a narrow gap. Let u. Jj (9. (9. ua dy (9. rS Conservation of mass requires uA • 8 = uB(8 + La).278 Fluid Mechanics stricted to its own plane We call such a flow a flow in a narrow gap when «<f f«l. states du _ dv dx dy Hence with Eq.
9. (9. du I du ~dx I ~dy S ~a< —  (9. This theory yields the forces which appear in bearings and other lubricated sliding surfaces. with h (x) varying with x very slowly. which looks exactly like the one for a fully developed flow.2. (9.8). Figure 9. provided that indeed acceleration forces may be neglected. for a moving or stationary upper plate du (9. Furthermore.* For an upper plate ' It is the solution.7) dlu dx Reynolds Lubrication Theory An important application of flows in narrow gaps. which are flows with their acceleration terms neglected.2). (9.6) La The jcderivative of u is negligible compared with the yderivative.7). is in Reynolds lubrication theory. Eq. The approximate form of the NavierStokes equations for twodimensional gap flows thus becomes (9.9. The xwise momentum equation for this narrow gap flow is just Eq. .2 Flow in a bearing. that justifies d2u/dx2 = 0. Flows with Negligible Acceleration 279 The ycomponent of the velocity may be neglected in comparison with the xcomponent. Consider the twodimensional steady flow between the two plates shown in Fig.5) and with Eq.
2. (9.9) o or dP 6 n U ^ . Eq. Hence The mass flow rate is obtained from Eq. This is achieved by setting 2/h0 = \/1\ + Xjh^. is inclined to the horizontal by the angle _dh ax J (9.13) . (6. (9. 9.24)] (9 8)  m Assuming w = 0 (a very wide bearing).10) to yield dh a h Integration yields a[ h 2h2 and h0 and B have to satisfy the two boundary conditions: P = P0 at hi and at hj. (9. Fig. dx h The lower plate.7) has the solution [see shear flow with pressure gradient.10) • Now dP^_dP^ dh= dP_ dx dh dx dh which may be substituted in Eq.9) as rii = •KpUho = •^•pU (ftj > h0 > /&2 )• 1 *^~ ^ 2 The lift force L per unit width acting on the upper plate is (9.280 Fluid Mechanics moving with the velocity U. Eq. the mass flow between the plates is conserved m= jpudy = ±pUh(x)£\— ft3 (x)= const = \pUho (9.
UL2 Lk_^zA\ hx\ (kif h% I k+lJ (9. it finds its own height hx and h2. Find the drag force acting on the reader. (9.9.14) where k = hl/h2>l .2. V/L = 3/R.3 shows a rotating disk with a floating magnetic reader. • ^^^v^W^^. Flows with Negligible Acceleration 281 *2 L = f ( P .e. Find hx. Figure 9. which corresponds to D = 1. i.3 Rotating disk and magnetic reader. (9.\dh = n— 3 .dfe.P0)dx = . This yields jfc = 2. The width of the reader plate is L = 0. let dLJdk = 0..J ( P .16) where 2L R=h1+h2 Example 9. The reader's arm is set to an angle a which yields the maximum lift but is otherwise free to float.1 Figure 9.2 nUR.x1 = ^(/^ .^i) • The drag force D per unit width acting on the upper plate is D= d — da:= f . h2 and a. Hence. ° + .+ ^ — . L = x2 . The linear velocity of the disk just below the reader is 60 m/s.P0)dh 7 = U^h.A — .15) To maximize the lift. .) a 2 [ hi + hi ^ 6. The whole system is placed in nitrogen at 300 K.02 m and the weight it must support is 5 g/cm in the radial direction.
905 N / m. (9.15) as 2fiUL [ 2X17.23xlO"8 Hence.282 Fluid Mechanics Solution The lift force needed to support 5 g/cm is 5xKT 3 x9. they are forced to become very small when the velocities are smaller and smaller.2 Creeping Flows We are still looking for approximate forms of the NavierStokes equations. L= » = 4. „ „ 2x1. h1=kh2= 0.2 4 .81 .2 L " 3. L hfkl L *+u or . The drag force is obtained from Eq. .14) for the lift force now yields h2.8' = 0. 10"2 For maximum lift k = hl/h2 = 2.2] ITiZ.Z —  1. .84 xlO" 6 x 60x0.286 mm. Equation (9.84 x 10 6 kg/ms.„ 1 6x17. a = 0°26. „ „ . Hence the name creeping flows. This idea is expressed more exactly by the use of the Reynolds number. \i = 17.84X102 1 n 2 2 1.02 2 f. Because these troublesome terms are nonlinear in the velocities.3xlO" 4 ) L _ : 3.2x(l.„ .0078 radians. in which the nonlinear terms are neglected. 9 U J = —= 8.2 T For nitrogen at 300K.
.20) dt Re The flows described by Eqs. (9. is large. Equation (8. is small or because L. the kinematic viscosity.19). observing the time number Q = UxV and the Euler number EuTC/pV2. Let the divergence of Eq. implying that Q and Eu are not necessarily small. (9. we choose to say that Re is small because V is small. On the righthand side.19) Q^ = EuVp— VxVxq. Of course. and this term vanishes because the divergence of a curl of any vector is identically zero. V(VxVxq) = V[Vx(Vxq)] = O.and zcomponents of the momentum equation. However. (9. (9. (92i) Thus the pressure in creeping flows is a harmonic function.e. the continuity equation (8. The term on the lefthand side becomes and this is because Vq = 0.20) be taken.19) and (9. Both equations are written in their vectorial form as V q = 0.20) is V 2 p = 0. is small or because V. The only term left of Eq.11) remains the same. the characteristic velocity. (9. The equations are linear and possess some properties which are generally useful in their solution. it satisfies the Laplace equation. it is the combination VL/v which determines the magnitude of Re. the inertia terms in the square brackets are neglected and the equation attains the form ^ dt El ^ +^ + ^ + dx Re^<?x2 dy1 dz with two similar equations for the v. i. Eq. (9.20) are called Stokes creeping flows. Flows with Negligible Acceleration 283 The Reynolds number.14) multiplied by Re becomes du dx dt du dy du~\_ dz J dp I d2u dx \dx2 d2u d2u dy2 dz2 For Re*i2 = Vlvx and EuRe = nL/jXV which are not very small.9. Assuming incompressible flow. the characteristic length. Re= VL/v. can become small because V..
26) .~ l = 0.. (. For timeindependent flows an alternative general form can be obtained by taking the curl of Eq. r . dy dx Equation (9.20).25) is sometimes written as d2 d dx dy . (9. Thus.23) may be written in terms of i/f as dx1 dyz\dxz (5..23) With the twodimensional stream function as defined by Eq. .— — .22) is particularly useful in flows for which the direction of the V x q vector is a priori known. Jdv du\ Vxq= i— + j — x(iu + j!.g. ^ dx dy ) \dx dy) Taking the curl of V x q results in V7 iv \. for twodimensional flows in rectangular coordinates Eq. d . (9.57) u=~ . Equation (9. Twodimensional Flows In twodimensional flows with the velocity vector q = iw + jv. twodimensional and axisymmetric flows. . (9. e.22) becomes d2 dy2  d2 Ydu dv Til . (9.d}.21) is not as useful as it looks because the boundary conditions in terms of p are not always known. v = f. this results in V x V x V x q = 0. (5.57) dy1 or 0.25) (9. and the final curl.22) Equation (9. d (dv du^i Vx(Vxq)i—^——Jj—1^——J.) = k . dx2 )\dy dx (9.284 Fluid Mechanics Equation (9. Since V x (Vp) = 0 for any scalar p.d (dv du^i .. still this equation is used in many cases.
In this case.C. with four streamlines.B. which are obtained by rotating the 9 = 0 plane around the zaxis. 9) shows no qe velocity and no dependence on the ^coordinate. however. . denoted by A. with the velocity vector and the streamlines lying in this plane. A flow is defined axisymmetric when its description in polar coordinates (z.9. which has been introduced in Chapter 5 for twodimensional flows. The streamlines in this representative plane are also the lines of intersections of stream sheets with the representative plane.4 shows such a representative plane. Furthermore. Fig. Axisymmetric Flows One of the most important creeping flows is that of the flow around a sphere. in a fashion similar to that in twodimensional flows. r.4 Axisymmetric representative plane and streamlines. The 9 = 0 plane is therefore called the representative plane of the axisymmetric flow. obtained by the rotation of the whole figure around the zaxis. Figure 9. Flows with Negligible Acceleration 285 which means that the operator inside the parentheses has to be applied twice in succession. these stream sheets are really stream tubes with circular cross sections. Each streamline may now have a number attached to it signifying the mass flow inside its corresponding stream tube. Such a flow can be described in the 0 = 0 plane. The stream function y/is thus biharmonic.4. we must extend the concept of the stream function.D. Figure 9. to flows which are axisymmetric. 9 = C planes. show a flow pattern identical to that in the 9 = 0 plane. 9. To treat this case efficiently.
Hence dyr = (2nrdr)(qzp) = (27vrdz)(qrp). 0. 6) also appear in the representative plane. and one must always check whether this has been done when considering numerical computations. from which follows *"= S ^ " (92?) The spherical coordinates (R.286 Fluid Mechanics The number zero flow is naturally assigned here to the zaxis which. We now return to axisymmetric creeping flows. Using these with one obtains dy/ = (iTtrRdQ ){qRp) = [^p) = (2nR sin from which follows As in the twodimensional case. with no dependence on 0. and that for qr is 2itrdz. in axisymmetric flows. of course. The considerations of the Stokes stream function up to this point are quite general and are not limited to creeping flows. The 1/271 factor in Eqs. r dr 1 qr =  ^ r dz (9. let WD=¥C + dy/.27) and (9. The cross section available for qz in this case is 2Jtrdr. Obviously the Stokes stream function should also satisfy identically the continuity equation. (9. p is ignored for incompressible flows. is always a streamline.28) is sometimes also suppressed. qz = l f. in which qe = 0. It is important to remember that the use of stream functions is equivalent to the inclusion of the continuity equation in the considerations. As in the treatment of the twodimensional case. These numbers. just stream functions. Using cylindrical coordinates. are called Stokes stream functions or.29) . measuring the mass flow inside the stream tubes. where no confusion with the twodimensional stream function is expected.
+ 4]V = 0. Flows with Negligible Acceleration 287 Substitution of these in Eq. with the velocity far from the sphere satisfying qz = = const.32) are linear and methods for their solutions are fairly well known. dr2 dz2) rdr (9.28) results in the axisymmetric equivalent of Eq. however.5 Creeping flow around a sphere.9.30) V K ' which. q= Figure 9. (9.32) dR R It is noted again that Eqs.(9. is not the biharmonic equation. There exists a creeping flow field around the sphere.5 shows a stationary sphere set in a parallel flow. Similarly. .31) one obtains _5_r_l d\f + 2+ 2 = V dj{ijdl)\ (9. for axisymmetric flows using spherical coordinates 1 dy/ Rsm<t> dR ' (9. (9.30) and (9. Stokes Flow around a Sphere Figure 9.26): 4_Ii. The radius of the sphere is a and its center is chosen to coincide with the origin of the coordinate system.
and one is tempted to try \j/ = f{R) sin2 (j) for any R.32): + dR2 R2 < This equation is of the fourth order.33) at and because the undisturbed parallel flow is just q = kUc = eRqR +elj)q0=Uco[ e^cos (j> . K R2sm(/) d<p 50 ** RsinQdR dR (9. qR and q^.34) =U RsiR2 m ~ * at JR ^°° Equations (9.31): The differential equation for the stream function is now Eq. then R2sin(j) d<j) °° _ ^ _ TJ °° 1 dyf Rsincj) dR or ——= UmR2cos(j)sm(j) at R*°°. and the Stokes stream function is related to the velocity vector by Eq.32) yields ^3—%•] f(R) = O. which hold for very large R. d</> (9. and there are four boundary conditions that must be satisfied: the two velocity components. dR2 R2 (9. Formally. (9.e^sin 0].34). (9.288 Fluid Mechanics Spherical coordinates are convenient to apply to this configuration.35) . must vanish on the sphere and they must become the undisturbed parallel flow velocity components far away from the sphere. may be integrated to yield Now this result must hold for any (j). (9. Substitution in Eq.
38) .20) is written again in dimensional form for the present case 0 = v>. 2 and A and B do not affect the velocity at R —> °°. Flows with Negligible Acceleration 289 which is homogeneous in R and dR and therefore may have a solution in the form of a polynomial. Equation (9. f(R) = D=0 jU^R2. (9.39). Indeed. 20> (9J7) (9 38)  aV 3a I. for R —> » . We may now proceed to calculate the pressure.9.34). is used to calculate (3 U a and (9.40) . Hence a or and and finally la 3 * . The stream function thus becomes y/ = [ 4 + BR +2 4.35) is satisfied by f(R) = — + BR + CR2 + DR*. (9.(9. KR Equation (9. Eqs.36) must be satisfied for R = a. l f B f ' i . Eq. (9. R Because from the integration of Eq. and C=^ .uVxVxq.UxR2\m20. and the expression for the velocity.
the drag force FD on the sphere acts in the zdirection only. . J^au —— = .42) p = ———*— cosd.3—s—cose>. + e^sin VxV xq = Substitution into Eq.290 Fluid Mechanics in0).41) 1 dp and integration yields (9.6: S is a tangential shear stress and p is the (normal) pressure.pcos (j>]R=a. 9. is obtained as (9.42) and S is found from = — 2 a °° (9.45) K FD=j Figure 9. (9.40) in component form results in .43) dFD = (27rasin ip)ad(j) [S sin <> / . dR R3 (9. known as Stokes law. dp .6 Forces on the sphere. It I To calculate the drag on the sphere. where p is given by Eq. Hence (9. Consider the forces acting on the differential strip shown in Fig.44) Thus dFD =  jsin i n (j> d(f> and the expression for the drag force. we note that because of symmetry. (9.
9. Flows with Negligible Acceleration
291
The case just solved has been that of a fluid flowing steadily around a
stationary sphere. The transcription of the results to the case where the bulk of
the fluid is stationary while the sphere moves with a constant velocity (—{/„,) is
obtained by a simple transformation of coordinates.
The drag force given by Eq. (9.45) is just the hydrodynamic contribution. In
the presence of body forces, e.g., gravity, and when the density of the sphere, p',
is different from the fluid density, p, there is an additional hydrostatic force
P')
(946)
caused by buoyancy. The net force which now acts on the sphere is the sum
(947)
We now consider a small sphere dropped into a fluid at rest. The sum of the
forces acting on the sphere is at first different from zero. Newton's second law of
motion requires that the sphere accelerate. The term FB in Eq. (9.47) remains the
same, while FD, which opposes FB, increases in magnitude with the increase in
the velocity. The net force F^thus eventually becomes zero. The sphere is then
said to have reached its terminal velocity, which becomes
p)
3
or
6
f()
2a2g,
9
u
,
(949)
The results derived above are verified experimentally for
UtaP
Ke a = —
,
(a cm
< U.5.
yy.jvj
Equation (9.49) may be used to obtain the viscosity of a fluid from experimental
measurements of the terminal velocity of a sphere dropped into it.
Example 9.2
a.
The viscosity of printing ink is approximately \i  3.0 kg/ms. The exact
values of the viscosity must be measured, and it is suggested to drop glass
balls into the ink and measure their terminal velocities. The densities of
printing ink and glass are 1,000 and 2,000 kg/m3, respectively. Find the size
of the balls to be used.
b.
Balls of radius a = 1.0 cm were ordered, and in a certain experiment a terminal velocity of 12 cm/s was measured. Find the viscosity of the ink in that
experiment.
292
Fluid Mechanics
Solution
a.
The equations obtained for Stokes creeping flow are valid for, Eq. (9.50),
i.e., the velocity should not exceed
'
p
1,000
On the other hand, from Eq. (9.48),
E/t =  ^ £  ( p  p ' )  =  a 2 x — x 1,000 = 726.67a2.
Thus,
726.67a3 = 1.5 xKT 3 ,
and the maximal sphere radius is found as
a 3 = 2.06x 10~6,
b.
a = 1.273x 10~2m = 1.27 cm.
From Eq. (9.49),
9 Ut
(
VF
^
H)l
^
9
0.12
Example 9.3
Small dust particles come out of a chimney of a cement factory. The particles
are approximately spherical, with radii in the range of 10~5  10~7 m. The density of
the particles is 1,0002,000 kg/m3. The viscosity of air is \i =15xlO"6 kg/ms and
its density is 1.2 kg/m 3 . Find how long it will take the particles to settle on the
ground.
Solution
Equation (9.48) states
E7 = ! o 2 g l£z£lLVx9.81
'
9
n
9
For a = 105 m w ith p = 2,000 kg/m3
U,  0.029 m/s = 29 mm/s.
P
2
6=145,333a p.
15xlO"6
9. Flows with Negligible Acceleration
293
For a = 106 m with p =1,000 kg/m3
Ut = 1.45 x 10~3 m / s = 0.145 mm / s.
For a = 107 m with p =1,000 kg/m3
Ut = 1.45 x 10~6 m / s = 1.45 x 10"3 mm/ s.
For a chimney 30 m high, the a = 10 5 m particles will settle in
30
^— = 1034s = 35min;
0.029
the a = 10"6 m particles will settle in
— r = 2 x 105s = 58 h;
0.145 xlO" 3
the a =10 7 m particles will settle in
—— T = 2 x 107s = 240 days.
1.45 xlO~6
In reality the a < 10"6 m particles will not settle at all because of gravity, as
winds and thermal convection air movements are quite faster than their gravity
settling speeds.
Stokes Flow around a Cylinder
Figure 9.7 shows a stationary cylinder set in a twodimensional parallel flow.
The radius of the cylinder is a and its center is chosen to coincide with the origin
of the coordinate system. This flow seems to be the twodimensional analog of
the flow around a sphere, and we want to find out whether indeed this is the
case.
Figure 9.7 Twodimensional creeping flow around a cylinder.
294
Fluid Mechanics
The convenient coordinate system to describe this flow is the cylindrical
one. The relations between velocity and stream function are given by Eq. (5.58):
*%' *H£
(5 58)
"
r 69
dr
The differential equation satisfied by this stream function is Eq. (9.26),
which in cylindrical coordinates becomes
r dry dr)
r" ""• '
(9.51)
The boundary conditions on the cylinder are
The undisturbed parallel flow is
q = erqr +egqe=
U^[ercos 9  e 0 sin 9 ]
and the other two boundary conditions are adjusted such that for very large r
Hence
~99
(9.53)
—¥ = U^sin 9
dr
at large r.
In a way similar to the treatment of the flow around the sphere, Eq. (9.53)
may be integrated to
and, again, one is tempted to try
yr = f(r) sin 9
for any r.
Substitution in Eq. (9.51) yields
{rj)A]f^
(954)
y dr) r ]
which is analogous to Eq. (9.35). Application of standard methods of ordinary
differential equations yields
9. Flows with Negligible Acceleration
295
f(r) = Ar3 + Br (in rQ + Cr + Dr
and
r 3 + Br(\nr ±) + Cr + Drjsin 9.
(9.55)
One might try to proceed here along the way which proved successful for
the flow around the sphere, i.e., by applying the boundary conditions Eqs. (9.53)
at r » °° to Eq. (9.55). This would result in A = 0, B = 0, C  U^ , and only a
single constant, i.e., D, is left to satisfy both boundary conditions at the surface of
the cylinder. Indeed, application of Eqs. (9.52) results in the two contradictory
equations:
r\
2
D =a
and
2
D = —a .
Thus no solution is obtained.
This result is known as the Stokes Paradox. Similar mathematical difficulties
do occur in some other twodimensional problems of mathematical physics where
boundary conditions at infinity are imposed, e.g., in the solution for the temperature field outside a given isothermal cylinder. Once it is recognized that the paradox is associated with the combination of twodimensionality and of boundary
conditions at infinity, a way is indicated to still solve for the flow field:
There is nothing one can do about the twodimensionality of the cylinder. If
this is modified, one does not solve the given problem. But then the boundary
conditions, Eqs. (9.53), may be satisfied at a large r, say at r = b < °°, instead of at
infinity. This approach would permit the completion of the solution. The details
are presented in the following example.
Example 9.4
Complete the solution of Stokes flow around a cylinder, with the boundary
conditions, Eq. (9.53), satisfied at a finite R, i.e., at r = /?,=»>/?> a. Find expressions for the velocities.
Solution
It is helpful to rewrite the general solution, Eq. (9.55), and the boundary
conditions, Eqs. (9.48) and (9.53), in dimensionless forms, using a as the characteristic length and U^ as the characteristic velocity. The dimensionless equations
become
y/ = Ar3 + Br (lnr  jj + cr + — sin 6,
296
Fluid Mechanics
where r is now dimensionless and A, B, C, D are modified accordingly, and
at
and
—i =
de
—^ =
dr
at
with R now measured in the cylinder's radii, i.e., R is a number stating at how
many cylinder's radii away from the cylinder's center this boundary condition is
satisfied (e.g., at a distance of 100 radii). The boundary conditions at r = 1, substituted in the general solution, yield
0,
(i)
= 0.
(ii)
The boundary conditions at r = R yield
(iii)
— = R,
^
(iv)
This set of four linear algebraic equations is solved by elimination, and the results
are:
r
2G(R)'
n
with
Of course, /? is large, and for R 2 » l an approximation for G(R) may be obtained
by
G(R) ~H(R) = R2\nR R2
=R2(\nRl).
The expressions for the dimensionless velocity components are now obtained:
±r"+[Rl
+l[lnri +l+
2r2
cos 6
G(R)'
2
[ci +1A(,lnr + —
= [ —r•
23 2 +\R
2H +1, R^ ! sin©
L
^ ^
9. Flows with Negligible Acceleration
297
Example 9.5
For a cylinder of radius a = 0.01 m set in an undisturbed parallel flow of
£/<*,=O.lm/s, find the velocities when the boundary conditions "at infinity" are
satisfied:
a. At a distance of 1 m from the cylinder's center, i.e., at r = R = 100.
b. At a distance of 2 m, i.e., at r = R  200.
Solution
The dimensionless radius, r, is measured here in units of a (see Example 9.4),
which happens to be 1 cm. Accordingly, in part a, R = 100, and in part b, R = 200.
a.
With reference to Example 9.4:
/?= 100, G{R) = 36,057.3, H(R) = 36,051.7,
b.
R = 200, G(R) = 171,939, H(R)= 171,933,
The results of part a may be put as
qr  Fr,ioo (r) cos 6,
<7e= ^0,100 W cos 0 .
while those of part b may be put as
<2V = Fr,200 (r) COS 6 ,
qe= F9,200 (r) sin 0 ,
with Fr and F# being the expressions in the square brackets divided by G{R).
Some values of Fr and Fe are given in Table 9.1.
298
Fluid Mechanics
r
Fr,100
•F&ioo
F
r,20O
^0.200
1
0
0
0
0
2
0.088
0.296
0.074
0.248
4
0.254
0.514
0.213
0.431
8
0.439
0.711
0.369
0.598
16
0.627
0.897
0.528
0.759
32
0.809
1.057
0.687
0.914
64
0.908
1.122
0.839
1.048
100
1.000
1.000
0.926
1.100
Table 9.1. Velocity dependence on r in Stokes cylinder flow.
It is instructive to note that although R = 100 and R  200 both seem to be
very far from the cylinder, the differences obtained between the two flows are
quite significant. Thus one is advised to choose an R, i.e., to satisfy the boundary
conditions, as close to the real physical situation as possible.
References
J. Happel and H. Brenner, "Low Reynolds Number Hydrodynamics with Special
Application to Particulate Media," PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1965.
W.F. Hughes, "An Introduction to Viscous Flow," Hemisphere, Washington, DC,
1979, Chapter 3.
H. Lamb, "Hydrodynamics," Dover, New York, 1945.
D. Pincus and B. Sternlicht, "Theory of Hydrodynamic Lubrication," McGrawHill,
New York, 1961.
Problems
9.1
A spherical balloon filled with hydrogen flies away off a child's hands. The
radius of the balloon is 0.2 m, the density of the air is 1.18 kg/m3 and its
viscosity is 2x 10~5 kg/ms. Find the terminal velocity of the balloon. Find
the Reynolds number at this terminal velocity, and decide whether this is a
creeping flow.
9.2
A copper ball has a radius of 5 mm and the density of 8,700 kg/m3. The ball
is dropped into a tank full of a fluid whose density is 833 kg/m3. The ball
descends at a constant velocity of 10 cm/s. Find the value of the Reynolds
number at this terminal velocity. Find the viscosity of the fluid.
9. Flows with Negligible Acceleration
299
9.3
Crop dusting is done from an airplane flying at the altitude of 5 m. The
solid dust particles of insecticide are approximately spherical with a diameter of d= 1O 2 cm and a density of 2,000 kg/m3. Estimate the time required
for the dust particles to fall to the ground.
The nearest population center is located 1 km from the dusted field. At
what wind velocity, directed from the field toward the town, must the
dusting operation be stopped?
9.4
Dust particles have approximately the density of water. Find the diameter
of the dust particles that have a terminal velocity in air of
a. lm/s,
b.O.lm/s,
c.O.Olm/s,
d. 0.001 m/s.
Calculate the approximate Reynolds numbers for each case. Does the
simple Stokes formula apply in each of these cases?
9.5
Apply the boundary conditions Eq. (9.53) at r = R = 300 and then the
boundary conditions Eq. (9.52) and complete the solution for the Stokes
twodimensional creeping flow around a cylinder. Obtain an expression for
the pressure field and for the drag force on the cylinder.
9.6
Use the results of Problem 9.5 and compute the drag force on a cylinder
when the boundary condition at large r, Eq. (9.53), is applied at rbAa ,
at b = 5a, aib la, at b = 10 a. Draw schematically some streamlines for
the four cases. Which do you consider a better approximation?
9.7
The linear velocity of the slide bearing in Example 9.1 is increased to
100 m/s. As a result the temperature of the nitrogen is raised to 350 K
Qt= 19.9xlO"6 kg/ms). Find hu h2and the drag force.
9.8
A wide slide bearing is constructed of a steel shaft with a diameter of 0.1 m
and a bronze sleeve with a diameter of 0.1008 m. The gap between shaft
and sleeve is filled with oil, p = 880 kg/m3, \i  2 x 10"2 kg/ms. The shaft
turns at 3,000 rpm. To avoid contact between the surfaces of the shaft and
the sleeve, they must be separated by at least 0.1 mm. Find the transverse
load, in N/m (per meter width), that may be applied to the shaft.
9.9
A plastic cup 0.12 m long and 0.08 m in diameter is manufactured by
injecting molten plastic into a flat gap inside a mold. The mold looks like an
annulus between two cylinders and may be approximated as a 0.0005mwide gap between two parallel plates. The molten plastic has the apparent
viscosity /z = 80 kg/ms.
a. Find the pressure necessary to have the liquid plastic front advance in
9. What is the flow rate of the molten plastic at these conditions? 9.12 Figure P9.300 Fluid Mechanics the mold at a rate of at least 0. Find the efficiency of the transmission at the various speeds.00J m to be approximated by a shear Figure P9. Fluid 0.13 . Find the moment transmitted to the follower disk as a function of the number of turns per minute of the follower disk.11. The maximum velocity in the channel is 0. Three sides of the cavity are enclosed by stationary walls. and a plane slides along the fourth side.12 A twodimensional rectangular cavity is shown in Fig. b. in terms of the stream function. P9.000 rpm.02 m.13.0kg/ms. Write. U y=b x=0 y=0 Figure P9. b.1.2 m/s. The transmission fluid has a viscosity of jj.10 Glycerin flows at a creeping flow in a rectangular channel having the sides 0.1 m/s. and V is the velocity of the piston.P9.ll flow between two flat plates.05 m by 0. where F is the force the absorber transmits.11 A simple hydraulic transmission is shown in Fig.12. the differential equation and the boundary conditions that govern this flow. Find the pressure gradient along the channel. It is common engineering practice to designate shock absorbers by a constant C in the form F = C V . The flow in the gap is a creeping flow and is assumed •Ik0.. P9. a. Find C for this absorber. 9.9 m 9. The drive disk turns at 3.13 A shock absorber is shown in Fig.
e.03 m like a cone.16 is reversed.18.0 m/s .18 . P9. and the flow is creeping. Find the pressure drop in the cone.05 m in diameter moves concentrically at an arc of 0. P9. Find the distance between any two spheres. necessary to make the approximation of the order of 1% error.06 m in diameter filled with oil of viscosity 0.16 .15 Creeping flow is associated with small Reynolds numbers.14 9. Fig.17 The flow in Problem 9. Figure P9.16 flow is like in a pipe of that cross section.16 A pipe ends with a nozzle shaped 0.18 Three spheres are connected by a string. Find the braking moment as a function of the angular velocity.. as shown in Fig. Find the pressure drop in the cone.14 The hydraulic oscillation damper shown in Fig. Flows with Negligible Acceleration 9. The flow in the annular gap is creeping. expressed in sphere diameters.14 consists of a bent tube section of 0. The flow in the cone is creeping and is approx0..01 kg/ms. It is suggested to estimate the total drag force on the three spheres as three times the drag force on a single sphere in Stokes flow. P9. i. Is a fully developed flow in a pipe different for creeping flows and for flows where the Reynolds number is not very small? 9. The velocity field is exactly reversed. the cone feeds fluid to the pipe. in which a tube of 0.4 m radius. 9.1 kg/ms. i. The cone is 0.02 m imated by a fully developed pipe flow.1 m long.9.e. and the pipe feeds fluid to the cone with a maximum velocity of 1. The fluid viscosity is 0. at each cross section the Figure P9. The three are dragged through a fluid at a constant velocity. 9. 301 Figure P9.
which are moving freely with the flow.302 Fluid Mechanics 9.19 Can the Rayleigh problem be solved for a creeping flow? Are the results the same as those obtained for noncreeping flows? 9. . the total dissipation increases.20 It can be shown that in a creeping flow the velocity field is such that the total viscous dissipation over the whole field is minimized. the apparent viscosity of the seeded fluid is higher than that of the pure fluid. In other words. Show that when the fluid contains solid particles.
54). Re = ULI v. a legitimate question may come to mind at this point: Have the Euler equations no physical meaning at all? Are the solutions of these equations not even approximations to real flows? We know that near rigid boundaries. who walked it and found the answer. HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWS .REGIONS FAR FROM SOLID BOUNDARIES Negligible Shear . which are of the first order and therefore cannot satisfy both boundary conditions qn=0) > at solid boundaries. and Prandtl. but are there no other regions. The more elaborate formulation in Chapter 8 has transferred the role of a perturbation parameter from the kinematic viscosity. 303 . where the boundary conditions dominate the flow. where they correctly predict the physics? We do not set out on this path of enquiry just as adventurers.46) Still. v. who also wondered where it led. the Euler equations yield wrong solutions. We have also been forewarned that for Re —> °° the second order NavierStokes equations yield the Euler equations. where a simple formal substitution of v —> 0 in the NavierStokes equations has led to the Euler equation (5.The Euler Equations The interpretation of the physics of flows with vanishing viscosity has already been attempted in Chapter 5.10. to the Reynolds number. It =0j (5. far away from the boundaries. with the condition v —> 0 being expressed by Re—»°°. We follow the footsteps of such giants as Euler and Lagrange.
b.1 The vertical deflection of a twodimensional thin plate clamped at both ends and subject to a uniform continuous load. Find the approximate deflection of the plate: apply the regular perturbation B —> 0 and solve the perturbed equation. Example 10. . at X = ±1. while a membrane deflects according to with the boundary conditions >> = 0 at JC = ± 1. 10. The dimensionless parameters in the equation are: B the beam parameter and M the membrane parameter* For very thick plates B » M and for membranes B «M: a. which is simpler because the equations in it are linear. This causes the differential equation to reduce to the second order and then it cannot satisfy both boundary conditions.1. Find the exact deflection of the plate.e. Fig. we consider an analogous case of such perturbations. Consider plates which become thinner and thinner.. which is governed by a fourth order differential equation.304 Fluid Mechanics Before embarking on the analysis of flows for which v»0. i. In the following example we ask under what conditions does the solution of the second order differential equation which describes the deflection of a membrane approximate the deflection of a thin plate. is given by the dimensionless ordinary differential equation dx dx with the boundary conditions y =0 dy =0 dx at X = +1. B —> 0. which boundary condition is ignored? Where does the approximation hold? A thick beam bends according to with the same boundary conditions. Consistent with the perturbation.
1 Deflection of a twodimensional clamped plate. With B —> 0 the equation undergoes a regular perturbation into the membrane equation. A2 = MIB.Regions far from Solid Boundaries 305 Solution a. Addition of the two solutions and the use of the boundary conditions yield l 2 . A particular solution of the full equation is Jp 2M ' and the homogeneous solution is yh = Cx + C2x + C3sinhAx + C4cosh Ax. x= 0 x= Figure 10. High Re Flows .10.\ coshAcoshA^l AsinhA JJ ' which for large X may be put as y=j7\and dy=_f_ dx M b. .
2 HighReynoldsnumber flow. the perturbed equation yields fairly good approximations for y.> 0 . In other words. Fortified by Example 10.306 Fluid Mechanics M cfy dx2~~~ with the solution again constructed of a particular part and a homogeneous one. Eq. The boundary condition qt . Because B—> 0 implies X —» °°. while the error in dy/dx is still fairly small far from the boundary. the transmission of . U y1 Figure 10. Point F far from boundary. however. dx M The kept boundary condition is that for the membrane. adjacent to the first. Point C close to boundary. Even if the membrane had been forced to satisfy dy/dx = 0 at x=±l. a third layer further away from the wall would have no way of learning that the first layer did not slip. at a rigid boundary but which has a very small viscosity. Now a membrane cannot transmit bending moments. But if the second fluid layer. (5.1 we return now to the implication of v . it is very large (about 100 %) near the boundaries. may slide freely with respect to the first. this angular deflection could not be passed on to points not at the boundary because it takes moments to transmit this information.46). Thus ignoring dy/dx = 0 is consistent with the perturbation B —> 0 . y = 0 at x = ± l . The limit B —> 0 is consistent with a very thin plate and in the limit with a membrane. which satisfies both boundary conditions.0 at the wall states that the fluid layer touching the wall does not slip with respect to it. Consider a real fluid.
(10.2.^ g . Q^. This region is considered in the next chapter. q = iU q= iU q =0 Figure 10.3. In these regions.10.g. . however. is now written in detail.1) with the boundary condition qn — 0 at rigid boundaries. (5. 10.54).. The region outside the boundary layer. Fig.Regions far from Solid Boundaries 307 the noslip boundary condition to points not touching the boundary is done through shear stresses. The Euler equations are solved there with the remaining boundary condition qn = 0 satisfied at the rigid boundaries. Fig. The layer of fluid very close to the rigid boundaries is denoted the Boundary Layer. e. Thus regions far from rigid boundaries in smallv largeReynoldsnumber flows are not affected by the noslip boundary condition.+ ±Vq2 . point C. that inside the boundary layers these negligible shear solutions are not valid at all.3 Negligible shear flow over a flat plate. 10. One remembers. At points very close to the boundaries.2. dt Fr or dimensionally. The geographical fact that thin boundary layers do lie near the rigid boundaries is ignored and does not affect the solutions far from the boundaries. and for sufficiently small v this transmission decays very quickly. High Re Flows . both boundary conditions prevail and the Euler equations are no approximations at all. ^ a + l V 9 2 . The Euler equation. the Euler equations with the boundary condition qn = 0 only yield good approximations. where the Euler equations serve as good approximations.q x V x q = —Vp + g dt p (10. 10.q x V x q = EuVp + .2) The remainder of this chapter deals with solutions of the Euler equation. is sometimes referred to as the region of negligible shear. at point F in Fig. in reminiscence of the v —> 0 formulation.
1) is satisfied by This velocity also satisfies qn. however. The vorticity vector written in cartesian coordinates is * Note that for compressible barotropic flows this form still holds. Irrotational Motion Euler's equation (10. dt Define a vorticity vector ^ = V x q and Eq. Assume this to be a flow with negligible shear.0 on the flat plate. (10.308 Fluid Mechanics Example 10. however.5) at One way to satisfy Eq.5) is by £ = 0.V x ( q x V x q ) = 0.4) (10. 10. (10. Flows for which § = 0 are called irrotational flows.3) dt Taking the curl of this equation results in — ( V x q ) . Therefore q = if/ is the solution everywhere and the negligible shear flow is not modified at all.1) for incompressible flows may be written as* (10. Note.2 A two dimensional flow is given at x « 0 by q = iC/.4) becomes £) = 0. (10. the term hand side changes to on the right .3. How is the flow modified at x > 0? Solution Euler equation (10. At x ~ 0 the flow encounters a flat plate parallel to it as shown in Fig. that q = if/ is a good approximation to the physical flow only outside the plate boundary layer and certainly not for x> 0. y — 0.
We place a small object in the flow and expect its motion to approximate that of the fluid if has displaced. In irrotational .9) and for two dimensional flows these conditions simplify to dv _ du dx dy ' (10. Hence.4 Rotational vs. to satisfy V x q = 0. (10. irrotational flow Figure 10. Figure 10.e.10) direction of flow direction of flow a.Regions far from Solid Boundaries 309 in cylindrical coordinates it is dr and in spherical coordinates i p M dqA ~~r\^r~~^eP dqr 1 rsinG dr (10. or of some other fixed point on the object. irrotational flow.6) we note that for a flow to be irrotational. the term irrotational flow. and of its angular motion around this point. In irrotational flow such a small object has no angular velocity. To gain some physical insight into the character of irrotational flows. which implies flows with no angular velocity.4 shows a small arrowshaped object in rotational and in irrotational motions. it must also satisfy the following conditions simultaneously: dw dy dv dz' du dz dw dx dv dx du dy ' (10.10. Returning to Eq. we note that the motion of any solid object can always be described in terms of the motion of its center of gravity. i.8) The vorticity vector equals twice the angular velocity defined in Chapter 5. rotational flow b.. High Re Flows .
3) and note that for flows that are steady and irrotational the left hand side of the equation vanishes.310 Fluid Mechanics motion. (1011) which implies Equation (10. .13) •*S where Fc is the circulation along the closed curve c.. f (10. resulting in g ^ j . though the path of the object may be curved. It starts with Fc = 0 on any c and therefore must remain with zero circulation. These properties make it desirable to establish conditions under which real flows are irrotational. In what follows we prove that when Euler's equation describes correctly the flow. we define a new concept related to fluid rotation.„. there is no angular velocity and the arrow retains its direction in space. A corollary of this theorem is that a flow which is irrotational at one moment is always irrotational. Sc is a surface supported by this curve and n is the outer normal to this surface. „ . Using the Stokes theorem. We now return to Eq. In irrotational flows £ = V x q = 0. in _ _ * Figure 10. Equation (10. This is known as the Kelvin theo. 10. the fluid carries with it its circulation. which states: surface Sc.5) states that all irrotational flows satisfy the Euler equation. thus solutions based on irrotationality need not be checked again on that point.5 Curve C supporting rem.5. In a barotropic flow which satisfies Euler's equation the circulation does not change. which is preserved.12) holds for steady irrotational flows in the whole domain. (10. It is the strong Bernoulli equation already discussed in Chapter 7. Fig.
(10.At Figure 10.6 Surface A'B'BA generated by the curve AB moving with the fluid. High Re Flows . Dt*AB where D/Dt denotes the rate of change while following the same fluid elements.14) lim — q{t)\ds=[ 4WJ —ds.15) 1AB dt JA'B' If n —• 1 r 9 "i q • ds = lim — AtqA 9 = qA . Consider — f qds.6.10. Referring to Fig. This concept of the material derivative has already been used in deriving the Reynolds transport theorem in Chapter 4. (10. curve at t + At B curve at t q A . — \ qds = lim—If q(t + At)ds\ = lim —If q(t + At)ds\ M^O AtVA'B'HK ' q{t)dsh q(t)ds+\ JA'B'4W JA'B (10. 10.6.17) . 10.Regions far from Solid Boundaries 311 Proof: Let AB be a curve consisting of a string of fluid elements which move as a part of the motion of the whole fluid. Fig.
312
Fluid Mechanics
Similarly
Now, by the Stokes theorem
<f q• rfs =  f
J
(Vxq)ndS =  f   n r f S ,
J
(10.19)
J
&A'B'BA
where n is the unit normal to the surface, Fig. 10.6. For At —> 0 ndS = At q x
with ds taken along AB, directed from A to B. Thus
iH"^
""
(10.20)
and
Collecting all terms,
L [ f }
l d
(ia22)

Now let AB be a closed curve, i.e., point B coincides with point A, and let this
curve be denoted c. For this case j qds = rc is the circulation of q along c, and
Eq. (10.22) becomes
Dt
^\_dt
J
^&c
\_dt
J
where the Stokes theorem has been used again. However, inspection of Eq. (10.3)
reveals that the integrand in the surface integral in Eq. (10.23) has the structure of
a curl of a gradient and therefore vanishes. Thus
= 0,
(10.24)
ui
which completes the proof.
To describe what happens in rotational flows which satisfy Euler's equation, we need a new concept, that of the vortex lines. Let vortex lines be defined
as the field lines of the vectorial field V x q, i.e., as curves that are everywhere
tangent to £=Vx q. We now consider a vortex tube, Fig. 10.7, i.e., a surface that
consists of vortex lines and encloses a tube within. Let three curves be chosen on
this surface, one which is not linked with the tube, C, and two which are linked
with it, A and B. Now the Helmholtz theorem states:
10. High Re Flows  Regions far from Solid Boundaries
313
The circulation along a curve lying on the surface of a vortex tube and not
linked with the tube is zero and remains so. The circulation along all
curves lying on the surface of a vortex tube and linked with it is the same
and remains constant in time.
The proof of the Helmholtz theorem is as follows:
For curve C:
^
0,
(10.25)
and this is so because % lies on the tube surface while n is normal to it. Because of
Kelvin's theorem, however, Fc  0 always.
Surface generated by curve A
cuts through vortex lines.
Auxiliary lines
Surface generated by curves A,
B and auxiliary lines does not
cut through vortex lines.
Figure 10.7 A vortex tube.
Curve A is considered together with curve B. For clarity these curves are
drawn again in Fig. 10.7 without the tube. Now let one point be cut out of curve
A and one point be cut out of curve B. Also let two auxiliary lines be drawn as
shown, and compute <f q • ds over the whole figure, as indicated by the arrows.
This new figure comprises a curve not linked with the vortex tube, and therefore
<>j qcfe = 0. The integration on the auxiliary lines, which coincide in the limit,
cancels out, and thus
I qdscf qds =
or for all times
(10.26)
which completes the proof.
314
Fluid Mechanics
Thus while the fluid particles move according to the velocity field, those
lying on the surfaces of vortex tubes remain on those surfaces, and as they move,
they take with them the tubes. Denoting the integral over the tube cross section,
J^ii dA, the intensity of the tube, this intensity persists in time. Furthermore, a
vortex tube cannot start or end in the fluid. It must either be linked into itself in a
toroid shape or start and end at surfaces of discontinuity, such as rigid walls or
free surfaces.
Armed with Kelvin and Helmholtz theorems we now proceed to consider
irrotational solutions to Euler's equation, and for simplicity we assume these
barotropic flows to be also incompressible.
Potential Flow
When V x q = 0, i.e., when the flow is irrotational, there always exists a function <j) such that
q = V0,
(10.27)
where 0 is called the velocity potential and the flow is known as potential flow.
Irrotational flow is thus also potential flow. The equation of continuity for incompressible flows is Vq=0. Hence
V20 = O.
(10.28)
The velocity potential is a harmonic function and can be obtained by the solution
of the Laplace equation (10.28). A proper set of boundary conditions must
guarantee no normal flow relative to rigid surfaces. It is noted that the solution of
Eq. (10.28) is really a direct integration of the equation of continuity, while the
Euler equation is implicitly satisfied by irrotationality. Euler's equation is still used
through the Bernoulli equation to evaluate the pressure. The momentum and
continuity equations thus become uncoupled. Since the continuity equation is
linear, as is Eq. (10.28), superposition of solutions is permissible, and elaborate
flows may be constructed by superpositions of simpler ones. It is noted, however,
that Euler's equation is not linear, and neither is Bernoulli's equation. Therefore
the pressure in a flow obtained by superposition of two flows is not the sum of
the pressures of the two partial flows.
We now consider twodimensional flows. Equation (10.27) states
dA
dd>
dx
dy
Another differentiation yields
10. High Re Flows  Regions far from Solid Boundaries
d2(j) _ du _ dv
dxdy
dy
315
(10.29)
dx '
which can be identified as a condition for irrotationality, Eq. (10.10). Equation
(10.29) can be combined with Eq. (5.13) for the stream function
dw
dy '
to become
d2
dw
dx
v , . < ?1 V ~
dx1
(10.30)
dy
Hence, in twodimensional irrotational flow the stream function is also harmonic.
Furthermore,
u =^ =^ ,
dx ay
or in polar coordinates
r
dr
V&.—&.
dy
dx
(10.32)
6
r dd '
(10.31)
r dd
dr
Equations (10.31) and (10.32) are known as the CauchyRiemann conditions.
The family of <f> = const lines and that of y/ = const lines intersect orthogonally. This is easily shown by noting that
V0Vv = O.
(10.33)
Example 10.3  Source Flow
Consider a steady twodimensional axisymmetrical flow from a line source.
Such a flow can be approximated by a radial flow emitted through the wall of a
long slender tube made of porous material. The tube lies along the zaxis and the
fluid flows radially in the xy plane. Let Q be the fluid flow rate per unit length of
tube. This flowrate is called the intensity of the line source. Continuity yields the
fluid velocity,
^
qe=0
(1034)
The stream function for source flow can be calculated from Eq. (10.32),
_Q_ = ]_cty
2izr r dd '
dy/ =
dr
Q
316
Fluid Mechanics
Integration of dy//dd yields
and dxjf/dQ = 0 yields/= const, which is chosen to be zero. Thus
(10.35)
Constant \jf lines are therefore radii, as shown in Fig. 5.6. Similarly, the flow
potential is evaluated from
0
dr 2nr'
which results in
r d6
r.
(10.36)
The origin itself is a singular point, but everywhere else the flow is well defined.
A source with a reversed flow is a sink. Accordingly, for the flow into a sink
y/ = CG,
0 = Clnr,
(10.37)
where C=Q/2n.
Example 10.4  Potential Vortex
In potential vortex flow the radial velocity component qr is zero and only qg
exists. The condition of irrotationality results in ^ 0. Hence, Eq. (10.7) requires
r
(10.38)
or
which upon integration yields qe = C/r +f(6), and because nothing depends on
#,/=const= 0 is chosen. Thus
(1039)
qe=~.
Substitution into Eq. (10.32) results in expressions for l/Aand (j>,
y/ =  C l n r ,
(j) = C6.
(10.40)
10. High Re Flows  Regions far from Solid Boundaries
Comparison with the
source flow, Fig. 10.8, shows
that (j) and y/ lines have simply
changed their roles. Indeed,
changing the roles of (j) and i//
lines in any potential flow
yields a new flow pattern.
The constant C in
Eq. (10.40) is related to the
circulation around the vortex,
as can be shown using
Eq. (10.25):
317
constant
constant i/
Figure 10.8 Vortex flow.
= J fc
— je0 (erdr + eerde) = f^CdO = 2nC
Hence
/~i
(10.41)
_
In
and
=
(10.42)
lnr,
In
In
There is no contradiction between F ^ 0 and the irrotationality of this flow.
The circulation along any closed path not linked with the origin is still zero. The
singular point at the origin contributes the rvalue in Eq. (10.42), and the same F
is obtained along any contour linked with the origin.
Example 10.5  Parallel Flow
Consider uniform flow with a constant velocity, U, parallel to the xaxis.
Thus,
qy=v =
(10.43)
Equation (10.31) yields
y/ = Uy,
(j> = Ux.
(10.44)
Since in potential flows any streamline may be interpreted as a rigid bound
318
Fluid Mechanics
ary, the parallel flow may also be interpreted as a flow over a flat plate (say the
xaxis between x = a andx = a) at zero angle of incidence; see Example 10.2.
Example 10.6  Flat Plate Stagnation Flow
We now describe a flow perpendicular to a flat plate, Fig. 10.9. Far away from
the plate the flow is parallel to the xaxis.
Approaching the plate, the flow gradually
turns until it becomes parallel to it, as
required by the boundary conditions. This
gradual turn reminds us of a hyperbolic
arc, which we may try as a streamline. We
are also guided toward this choice by the
fact that an expression quadratic in x and
y may be amenable to satisfy the Laplace
equation. Trying
y/ = Cxy,
(10.45)
1
'
Figure 10.9 Flat plate stagnation flow,
we find that indeed V 2 y/ = 0 and the
resulting flow field is the twodimensional stagnation flow on a flat plate. The
velocity components are obtained as
dy
dw
d(j>
f,
dx
(10.46)
dd>
dy
The flow potential may now be computed as
~dx + f(y) = j'Cx dx + f(y) = \Cx2 + f(y).
(10.47)
Differentiating Eq. (10.47), we obtain
dy
dy
Hence
f=W
(10.48)
and
(10.49)
which is also a hyperbola.
10. High Re Flows  Regions far from Solid Boundaries
319
Example 10.7  Doublet Flow
Consider the superposition of two flows: y/a = C9a, which is a source located
at point a, Fig. 10.10, and yrb  C0b, which is a sink located at point b. The
combined flow has the stream function
\ir=\ira + yb=C(ea6b).
(10.50)
From Fig. 10.10, 6 = 8b  9a, and thus lines of constant y/are also lines of constant
6, i.e., circles. We may, of course, use the expressions (10.36) and also obtain
(10.51)
a
b
x
Figure 10.10 Doublet flow.
Let point a coincide with the origin of the coordinates, and let point b be
located at xm, y = 0. Thus
\nra=\\n{x2+y2)
and
Hence
2
2
x +y

An (xm)
2
—

+y2 '
(10.52)
We note that the argument showing the streamlines to be circles does not
320
Fluid Mechanics
depend on m. It is interesting therefore to check what happens as we let m > 0.
Substitution of m = 0 in Eq. (10.52) leads of course to <j> = 0, as the source and the
sink counteract and cancel each other. However, we may imagine a process by
which as m > 0, <2>°°. We want Q to increase at such a rate that the limit obtained for (j) is well defined and finite. Thus,
<p = — lim QJln(x2 + y2)ln[(xmf
4TTTO>O
I
L
+ y2]},
J
(10.53)
J
and we note that if Q > °° as M/m does when m > 0, the expression becomes
or
M d , , 2 2s M
x
d> =
Mx + y ) =
=
4K dx
2nx2+y2
Hence
M cosd
TJT
M rcosO
= =
=—.
In r2
r
(10.55)
This new flow potential, (j), describes a flow pattern known as doublet flow. Its
streamlines are still circles, and it has one singular point at the doublet itself, i.e., in
this example the origin.
Similarly, the coalescence of a source and a sink located on the yaxis leads
to a doublet with a potential dcf>a/dy. The results thus obtained could be expected,
at least in the sense that d(j)a/dx and d(f>a/dy yield new flow fields. If <j> satisfies the
Laplace equation, so do its derivatives provided the required higher partial
derivatives exist. We may also find that d2(j)a/dx dy leads to a new field describing
two coalescing doublets.
Example 10.8  Flow over Streamlined Bodies
First we consider the superposition of a parallel flow and a twodimensional
source flow, Fig. 10.11. The source is located at the origin and has the stream
function
y,q=Q6.
(1056)
YS
In
The parallel flow is taken to proceed from left to right and thus has the stream
function
p
The combined flow has the stream function
(10.57)
we see that for 0 = K and rQ/2nUboth qrand qg vanish. the only boundary condition required in such flows.10. Still some qualitative information can be obtained by general considerations. y/= Q/2. If we could close the splitting streamline. We could have reached the same conclusion by the argument that the velocity along the splitting streamline.59) —^or U V=Q/2 Figure 10. i. Inspecting Eq. so as to close the splitting streamline? We already know that in flows with negligible shear any streamline may represent a solid boundary. simply because it satisfies the boundary condition of no normal velocity. the output of the source would have nowhere to goCan we superimpose another flow on what we already have. as it comes from the left towards the source could not proceed into the source. Far to the right the flow becomes parallel again.11 Superposition of source flow and parallel flow. We recognize the need for the stagnation point A.59).e. We also note that the streamline y/= Q/2 encircling the source cannot close again. (10. and its magnitude must therefore be zero. Equation (10.. At the splitting point the velocity vector has more than one direction. i. and a stagnation point is obtained.58) 2nr (10.Regions far from Solid Boundaries In and therefore the velocity components r dG 321 (10.58) may require pointwise numerical calculation to actually give the shape of the streamlines. lines of constant y/. but the splitting streamline does not close because if it did.. High Re Flows . it would represent a finite .e. and therefore the streamline must split.
H (10. 10. Example 10. The potential still does.12 Rankine oval. we could obtain different shapes.61) .55). are known as Rankine Ovals. We could also replace the source by several sources and have a series of sources and sinks.43) and (10. The whole idea may be carried into three dimensions.1 +' 2nr2U]t/sin 0 = d^ .12. as long as the sum total of their intensities is zero.Flow over a Circular Cylinder A particular case of a twodimensional Rankine oval is that of parallel flow. Another possibility is to place several sinks to the right of the source. = 10m/s Figure 10. By varying the distributions of these sources and sinks. The shapes thus obtained. We let the sink coalesce with the source in a limiting process to become a doublet. Eqs. where the stream function does not satisfy Laplace equation. (10. This can be done in a number of ways. yields the potential = TT Urcos9n + M cosG 2n Thus.9 .60) r M r 90 2nr2U M 9 f l = f ^ = . which.322 Fluid Mechanics solid twodimensional body immersed in the flow. We could place a sink of the same intensity Q somewhere to the right of the source. one source and one sink. such that the sum of their intensities equals Q. in both two and three dimensions. would yield a closed splitting streamline. This sink would swallow up all the output of the source and thus allow the splitting streamline to close. The superposition of the parallel flow and the doublet. (10. and superposition is still permissible. Fig.
Also.65) which is parallel flow.e.. 10. at r = R. and the ys= 0 line is as shown in Fig. With circulation Figure 10. This is a flow around a circular cylinder. qr = 0 as required by the boundary condition.. for large r/R. (10. Indeed we see that for 8 = 0 and Q%. rJR1 » l / r . and (10. i.13 Flow around a cylinder. It/sin©.62) Setting R2 = MllnU gives =1_[^ (10. a. y/= 0.63) \Ursin0 and ^ H H ^ I \UCOS9. for rR. (10.e. High Re Flows .Regions far from Solid Boundaries 323 from which • " C7rsin0. Inspection of Eq. XjfQ.64) reveals that on the cylinder. i. 27zr2U\ (10. Without circulation b.64) <fo=l +  .13a. Far from the cylinder.10. and .
— 2 rJ * L ^ £7rsin0 J (10. 4 \ 1 Jr=R Hence ^() (10. Thus the combined stream function becomes F (R\r r r = +L_in7+ 1. Hence we still have a flow around a cylinder. which is considered as the rigid cylinder.68) and we find that because sin 2 0 is symmetric with respect to both the xaxis and the yaxis. while the flow pattern in the field is modified by the addition of the potential vortex. however. One of these circles will coincide with the r = R circle.324 Fluid Mechanics qd=2Usin6.67) now yields (1072) . We may try to destroy this symmetry by the superposition of yet another flow.66) We may use this qe in Bernoulli's equation (10. Thus.69) 2K and the field in general is affected nonsymmetrically as required. that particular circular streamline r — R remains circular. that for the potential vortex rotating clockwise.67) \ U Z.70) and which on the cylinder reduces to ^ Substitution of this # e in Eq. the potential vortex flow. We note. the flow exerts no drag force or lift force on the cylinder. (10. Neglecting gravitational effects and performing a Bernoulli balance between r—> °° and r = R. (10. (10. Vv=—\nr.12) to obtain the pressure distribution on the cylinder. we obtain (10. In this choice we are guided by the following observation: The streamlines in potential vortex flow are circles.
70) and (10. . Viscosity effects are barred from potential flows. n Hence L = pn/. Drag force. High Re Flows . From Fig. The only mechanism which can produce entropy in incompressible flows is viscous dissipation.10 . i. To produce drag we must admit viscosity back into the field.12b rrr dL = pdss'm6 = pR sin 6dd = p sin20d6. It is believed that the flow around it is potential and that the stream function and the circumferential velocity are given by Eqs. No such flow exists. One is tempted to look for another potential flow such that when superimposed on the one already considered will destroy the symmetry with respect to the jaxis and thus produce drag.10. P [ r / D\2i —1 l(—1 prsin0.Magnus Effect A cylinder of radius R is dragged sidewise under water and is made to rotate at the same time. i. 2nr \ \r Find the lift force acting on the cylinder..2. 10. we therefore must not expect drag in any potential flow. The nonsymmetrical term p(rU/KR)sm9 now yields a lift force.Regions far from Solid Boundaries 325 (10. at least in some thin layers near the boundaries of solid bodies.71). as will be done in the next chapter. Example 10. is always associated with entropy production.. (10. a force in the direction of the undisturbed flow far from the cylinder.e.e. 2 (10J4) and a lift force has been obtained.73) This pressure distribution is symmetrical with respect to the yaxis but not so with respect to the xaxis.
"Theoretical Aerodynamics. gpnR2. Find the velocity components.yr=R = K"sin 6.8.M. (10." Doubleday. Find the stream function. c.326 Fluid Mechanics Solution This example seems the same as Example 10. MilneThompson. However. the pressure on the cylinder is [see Eq. 1961..73)] PR=P+P—[1~ [14sin20]f(^J psi The integral of the first three terms in this expression is still zero. b. Because . the last two terms yield L = [p + pgR\\2n Rsin29d0 = pTTJ + gpnR1.12 we have two line sources perpendicular to the plane of the paper. d. London. "Shape and Flow. equals the buoyancy force one would expect to find in a hydrostatic situation.8. 1960. therefore. Eq. References L. (10. a. Problems 10. the density of water is high and we.67).. However. 10. A. Sketch the streamlines and equipotential lines (surfaces). Shapiro. . i.H.1 Suppose that in Fig. include the corresponding term in the Bernoulli polynomial. as in Example 10." 4th ed. Macmillan. Are the streamlines and equipotential lines orthogonal? e. which becomes for this case — + + 0= —+ — + gy =const. Find the potential function. New York. \ Tut JJ0 Note that the addition to the lift force in this case.e.
5. v = .7 A solid wall is added to the field in Problem 10. c. Is there a drag force? 10.2 A twodimensional source of strength Q=100% (m3/s)/mis located at A (2.10. where u . Add a flow parallel to the xaxis and find a streamline that may represent a body of maximum width of 1.4 Instead of the sink in Fig. Find the volumetric flux between the origin (0. 3).3).12 consisting of a superposition of a sourcesink and uniform flow.2 along the xaxis. High Re Flows .6 In twodimensional incompressible flow the velocity vector is q= erqr+eeqe. 10. a. or a mirror. Find the velocity at point C (0. . A sink of the same strength is located at B (2. Repeat Problem 10. Hint: Consider the xaxis to be an axis of symmetry. b.3x m/s.Regions far from Solid Boundaries 327 10.P10. Determine the pressure distribution along the surface of this body. Fig.5 m.12 there are two sinks at x = 0 and x = 1.3 for this case. Find the stagnation point b. a.3y m/s.1) with and without the parallel flow. 10. 10. The intensity of the sinks is Q = 5n m 2 / s each. All lengths are measured in meters. 10. 10. 10.5 In twodimensional incompressible flow the velocity vector is given as q = iu + jv.7.3 A flow is given in Fig.1) with and without the parallel flow. a. Sketch a few streamlines and calculate their values. What is the equation of the stream function? b. where Q Derive an expression for the streamlines.0) and point C(0. Sketch to scale the streamline that represents the rigid body. d.
<Kz) = z4. Without the parallel flow. With parallel flow at C(0.10 Repeat Problem 10.1. with the flow around it. 10. sink and wall.8 Consider a twodimensional flow field with the potential 0 and the stream function y/ formulated in the complex form <j)(z) = (f> + iy/.3) 1 i B(2. Figure P10. Do <j> and y/satisfy the Laplace equation? 10.12 Figure P10. flow around a circle?) Repeat for <j>(z) = z2 = x2y2 + ilxy = 0 + iy/. The other curves and the arrows were drawn by someone who wanted to show the rotationality (or irrotationality) of the field.328 Fluid Mechanics 1 © —— ® A(2.g..11 Repeat Problem 10. For example <j>(z) = z = x + iy = <j> + iy/.7 for a threedimensional source and sink for the following cases: a. 10.9 Repeat Problem 10. 10.2 for a threedimensional source and sink of intensity IOOTC mVs.12 shows the cylinder of Example 10.12 Flow around a rotating cylinder. the same as in . b. Draw some streamlines and interpret the flow (e.3) i i i i Figure P10.0).8 for 0fe) = z3.10. 10.7 Source.
14 shows a twodimensional flow inside a sharp bend. Find the stream function of the resulting flow. Does this flow have a stream function? If yes. Sketch the flow. Find its velocity components. Find the stream function of the resulting flow. show that it is harmonic.14 Twodimensional flow in a bend.2 m/s in the zdirection. 10. The curves represent streamlines. 10. Figure P10.13 Given a potential function in spherical coordinates <j> = A/R. Find the potential of the flow. Sketch the flow.4. 10. Show that it is the stream function of this flow. 10. A threedimensional point source of intensity Q = 5 m3/s is located at z= 1. b. find it. High Re Flows . Repeat part a. Sketch this flow. c. Repeat part a.Regions far from Solid Boundaries 329 Fig.16 a. A stream function is suggested: sin a a.15 a. Superimpose a parallel flow of the speed w . Are there stagnation points? b. . Are there stagnation points? b. that its velocity satisfies the boundary conditions. Show that indeed this is a stream function and that it satisfies the Laplace equation. 10. Draw the arrows as they look in other locations in the field. A threedimensional point source of intensity Q = 5 m3/s is located at the origin. Superimpose a parallel flow of a speedw = 2 m/s in the zdirection. A sink of the same strength is located at z = 1.14 Figure P10.10.
10. y = .330 Fluid Mechanics 10. 0. with the rod axis in the direction of the flow. Find the velocity field between the walls. A "best fit" is defined here as a closed stream surface with stagnation points at the tips of the rod and with a girdle that does not bulge out of the cylinder prescribed by the rod yet touches this cylinder.P10. Fig.19 The angle between two diverging walls is 36°. Find for this flow all quantities sought in Problem 10. Sketch the flow.20 Put a twodimensional source at the origin such that the volume flux through a sector of 36° is 2 m 3 /sm.z=0. a. d. a.19 c. Figure P10.16m. a. Using one source and one sink find the "best fit" to the rod and the flow resulting from it. Is this a possible solution of the Euler equation for the flow between two diverging walls? b.18 A twodimensional source of intensity Qx .19. v= 1. 10. y=l. y = 1. Find the velocity vector at point A. A twodimensional sink of intensity (23=200 m3/ms is located at x = 0.5. Find the force acting on the part of one wall between x = 15 m and x= 16m. A threedimensional source of strength 2 = 4 m3/s is located at x = 4m.21 The walls in Fig.100 m 3 /ms is located at x=1. c. The rod is fixed in a parallel flow of the speed of 3 m/s.0 4.05 m and a length of 1 m from tip to tip.21 are two dimensional. b. 10. 1.5. Find the velocity at x = 8 m.17 A circular rod with rounded tips has a diameter of 0. y = l .5) and Z?(0.1 .PI0. Find the volumetric flux between the walls through a plane x= 15 m. z = 0. a. Find the velocity a t x = v = z = l . b.0 Figure P10. b.21 . 10.19. A twodimensional source of strength Q = 2 m 3 /sm is located at x = 1 m. Find the flux through a plane at x. The field is two dimensional and contains the two points A (0. 0.5). A similar source is located a t * = l . Find the volume flux between point A and point B.
Regions far from Solid Boundaries 331 10.2 m. Use analytic or numerical integration. 10. Assuming Figure P10. resulting with a Rankine oval flow. in Fig. Find the pressure difference between these points and a point at r=20m .3 m2/s.21. A wind blows across the cylinder with the velocity of 10 m/s. at x= 10 m. under the flow conditions of Problem 10. 10.29 A 10mhigh circular cylinder has the diameter of l m and rotates at 800 rpm.26 to formulate the potential flow field in a twodimensional channel with an obstacle in it.2 m.23 A twodimensional wing is schematically shown in Fig. Draw the flow field at the xy plane. P10. 10. and the length of ^ the convex arc is 1. The velocity of the air streaming toward the wing is 50 m/s.5 m. The Rankine oval is denoted an obstacle.27 Use the results of Problem 10. Find the flow velocity at r = 1 m.25 The flow field around a sharp rod sticking in front of an airplane may be obtained by the superposition of three flows: a parallel flow at 45 m/s in the xdirection.0. 10.22 Find the total force on the wall x = 0 and on the wall v = 0.0. Find the stagnation point and draw the streamline representing the rod. b.28 Repeat Problem 10. estimate the lift force generated by the wing. The length of the un_/" derside arc of the wing is 1 m.24 A potential flow is obtained by the superposition of a twodimensional sink of strength Q = 2 m3 / sm and of a potential vortex of circulation F.10.23 the air velocities on the wing to be proportional to the arcs lengths. a. Find how far form the obstacle the modification of the parallel flow by the obstacle is less than 1%. at r . and a source (Qb=l m3/s) located on the xaxis at x .26 with a threedimensional sourcesink pair. 10.30 A threedimensional source of strength 20 m 3 /s is located on the xaxis at x= 5 m. 10.23. 10. Another source of strength 10 m3/s is also located on the xaxis. . a threedimensional source (<2a=10m3/s) located at the origin.26 A parallel flow is superimposed on a twodimensional sourcesink pair flow.21. both located at the origin. 10. High Re Flows . P10. Find the sideways lift force on the cylinder.
.
(8. The geometry of these boundaries is generally flat. The NavierStokes equations for these flows may be approximated by the boundary layer equations.42). We already know that in large Re flows the flow not near the boundaries is approximated rather well by solutions of the Euler equation. Differentiation for cases where h is not important yields _i_dp=udU^ p dx dx which makes Eq. which is linear. The deviations from this approximation become pronounced in a very thin layer close to the boundary. including at y — 0. as given by Eq. we derive u and v and hence U by differentiation.(8.38) . HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBER FLOWSTHE BOUNDARY LAYER In this chapter we still consider flows in which Re —> °°. because dpldy = 0 there. Once the flow potential. (8. We now have p everywhere. Inside the potential flow Bernoulli's equation holds: g ±U = const. Eqs.41). (8. Now we want to complete the description and treat regions quite close to rigid boundaries. a flat plate.5) to obtain p. and the large Re = UL/v associated with the flow is based on the large velocity U.28). which is approximately parallel to the rigid surface.38) read 333 .11. Given a boundary layer flow we start with the solution of the potential flow equation (10. in the boundary layer. is found. We then use u and v in the Bernoulli equation (7. In the previous chapter we sought the flow field in regions which were far away from rigid boundaries..g. e. (j>.
dy (11.3) yields UdU/dx = 0.The Blasius Solution Consider a flow in the ^direction parallel to a flat plate. the pressure being known. we proceed to solve the boundary layer equations.1 Flow over a flat plate.6) . and the remaining set of equations to be solved is du du — + v—= dx dy dx d u v—T. as shown in Fig. Assuming the potential flow solved.43): = Ux. (8. Potential flow velocity profile Boundary layer velocity profile Figure 11.2) dx Here U is the potential flow velocity just outside the boundary layer. where 8 is defined as a boundary layer thickness.1.334 Fluid Mechanics du dy du dx d2u rdU (11.37) and (8. and because these equations are parabolic rather than elliptic. (11.4) (11. Eq. Note that when h is important. remains unchanged. (11.5) dy with the boundary conditions u =v=0 at 3' = 0.38) should both include gdh/dx. We now illustrate this procedure by some examples. Eq. Flow over a Flat Plate . (11. The boundary condition at yRe1/2—>°° is sometimes approximated at finite y = 8. Eqs. (10. The potential flow for this example has already been solved. u = U = const.3) Equation (11. 11. The solution is easier than that of the original NavierStokes equations because there are two equations only. however.2).
High Re Flows . Now we read in Chapter 8 that the characteristic physical quantities used to construct the similarity parameters can be chosen arbitrarily. 335 (H7) Physically yRem—>°° also requires y —>°°.1. Re = LU/v. The continuity equation (11.4) (11. Eq. Adjacent layers are also slowed down because of shear stress. i. At the plate u = 0 because of the noslip boundary condition of Eq. Thus the velocity profile approaches that of potential flow only asymptotically.5)) and contributes no similarity parameter. dy/ ~^y~' resulting in v=  U dy/ dy ~dx~' d y/ dxdy dy_ = dy/ u at dy/ d y dx dy2 (11. we should choose Ux and U2 and vx and v2. Thus for two such flows to be similar.7) by the use of the stream function y/.8) y —>°o (119) dy/ Q dx~°' dv at y =Q (11. to construct Rej = Re 2 for two boundary layer flows.e.The Boundary Layer u=U at yRe 2 >°o. is the Reynolds number. some additional insight is necessary. and an exact definition of the boundary layer thickness as that y for which there is no more modification of the potential flow. (11.e.11) becomes du/dx + dv/dy = O (see Eq. (8. 11. but what are the characteristic lengths? Inspection of the geometry reveals that the only welldefined length in this flow is x itself.10) To solve these equations.6). i..4) as du dx du dy 1 d2u Re. provided they are well defined and correspond to the same geometrical locations in both cases.5) can be eliminated from the set of Eqs. as far as similitude is concerned. as y for u = U. We have therefore the dimensionless form of Eq. (11. requires y —> °° .. . (11. We review Chapter 8 and find the dimensionless form of the xcomponent of the full NavierStokes equation. with the similarity parameter Re. and we find that the only similarity parameter. (11. Therefore. dy1 The dimensionless continuity equation (8. the distance along the plate measured from its forward tip.11.12). Fig.
rj = Ayxb.336 Fluid Mechanics U2x2 Re. with U and v just scales of magnitude? If so.13) and by letting AB = U. we obtain fH =l (H.14) a n d / ' is identified as the dimensionless velocity u/U. (11. but also by considering one U and several x values.. then there must be a similarity solution. (11.11) also becomes a constant. Armed with this hint. The boundary conditions at y = 0. v. We therefore try the form y/ = Bx'bf{r]). we now define a new single independent variable which we call a similarity variable. (11.The boundary condition at y —> <*= must of course be satisfied by dy/ or Axby/'(°°) = U. by considering one x and several U values. There seems to be nothing special about the x value we have chosen.12) which now satisfies the boundary condition at infinity in the form u(x. (11. we denote it Re^ . This interesting result indicates that the flow may be viewed as similar to itself: We can cover a whole range of Re_. and y={} . = Re. v2 To emphasize the fact that this Reynolds number has x as its characteristic length.. the chosen form y/(ri) must be modified such that the lefthand side of Eq.10) become dy or r(o)=o. Could it be that the velocity profiles are always similar. and try a solution of the form \jf= vC7?).11) b Because U is constant while x is not.°°) = ABf'{r)) = U. Eq. (11.
11.630 0.161 0.e.992 0. Eq. while f(r\).0024 0 / 0 0.0642 0.14) and (11. High Re Flows . is the normalized velocity u along the plate.650 1.19) (11.14) and with (11.15).16) (11.000 / 0 0.166 0.12) into the differential equation (11. i.16)..1 f(r\) in the boundary layer. which is counts the flow rate between the plate and the considered r\ value.19). Blasius solved this equation in 1908 .397 2.332 0. (11. Equation (11.18) (11.267 0. B andb such that x and y do not appear in the equation result in with the boundary conditions f(0)=f(0) = 0.330 0.283 4.280 oo Table 11.956 0. n 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 oo r 0. The function f(rj). it is the dimensionless stream function.20) For a particular x. v (11.The Boundary Layer 337 Hence Substitution of y^from (11.0159 0.306 3. (11.323 0.17) Ux Re r = — . t] may be interpreted as a dimensionless distance y from the plate.846 0. must now be solved with the boundary conditions (11. known as the Blasius equation.999 1 .8) with the necessary algebra and the selection of the free constants A.
6 0. (11. which is related to the shear rate on the plate. would solve this equation in seconds.0 4.332.338 Fluid Mechanics by matching a power series expansion for small 77 with an asymptotic form for large r\. The results of the numerical solution are summarized in Table 11. A digital computer.332 The shear stress that the fluid exerts on the plate at a given x is du _ 0.0 2.2.u 8.332pU2 (11.0 U Figure 11.22) .664 /R^' where Cyis defined as the skin friction coefficient.4 0.0 1 1 6. One important result of the numerical computation is/"(0) = 0.2 0. From Eq.8 u 1. 11.2 Velocity in boundary layer. On the plate where y = 0. (11.0 ^ ^ 0.1 and in Fig.21) or in its dimensionless form t0 0. however. du = UJ—f"(0) ^ = 0.19) du dy dy u.
T o=v Tocfac = 0. and a workable definition has been obtained.99 U. i.23) v (1124) We now consider more closely the concept of the boundary layer thickness. and the average friction coefficient.1 reveals that this corresponds to 7] ~ 5.—=— r ^— . values different from 0.11. becomes ^ = 42 (11. LJo \ VL \/Rez. or Table 11. We therefore seek other definitions.The Boundary Layer 339 The average shear stress over the region 0 < x < L is also found. Suppose we define 8 as that y at which u = 0.25). resulting in different coefficients in Eq.u . becomes Cf=4pL Re L = . The difference in the velocities at some y is U . hence . we already know that this would result in 8 —»°°.99 may be chosen to define 8. because of the presence of the plate. which by Eq. Other useful definitions for the thickness of the boundary layer are the displacement thickness lif) (1L26) and the momentum thickness sm=^rU(uu)dy= rufiii'u m v J a i27) [/2Jo ' Jo u\ U) Figure 11.3 shows the velocity distribution in the boundary layer.18). for y = 8. Cf. (11. Region A is the difference between the flows as assumed by the potential model and as presented by the boundary layer model.664^^7. If the boundary layer is defined to extend to where u = U. High Re Flows . (11.25) x ]Re Of course. the flux between y = 0 andy = °° is smaller by the amount /"([/ u)dy than it would have been had the flow really been potential. and the total volumetric flux deficiency is \°°a{Uu)dy. (11.e. One could cause this same difference in a purely potential flow by moving the plate parallel to itself upward by the amount 8d ..
Potential flow Figure 11. The real importance of 8d and Sm. however. (11. a. becomes (11.1. Sm may be forced into an analogous interpretation with respect to momentum flux deficiency. (11.26). Having the Blasius solution for the flat plate at our disposal.3 Displacement thickness. it is interesting to compute Sd and 8m just defined. (11. (11. Going through an analogous argument for the momentum. Eq. using values of/' vs.29) Numerical integrations. yield Re.28). Eq. Equation (11.31) Comparison of Eq.31) and Eq. is their reappearance in later expressions. Thus 8d.328 Re. the dimensionless momentum thickness.24) suggests the interpretation that the plate which causes this loss of momentum must indeed withstand a corresponding shear stress. Viscous flow b.30) and Sm _ 1. may be interpreted as the distance by which the flat plate must be displaced into a potential flow to cause the same mass flux deficiency as that caused by the boundary layer. . t] from Table 11. (11.28) Similarly. (11.26) can be rewritten in a dimensionless form as (11.340 Fluid Mechanics USd=j~(Uu)dy.
a .6 m 2 /s. V200. b = 0.5 m j' = _1328 =Q. that corresponding to the flat plate in parallel flow.0. p = 1 0 0 0 kg/m 3 ) flowing parallel to it. because the force is exerted on both sides of the plate. Hence.1 A thin metal plate of dimensions a = 0.8 F = For the case L .188N. (11. Von KarmanPohlhausen Integral Method Up to this point we have seen just one exact solution to the boundary layer equations.11.000 For L — b — 0.2 x 0.2 m Re r = L v = " * = 200. holding the plate with the longer edge parallel to the flow results in a lower drag.23): _ b.5 m is held in water (v=10. High Re Flows . The approximation is that the boundary layer equation is not satisfied pointwise but . 2 The area is taken twice. What is the drag force acting on the plate? Which edge of the plate should be in the direction of the flow to obtain a lower drag force? Solution The drag force may be directly calculated using Eq.297 N. 1 3 2 " 8 = 0. 2 x O .The Boundary Layer 341 Example 11.000 10"6 and F= .5 x 1000 x I2 „ 132. Foreseeing situations where exact solutions to the boundary layer equations cannot be found. an approximate method due to von Karman and Pohlhausen is now introduced.2 m. Hence. The water velocity is U = 1 m/s. 2 x 0.664 x 0.
o dx leading to . du .. We also use the equation of continuity. which results in ^d^^dU^d^u dx dy ax dy Equation (11. o x (11. dy+\J ——dy=\J U dy+v\ — J J 2 rdy. tn ou . f« d(UV) .32) between y = 0 and y = h. but not a sufficient condition.18). Integrating Eq. dx dy ax dy Let the continuity equation be multiplied by u. (11. Eq. The method consists of first transforming the differential boundary layer equations into an integral equation.we obtain . This stage introduces an approximation into the method. _du tn 22 .. o dy dx ' J oo dy J ^o dx J Jo dy Using Leibnitz's rule on the first term and performing the integration on the second and fourth terms result in da rh rh dU . (11.18) and added to Eq. because satisfying the integral relation is a necessary condition for the solution. ri au . the shear stress on the plate. v = \J — d y .=U—+v—T.32) is called the conservative form of the boundary layer equation.342 Fluid Mechanics rather on the average over the region.7 . to express v as ry du .5). r« ri .33) dy du we identify To.. This stage is exact. Let h denote some constant value of y well outside the boundary layer. (11.aL/ du ax"j " •« ay _0 — udy + uvh = \ Uax dyv— In dx}o J h Jo dx (11. We then proceed to satisfy this integral equation by the selection of an appropriate velocity profile inside the boundary layer. h>& Consider again the boundary layer equation du du TTdU d2u u— + v~. .
the edge of the boundary layer. For the velocity profile in the boundary layer assume: a. b. dl36) The assumed profile is 9 U — = a + brf + ct] . (11. The boundary conditions of Eq.26) and (11.35) with 8m and 8d defined by Eqs.27) and (11.11. A second order polynomial.36) are satisfied for a = 0. we obtain — = — J (Uu)udy + —j (Uu)dy (11.33) accordingly. yield x d 1_ 3 2 15 s m while ls_P ^}L ^ y=0 . — = 0 at y = 8.35) now becomes . A third order polynomial. (11.34) or p dx m d dx (11. u = U. «=0 at y = 0. (11.— 8 Equation (11. U where r\ = yl 8 .27). Example 11.b = 2.c = l.2 Apply the von KarmanPohlhausen integral method to the flow over a flat plate and compare your results with the exact ones. respectively.26). Hence Equations (11.The Boundary Layer 343 Rearranging Eq. High Re Flows . Solution The boundary conditions for both cases are a. with dy = 5dr].
37) This compares favorably with Eq. yields d2u dy2 = o.36) yields only three boundary conditions. since S . b + 3d = 0. Eqs.26) and (11. (11. with dy = Sdi]. (11. yield ^ .344 Fluid Mechanics 8 15 dx or 30 — = r r _ .35) now becomes . eL^ .27).39) Again. integration yields V~ 'U~ 5. (11. Equation (11.25). y=0 The boundary conditions of Eq. However. (11. the boundary layer equation (11. b + d= I. 39 ^ 280 while p dy y=0 8 2' and Eq. with u= v = 0 at y = 0.4) itself.36) and this additional condition are satisfied bya = c = 0. (11.48 (11.38) The assumed profile is Y = a + bt] + cr]2 +drj3.0 at x = 0. U dx Now. The local shear stress on the plate is dy o and the average one is 2 b. Hence (11.
x. Eqs. Thus for small b it is reasonable to consider a twodimensional momentum source. V 13 U ^Re^ Compare this with Eq.4.We assume the width of the slit through which the jet emerges. This would make wo—>°° there. „ . High Re Flows . integration yields ~ 280 v 4.323pt/ 2 Re J . yield worse and worse results. b. = o.25).323^*7 J — or T o =0. " '  (11.. * i. 8 = 0.64 o =J x = . It has a mass flux Q = pbu0 and a momentum flux M = pbul. "smoother" transition to the potential flow. (11.e. to approach zero.40) j (1141) which compare rather favorably with the exact results. The Twodimensional Laminar Jet Another example of an exact solution of the boundary layer equations is the twodimensional jet. We do not know that these higher derivatives even exist and the assumption of a very large number of derivatives vanishing at y = 5 completely destroys the profile of the boundary layer.The Boundary Layer 3 [/ 2 8 or 345 39 TT2 dS 280 dx 280 v dS2 13 U dx Since for x = 0.21) and (11. Fig. with additional conditions of the form = 0. 11.23).1.4. while the momentum M is kept constant. Similarly 1 i . It is noted that applications of higher order polynomials.. . The shear stress on the plate is now computed as du „=/!— = 0. but because M is constant. (11. which is a very weak mass source. Q = M/uo^> 0.
We note that this flow also has no characteristic length except for x._d¥_(M2 dy 1/3 . has to be given. at y>™.. the original momentum flux must be conserved: pu2dy. (11. dx dy dyL dy = o at u =Q (11.47) which transforms Eq. u = U = 0.49) f(±oo) = 0.43) to 3f'+f2+/r=o (11.50) .48) and the boundary conditions to (11.46) pv2x2 whence .346 Fluid Mechanics Figure 11. (11.45) To completely specify the problem. For large y. Eq. r\ = M 1/3 (11.48) yields (11. the momentum of the jet.4 Twodimensional jet. and hence we follow Bickley (1939) and Schlichting (1933) in seeking a similarity transformation: \l/3 « * .43) = 0. Integration of Eq. (11. (11.42). and since the fluid extends to y = ±°°. (11.1/3 (11.42) The system to be solved is du du du u — + v—=v—=.
High Re Flows ." Phil.23.The Boundary Layer 347 3f+/f=0 with the constant of integration A = 0 because of Eq.49).727 (1939). N. London. Eq." Oxford University Press.11. Curie. "The Laminar Boundary Layer Equations. "The Plane Jet. . Mag.I resulting in 1/3 / = tanh [21 1/3 L48 1 1 1 Finally • (9Mxv\ 13 W =I 2p J — U U 81 / 3 and J 3M2 u ={32p2vx) Mv v = 36px2 cosh2(n/4Sm)' 1/3 cosh 2 (r7/48 1/3 j tanhl jl/3 • References W.51) 3A/2' Substitution in u. 7.47). A second integration yields 6f'+f2=B2 or d 71 6 df2 2 3\ df i + df ~ B f ~ B[B + f Bf which is integrated to £ _ B+f _ J 7 7 " nBf~ 1 + flB n ifIB or (11. Ser.42) yields 9 T. (11.. Bickley. and then in (11. (11. 1938.
" 7th ed.3 11. 260 (1933). H. What is the minimal drag force on the plate? 11.05 m is inserted into a flow such that a boundary layer is believed to develop along its 0. 1979. 1 m.. where? 11.1m side. is put in a parallel flow. T . as shown in Fig. 11. New York.348 Fluid Mechanics S. b.3kg/m3.5 m is set in a stream of air flowing at 1 m/s parallel to the plate. McGrawHill. Find the force required to hold the tube in place if its length is a.I. Problems 11.1 m. Schlichting. the kinematic viscosity is 1. PI 1. The fluid velocity is 0. Princeton.1 N.3 A thin tube. Schlichting. 3 m.5xl0"5 m2/s and its density is 1.1 Assume a velocity distribution in the boundary layer in the form u = Usin(ny/28) and apply the von KarmanPohlhausen method to find the shear stress on a flat plate.5 A flat plate of dimensions 0. H. . The shear force on the plate is 0. Find the force expected to act on a similar plate of dimensions 0:2 m by 0. "Viscous Flow Theory.4 Is the information that the boundary layer flow admits a similarity solution used in the von KarmanPohlhausen integral method? If yes. "Laminare Strahlenausbreitung.1 m by 0.3. "BoundaryLayer Theory.2 A flat plate 1 m by 0." ZAMM.1 m/s. 1957. 13." Van Nostrand. Pai. 20 cm I 21cm Figure P11.
The Boundary Layer 11. Assume the velocity to change linearly along the length of the flag.11. with \jf representing the potential flow outside the boundary layer.3). 11. Figure P11.y2. Hint: The flow along the flag is a boundary layer flow.6 Flow into a 90° corner. as shown in Fig.8 Consider the flow along the flag in Problem 11. A small metal flag with the dimensions a and b is inserted into the flow field.9. The viscosity of the fluid is fi= 10 kg/ms. assume laminar flow and compute the force acting on the flag when its leading edge is located at a.(2.7 Small flag in a force with which the flag must be flow field. 11.6 is y u y/=xyU. and the flow is assumed two dimensional. (1.6 The stream function in a potential flow into a 90° corner shown in Fig.7. A twodimensional flow field is given approximately by Top view (•'tow \jf = x2 .000 kg/m 3 . PI 1. held in place is then measured.1). The Figure P11.9 Two wide. PI 1. where it arranges itself such that the flat plane lies (approximately) tangent to a stream sheet.25m/s. Estimate the shear stress on the L long part of the structure along the xaxis. and its vis = 0. 11. PI 1.7 349 Figure P11. c. Neglect the change of the flow field velocity along the flag. Obtain the differential equation for the boundary layer thickness resulting from the integral approach. The flow streaming toward the plates is at U= 0.2). parallel flat plates are shown in Fig. High Re Flows . and its density is p = 1000 kg/m3.9 . The density of the fluid is p = 1. b.25 m/s.7. (10 .
PI 1. b. a.13 for a flow in an annulus with the diameters 0. PI 1.13 between the Fully Boundary developec layer entrance and up to the point where the boundary layers meet. at x . Calculate the mean velocity inside the boundary layer. 11. 11. b = 0. The entrance section.05 m2/s enters a 0. with B the location where the boundary layers meet.10 What is the smallest dimension b in Problem 11. with a third order polynomial. and a= 1 m. Using boundary layer approximation. 11. 11.2 m.15 Calculate the total shear force on the entrance section of the pipe A C B in Problem 11. Find the force transferred from the plates to the structure.1 m.14 Repeat Problem 11.1mdiameter pipe.12 Consider the boundary layer flow shown in Fig.12. The section from . 11.11 Figure PI 1. 11.15 enter the pipe. Now use this mean velocity as the free stream velocity and obtain the velocity profile and the boundary layer thickness for a flat plate at x .2 m and 0.350 Fluid Mechanics cosity is jU= 10 3 kg/ms. find how far downstream will the boundary layers meet. Is the smallest diameter which still admits a boundary layer approximation smaller or greater than the value of b obtained in Problem 11.10.9 which still permits a boundary layer approximation for this configuration.15 Fig. as shown in Fig.16 Let the oil in Problem 11. 11.2 x = 1 m and x = 3 m.5 m. Obtain the velocity profile and the x = lm x = 3m boundary layer thickness at Figure P11. PI 1. Compare the result with the shear force on the same pipe section for a fully developed laminar flow of the same mass flux. approximates the boundary layer flow. from point A to point B. The two plates are part of a structure. Explain.15. Use the von U KarmanPohlhausen integral method.15. Compare these results with those obtained in part a for x = 3 m.9 now represents a cross section of a thinwalled cylinder. Figure P11.13 Oil with the kinematic viscosity of 0.1m.
by counting knots made in the rope.15 and of the pipe geometry.. with constant suction applied along the plate.20 An old way to determine the speed of a ship was to drop into the water a log of wood tied with a rope.const at y . which is of the same length as that from A to B. B and C. The pipe is horizontal.S .16. The length of the rope that the log dragged off the ship per some predetermined time was then measured.The Boundary Layer 351 B to C. Compute b. Air is to be taken from the potential flow.12 m in diameter.0.. An air scoop is designed in the belly of the airplane to take in air to cool electronic equipment. Fig. .000 km/h. avoiding the boundary layer region. Express the readings of the manometers in terms Of the shear forces calculated in Problem 11.0. Try du/dx . Neglect the contribution of the pressure field.needed to drag a rope off a ship is 20 N.0. 11.19 An airplane flies at 1. the log drift correction. and compute the speed with which the log must be dragged to begin measuring. High Re Flows .21 An estimate of the forces of wind on a tall rectangular building is obtained as follows: The front of the building is assumed to be a 20 m wide by 50 m high flat plate perpendicular to the flow. The force. 11. 11. e.19 11.17 Express the friction head losses between points A and B and B and C in Problem 11. Three manometers read the pressures at points A. The boundary conditions in this case are u . v . The sides of the building are flat plates 50 m high by 60 m long in the direction of the wind. Figure P11.e. The back side is at the static pressure.g. The log is a wooden cylinder 1.2 m long and 0.19.P11. subjected to the stagnation pressure of the wind.U at v —> °° and u .18 Consider the boundary layer flow over a porous flat plate. i.11. 11. and obtain an exact solution of the boundary layer equations. represents the fully developed flow.
PI 1. Find the drag force on the sleeve.5 m in diameter. that moment which keeps the arrow tip pointing forward.008 kg.08 m 11.22 arrow speeds of 10 and 30m/s. Estimate the force driving the car forward in the water. The drag force on the sinker is caused by viscous friction only. The sleeve is 2 m long and 0.23. Its mass is 0. i.3 m wide. The density of glass is 2.22. Find the 0. which is drawn to scale. for Figure P11.25 A bullet fired into a pond enters the water at the speed of 300 m/s.24 A sleeve of cloth is towed behind a ship. 20 and 40km/h. PI 1. The bullet has a diameter of 0.03 m and is 2 m long.352 Fluid Mechanics which suffer shear forces as in a boundary layer flow.01 m correcting moment for small deviation angles. Find the distance he could have reached in a vacuum.000 kg/m 3 .23 An arrow is drawn in Fig. and they are 0.22 A glass sinker has the teardrop shape shown in Fig. The outer radius of the tires is 0.  6mm [*100mm* 600 mm Figure P11.009 m and is 0.23 11. with an apparent density of 800 kg/m3. A man throws that javelin at an elevation angle of 45° and reaches a distance of 50 m. The speedometer shows that on land the speed would be 80 km/h.8 m. 11.26 An amphibian car floats on the water with its rear wheels spinning. Compute the total force on the building for winds of 10. 11. 0. Assume just viscous friction as in a boundary layer flow and estimate the bullet's deceleration in the water.27 A javelin has an average diameter of 0.015 m long. Find the distribution of the drag force along the arrow. 11. Measure the figure and compute the terminal speed of the sinker in water.e.. also subjected to shear forces. 11. The ship sails at 3 m/s. . the wheels are just half submerged. to scale. The top is a flat plate 20 m wide by 60 m long.
29 A rope which has a diameter of 0. 11. 11. It is suggested to use results known for an old welldesigned boat to construct a new doublehulled boat that has the same total carrying capacity as the old one.The Boundary Layer 353 11. including boundary layer effects in the pipe.30 A 0. 10 m 3m Figure 11. 11.11.05 m and is 20 m long dangles in the water behind a boat sailing at 5 m/s.28 A streamlined boat has most of its drag derived from viscous friction on its wet skin. High Re Flows . estimate by how much must the power driving the new boat be increased relative to that driving the old boat. Find the mass flowrate of the water.30. Find the drag caused by the rope.30 .014mdiameter pipe 3 m long is set in the side of a 10mhigh water tank. Using boundary layer considerations. Fig.
.
i.12. In all experiments the velocities of the two fluids are adjusted so as to have as little shear strain between them as possible.. and the dye is restricted to the inside of this stream tube. The stream tube which makes the envelope of this stream cylinder is well defined.. As the experiment proceeds.e..  Laminar flow Turbulent flow Figure 12. The inner tube has a small diameter and its opening is located far from the bend.1. LB is sufficiently long to guarantee fully developed flow. . It consists of a small tube inserted inside a large transparent pipe. 12. TURBULENT FLOW Reynolds Experiment Consider the experimental apparatus shown in Fig. ' • . the inner fluid is dyed while the outer one is clear.1 Reynolds experiment. all these can be summarized using the Reynolds number as the single parameter involved. and they have the same p and /J. The experiment is repeated for various fluids and for various velocities. The fluid in the inner tube is the same as that in the outer pipe. and as discussed in Chapter 8. It is found that the description given 355 . The dye begins to spread out by molecular diffusion only far downstream. However. a dyed stream cylinder is seen to form downstream from the opening of the inner tube.
1.000 the limit in Eq. Rez)=^<2. Consider a body of fluid. calculated using the pipe diameter D as the characteristic length. q then is not defined and our continuity and momentum equations cannot be used. Consider the turbulent flow in a pipe. and therefore a certain degree of randomness in the ensuing turbulent flow is to be expected. An average velocity for the system may be defined as M q=— m and the velocity at point A may be defined as q= lim — . in Chapter 1. If one was to plot the velocity of the fluid at a given point in the pipe.000.2) m—>m£ 771 The definition of mE (or rather of the volume Ve which contains the mass me) as well as the limitations on this definition are presented in the sections on the continuum and on local properties in a continuum. namely. At this point it is necessary to reconsider the definition of the velocity vector. Let the momentum of the system be M and let its mass be m.e. Returning now to the description of Reynolds' experiment. Above this Reynolds number the envelope of the dyed stream tube is not clearly defined. This .000. the flowrate per unit crosssectional area.1) where V is the average velocity in the pipe. To explain the appearance of the turbulent flow. there are small rapid velocity fluctuations about some average value. and with the point A inside the system. As seen. do not have such timeindependent solutions for Re > 2.2) does not exist. 12. a pattern similar to that of Fig. Although the boundary conditions remain time independent. we are faced with one of the two uncomfortable choices: Either for Re > 2. (12. 1. the second choice is the correct one. with a system S within. Fig. is below a certain numerical value. i. While one should always bear in mind the first possibility. or the momentum and continuity equations. The laminar character of the flow is lost and the flow becomes turbulent. use must be made of the theory of hydrodynamic stability.356 Fluid Mechanics above fits flows whose Reynolds number. which is outside the scope of this book. nonperiodic and nondecaying. (12. with boundary conditions that do not depend on time and which have had timeindependent solutions for Re < 2.2 would result. (12. Still it is important to note that the explanation relies on the amplification of random perturbations. The dye is seen to mix with the outer fluid right from the opening of the inner tube. the resulting flows persist to be time dependent.000.
Turbulent Flow 357 average value may or may not depend on time. p = p + p. Some insight into the mechanism of viscosity is helpful to explain its modification by turbulence. (12. Similar relations may be written for the other velocity components as well as for other properties. such as the pressure. i..2 Velocity in turbulent flow._ 1_ =— At Ath l')dt (12.6) rt+at J q'dt = 0 . It was treated as a coefficient. Consider the differential layer shown in Fig. T = T+T'.. the temperature. etc.e.e. The velocity then is a superposition of an average velocity u and a velocity fluctuation u\ uu (12.3 and note that any point in a threedimensional flow can be locally described by that scheme.5) and (12.4) The average quantities are defined according to the form 1 rt+At =— Ath qdt M 1 rtrt+At.: v = v +v.12. 12. as a multiplier which serves to adjust units and to formally yield good approximations to physical phenomena. the time average of the fluctuations vanishes. i. The Nature of Turbulence The concept of the coefficient of viscosity has already been used to obtain the NavierStokes equations.3) +u\ steady ^ u Figure 12. In addition to .
This thermal motion has an average zero mass flux. (12. The Equations of Motion in Turbulent Flow Consider the xcomponent of the momentum equation for incompressible flow. The increase in shear stresses in turbulent flows is sometimes said to result from eddy viscosity.3 Exchange of momentum on the molecular scale. the shear stress between the layers is proportional to both du/dy and the speed of the random motion of the molecules. For a given du/dy the transfer of momentum is thus enhanced by turbulence. while the B ones have u + du velocities. B Figure 12. to yield: 'du . . which is just another statement describing the action of the random turbulent fluctuations. whole chunks of fluid move at random.3. . +M dx dy dz I dx [dx2 d2u dy2 d2u . As seen directly from Fig. f du dv dw^\_ \dx dy dz) and added to the xcomponent of the momentum equation. Let the equation of continuity be multiplied by u. 12. d(u d(uw)} j _ dp \d2u diu 2)) . In turbulent flow. d(uv) diuv) . The A molecules have an average xwise velocity of u.7) This form of the equation of motion is sometimes referred to as the conservative form. in addition to the random motion of the individual molecules. djuw) dp .358 Fluid Mechanics the continuum velocity u there exists the microscopic random thermal motion of the molecules. . and a molecule A traveling a distance +dy is compensated for by a molecule B traveling dy.
12) d(u'2) ^ dju'v') dx dy  diu'w')  dz I .8) d(u<S) 0[u / dx +^x~~' d(uv) _ d(uv)  dju'v) dy dy dy  d(uv') dy (12 9)  dju'v') dy We now timeaverage the resulting equation by integration over the time interval At. the terms nonlinear in the fluctuations remain in the timeaveraged equations. Thus q = q+q'. /2 \ .7) results in du ___ d(u ) ^ d(uv) ^ d(uw)  _ dp  dx2 dy2 dz2 I (12.2v )J{u ) +2 ~^x~^r (12. for each term in Eq. (12. 2 d{u.7) we substitute the sum of its mean value and the corresponding fluctuations. Turbulent Flow 359 In turbulent flow. 1 — =— — \u \dt\ dx dxlAt't ^ does not vanish. p = p + p'. (12. However. I \ Using these expressions. Also duu' d ct+At_ dx = — \ uu dt = O and du'v dy However duv' _ dy d(u'z) d f 1 tt+At. We note that — 1 rt+At u' = — At h u'dt = 0 and v' = w' = p' = 0. Thus each term in the equation is replaced by its mean value.9) yields d(u2) _ d(u2) dx dx d(u'2) dx Time averaging eliminates all the terms in which the fluctuations are linear. (12.12. Eq. Time smoothing of Eq.
and we see that Eq. (12.12) which do not have corresponding ones in Eq.16) ryz=p^W. These terms account for the turbulent momentum transfer due to the random velocity fluctuations. as is the mean free path.12) reveals a new group of terms inEq.7) and (12. >ldx2+~dy2+~dz2\ +V Equation (12.7). (12. we substitute v' + V.12)? In many practical problems Eq.and zcomponents of the timeaveraged NavierStokes equation. This distance is called the Prandtl Mixing Length.18) Let Eq. before it randomly changed direction.19) has the extra terms resulting from v'. (12. instead of the kinematic viscosity. but rather a property of the flow.12). (12. (12.e. The term v' is called turbulent viscosity or eddy viscosity.e.15) Repeating the procedure for the y. three additional terms of the turbulent stress tensor f are obtained: ^y = ~PV'2 . i. (12. This mixing length is not a property of the fluid. i. (12. that distance traveled by a lump of fluid laterally to the mean velocity direction.360 Fluid Mechanics Comparison of Eqs. (12.=pwV..19) be used instead of Eq. (12. which justifies its use. v = \x / p. (12. Generalized Profiles In early work on turbulent flows close to rigid boundaries Prandtl (1925) attempted to obtain the Reynolds stresses from an a priori estimate of the u'v' quantities.7) be divided by p and rewritten with a slight modification. (12. (12.. (12. du d(u2) 1k + dx + d(uv) d(uw) _ I dp it dy + dz ~~~p~dx+gx+\V \ \d2u d2u d2u\ .13) T^.12) has the extra terms of the Reynolds stresses. Prandtl Mixing Length. May Eq. while Eq.19) yields good approximations to measured results.14) t r T xz=pu uF.. (12. These terms are known as the turbulent Reynolds stresses and may be written as Ttxx=~pu'2. Their role is similar to that of momentum transfer by molecular viscosity resulting in the laminar shear stresses.17) 4=pw'2. (12. Certainly the distance traveled by a . He defined the macroscopic analog of the microscopic mean free path.19) is now compared with Eq. (12.
the resulting profile is confirmed experimentally for many classes of turbulent flows. at least in the vicinity of the wall. The equation recast in dimensionless form for pipe flow becomes . i. We note from the figure that dy Hence the turbulent stresses are Close to a solid surface we may take T* ~ %w = const so that \2 which together with (12. i. L = kLy.e. Prandtl chose his mixing length as proportional to that distance. we substitute L. that length traveled by a chunk of fluid laterally to the direction of the average flow. the Prandtl mixing length. (12. The constants of Eq. Turbulent Flow 361 chunk of fluid cannot exceed the distance from some nearby wall. (12.3 and consider it now as corresponding to turbulent flows. Instead of XL. 12.22) A general velocity profile near a rigid wall has been obtained. (12. Though this treatment seems rather qualitative.. " =— \ny + B.22) must be found experimentally for each flow.20) with kL the proportionality factor. the molecular mean free path.e. We look again at Fig..12.20) gives djl_j_ \*w_ dy ~ kLy"\ p or y h\ P Integration yields .
(12. as can be seen from the In y+ term.24) At the wall itself.26) while for the turbulent core Prandtl's simple expression still applies. The dimensionless distance from the wall is defined in the form of a Reynolds number as (12. and solutions of turbulent flows rely largely on experiments. which extends from the wall to y+ = 5. (12. given by Eqs. the profile is linear: K+=/\ 0<y+<5. a turbulent core and a buffer layer in between. It is particularly useful in the analysis of heat and mass transfer to walls in turbulent conduit flows. Equation (12.23) The universal profile. Attempts to construct a sufficient number of additional equations were not successful. (12. The use of this profile. (12.v'.362 Fluid Mechanics u+=2. (12. u'. A more elaborate treatment divides the flow in a pipe into a laminar sublayer near the wall.51ny + +5. 5<y+<30.23) where u+ u/u* is the dimensionless velocity with u* = ^TWIp known as the shear velocity.23).5\ny+ + 5. The velocity profile obtained is given in the form of three equations. Eq. (12.12).25) For the buffer layer the profile is given by u+=5.5.w'. all velocities must damp out and the flow cannot remain turbulent.5. reveals that for the same number of equations as in laminar flow we now have three additional dependent variables. It is known as the universal profile and it holds for the whole cross section of the pipe. applies to turbulent flows in smooth pipes. (12. because of the viscous boundary conditions. y + >30. ignoring the laminar sublayer and the buffer zone. For the laminar sublayer. The Moody Diagram Inspection of the timeaveraged momentum equation for turbulent flow.25) and (12. . a + =2.26). one for each region. yields very good results in many cases.05.23) does not hold at the wall.0lny+3. where the processes depend strongly on the flow field details near the wall.
r = R. T r2 =0 T rz = at mi at X r = 0. defines the friction factor in terms of the wall shear stress. of course. hp (1230) .29) Comparison of Eq.49) one may write for a round pipe AP__}_d_i T \ L r dr *• rz^ with the boundary conditions at the centerline (r = 0) and at the pipe wall (r = R). it still implies that the only similarity parameter in the flow is the Reynolds number. (12. (12. and on the Reynolds number. The fact that the pipe walls may not be smooth leads to the use of the concept of wall roughness.22) shows that the definition of the friction factor is similar to that of the skin friction coefficient. A convenient way to formulate the problem is to define a friction factor/as \pVl LID ' where V = Q / A is the average velocity in the pipe. (12. (11.28) T' This result.27) is now rewritten in terms of the friction head loss. Wall roughness is defined as the average height. Cf. for a flat plate.29) with Eq. Turbulent Flow 363 While Eq. e. respectively. Integration yields _R AP W O L or D AP w 4 (12. *w=tPV2.27). (6. of the asperities on the wall surface. e / D. Using Eq. in addition. Equation (12.12) cannot be solved. f = ^L (12. We thus expect the dimensionless pressure drop along the pipe to depend on the relative roughness. combined with Eq. made dimensionless with respect to the pipe diameter.12. to geometrical similarity. xw. All round pipes are geometrically similar.
Rewrite the universal profile in terms of the friction factor. . where head losses depend both on the molecular viscosity (linear with the velocity) and on Reynolds stresses (proportional to the square of the velocity). 12. Transient zone.4.31). Laminar flow.31) Re The friction factor. Eq. except in rare cases where an analytical solution exists. (12.25). the friction factor has to be evaluated experimentally. (12. s/D.58). It is really the existence of this region which justifies the choice of V2 in the definition of/in Eq. (12. The profile is written in terms of To perform calculations it is convenient to have the profile put in terms of the parameters used in the Moody diagram. v= APD2 to yield or f = ^.364 Fluid Mechanics This result may be used in the modified Bernoulli Equation. Fig.26) and (12.27) may be combined with the Poiseuille Equation. is presented for the general case as a function of the Reynolds number and the relative roughness. (12. Example 12. The diagram contains three distinct zones: a. (7.23). b. Re. For the special case of laminar flow Eq. Turbulent zone. c.1 The universal velocity profile for turbulent flow in a smooth pipe is given by Eqs. /. (12.23). and the Reynolds number. for which an analytical solution was given by Eq. This was done graphically by Moody in 1944 in what is called the Moody diagram. where Reynolds stresses prevail and/hardly changes with Re. Generally. (6./. Eq.27). (12.
1 I 9 « 1 N h • n II <2 1 I s Iw > 3 • •a c i II =s a. 11 s en 365 .4 "tf 1 ti.i — u y f t 11 / / ^/ & W i ZIZ~~Z~~ .I? E 7 m p — o O> o CO 8 S  1 'if   i i >"• XXl si lit j j • I 1 CO (0 _oo ooo ooo 3Ai±vnaa J fJ  i  x "—• M ii [ l ' O —7 " ~ /1 i I J / < // —Jl fUJfh'. o o' n n 2 s> //j I/A : Q CO u> (.ttlln I F 14 1 h wil si o  /.i acuovd JJ I It %_' xL ~L t frj 1 J /If 1 / 11 1 1 4 mm //f u. 1 w / .p.. :::::::.J — •.4 ::fP.''•+..
25). at For the buffer layer.£ <30. y+ > 30. (12. P and obtain VV//8 Also. (12. (12. 0 < y+ < 5.26) yields If —Re.5 at ^Re.05 D V8 c. For the turbulent core. yv If D V8 and for the various regions the universal velocity profile becomes: a. For the laminar sublayer. Eq. from Eq. (12.366 Fluid Mechanics Solution The velocity profile is given by where y+ = : Wesubstitute JTjp from Eq.23) u Vjf/S + 5. from Eq.13. at <^Re. 5 < y+ < 30. D or y b.MD V8 .29).
0117. i.8% of the radius. 10xl0 6 x0. for the laminar sublayer. y+ = 5. From the Moody diagram. at the beginning of the turbulent core. The turbulent core begins at y+ = 30.615xl(T 6 x5. y = 0.000y. Where does the turbulent core begin? c. and the turbulent core covers 99.2 Water (density p = 1.000 kg/m 3 . b.4. Turbulent Flow 367 Example 12.e.615 xlO. Hence in this pipe the buffer zone extends only up to 0. d. The variable y+ is / R D e / V8 / 0. a. a. For the buffer zone . What are the velocities at the edge of the laminar sublayer. The velocity profile is obtained from the results of Example 12. c..0000784 m = 0.16% of the radius. b. 12. and at the pipe centerline? Solution We first establish the flow regime by computing the Reynolds number 1(T6 Hence. Write the equations of the velocity distribution in the pipe.078 mm.1.0117 w = 146.6 y + . kinematic viscosity v = 10"6 m 2 /s ) flows with the average velocity o f V = 1 0 m / s i n a smooth pipe of diameter D = 10 cm. we obtain / = 0.12. Find the thickness of the laminar sublayer. is 3> = 2. the flow is turbulent. Hence. The thickness of the laminar sublayer. Fig.1 3 8 or y = 2.
368
Fluid Mechanics
u = SVJi x In M Re,M  3.05 V,K ,
70
where
V 8
"
V / 7 8 = A/0.01 17 / 8 = 0.03824.
Thus,
= 5xl0x0.03824xln
10
[
xao3824
01
0.1
y
3.05x10x0.03824,
JJ
u = 1.912 In (382,400};)  1.166.
For the turbulent core
URej
D V
u = 2.5 x 10 x 0.03824 In (382,400 y ) + 5.5 x 10 x 0.03824,
M = 0.956 In (382,400;y) + 2.103.
d.
The velocity at the edge of the laminar sublayer, where y = 1.307 x 10"5 m, is
u = 146000 x 1.307 x 105 = 1.91 m/ s .
The velocity at the beginning of the turbulent core, where y = 0.0000784 m,
is
u = 0.956 In (382,400 x 7.84 x 105) + 2.103 = 5.35 m / s.
At the centerline y = 0.05 m, and the velocity is
u = 0.956 In (328,400 x 0.05) + 2.103 = 11.38 m/s.
It is worthwhile to note that although the velocity at the centerline seems
reasonable, the velocity gradient is not. Differentiation shows that it does not
vanish at the centerline, as it should.
Example 12.3
It has been found experimentally that turbulent flow in rough pipes is not
affected by the roughness elements as long as the latter do not protrude outside
the laminar sublayer; i.e., the pipe walls are said to be hydraulically smooth for
12. Turbulent Flow
369
where e is the height of the roughness elements.
For turbulent flow in a pipe of 5 cm diameter and Re = 50,000, find the
maximum height of roughness elements allowing flow under hydraulically smooth
conditions.
Solution
We are essentially looking for the thickness of the laminar sublayer for a
flow with Re = 50,000. We use the expression for y derived in Example 12.2
and lety+ = 5. For Re = 50,000 we read, from Fig. 12.4,/= 0.021. Thus,
,
= 9.75 x 10"3 cm = 0.1mm.
50,000 x V O . 0 2 1 / 8
H e n c e , for roughness elements smaller than e m a x the pipe walls can b e considered
hydraulically smooth.
One should also note how thin the laminar sublayer is. It is not surprising
that Prandtl's formula, Eq. (12.23), which neglects it altogether, is nevertheless
quite accurate for hydrodynamic calculations.
£
=y =
max
Flow in Pipes
The problems encountered in the use of the Moody diagram to compute
pipe flow are of two kinds:
1.
2.
The direct problem: given the mass flow in a pipe, what is the head loss?
The indirect problem: given the pressure drop, what is the flowrate?
The indirect problem is nonlinear. Most problems in water distribution
belong to the indirect class, where solutions are obtained by iterations and the
use of a computer.
Example 12.4
A cast iron pipe 15 cm in diameter was installed in a water system 15 years
ago. Experience indicated that this type of pipe will increase its wall roughness
with time according to the relation
370
Fluid Mechanics
where e0 = 25 x 10"5 m is the wall roughness of a new pipe and e is the roughness
after t years. A new pump is to be installed in the system which is capable of
delivering a maximum discharge of 0.03 m3/s of water at 27°C. Estimate the
pressure drop per meter of horizontal pipe at the maximum discharge.
Solution
After 15 years of service,
e = 25 x 1CT5(1 + 0.25 x 15) = 0.00119m.
The relative roughness is then given by
A
&ooii9
=
D
0.15
The average velocity of the water flow in the pipe is
f
A
(0.15) 2 (TZ/4)
=
1.698
m/g
.
Now, at 27°C, v = 0.0086 x 10"4 m2/s and p = 1,000 kg/m3. Thus, the Reynolds
number is
_ _
=
=
=
v
0.0086 xlO" 4
For the values of e/D and Re calculated above the Moody diagram, Fig. 12.4,
yields / = 0.036. The friction loss is then given by
R
e
D 2g
{0.15^2x9.
=
0.035m.
Example 12.5
A pipe carries water from a reservoir and discharges it as a free jet, Fig. 12.5.
Find the flowrate to be expected through a 20cminnerdiameter commercial
steel pipe for which e = 4.6 x lO"5 m.
12. Turbulent Flow
371
h = 35 m
L=135mh = 0Figure 12.5
Solution
Points 1 and 2 are both at atmospheric pressure. Thus, Bernoulli's equation,
Eq. (7.23), which applies between these two points is simplified to
Yt+h
h=
1
2g
f
where the velocity at which the reservoir surface recedes, V1; has been neglected.
Now,
Combining this with the Bernoulli equation leads to
Substituting the data results in
35 = 2x9.8
0.2
or
The problem cannot be solved directly in the case of turbulent flow, since / as a
function of V is not known, and so V cannot be isolated algebraically. Instead, an
iterative process involving the Moody diagram must be used.
We use the Moody diagram and as a first guess estimate the friction factor
for the roughness of e/D = 4.6x105/0.2 = 0.00023 to b e / = 0.014. We then solve
for V2:
686
= 8.1m/s.
1 + 675x0.014
The Reynolds number is then
V =
8.1x0.2
= 1.88xl0 6 .
0.0086 x 10"
372
Fluid Mechanics
For this number, the Moody diagram gives a friction factor of 0.0155. We now
repeat the above computations using this new friction factor until there is no
appreciable change in the factor. We find
V2 = 7.736 m / s ,
/ = 0.0155,
the friction factor remaining essentially unchanged. The volume flow rate is then
Q = V2A = 7.736^—J x 0.22 = 0.243 m3 / s,
and the pressure drop is
Ap = f— ^2p
= 0.0155x — x k2 7 . 7 3 6 2 X 1,000 = 3.13 x 10 5 N/ m2
^ ' D 2 F
0.2
Example 12.6
Figure 12.6 shows a line diagram of a piping system: Pipe AB is 500 m long
and has an inner diameter of 0.1 m. Pipe BC is 200 m long and has an inner
diameter of 0.05 m. Pipe BD is 300m long and has an inner diameter of 0.025 m.
The pressures were measured at points A, D, C and found to be pA  600 kPa,
pc = pD = 100 kPa. Find the flowrates in the pipes for a fluid of v = 10 6 m 2 /s,
p = 1000 kg/m3 and e/D =0.002 for all pipes.
D
Figure 12.6 Piping system.
Solution
All flows are assumed turbulent. From Eq. (12.27)
Therefore
12. Turbulent Flow
373
Also ApBC = ApBD, and because of conservation of mass
y A B =0.5 2 V B C + 0.25 2 V B Z ) .
The solution is iterative:
a.
Assume: VBD = 5 m/s
=>
ApBD = 2,775 kPa > 500 kPa.
Re BD = 125,000,
/ = 0.0185,
b.
Assume: VBD=l m/s
=>
4p B D = 180kPa.
=>
Assume VBC = 2 m/s
ApBC = 200 kPa > 180 kPa.
Assume VBC= 1.9 m/s =>
ApBC= 180.5 k P a  180 kPa
ReBD = 25,000,
/ = 0.03,
Re BC = 100,000,
/ = 0.025,
Re BC = 95,000,
/ = 0.025,
VAB = 0.52 x 1.9 + 0.25 2 x 1 = 0.5375 m/s,
/ = 0.025, ApAB = 1.95 kPa,
ReAB = 53,750,
ApAB + ApBC 182 kPa < 500 kPa.
c.
Assume: VBD= 1.67m/s =>
^ B D = 450 kPa.
Assume VBC = 3.17 m/s =>
ApBC = 492 kPa > 450 kPa.
Assume VBC = 3.03 m/s =>
ApBC = 450 kPa.
ReBD = 41,665,
f= 0.027,
Re B C = 158500,
f = 0.0245,
Re BC = 151500,
f = 0.0245
VAB = 0.52 x 3.03 + 0.252 x 1.67 = 0.86 m/s
/ = 0.025 ; ApAB = 46 kPa.
ReAB = 86,000,
4p AB + ApBC  496 kPa ~ 500 kPa.
Results:
VAB = 0.86 m/s ;
VBC = 3.03 m/s ;
VBD = 1.67 m/s.
Flow through Pipe Fittings
Pipe fittings are such parts as connections, flow dividers, bends and elbows,
reducers, valves and many more, all of which have fluids flowing through them.
Pipes used to transfer fluids invariably involve pipe fittings, and the combination
of pipes and fittings is sometimes referred to as a piping network. The municipal
water supply in a city is an example of a piping network. In the previous section
we have considered friction losses in pipes. We now extend our treatment to the
contribution of the various fittings to the friction losses in the piping network.
374
Fluid Mechanics
Suppose we had only one type of fitting, say a 90° short bend, which we
use when we want to connect two pipes perpendicular to one another. We could
look for similarity conditions and find that in addition to similarity in geometry
there is one similarity parameter, the Reynolds number. Closer scrutiny shows that
surface roughness is also important and that a dimensionless roughness parameter
may be defined in exactly the same manner as in pipe flow. Armed with this
information we could perform experiments and sum up our results in a chart
somewhat like the Moody diagram. We could denote this diagram as the friction
loss chart for a 90° short bend.
We could now repeat the procedure for a 90° long bend, for a teeshaped
flow divider, etc. Indeed under certain circumstances this elaborate treatment is
adopted. In general, however, one tries to avoid such a detailed investigation for
each and every fitting; there are very many fittings, and the amount of the
experimental work involved can become considerable.
Suppose we had obtained the friction loss diagram for a 90° short bend. The
friction coefficient is denoted by F, and by analogy to Eqs. (12.30) and (12.27),
the friction head loss may be expressed as
V2
hf=F—
(12.32)
F = F(Re.,e/D).
(12.33)
with
Simplification of treatment now depends on the behavior of F.
Some experimental data published in the literature show this F to be a
constant for each particular fitting, i.e., F = k,
V2
(12.34)
with k being referred to as a loss coefficient. A partial explanation for this
somewhat surprising simplification is that many fittings are designed for particular
forms of use, and the range of the Reynolds numbers at which they are used is
not large. In other words, the function F does not vary much over the range in
which its argument, Re, varies. Another possible explanation is that the losses
result from turbulent eddies which are activated by deceleration and draw their
energy at a rate proportional to the kinetic energy of the flow. In such cases the
loss coefficient k in Eq. (12.34) is simply the proportionality coefficient, and the
losses may be interpreted as a certain percentage of the kinetic energy. Some k
values are presented in Table 12.1.
12. Turbulent Flow
Loss coefficient,
Eq. (12.34)
Fitting
k = hf/(v2/2g)
Elbow, 90°
Elbow, 45°
Tee, flow turns 90°
Tee, flow straight through
Return bend
Gate valve, fully open
Globe valve, fully open
Sharpedged pipe entrance
Rounded pipe entrance
Inward projecting pipe entrance
Sharpedged pipe exit
Square expansion from dtoD
d/D = 0.2
d/D = 0.4
d/D = 0.8
Square contraction from Dtod
d/D = 0.2
d/D = 0.4
d/D = 0.8
375
Equivalent length,
Eq. (12.36)
L
e=T>=hf/f(v2/2g)
0.9
0.4
1.8
0.9
2.2
0.2
10
1.0
0.020.1
0.8
0.5
3040
15
60
30
10
100  300
0.92
0.72
0.16
0.49
0.42
0.18
Table 12.1 Friction losses in pipe fittings.
The total friction losses of a fluid flowing through a pipe with fittings is
found by combining Eq. (12.30) with Eq. (12.34),
= /—+
(12.35)
D
Another approach to an approximation relies on the speculation that
perhaps the F function, Eq. (12.33), may behave like the Moody friction factor/,
Eq. (12.27), in the form
F(Re, e/D) = Le /(Re, e/D),
with Le = L/D, in which Le is a dimensionless equivalent length, expressed as an
376
Fluid Mechanics
equivalent number of pipe diameters, which is a constant. Experimental results
confirm this speculation for the 90° short bend and for many other pipe fittings,
with a constant Le value for each fitting. To compute friction losses under these
circumstances, the F function is obtained for a particular fitting by reading its Le
value from an appropriate table and multiplying it by the friction factor / read
from the Moody diagram for a pipe of the corresponding diameter. Thus the
friction head loss due to a fitting may be computed as
V2
2g
V2
—
2g
(12.36)
and comparison with Eq. (12.30) suggests that Le may be indeed expressed as
LeL/D, in which L is a dimensionless equivalent length, i.e., the losses associated with the fitting are the same as for a pipe of the same diameter and an
equivalent length expressed in a number of pipe diameters. Table 12.1 also lists
the equivalent lengths for some fittings. It should be noted that for some flow patterns the use of the loss coefficient k yields better approximations, while for other
patterns the Le approximation is better. When one approach is definitely better,
the table does not list the other parameter at all.
Example 12.7
A piping network is shown in Fig. 12.7. The pipe from A to E and from F to
G has a diameter of 0.05 m and a total length of 60 m. The pipe section EF is
0.025 m in diameter and 20 m long. All the pipes have a relative roughness
£/D = 0.001. The mean velocity needed at G, when the globe valve D is fully
open, is 2m/s. Find the water level h needed to sustain such a flow of water.
C
D
E
Figure 12.7 Piping system.
G (sharp pipe exit) 0.4 m. Fig. we first calculate the Reynolds number for the pipes with D = 0.= 66. C (tee. The friction losses due to piping alone are hf p = Y/Ar^l ^ D[2g) = 0.8. 2g To find the friction factor.36 + 0.025 m diameter. 1g 2g Noncircular Pipes A concept which emerges from the application of the idea of the universal velocity distribution to the similarity of turbulent flows is that of the hydraulic diameter. .022x — x — + 0.8 + 10 + 0. F (expansion. Similarly. {r )2g ' 2g 2g The total friction losses are hf=hf + hfp = 61. and the water level h required is V2 22 h = hff + . Suppose we seek the head loss in a turbulent flow in an elliptical pipe. the losses due to the fittings are given in terms offcvaluesas: A (sharp pipe entrance) 1.5 + 4.86 = 66.58. R f G V £ = 2x005 icr 6 v The Moody diagram yields f = 0. Turbulent Flow 377 Solution The Bernoulli equation between points S and G yields h h f + .05 2g 0.0.5) 0.2 . 0. dID = 0.9.4 + — = 66. B (90° elbow) 0.5.0220. f = 0.8.36.0215 x — x — = 61.5) 0. In the main part of the pipe cross section the velocity profile is practically flat. for the pipe with the 0.12.6 m.0215. 12. ( ^V2 22 82 hffF = \yH h — =K(1 + 0. E (contraction.9 + 1.5) x — + 0.05 m. d/D = 0.86m. 90°) 1.1. D (globe valve) 10. Hence.5.58x— = 4.025 2g From Table 12.
(12. the velocity is given by the universal profile.378 Fluid Mechanics Near the walls. C ~ n(a + b) and DH . CD. which must support the forces corresponding to the head loss. defined by ^. provided both have the same ratio of crosssectional area to circumference. For a circular pipe the ratio of cross section to the "wetted" circumference is 4 in — A nD — _ 4 and D4— C ' We therefore define the hydraulic diameter as DH=4^. The drag . (12. the same shear loading of the universal velocity profile. Figure 12. and a better concept is that of the coefficient of drag.e. in a narrow layer.8 Turbulent velocity profile in elliptical pipe.4 ab ~ C~ a + b' The Moody diagram may now be used for the elliptical pipe. or the force per unit span for infinite span bodies and A is the crosssectional area normal to the flow. The same treatment may be used for rectangular pipes and for pipes of other cross sections.37) Thus for an ellipse A — nab. This situation is common to the elliptical pipe and to a circular pipe. i.38) where FD is the drag force acting on the body.. Coefficient of Drag In turbulent flows around bluff bodies the use of the friction coefficient is not convenient. and the mechanisms acting in both seem to be the same.4 A .
33 0.9 and in Table 12. 12.006 Table 12.2 x 105 Greater than 5 x 105 103 . [Compiled from data in Hunsaker and Rightmire (1947) and Schlichting (1968).12.2. The kinematic viscosity of water is v=10" 6 m 2 /s. normal to flow Hemispherical shell: Hollow upstream Hollow downstream Cylinder.95 1.10 0.8 A spherical particle has the density of 3.45 0.9 Drag coefficient of a cylinder and a sphere. CD. . Find the terminal sinking velocity of this sphere in water. normal to flow Sphere Model of airship Airfoil at zero angle of attack Reynolds number range Greater than 103 Greater than 103 Greater than 1033 Greater than 10 103 . Some representative values of CD are given in Fig.] Example 12.2 Coefficients of drag of various shapes.2 X 105 Greater than 3 x 105 Greater than 2 x 105 Boundary layer transition cD 1.10 1.20 0.34 1.04 0. 102 s ss s LIP DE 3 ——— I — —on • * V— SPHER 1 to' rJ g 1F n2 iO"' 1 2 5 10 EFCC ICCC \ OR FREE STREAM TURBULENCE 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 8 10 7 REYNOLDS NUMBER. W/u Figure 12.000 kg/m3 and the diameter of 0.35 0. normal to flow Disk.004 m. Turbulent Flow 379 coefficient. Shape and orientation to flow Flat strip. is usually found experimentally.
2. This perpendicular component is now denoted the lift force. which dealt with drag forces.482 m/s. The undisturbed velocity vector was essentially constant. Since Re is not known. i. The total force which such a flow applied to the configuration had a component in the undisturbed flow direction.380 Fluid Mechanics Solution The terminal velocity is achieved when the drag force is balanced exactly by the buoyancy force. Indeed this is the more frequent case in the design of lifting configurations.482 m/s. which sometimes he or she may choose to ignore. (12.657 x 10"3. assume CD = 0. Flowinduced Lift Forces The previous section. Re =UD/v= 1. even when the configuration itself is symmetrical.OO23 x (p . Thus U = 0. Thus FD = . and with it the Reynolds . We note that in our examples of computations of lift forces we have used potential flow considerations. Some attempts to calculate lift forces for nonsymmetrical flows around cylinders have been done in the chapter on potential flows. it was the same as if the closed configuration did not exist. The lift forces may also be obtained experimentally for cases that cannot be otherwise resolved and also as experimental verifications of theoretical results. The lift force is expected to appear in all flows not symmetrical with respect to the configuration. For such cases we conclude that the viscosity.33). From Eq.n x O. this component was denoted the drag force. In some cases the lift force may not be as large as the drag force. which confirms the assumed CD> Table 12.45 (Table 12. The experienced engineer is always aware of the lift force.. U = yJ2FD I CDApw = 0. The total force acting on the configuration may also have a component in the direction perpendicular to that of the undisturbed flow.928.pw )g = 0. but this does not necessarily reflect on its importance. treated flows around closed configurations such that far from the configuration the velocity field could be assumed undisturbed. There are many examples in which lift forces may be derived analytically or numerically.e.2).
we find that a lift coefficient of 1. The exception to this conclusion is that the lift forces do depend on whether the flow is laminar or turbulent and for configurations not designed for lift. Inspecting Fig. Turbulent Flow 381 number.10. The drag coefficient of the same wing is also shown in Fig. 12. per unit width of the wing. Then A. Compute the dimensions of the wing and the power expanded to propel just the wing forward. 12. may be replaced by L. 12. the characteristic length. 12. Since here C/. Solution We assume that the lift forces arise mainly from the wings. it comes out to be constant for a particular configuration. It is common practice to present the lift coefficient as a function of the angle of attack. Each angle of attack corresponds to a different flow field and therefore has a different lift coefficient. The highest lift per wing area is needed at takeoff because the air speed is then the lowest. The angle between the cord of a wing and the direction of the undisturbed flow is called the angle of attack. As long as the flow may be considered incompressible. p is the fluid density and V is the undisturbed flow velocity. and during flight the same wing may operate with various angles of attack. the characteristic area. of course. At the same time we want to reduce drag at this stage of operation. the lift coefficient CL does not depend on the Reynolds number.10. unlike the drag coefficient. The weight of the airplane is G = 30. which is usually the cord of the wing's profile.0 is still below the point where the drag begins .12. at least for welldesigned lifting configurations. have only a second order effect on the lift forces. However.9 An airplane is designed for a nominal cruising speed Vc =800km/h= 222 m/s and takeoff speed Vo= 100km/h = 28 m/s. the influence of the Reynolds number need be checked. and with its dependence on the Reynolds number deleted. seems not to depend on the Reynolds number. has been presented as a function of the Reynolds number. the drag force coefficient.10. The airplane wing is shown in Fig. Considerations of similarity still lead us to the formulation FL=CLA\pV2 (1239) in which FL is the lift force. the Reynolds number. Example 12. as shown in Fig. A is a characteristic area.000 N. In many cases airplane wings may be treated as two dimensional. The lift force thus obtained is. In the previous section Co.10 as a function of the angle of attack. there is only one similarity parameter.
00 0. from Fig.382 Fluid Mechanics to become large.20 / / 0.0.10 Lift and drag coefficients for a wing.48m.50 5 15 10 0 20 oc(°) Figure 12.lx282xl. T L = 2x10 = 3.10 / 0. Correspondingly. The density is assumed as p = 1.25 0. 12. CD = 0.=T\pV02CL 30.08.10.6m lxl.15 y 0 50 0.1 kg /m 3 .5 0.75 0.000 • = 69.05 / 0 / 0?. Then At takeoff •L A.O 2 Choosing a wing length of 10 m on each side. — • — • 1. with L being the wing cord. . We therefore choose for takeoff CL1.
700 x 222 x 10~ Flowrate Measurement Two devices used to measure flow velocities.1 x 222 2 ) = 37.400N and the power at takeoff is p = FDV0 = 2400 x 28 = 67. CD . the Venturi meter and the Pitot tube.6 x 0. Turbulent Row 383 At cruising speed. Venturi meter b.02(i x 1.700N and the power is P = FFDDVV ~33 = 8.6 Accordingly. Some more devices are shown in Fig. from Fig.1 x222 2 x 69.016.02.000 FL 2 A = 0. 12. At cruising FD = ACD [jpV2) = 69. 12. .200 W = 67.2kW.380 kW. C C = 37. The force required to overcome the drag at takeoff is = 69. Ta.10. Sharpedge orifice d.08(x 1. Thinplate orifice Figure 12. C  30. have already been considered in Chapter 7. \ x 1.6 x0. Short flow nozzle t c.0.1 x28 2 ) = 2.11 Flow measuring devices.12.11.
The expression for the velocity of an incompressible fluid. measured by a Pitot tube.2 as l(d/D)4 A (12. A = ndV\ is the crosssectional area at the throat and d/D is the ratio of the diameters of the throat and the pipe. provided a correction for compressibility is included.43) is that the flow is incompressible and that friction head losses and changes of stream tube cross sections due to accelerations. sometimes denoted vena contracta.4 as bi/>2)> (12. was derived in Example 7. Relations for compressible flows may be formulated using equations derived in Chapter 13. For example. and then the measuring flow nozzle. the Venturi meter being the most elaborate. the velocities and flowrates can still be obtained by equations like Eqs. respectively. are negligible. measured by a Pitot tube. the sharp edge orifice and the thin plate orifice. (12. For a manometer attached to both legs of the Pitot tube and reading Ahm the expression for the velocity is &L£.40) where pl . An assumption inherent in the derivation of Eq.43). (12.p2 is the difference between the total and the static pressure. the other devices presented may be arranged in a descending order of elaboration. We note that with the exception of the Pitot tube. Alternatively. Q [m3/s] is the volumetric flowrate. the velocity of a compressible fluid.respectively.42) and 4 )l(d/D)A (12. (12.41) The relations for the flow of an incompressible fluid through a Venturi meter was derived in Example 7.40) and(12. V is the velocity in the pipe. which are derived from the Bernoulli equation. can be expressed as .43) where v is the velocity at the throat of the Venturi meter.384 Fluid Mechanics The measurements in all these devices rely on relations between velocities and differences in pressure.
92 0. Ratio of pressures 0.933 0.385 12. B .16 0. Equation (12.20 0.994 0.3 the error is less than 1.988 0.75D Q in B Q 1 Figure 12.974 0.80 Ratio of throat diameter to pipe diameter d/D For squareedged orifices 0.long.20 0.950 0. (For gases with k = 1.13.932 0.96 0.25 0. Some values for discharge coefficients are shown in Table 12.898 0.0%.3 Approximate values of the compressibility factor Cc for flow of air or gases with k = 1.986 0.short.974 0.92 0.84 0.834 P2/P1 0.43).928 0.12 Types of flow nozzles.3.963 0..964 0.4 through a Venturi.956 0. i.08 0. Cd.50 0.12 0.98 0.75 For Venturi meters and flow nozzles 0.865 0.903 0. provides the flowrate through the device as T Q 1. thus corrected.878 0.953 0.) Another correction coefficient.88 0. 12.98 0. are presented in Table 12.938 0.941 0.88 0.02 0. A .16 0.964 0. may be used to include friction head losses and effects of strong curvature of the streamline near the device.04 0.12 0.940 0.4 and in Fig.956 0.885 0. the discharge coefficient.08 0.80 0.970 0. flow nozzle or orifice.84 0.909 0.04 0.44) Corrections in the form of a compressibility factor Cc.985 0.96 0.952 0. of vena contracta.994 0.978 0.993 0.986 0. Turbulent Flow (12. .981 0.02 0.989 0.e.976 0.925 Table 12.
000 200. Cc.993 0.45) l{d/Df 0.10in.978 0.993 0.986 0.4 0. The compressibility correction.13 Discharge coefficients for thin plate orifice. Reynolds number at throat 50. The more elaborate devices present smaller resistance to the flow and have higher discharge coefficients.989 0.984 0. Q . The discharge coefficient. In principle.6 Diameter ratio.590 0.985 0. pipewall taps one diameter upstream and half a diameter downstream from inlet face. d/D 0.20 . on the kind of device used. depends on the ratio of the diameters of the device and also. (2 .000 100.620 U 2 o.8 Figure 12. depends also on the ratio of the diameters of the device and the kind of device used.991 0.965 0.000 1.4 Discharge coefficients for long nozzles.985 0.000 5.600 .966 0.991 0. d/D 0.000.6io :2 f—' OrrficeReV 3 " ^N 1) E? 0.60 0. slightly.000 500.988 Table 12.2 0.978 0.976 0. Cd also depends on the Reynolds number. pipe.958 0. For a welldesigned Venturi meter the discharge coefficient approaches 1.994 0.40 0.970 0.) .0.386 Fluid Mechanics nd1 {P\Pl) i (12.80 0.000.000 Diameter ratio.^ 0.
4. pipe in which a flowrate measuring device with a diameter ratio of 2 has been installed. The measured pressure drop of the air across the device is 6.98 x J —(5. an orifice. Example 12.10 A Pitot tube is used to measure air flow velocity. The air pressure is 105Pa and its temperature is 300 K. . its temperature is 300 K and the measured pressure difference of the air is 5.000) = 91.000Pa. Find the velocity. except for the need to correct for compressibility.15kg/m3. A thin plate orifice.000 Pa.9) x 300 = 1. Find the flowrate in each of the following measuring devices: a.314/28.98. M15 V ' Example 12. we obtain v = 0. (12. c. Cc = 0. The air pressure is 105 Pa. Using Eq.12.11 Air flows in a 6in. b. is manufactured to fit some particular configuration and is then calibrated. A flow nozzle. Solution The density of the air is H RT (8. In some cases the measuring device. A Venturi meter. Note that this example is quite similar to Example 7.44). It is common then to express the calibration information in the form of a calibrated discharge coefficient Cd. Turbulent Flow 387 In many practical cases it is helpful to consider the discharge coefficient C^ as a multiplier obtained from similarity considerations.4 m / s. e.g. not unlike the drag coefficient.
Eq.13 leads to a discharge coefficient.965 x 0.611 = 0. the compressibility correction is Cc = 0. dv _ 4Q 4x0.= _ S. b. Still the discharge coefficient is roughly the same.466 x 0.611.965. For a thin plate orifice: From Table 12. .3.466CcCrf = 0. the compressibility correction is Cc = 0.990. For the Reynolds number of part b. Table 12.445 m3/s. .45) yields Q = 0.965.000 V Ttdv n x (3 x 0.. .0254)2 = 4.5 = 479. a. the compressibility correction is Cc = 0.45). For a Venturi meter: From Table 12.4. 4 4 Hence. (12.279m3/s. The discharge coefficient for a welldesigned Venturi meter is 1 and Eq. Q=0. We find Re approximately. 12.980 x 0. The discharge coefficient for a nozzle.3.45) yields Q = 0.57x10" and the discharge coefficient is Q = 0.466 x 0.45) yields nd2 l{d/Df = 0A66CcCd.980.965 x 1 = 0. The density of the air is The crosssectional area at the throat of the device is A = d2 = . Equation (12. .0254) x 1. For a flow nozzle: From Table 12.388 Fluid Mechanics Solution The flowrate is calculated by means of Eq.990 = 0. This leads to a lower Re.3.466 x 0.45) now yields Q = 0.450 m3/s.56 x 10~3m2.xv(3 x 0. (12. (12.466CcCd = 0. Equation (12.450 Re = — = ¥. Fig.466CcCd = 0. depends on the Reynolds number at the throat.
and some additional information may be necessary to affect a solution.e. 12. Turbulence in the boundary layer is determined by the local Reynolds number. This means that velocity profiles believed to exist inside a turbulent boundary layer cannot be simply extended to the wall. The equations are still valid.14 Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate... Turbulent cnl Figure 12. It is also noted that on rigid boundaries q = 0 and therefore q' must also subside. The velocity profile is thus rather flat in the main flow. i.8. This is a direct result of the ability of the turbulent profile to sustain high shear stress by Reynolds stresses. Turbulent Flow In the introduction to turbulent flows in this chapter no violation of the Navier—Stokes equations has been implied. However. 12. approaching the walls. ReT= ux/v. When turbulence exists inside the boundary layer. we speak of turbulent boundary layers.000. the intensity of the . though for turbulent flows the task of finding solutions becomes even more formidable. The critical Reynolds number for transition from laminar to turbulent flow is Re.12. The boundary layer equations were derived from the Navier—Stokes equations by singular perturbation and are therefore also valid for turbulent flows. Fig.000. hence the flow must always become laminar at the wall itself.= 500. because these are time dependent. for Reynolds numbers exceeding 500. at least within some thin sublayer. Another property typical to turbulent flow is the possibility of the appearance of boundary layers in fully developed or almost fully developed flows. Thus for sufficiently small x the flow in the boundary layer is laminar. For larger distances from the leading edge.14. where x is the distance from the leading edge. the flow in the boundary layer becomes turbulent. Fig.
14. The mass flowrate into the dx strip in the boundary layer is just fyudy. We therefore do not integrate the boundary layer equations. The mass flowrate into the strip from the main flow. Here the size of the eddies cannot exceed the distance from the wall.390 Fluid Mechanics turbulence decreases. We want to apply it to flows where our only justification for the use of the term boundary layer is that the velocity profile changes rapidly within a narrow region.e. Thus . i. and that out of it is [ pudy + dx—\J Jo dx ° pudy. but rather start from basic concepts. a boundary layer. is therefore . similar to that obtained for the laminar boundary layer in Chapter 11.e. d . pipe flows being considerably more amenable to experiments than flat plate flows. Consider the layer shown in Fig. The excess of momentum entering the strip at x over that leaving at x +dx is . One practical result of this behavior is the possibility to use measurements obtained for pipe flow in boundary layer calculations. d (S dx— J pudy dx o with the corresponding flux of momentum dxll—d J f dx dxo pudy. as in Chapter 11. i. the velocity profile must exhibit a sharp gradient in the vicinity of the wall...S 2 dx— J pu dy dx o and the total change in momentum is compensated by the pressure gradient S (dP/dx) and the shear at the wall % dx. Integral Solutions for Boundary Layers We now seek an integral solution method. into the strip from above. and the Prandtl mixing length must decrease. 12. Since the shear forces must eventually be transferred to the wall and the available mechanism for shear stress is now mostly viscous stress.
this laminar sublayer must be considered with its velocity distribution.a2 . the turbulent profile. (12. Turbulent Flow T. J dx (12. which makes the solution more involved. Equation (12. The velocity profile is assumed. does not hold down to y = Q.49). as for the laminar boundary layer.34) becomes dx Jo which is exactly the same as Eq. after von Karman.030pC/ 2 f^Y /5 . (12. Eq. d (5 U— pudy dx Jo 391 d (8 cdP 2 r pudy = o dx Jo dx or r dxh sdP udyS—.48) is now used to obtain an approximate solution for the flat plate turbulent boundary layer.46) and because in the main flow we still assume dx (12. as the seventhroot law U {SJ (12. Where no information on To. (12. (12.12.50) leads to T o =0. rather than computed from ji(du/dy)\yQ. (12.50) Substitution in Eq. . (12.47) dx Eq.48) and integration yield ^ = 0.49) while the shear stress is taken from a correlation determined experimentally by Blasius. such as Eq. (11. where a laminar sublayer exists. is given.34).046^)1/4lpC/2. To=0.51) and (12.50).37Re.51) (1252) It should be noted that T0 was given here. x Eliminating ^between Eqs. (12.
the integration has to be split into two parts.xxcc Re Re~1/5) In the present case xc is found from xcU R e ^ D vRec * ^ 10" 6 x 500. v = 10"6 m2/s). namely.037 0.000"1/5)j or 1/5 F = wf 1.000 x 42 x Jo.125 m.0.125 x 500.392 Fluid Mechanics Example 12.125 x 500.000.1.12 A thin metal plate of dimensions a = 0. Thus (ro)tmbdx.037 (LRe^ (LRe^ 175 . Compare your finding to those of Example 11.2 m. L = a = 0.0. Solution The force exerted by the fluid on a plate of length L and width w is F = w\ Todx.2m. Find the drag force exerted on the plate for the following cases: a.fc = 0. . The flow being parallel to a.878+ 592(LRe7 . Jo For the case of ReL being higher than the critical Reynolds number for transition from laminar to turbulent flow.664xcc Re+ Re~l/2+ 0. (12.037(LRe^1/5. which upon substitution and integration yields F = wpU2[o. (11.5m is held in water (p=1000kg/m 3 .00906)1 h L \ l\ Case a. which flows parallel to it.23).000 0.49).664x 0. Hence. the force on each side of the plate is given by F = 1. with a velocity U = 4 m /s. In the turbulent region the integration is carried out from x = xc to x= L using Eq. In the laminar region the wall shear stress xo integrated from x = 0 to x =xc is given by Eq.000~1/2 + 0. higher than Rec= 500. The flow being parallel to b. b.
ten times as large as in Example 12.0001/5 . resulting in F = w(l.000. Turbulent Flow £/L = 4xO2 v 10"6 The force on each side is 393 0Q L F = 0.4855) = (28.2 x 800.. i. which leads to a higher overall drag force.00906 )] = 2.12.555 N and on both sides F = 5.13 Repeat Example 12.2 m.486)xw. .2 m.12 is repeated. Solution The formulation of Example 12. In the case of the longer edge parallel to the flow a larger part of the plate is in turbulent flow.5 [1. w = a = 0.0.110N. L = b = 0.12 for a plate with the sides 2 m by 5 m.5 m. on one side. w = b = 5 m. Case a.000.000. As seen. Example 12.163 N and on both sides F = 4.592 x 0.00906 )] = 2.878 + 592 x L x Re^ 1/5 . the plate with the longer edge parallel to the flow yields here a higher drag force.308x L 08 3. F = 229. Case b. This is contrary to what was found in Example 11.326 N.000.878 + 592 ( 0.1 for the laminar case.5 x 2.000"1/5 . L = a . The force on each side is F = 0.00906) = w{592 xL°' 8 x4.2 [1.0 N.12.e. R e LL = ^i v = i ^ 56 10" = 2.0.878 + 592 ( 0.000" a2 3.
What is the thickness of the laminar sublayer for this case.. 12." MIT Press. H. Classic Papers on Statistical Turbulence.394 Fluid Mechanics Case b. New York. Moody. J. The viscosity of air is 0. Hunsaker and B. 12. 671." McGrawHill. Schlichting. Cambridge.C.2 kg/m3 flows at an average velocity of 20 m/s through a smooth 0.O. F = 198.e. 1947." Trans. November 1944.. on one side. i. p. 1979. McGrawHill." McGrawHill. Tennekes and J.3 A major pipeline carrying crude oil (density 860 kg/m3 and viscosity 5 cp) .1 Use the universal velocity profile to construct a plot of the velocity as a function of radial position when air with a density of 1. H.5mdiameter smooth pipe carrying air at an average velocity of 30 m/s and a pressure of 200 kPa gauge. New York. 1959. Viscosity of air is 0. the same behavior as in laminar flow. ASME. J. wb2m. Topper. 1972. Lumley. References S.G.02 cp.K. MA. Rightmire." 7th ed.6mdiameter pipe. "Boundary Layer Theory. The plate with the longer side parallel to the flow now yields the lower drag force. New York.F. "Engineering Applications of Fluid Mechanics. "Turbulence. Problems 12.2 Use the universal velocity distribution to calculate the local velocity at a point situated midway between the pipe axis and the pipe wall in a 0. 1961. "Turbulence. L = a = 5 m. Hinze.02 cp." Interscience. L. "Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. Friedlander and L.L. New York. "A First Course in Turbulence.2 N.
as shown schematically in Fig. 12.1 m by 0.8 A car travels at 80 km/h.6m3/min.75 m in diameter in which the average velocity of the oil is 2 m/s. The main part of the line is 0. 12.10. 12.5.8 when the "strip" is parallel to the flow.95) is to flow by gravity through a 1milelong pipeline from a large reservoir to a lower station.5 Oil (20°C. find the additional power expanded by the car.500 kPa.3 for pA = 1. Main line 600 m Figure P12. The pressure at point 2. 12. The required discharge rate is 1. What diameter of line would you recommend for the section AB? Assume the pipe to be hydrodynamically smooth. point 2 in Fig.3. the average difference in levels being 14 m. specific gravity 0. and is used to recharge the reservoir.6 when the circular pipe is replaced by a triangular pipe with all sides equal.9 Repeat Problem 12. just outside the pump is 500 kPa. viscosity 3 cp.6 A pump is connected to the end of the pipe. Calculate the diameter of steel pipe necessary for these conditions. having the same crosssectional area as the circular pipe.3 Oil pipe. 12.P12.12.4 Repeat Problem 12. What is the water flow into the reservoir? 12. The driver puts his hand out of the window to cool off. Assuming the hand resembles a flat strip perpendicular to the flow. Turbulent Flow 395 drops 600 m in elevation over the last 5 miles. The oil arrives at point A at a pressure of 300 kPa gauge and flows downhill to point B where the pressure is desired to be no more than 100 kPa gauge.5 m. . Compare your solution and answer to those of Problem 7. The water level in the reservoir is h = 35 m. 0. 12.7 Find the water flux as in Problem 12.
The pipe diameter is 0. .11 To simplify maintenance.12 Measurements show that the flow between the two plates in Problem 6.1414mdiameter pipe. For the same volume flux of water. find the ratios of the pressure drops: a. 12. 12.001 Pas. P6. b.1 m.13 Water flows in a 100mlong pipe with a diameter of 0. = 160 kPa.0. The pressure between the plates is assumed to depend on the radial coordinate only. Calculate the pressure at the entrance to the pipe. When the flows are laminar.396 Fluid Mechanics 12.002 m. a. F = 5 N. L = 0. Find the volumetric flowrate in the pipe. pa = 100 kPa h(= 5 m h2=10m B L = 20m Figure P12. Is the flow turbulent? b.10 12. Compute the Reynolds number. The bend in the pipe presents a resistance to the flow equivalent to 2 m of pipe. a. h . absolute pressure. it was suggested to use two 0.7. and its viscosity is ^ = 0.025 m. find the air supply pressure and rate.1 m. When the flows are turbulent.10 Figure P12. is measured to be P.1mdiameter pipes instead of one 0. the pressure drop is approximated by using relations for pipe flow with the same hydraulic diameter as the radiusdependent circular cross section available to the flow between the plates. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa.7 is turbulent. Find the dimensions of a square pipe that gives the same volumetric flowrate as the circular pipe.10 is a scheme of a pipe connected to a water tower open to the atmosphere. The plates are very smooth. b. With reference to Fig. The water density is 998kg/m3. shown in the figure. The pressure at point A. The average velocity in the pipe is 5 m/s and the pipe discharges to the atmosphere. and it is a smooth pipe.
Calculate the ratio between the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe and the flow rate between the plates per width of D. 12. The size of the gap is also D.. The length of the annulus is 100 m.16 are now used such that the flow rate in the pipe is the same as that between the plates per width D.10 m and an outer radius of 0. c. Calculate the pressure drop in this pipe and compare your result with that of Problem 12. i. Rectangular. . b. b. 12.0125mdiameter pipe. 5 m/s. Find s.13. The same pressure gradient exists in both systems. Turbulent Flow 397 12.13 must now be supplied using a 0. Note that for a constant flow rate. 12. c. with sides ratio of 1 : 2. the pressure drop is proportional to the diameter of the pipe raised to the power n.17 The pipe and the plates of Problem 12.16 A fluid flows in a pipe which has the diameter D.18 Water flows through a rectangular square duct with the sides D = 0. The duct is 100 m long.13. 12.20 Repeat Problem 12. 12. find the average velocity and the flow rate in these two pipes.e. with sides ratio of 1 : 2. Find n. Find the pressure drop along the annulus.1 m.13 for a pipe of the same cross section which is: a.12 m at an average velocity of 6 m/s. Square.14 It is suggested to change the pipe described in Problem 12. The flowrate remains that of Problem 12.15 The same amount of fluid as in Problem 12.13 and use two smaller pipes such that the average velocity of the flow remains the same. 12.13. The same fluid flows in the gap between two parallel flat plates. Compare your results with those obtained for the same flow rate through a circular pipe. Calculate the required pressure drop in these pipes. Elliptic. b.12. For a pressure drop along the pipes which is only that used in Problem 12. Calculate the power needed to pump the water. a. The average velocity is 8 m/s. Also note that for a constant pressure drop the flow rate is proportional to the diameter of the pipe raised to the power s. a.19 Water flows through an annulus with an inner radius of 0. Calculate the ratio between the power needed to pump the fluid through the pipe and that needed to pump the fluid between the plates.
Estimate the power Figure P12. In normal driving the car tires are not expected to skid as long as the normal force between a tire and the road is at least 700 N. The projected area of the car is 6 m2. Note that this coefficient is defined for the projected area. 12.3 m 12. the same drag as for a flat plate 4 m x 4 m perpendicular to the flow. The line has a tee connection every 50 m and a bend every 100 m.22 A truck.1 m.013 m diameter in the line and then continued with the 0.23 A car has the mass of 700 kg. The turbine is connected to an electric generator. The width of the truck is 4 m. and the wind energy generated is measured and wasted. i. Find the dimensions of the airplane wings necessary under these new conditions.25.25 An air turbine used to measure wind velocities is shown in Fig. Estimate the energy wasted. saved at cruising speeds.0. Find the maximum allowable driving speeds with wind velocities of 80 km/h and 30 km/h. PI 2. Not having the necessary parts he inserted a connection of 0. Find the maximum allowable lift coefficient of the car geometry. one may use the frontal projection.24 A plumber had to connect a 0.025 m diameter. c Fi 8ure P1225 .08 m \J «. and to esti mate the air drag force on the truck.398 Fluid Mechanics 12. For a mean flow velocity of 5 m/s. Calculate the pressure drop expected per 1000 m of pipe.22 A truck is designed to travel at a cruising speed of 110 km/h. The maximum velocity technically safe for the car is 140 km/h. estimate the extra pressure drop caused by the plumber's improvisation.e.26 The airplane considered in Example in 12. *• For wind velocity of 30 m/s the turbine turns ____ at 12 rpm. 12.22.21 A municipal water main has the diameter of 0.. 12. 12. Hemispherical shell 0.025mdiameter pipe to a hose.9 is now using takeoff strips that permit ground speeds of 200 km/h.P12. A preliminary design is shown in Fig. The mean velocity in the main is 10 m/s. It has been suggested to streamline the geometry such that the drag coefficient becomes 0.6.
50.32 Water is being discharged from a large tank open to the atmosphere through a vertical tube. 12. Turbulent Flow 399 12.32. Point B is followed by a tee connection. near the wall. 12. Flow nozzle.6. for the dilin rection BC and for the direction BD. is located inside a water tank. with the limit mean velocities 10m/sto60m/s.30 Consider the turbulent velocity profile in a pipe to be approximated by a mid region of constant velocity and a boundary region.31 Consider Fig.3 m diameter at the mean velocity of 10 m/s.2 yields fc=0. Use the integral approach to the boundary layer solution and find the thickness of this region of strong velocity change such that the correct pressure drop is obtained. We are now told that point A.32 Water discharge from a tank. as shown in Fig. 12.600 kPa has been measured. Thin plate orifice. where the velocity change is strong. where the pressure PA .12.27 The mean velocity of a fluid having properties like water is between 1 m/s and 6 m/s. Venturi meter.6 and Example 12.27 for an airlike fluid. Estimate the reading of the following flowrate measuring devices at the extreme velocities: a. has a roughness of 5x10~ 5 m. c. for which h=llm V 1 v Table 12. j 12. for which Table 12. Calculate the pressure drop along 100 m of pipe. 10 m h=0 Figure P12.29 Consider water flowing in a smooth pipe of 0. 12. . The fluid flows in a pipe with a diameter of 0. Now assume the flow to be a boundary layer flow along the pipe walls and calculate the pressure drop expected from the entrance to the pipe up to a point of a 100 m downstream. The tube is 10 m long. PI2.1 m. 12. 1 cm in diameter.2 suggests Le= 60.28 Repeat Problem 12. b. and its inlet is sharp edged and located 1 m below the level of the water in the tank. Find the flow rates now. Between B and C there is an additional bend with Le = 20 and another bend of the same kind between B and D. and the exit to the pipe is a perpendicular square entrance.
12.5. Compare your answers to those of Example 7. point 2. Find the velocity and the volumetric flowrate in the pipe. . Find the maximum power that can be obtained from the turbine.400 Fluid Mechanics a.33 Consider Problem 12. A turbine is connected at the tube outlet.32. b.
e. while treating incompressible flows. the disturbance is felt at once everywhere [see Eq. From the observer's point of view the undisturbed medium is streaming into the considered area of the disturbance front with the velocity (.Sonic Speed In all our considerations up to this point the density of the fluid was assumed constant. This means.u). Consider an observer sitting in a coordinate system which moves with u. To answer this question. Then it also becomes an important dependent variable of the field of flow.(13. We concentrate on a small but finite area of this front. COMPRESSIBLE FLOW Speed of Infinitesimal Disturbances . that strict incompressibility does not occur. we may use measurements or try to calculate the speed of the disturbance. Consider the propagation of a disturbance in a continuum. i. The undisturbed part of the medium is separated from the disturbed region by a surface of discontinuity. as shown in Fig. which has the forward normal n and the local velocity of propagation u = nw. Consistent with the previous assumption that p = const. which we want now to calculate. dp = 0.5)]. 13. the speed of propagation of disturbances becomes finite. This also explains why this question was not asked before. its properties change: 401 . though it may be a useful approximation. Suppose we have a fluid continuum at rest and cause a small pressure disturbance at one point in it. We may now ask how fast this disturbance travels in the continuum. called the front of the disturbance.13.1. of course. we find this speed of propagation to be infinite.. As the material passes the front. Once we admit compressibility.
Ap An infinitesimal disturbance is now defined as that which has the limits Au —> du. Mass balance for the control volume requires pu = {p + Ap){u + Au) (13. and Eq.2) Substitution of Eq. . Now consider a small control volume in the shape of a stream tube cutting through the disturbance front. (13. The speed of propagation of this disturbance is denoted by c. Ap —» dp. p into p + Ap..2) and rearrangement yield (133) u u A u . Moreover.4) c =. (13. The process of passing through the disturbance is taken to be adiabatic.1) into Eq. (13. which is infinitesimal. Ap —> dp. causes all thermodynamic properties in the . Disturbance front Disturbed medium p + Ap p + Ap T+AT Control volume Undisturbed medium P. AT —> dT.402 Fluid Mechanics u into u + Au. T into T+AT.(13. p into p + Ap. . the disturbance. T Observer's coordinates Figure 13.1 Propagation of disturbance. etc. P.1) and the momentum theorem for the control volume states p + (pu)u = (p + Ap) + [(p + Ap)(u + Au)](u + Au)..3) becomes (13. and the undisturbed region is taken to be in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Compressible Flow 403 disturbed region to deviate from those in the undisturbed one only infinitesimally. . and therefore the disturbed region is also assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. and measurements show it to be a very good approximation to the speed of sound.5) where c is also called the sonic speed. (13. i. To clearly show this. (13.1 A large pressure vessel contains air (k .5. (13. In what follows the considered fluid is air. The process of passing through the infinitesimal disturbance is thus taken to be reversible.6) yields and for an ideal gas Eq. hence isentropic. Since the process is isentropic.. Find the speed of the air as it leaves the nozzle.e. is the flow there subsonic or supersonic? Solution The first part of this problem is very similar to part b of Example 7. R = 287 J/kg K) at 2 bars.7) which together with Eq. i. Is this speed above or below the speed of sound. A small nozzle is fitted into the wall of the vessel through which air expands isentropically to the environment pressure of 1 bar.. 300 K. In an isentropic process plpk= const. (136) with R = 287 J/kg K for air. (13.4. Eq.1. Equation (13.8) Example 13. liquids and gases.13.5) is quite general and applies to solids. to the speed with which sound waves propagate. assumed to obey the ideal gas law. whether ideal or not.4) is rewritten as (13.e.5) becomes (13.
a speck of dust. c p{T\ . (13. w 2 =329m/s. Let the Mach number M be defined by . and the disturbance advances outward with its front shaped as a spherical shell of radius r = c(tto). Thus the speed of the air at the outlet of the nozzle is 329 m/s. As the body moves. Is there such a general constraint on the speed of finite disturbances moving in a compressible medium? An example of a finite disturbance is a solid body moving through the medium: a meteor.Ti) = 1. an airplane. a bullet. 13.P\) =300xfiV'4=246K.2. Fig. a feather. the speed of sound of the air as it emerges from the nozzle is c2 = ^kRT2 = Vl. Such a moving body influences certain regions in the fluid by means of propagating disturbance fronts..wf). obtained for infinitesimal disturbances. has been uniquely determined by Eq.246) = 54. u2>c2and the speed is supersonic.404 Fluid Mechanics O4 = 711 ^ T . where t0 is the time of emission and r is measured from the location of the body at the moment of emission. Consider a small body (e. V27 Denoting the enthalpy i and the specific heat of air cp = Rk l{k1) = 1.4x 287x300 = 347 m/s. it disturbs the stationary environment by pushing the air ahead of it. However.005 J /kg.5). Hence. Is this subsonic or supersonic speed? The speed of sound of the air in the vessel is T\ = Vl. we obtain h~h= uY=0. a car.005 x (300 .g.270 J / kg = \{u\ . a meteorite) moving in the xdirection at a constant velocity v.4x 287x246 = 314 m / s . Propagation of Finite Disturbances The sonic speed.
The body moves in the xdirection just as fast as the disturbance front. Fig. The front of the disturbance may be detected by some pressuresensitive instrument. and someone hearing that noise may look up and await the approach of the moving body. The region in front of the cone is a zone of silence. Once heard. The cone itself is called the Mach cone. and the front of the disturbance. 13.e.2 Subsonic. Fig. the human ear. and the region to the right of the body. to see the retreating body somewhat from behind. v > c. i. i. Compressible Flow 405 Figure 13. The moving body is not heard in the zone of silence.13. Now let M — 1.g. v < c. in the direction of its motion. The front does not precede the body in the xdirection. which advances with the speed c.. sonic and supersonic motions. In subsonic motion M < 1. and it represents a conical front which propagates with the speed c normal to itself. the listener is surprised by the appearance of the body itself. The front of the disturbance is called a Mach surface.2. precedes the moving body itself. and no pressure rise precedes it. e. and once the moving body is heard... It pulls the front of the disturbance forward in the direction of its own motion and the disturbance front attains the form of a cone of half apex angle P = *«**[•& (13. the listener must look rather forward. In supersonic motion M > 1. is known as the zone of silence.9) which moves forward with the speed v along its axis of symmetry.2. . and the front of the moving body moves faster than the disturbance. 13.e.
A man on the ground hears the airplane. Let the moving body be an insulated frictionless piston moving in an infinitely long insulated cylinder filled with an ideal gas.4 /J = arcsin (l / M) = 57° = 1 rad.9). still leaves the details of what happens just in front of the body for M > 1 unclear.3 Piston and disturbances. To clarify this point let us consider a simpler. The . Fig. (13.2.3. What is the half apex angle of its Mach cone? The airplane flies at the height of h = 1 km.19. onedimensional case. 13. as just presented. c 335. and at the time to = 0 the piston is suddenly set in motion at the constant speed v. V ^ ^ Assuming the plane flies parallel to the ground. The gas is initially at rest. having the same half apex angle of Eq.2 A jet airplane flies with the speed of 400 m/s in air whose temperature is 280 K.406 Fluid Mechanics If the moving body is a long thin cylinder perpendicular to the plane of Fig.4 x 287 x 280 = 335.1000 tan 1 = 1550 m ahead. Example 13.4 m/ s. Expansion front Compression front Figure 13.= = 1. How far ahead of the man is the airplane at that moment? Solution c = 4kRT = Vl. The Piston Analogy The description of the motion of supersonic disturbances. M =. Ax = h tan B . with the Mach cone changing to a Mach wedge. 13. the phenomenon becomes two dimensional.
.13. called a Shock Wave. leaving behind it the temperature T + dT. The shock wave moves at speeds higher than the sonic speed.5). The second front moves at the speed < c3. No matter how many fronts we have on the compression side. but is still adiabatic. The second front moves into the already disturbed gas and therefore has the speed c2 = ^kR(T + dT) > c. The second front overtakes the first front and coalesces with it. which for compression results in Ap {dpy Equation (13. and therefore requires A s > 0.3. and uzhi > 0. Now consider the expansion fronts on the left side of the piston. The first one moves at the speed c3 = JkRT. (13. The first moves at the speed and leaves behind it the temperature T + dT. The gas on the reverse side of the piston expands. and no amplification or concentration of . Fig. with the disturbance running to the right as a continuous series of successive compression fronts. (13. 13. Aa is negative. with the disturbances moving to the left as successive expansion fronts. Compressible Flow 407 gas in the direction of the piston motion is compressed. Consider two compression fronts.1. The disturbances are concentrated into one front of finite magnitude. those closer to the piston ran faster and overtake those ahead of them.3) then yields u > c. From the point of view of Fig. where the second front started later than the first one. but rather by Eq. and because the compression is assumed isentropic. 13. All these fronts represent Mach surfaces. no two of them coalesce. dT>0. Furthermore. the process is no longer isentropic.3). The speed of the shock wave is no longer given by Eq. which eventually overtake the first one. and it therefore lags behind the first front. and because the expansion is assumed isentropic dT<0. 1 and 2. No matter how many expansion fronts we have.
13. measured along the radius of curvature. Going now back to the case M > 1 in Fig. and the other velocity components. In quasionedimensional flows the xaxis points in the local direction of the flow. (13. Conservation of mass now becomes puA = M = const. Quasionedimensional Flow. Eq. for the fast moving gas in that same nozzle the process is still adiabatic. with rather large Reynolds numbers.10) yields dp + du + dA=Q^ p u A p dx LdP+Ldu+1dA=Q u dx A dx We consider here fast flows. is much larger than 1. 13. Stagnation Properties A flow which satisfies the following two requirements is called quasionedimensional: 1. say into the wall of a nozzle. Heat transfer may still be considered. (10. A quasionedimensionalflow is shown in Fig. satisfy u 2.2.1). which for negligible body forces and for quasionedimensional flows becomes pu— = —jor pudu = dp. in the sense that the velocity component along the tube. Thus the momentum equation has the Euler form. it can be assumed adiabatic. we see that the moving body carries in front of if a shock wave. v and w. Differentiation of Eq. u. and we assume the conditions leading to the Euler equation (10.12) dx dx Because the flow is fast.408 Fluid Mechanics disturbances occur. (13. A finite disturbance of the expansion type simply cannot be created. which are perpendicular to u. b. (13. The divergence and convergence of all stream tubes in the flow are small. w u The ratio of the radius of curvature of the stream tube to the linear dimension of the tube cross section.10) with A the crosssectional area normal to u. The apparent contradiction here is resolved by the observation that a negligible heat interaction per unit mass of flowing gas may amount to a large heat interaction when multiplied by a very .4. which also moves supersonically at the speed v. However.1) to be satisfied.
4 A stream tube in quasionedimensional flow. Eq. (13. (1313) where i0 is denoted the stagnation enthalpy.13) . Moreover. (7. (13. Now. i. R Figure 13. It is the value of the enthalpy which may be obtained by stopping the flow adiabatically. and indeed Eq. except for some singular locations in the field.12) it takes the form j + l M 2 = j o = const. because the flow in the considered region has also been assumed frictionless. isentropic. the flow may be taken as adiabatic..7). Compressible Flow 409 large mass flux. Thus. (13. for a thermodynamic system undergoing a frictionless process the first law requires SQ = di —dp. it is now both adiabatic and frictionless. For an adiabatic process this becomes di = lip dp. and with Eq.13.12) can be integrated to 1 2 T \u + CP dp J 'o P = const which is just a particular form of the Bernoulli equation. (13. P where Q is the heat per unit mass and i is the specific enthalpy.13). We now summarize the system of equations governing quasionedimensional frictionless flows: The energy equation i + ju2 =io = const.e. The more useful form of the energy equation is that of Eq. For an isentropic process the momentum equation can be integrated to yield an energy equation.
Eq. Let Eq. (13.16) becomes (1317) 2 and (13. The process need not be physically performed and the stagnation properties may be simply calculated. It is convenient to render most relations for the flow dimensionless.18) I 2 Obviously. However.410 Fluid Mechanics the equation of state p = pRT. (13. while Eq. The stagnation properties are those that can be obtained for a point in the flow by an isentropic process that ends in stagnation.15) Using Eq. (13.8) and noting cp = kR/(k 1).6) i + cpT = const (13. as long as the flow is isentropic and contains no singular points.e. (13. (13.16) kl Using Eq. (13..7) and noting that T 2 /7] = (p2/Pi) P L P {P J * . These stagnation properties "belong" to the point at which the process starts. for an isentropic process . (13.14). CpT + \u^cpTo.= const. P We note that the last three equations hold for an ideal gas only. i.13) is general. (13. (13. (13. Eq.15) becomes T 2c T 5 T 2 2 kRT or M2 . in u = 0. the same stagnation properties apply to all points in the flow.13) be written again using Eq.14) and the equation for an isentropic process (137) p •AT. and a natural characteristic velocity here is the sonic speed.
13. Compressible Flow 411 Example 13. UB = 350 m/s. M PBo PB\ 2 PBO Pj T 2 TBO = rB[i 2 " 1 2. =2xl0 5 xl.174 = 41 IK.988kg/m 3 .18) and (13. From Eqs. ^ MBB = ^ .494 = 2. = — = 0. TB = 350 K.933.754 = 3.16). but between B and D it passes through a shock wave (an irreversible adiabatic process).51xl0 5 Pa. pBo. sBo of point B.3 Point B is in a compressible flow field of air (ideal gas. =350x1. Find the stagnation properties pBo. The streamline through B eventually passes through point D. respectively. Which of the stagnation properties of B changes and in which direction? Solution 2X1 5 FB ° RTB 287x350 = 2.0kg/m'. R = 287 J/kgK. (13.0x 1.17). . (13. PDO < PBO (because TDo = TBo and sDo > sBo). 5Bo = sB. cB 375 For an isentropic process.4). cBB=JkRTB B =375 m/s. It is also known that pB = 2x105 Pa. After the shock wave: i = s > s Do ( B0' Bo = S B' PDO < PBO (because TDo = TBo and sDo > sBo). TBo. &=1.
and the various combinations are listed in Table 13. We want to obtain some relations for the design and performance of such nozzles. i. 13. The nozzle is assumed to have a throat.1 Convergingdiverging stream tube.11) and this equation rearranged to pu dpi u2 dx\dpldp J dA _ dx or (13. a converging stream tube. . (13. Let du from Eq. 13. (13. with du/dx>0. dA/dx = 0 is not a sufficient condition for M= 1. with dp/dx<0. At this stage we consider a flow in a nozzle. This nozzle is connected to a vessel where a gas at the stagnation pressure p0 and the stagnation temperature To is assumed to be supplied indefinitely. with M< 1.. Sonic speed can appear only where the tube has a local minimum. however.e.12) be substituted in Eq.4. However dA/dx = du/dx = 0 may also occur at that location. A nozzle is a conduit of rigid walls satisfying the conditions for quasionedimensional flow.19) dx dx pu dx Thus for subsonic flow.412 Fluid Mechanics Nozzle Flow Consider a stream tube in quasionedimensional flow.5. and we also assume no separation of the flow from the nozzle wall. as shown in Fig. the behavior of dp/dx and du/dx is the opposite. and to increase in velocity. The rigid walls of the nozzle are considered to be the stream tube envelope.1. corresponds to expansion. The nozzle's exit is also assumed to be kept at a constant pressure pe. or a socalled throat. For supersonic flow. dA/dx dp/dx du/dx M<\ >0 <0 >0 <0 <0 >0 M> 1 >0 <0 <0 >0 >0 <0 M= 1 0 >0 <0 >0 <0 M Table 13. It is noted that dA/dx = 0 is a necessary condition for M = 1. Fig. with dA/dx<0.
We then call this section "critical" and denote by asterisks the properties corresponding to it. (13. the approach stream is divergent.16).17) and (13. Substitution of M = 1 in Eqs. a "throat.e. i. Thus a subsonic stream would slow down. Compressible Flow 413 exit stagnation Po Figure 13. Thus if the approaching flow is subsonic it accelerates and may become sonic. section c.20) . and neither can reach sonic speed. If the sonic speed is not realized at the throat.13." and cannot appear where the nozzle has a local maximum.4 Show that the sonic speed can appear where the nozzle has a local minimum. Solution We refer to Table 13.5 A diagram of a convergentdivergent nozzle. then this section is not called critical. (13. If the approaching flow is supersonic. This can happen only at the throat c. where the nozzle has a local maximum. (13. and a supersonic stream would speed up.. On the other hand.18) yields 1 k+l = 0. Mass Flux through the Nozzle Suppose the sonic speed is attained in the nozzle.83333. it decelerates and may become sonic.1: For a local minimum the flow toward the location where dA/dx= 0 is in a convergent part of the nozzle. Example 13.
(13.20) .(13.22) where the computed numerical values are for k = 1.BL = K P (13. We also note that because Eqs. such processes are also implied for Eqs.24) Using Eqs. The mass flow through the nozzle is ** ** = puA = p uA A =p c A=po^c\~\ A . And for po=Po/RTo.18) have been obtained for isentropic processes. (13.22).(13. (13. we obtain k £_ = £_.20) .(13.52828.18) and (13.6847 Po * The mass flux is completely determined by the stagnation pressure and temperature and by the critical cross section A*.(13. Since the same mass flows through all sections puA = p*u A =p c A and l ~A*~~p'~u~~p~'~c'~u~~~py¥) M' (13.22).16) . (13.16) . Poco = Po this becomes 1 I m = pnA (13.25) Po P p0 P +i (13.414 Fluid Mechanics k+l P J 2 U +u = 0.4.23) k+l A RTAk + lJ • = 0. (13.21) = 0.26) .63394.
the proof is then complete. Thus pu=ml A. be A*. Consider now a nozzle which has several throats and achieves sonic speed. Let any other section. If the nozzle has only one throat and sonic speed is attained. Then Eq. Compressible Flow 415 Equations (13. i. throat or not throat.28) gives or In 1 2(A1)L I 2 Differentiation with respect to M yields . still has a maximum where A is the smallest. be A.. Solution Because the same mass flux passes through all sections. this throat is both the critical one and the only one with a local minimum for its area. which becomes k+i Using the Mach number M as a parameter.e. (13. pu. (13. Example 13.26) and (13. The mass flux per unit crosssectional area.5 Show that the mass flux per unit crosssectional area is the highest at the critical section. and pu has a maximum where A has a minimum.24). p.T and A are determined everywhere in terms of the critical properties p*. Hence.27) are substituted into Eq. T* and A*. m = puA = p u A = const. Now a minimum for A can be only where A has a local minimum.13. of all the throats the smallest one achieves the highest value for pu. the one where sonic conditions appear and which must be one of the throats. p. Let the critical section. p*.
and because of u ~ 0.28) with its minimum (see Example 13..25).416 Fluid Mechanics I df _ 1 ~ ~~M + k+l {k . find the corresponding pe. The flow at c. with its walls tangent to the stagnation vessel. The two exit pressures corresponding to sonic speed at the throat are shown as point C for the subsonic exit and point D for the supersonic one. Fig.. (13.5. the reader may take the second derivative and find it positive. ending with Me<\.l)Af 2 ( £ . 13. Still conditions at its exit section e must be considered. Since the nozzle diverges. (13.25). A performance problem: Given Ae. It could also. Because of Mo~ 0. A design problem: Given pe. therefore. and the flow in its diverging part. Suppose its critical section and the mass flux are already known. find Ae. is determined by the pressure pe actually imposed at the exit e. To ensure that the function/(MJ = A/A* has a true minimum a t / ( I ) = 1. These two Me values.e. two Me values are obtained. Thus the same nozzle corresponds to two pe values. o. The Design and Performance of a Nozzle We return now to the nozzle in Fig. Eq. and the proof is complete. 13. The nozzle should start. b. Point A corresponds to no flow at all.6.28) to yield Ae I A*. (13. Two different engineering situations may arise: a. Using Ae/A*in Eq. Eq. while point B represents a flow which is subsonic everywhere. i. . evades similar treatment. (13. Suppose just downstream from c the flow becomes slightly subsonic. (13.19) yields dAo/dx —>°°. be inferred from Table 13. whether subsonic or supersonic. i.1.5. when used in Eq. if the flow just downstream from c becomes even slightly supersonic. with the pressure ratio p //>oalso shown. M < 1.5). and with them two pe values.e. is assumed to be at M = 1. (13.(13. yield two pe values. Conversely. that the critical section is the smallest one. it would continue to accelerate because the nozzle diverges. Let a scheme of the convergentdivergent nozzle be drawn again. 13. The entrance section.5. Using p*/pe in Eq. 13. however.28) yields Ao—><». which is assumed at stagnation. as shown in Fig.28). This twovalued situation may be seen at once from the structure of Eq. Me is obtained and substituted in Eq. the flow would slow down further. Fig.l ) ' l + \(kl)/2]M2 1 ~~M + with the solution M = 1.
It can build up to a shock wave. while point D corresponds to a supersonic flow in the diverging part of the nozzle. An expansion wave. propagates at the sonic speed.6 Pressure along a nozzle. the information that the pressure is above pD is in the form of a compression wave. Below pD the flow inside the nozzle is the same as for pD The information that the pressure in the discharge vessel has dropped below pD is expressed in the form of an expansion wave and therefore cannot propagate against the supersonic flow into the nozzle. this takes place outside the nozzle and the flow is free to choose its envelope for the streamlines. as already shown in this chapter. However. Yet the nozzle can be made to discharge into a vessel where the pressure is controlled. Hence the exit is a "zone of silence" with respect to the diverging part of the nozzle. What then happens for exit pressures below point D? Or between C and D? 0. which . The phenomenon then becomes nonquasionedimensional. Compressible Flow 417 We find that all exit pressures between points A and C correspond to subsonic flows. Coming out of the nozzle the gas encounters a zone of lower pressure and it expands further. assuming a flow down to pD to have been established.52828 Figure 13.13. because. Between pc and pD the situation is more complex.
16) 2 V(l + 0. — e . (13.56 ) 1^ 'J = 2. D* = JA* Vn = 4. and some additional information on the behavior of shock waves is now needed in order to explain what really takes place. (13.5 kg/s air to the atmosphere at atmospheric pressure.17) Pe L 2 Hence Me = 1. and from Eq. Indeed this is what happens.2x 1. Design a convergentdivergent nozzle that discharges 1.= 5.19 xl0" 2 m = 51. From Eq. (13. D e = . Example 13.736xlO3 m2.9mm.23).116x 10~ 3 m 2 .56 LV2. The atmospheric pressure is pa— 10 5 Pa. .4J \4A .6847 x4x!0 5 A* V287 x 350 The critical section is A* = 1.736x 10~3 1 X( o \ 1. (13. V n From Eq.418 Fluid Mechanics moves at a supersonic speed.28) k+i = 1.6 A large pressure vessel contains air at the stagnation pressure po= 4xlO 5 Pa and the stagnation temperature To = 350 K. 771 = 1. and thus can propagate upstream into the nozzle. Solution From Eq. Find the speed of the discharged air.5 = 0.70 x 10"2m = 47 mm.56.
6) A*=1. (13.7 Supersonic convergentdivergent nozzle.6 is connected to another vessel at p B = 3xl0 5 Pa. Compressible Flow Tei _ 419 = 235K. (13. ue= ceMe = 480 m/s. Half the cross section of the designed nozzle is shown in Fig. Thus Eq.5 kg/s air from the first vessel to the second one.17) we obtain ft 3 [ 2 Hence Me = 0. Solution We may still utilize the concept of the critical section although in this case this section is not built but rather serves as an auxiliary computational step. Figure 13.3m / s. The reason for this is beyond the scope of this presentation.4x 287x235 = 307.7 The pressure vessel of Example 13. and a nozzle is used to transferTO= 1.13.23) yields (see Example 13. From Eq.736xlO" 3 m 2 . Equation (13. Design this nozzle.7. Example 13. The radius of curvature of the converging part has been chosen equal to D*.654.  = Vl.28) now gives . 13. and half the spread angle of the diverging part is chosen to be 8° to guarantee no flow separation.
De = . Solution For Example 13.0mm. Example 13.420 Fluid Mechanics k+i L736Xl0 3 0. k .4.8 Repeat Examples 13.2x0.7. 0.654 2 )T = 1. k = 1. Tables of Onedimensional Compressible Flow Equations (13. which is shown in Fig.6.6 is cut at D = 50. A* = 4.7 J/kgK.9 mm. (13. — e . . V n Note that this nozzle can be obtained from that designed in Example 13.28) may be used for various flow conditions. it still satisfies the conditions of Example 13.17). Such tables may be used to obtain a quick estimate of the principal dimensions of a nozzle.667) using the compressible flow tables.23) and (13. before the critical section. respectively. from Table D2. (13.97x10~3m2.0 mm but after the critical section.16).7X350 or 1.406x103m2 and £>*= 7. and the results tabulated with the Mach Number used as a parameter.7 . 13.6 and 13.5 = 340.4 l + 0.7 for helium (R = 2079.2.3.0 mm.1.7262 x (4 xl0 5 )A* rh = =L r V2079. Examples of such tables are Table Dl. If the nozzle of Example 13. (13.49x102 m = 74.654 2 'f 1.6.667 and k = 1.5A*.18).= 5xlO~ 2 m = 50. by cutting it off at D = 50. Table D2 and Table D3 for ideal gases with &= 1.
49. but must be really one dimensional.^ = 0.16 x 10" 3 m 2 .e. (13. Therefore.1706 xv(4.0 mm.1 mm. having relaxed one condition. we impose one condition: In this treatment the flows are not just quasionedimensional. the continuity equations (13.667x 2079..4357. that of the flows being isentropic. we = M e c e = 1244 m / s. Ae = A* —I. Nonisentropic Onedimensional Flows To gain some insight into the physics of shock waves as well as to extend the treatment to include additional important and frequently realized flows. we widen our scope and consider some nonisentropic flows.30) We know of two phenomena. o T —f = 1. i.= 0.1706. to extend our treatment too much. We do not want.04 x 10" 3 m 2 . De = 8.25.01 x 10"2 m = 80. Compressible Flow 421 P± = I = 0.406 x 10^3.7x201 = 8 3 5 m / s . however.11) now become rh = pu = const. •'o ej =Vl.10xl0. which make a process nonisentropic. Mp = 1. ) = 5.2 m = 81.10).7 P&.5747 = 201 K. . De = 8.5747. ^ + ^ = 0. hence from Table D2 . A Ae = 1.= 5. Po 4 Hence from Table D2.13.75.29) (13.1430. Poo . Me = 0.= 350x0.605 and —I = 1. A" Hence Te = To •%*. p u (13. friction and heat transfer. For Example 13. Po 4 ?JL = 0. = .
31) yields the forms ?• (13.12) in our considerations.1. M2 > 1. (13.30) ~k^i'~T~~~kRT' '~p~~Cv~¥~ ~p~~°' From basic thermodynamics for an ideal gas dT S C dp . Let the x direction coincide with the direction of the flow in the pipe. (13. Thus. and so do the ideal gas relations. . du < 0. It is also noted that since friction. and the effect of friction is to slow the flow. from Eq. because M 1 corresponds to ds . M2 < 1. no timeindependent flow with M = 1 may exist in a pipe.2. (13. (13.13) or (13.422 Fluid Mechanics Pipe Flow with Friction The first family of nonisentropic flows we consider is adiabatic flows with friction. Thus for supersonic flows.M2)du/u > 0. Even an assumption of negligible friction still does not allow M = 1 inside the conduit. Eq. Because the flow is adiabatic. The details of the mechanism of friction are ignored. requires ds > 0. while for subsonic flows the effect of friction is to reduce the gas temperature. and hence any real adiabatic process.0 and not to ds ~ 0. Repeating this same argument for the sign of 1 1 M2J ] dT v T we find that for supersonic flows the gas temperature goes up along the conduit. and we admit its effect by not using the momentum equation (13. which is somewhat analogous to Table 13. while for subsonic flows.32).14) still holds.»1T~ ~p~' which together with Eq. and the flow must accelerate.32) Since in an adiabatic process ds > 0. du > 0.15) cpDdT + udu = — RdT + u2 — = 0 kl u or with Eq. so must be (1 . The results just obtained are summarized in Table 13. the energy equation in its form (13.
8 Fanno and Rayleigh lines.i \ )M = 1 / }M = I / //M>I Rayleigh line Figure 13. having a subsonic branch and a supersonic one. A flow in a conduit of constant cross section corresponds to a particular Fanno line and a point in the flow corresponds to a point on that line. but only at its end.16) we obtain . ^\ ' i i i i i i i is i / is . separated by the point M = 1 which corresponds to ds .0. At M = 1 no further motion along the Fanno line toward larger s is possible. Fanno line M< 1 . Thus putting M I'm Eq. 13.8.8) for the sonic speed. What is the velocity at that point or what is the sonic speed there? We note that Eq. both of which hold for adiabatic flows. Fig. its point on the diagram moves along its Fanno line and always toward larger s. (13.32) defines a curve on the Ts diagram..16) has been obtained form the energy equation (13. This curve is called the Fanno Line . As a fluid particle proceeds on its way in the conduit.15) and the expression (13. (13.2 Adiabatic flow with friction in a pipe.13. Compressible Flow M du dx dT dx dp dx M< 1 >0 <0 <0 M> 1 <0 >0 >0 M=1 423 no timeindependent flows Table 13. Hence M = 1 cannot appear in the conduit. Equation (13. Suppose M = 1 does appear at the exit of a conduit.
Ju2\dL dh.424 Fluid Mechanics Too k + l' T which is the same as Eq. Still this means that in designs of convergentdivergent nozzles.. Equation (13.34) yield fk k+l D 1 kl 1 177 2 (17J)' dr]. states CpT0=cpT u1 = 2cp{T0T). again.29). which holds for adiabatic processes. ut. yields the head loss .33) combined with Eq. the entropy come out to be different there.. Let the stagnation properties corresponding to the initial point be p0. where sonic speeds do appear.20) for isentropic flow! The temperature. of course. „. as defined in Eq. L T 2T D Dl T Equation (13. Let the gas properties there be p. du u u = —C \j r p P dT u22 dT 2(T0 . e.. p0. The pressure and the density and. (13. Now. s0.T) and .. + \u\ Hence cpdT + udu = 0. the velocity and the sonic speed obtained at M = 1 by adiabatic expansion from stagnation do not depend on whether the expansion is isentropic or adiabatic with friction. s( and note: «. there is not zero. Th pt. i\ 1 dT. T 2{T0T) (13. rough designs of the convergent part yield surprisingly good results. (13.g. 1 ds =. =f\ — — . from basic thermodynamics dT ndp dT ^du ds = cv — R^ = cv — + R . (12. with s0 = st.15). at its entrance. f {2g)D which affects the change of entropy ^L . Let an initial point in the conduit be chosen.33) The coefficient of friction in pipe flow. To. (1334) .
p and u may also be computed.05 m diameter and flows at this point with M = 0.13. D5 and D6 in Appendix D arranged such that Fn fL/D is the dimensionless length still remaining before M = 1 is reached. i. once T is known. that length after which sonic speed appears. It is introduced into a pipe of 0. which is assumed constant. Fig. C2H6..35) then takes the form I77.9 A certain cooking gas. (13. which may be considered an ideal gas with k = 1.3. 12. (13. Equation (13. p2l'po\ and p2lp$\ there. The Moody diagram.0 0 0 ' P\<Pm = i . Ty^oi = io.02. The pipe is to be 15 km long.4. is a mixture of CO. yields for this pipe the friction factor / = 0. with Some numerical values are presented in Tables D4 .01.01.35) yields the maximum length the conduit may have. Pi/poi = i. Find the Mach number at the 15km point and the values of T2/T0l. which describes how r]T/T0 changes along the conduit.e. Find the maximum length this pipe may have before the flow is choked. Of course. Compressible Flow 425 where Integration yields the Fanno number Fn =fL/D. CH4 and N2. Substitution of 77 = T*/To = 2/(k+l) in Eq. D 2k 177. Solution At the point of introduction the gas has Mi = 0. Example 13.35) 2/b 1^177 177.
4545.0 = 0.30) into Eq. The sonic speed at point 2 is the same as at point 1.36) . = ^L. The table also yields T2/To = 0. At Z^= 15. M2= 0. 0. (13.4545. Table D4 yields.182m and f . and therefore U 2 M = 2 = 2 2= Pl p2 p 2 JPL)± .03. Substitution of pdu = udp from Eq. Frictionless Pipe Flow with Heat Transfer The second family of nonisentropic flows we consider is frictionless flows with heat transfer.12) and ignore the energy equation.^ 2 _ = 1. by interpolation.673. this becomes P. u2 dp _d!T_ dp_ and because RT = c2/k.9999 x 0.45451 x 1.02<M2<0.426 Fluid Mechanics where the various values have been read from Table Dl which holds for isentropic relations.000m: LmaX2 = 19.01.12) yields u2dp = dp = R(pdT + Tdp). for M = 0. and certainly 0. Hence. (13. Hence L = 7683xDlf = 19182m.022. (13.9999. Using the same strategy as for adiabatic flows with friction.2 p 01 i^2_ = _Pi_ M l Poi \Po\)PiT\ = 22 = 0. 2.30) and the momentum equation (13.29) and (13. Table D6 yields.182Z^ = 4. we keep the onedimensional continuity equations(13.
M2\ dT (13. Since heat transfer can be into and out of the moving fluid. With heat addition dT m M2<1 k M2>\ du >0 >0 >0 <0 With heat extraction M dT M2<L <0 — <M2<1 k >0 M2> 1 <0 k du <0 >0 Table 13. with heat transfer.13.2 for the Fanno line. which is analogous to Table 13. the points on the line in the diagram move both to the left and to the right. the Rayleigh Line. which can be described as a line on the Ts diagram. . 13. is represented by points on this line. Fig.37) d Again. The general behavior is presented in Table 13.8. The Rayleigh line also breaks into subsonic and supersonic branches. and for k < M2 < 1 the temperature goes down with the addition of heat and increases with heat extraction. It has a point of maximum T at M2 — \lk.3. The frictionless motion of a fluid particle along the conduit.36).3 Frictionless flow with heat transfer in a pipe. Compressible Flow 427 From general thermodynamics and from Eq. (13. a relation between T and i has been obtained. with M= 1 at the point of maximum s.
. (13. Equation (13.It may be considered locally one dimensional. point A in Fig. 13..e.r. =p. Shock Wave Relations Consider an observer moving with a normal shock. a local nonisentropic occurrence. (13.It must permit local heat transfer and internal friction.u. 13. those represented by the Fanno line and by the Rayleigh line. A momentum balance through a stream tube yields 2. However. and because io and with it To are conserved through the shock. with the flow going into and out of the shock. sB >sA.8.16) applies both before and after the shock.9 Normal shock.A ' I I or ' L l L ' 1 1 l (13. Disturbed 1.c. Let the gas just before the shock wave be represented by a point on the Ts diagram. say. i. .9. Then: .40) . Hence a shock can occur only at supersonic speeds.e.38) Figure 13.39) 2 Continuity requires p. Undisturbed P\ or Shock . The shock is a onedimensional phenomenon and the state after the shock is restricted to its Fanno and Rayleigh lines. Let a shock wave be defined as a local singularity. The observer sees the shock stationary. hence the shock must be represented by a jump from points to point B or from B to A. Both Fanno and Rayleigh lines may be drawn through this point. i.428 Fluid Mechanics We now endeavor to explain shock waves using the concepts just developed. Fig. =p~u.
40). Hence. and p. < 1 implies M2>\.39) and (13.41) .M2 has been affected. unless Mj = M2* the flow must change from supersonic to subsonic. Compressible Flow 429 Now pIT = Rp. . i. Using Eqs. andp 2 is always greater than pv A Shock Strength may thus be defined as {p2p\)lp\ = &P\lp\. (13. Then P\ P\ 2km^\k\ ' k+l * U +i m+l (13. for shocks of small strength.39) and (13.18). (13. A change from subsonic to supersonic flow requires decrease of entropy. (13. (13.44) are also incorporated into Appendix D.17) and (13. Thus. the stagnation properties before and after the shock can be found. T and p may be eliminated between Eqs. the critical properties can be found.13.42) 1 + kMJ Once M2 is obtained. Hence a normal shock may occur only in supersonic flows and the flow after the shock is subsonic.38). The relations of Eqs.In general the increase of entropy may be found using properties before and after the shock.16). this possibility exists. (13. (13. (13. Eqs. weak shocks.1..38).(13.e. Let m = M . Using Eqs. (13.25). (13.40) yield the temperature ratio (13 43) '  and the density ratio p. a simpler approach is helpful. which cannot be in adiabatic flows. which means no shock.26) and (13. The shock is a compression wave. The pressure ratio is given by Pi (13. This done. However.45) Expanding for m«\ ' Division by Mj . the resulting relation between Mx and M2 is written as 2 2kMx2(k\)' ' It is noted that algebraically Mx>\ implies M2< 1 and M.27). 2 .
2xl0 5 Pa.52.75. c.8 > 0. 3xlO5Pa. Could the flow be all subsonic? 4= 2. Use values from Table Dl. 2*. and point £ to a shock at the exit. ..736 xl0~ 3 From Table Dl: Mg = 0.75 > 0. at the throat. then a normal shock occurs and the flow continues subsonically to the exit pressure.6. From Table Dl: Me = 0.= 1 ^ ° 15 = 0. pjpo = 0. At this stage we can answer partially a question raised when considering nozzle flow: Exit pressures between points C and E. x3 (13.12X103 A 1. Fig. />e = 3.57.57.46) For weak shocks the increase of entropy is proportional to the third power of the shock strength.5283. Point C corresponds to zero strength shock. and describe the resulting flows. 13.. Solution p0 4xlO 5 =0. The stagnation pressure where the flow originates is still p0 = 4xlO 5 Pa. are accommodated by some supersonic flow in the diverging part of the nozzle. where the pressure is a.430 Fluid Mechanics 2* or .8.8 > 0.6 is made to discharge into another vessel. .221. po 4 x 10 AJA*= 1.10 The nozzle designed in Example 13. Example 13. b. 2xlO5Pa. without interpolation. pe/po = 0. Indeed the flow is all subsonic! b.
745xl05 0.5283)(4xl05) = 211320 Pa. Try Mi = 1. The air must expand further. Try Mi = 1.0304 = 1. We now look again at Table Dl. a shock wave.8442. p2= 1. px = 0. 2 ^ 1 0 ! = 3. again because of the shock wave.5X105 Pa. pe/Po2 = 0.97x105 Pa. Now p* = (0.56.2.12xl03 A2 1.7209 .2724)po= 1.0237 = 1.5133/?! = 2.65x105 Pa.789x103 m2. the design exit pressure in Example 13. The stagnation pressure is reduced because the flow went through an irreversible process. From Table D1: M 2 = 0.09x105Pa.5 and repeat: M2= 0. with sonic conditions at A*.4124po= 1.042 x 10"3m2.4583) px= 2. Now at the exit 4=2.0237 and deduce A*2 = Ax /1.63 = 3. and we know that 1 < Mj < 1.59. Ax = 1.13. p 1 = (0. Note that this critical cross section is not realized physically but is rather an answer to the question of what critical cross section is required to accommodate the flow after the shock wave.7x105 Pa. at the line of M = 0. AX=A*(AX/A*) = 1. see Example 13. the flow then becomes subsonic. we expect a shock wave.7901 and pe = 0. We also find there A/A* = 1.6. Compressible Flow 431 The flow cannot be all subsonic. p2 = (2.736x103x1.790 x3.97xlO5 = 3.1762 = 2. and the compression in the divergent part of the nozzle raises the pressure up to 3xl0 5 Pa. Thus supersonic speed must appear and the part of the flow between the entrance and the critical section is exactly the same as in Example 13.736 x 10"3 x 1.747 x 10"3 m2. and from p2 = 2.6. The critical cross section has been increased.6.5xlO 5 / 0.14xl0 5 Pa > 3xl0 5 Pa.5x105 deduce po2 = 2.747 xl0~ 3 and from Table Dl we read Me = 0.7011. The location of the shock wave must be found by trial and error. the flow becomes supersonic and since pe — 3xl0 5 Pa is higher than 105Pa.8442.
Then a shock wave and isentropic compression top e . the flow turns by the angle 9.10. Subsonic flow up to the critical section followed by supersonic flow up to the exit. resulting in subsonic u2.745 x 105 = 2. the velocity component normal to the shock. and no solution can be obtained.9984 x 105Pa. while the component parallel to the shock.866x10 ^ ^ 2 1.11. pe = 3. = 1.668 xlO 5 Pa. Fig. Whatever adjusts the exit pressure to the imposed one must take place after the exit.2496po = 0. Subsonic flow up to the critical section followed by supersonic flow up to A. A way to force an oblique shock is therefore to make a supersonic flow turn by the introduction of a wedge into the flow. 13.866 X10"3 °2 and p e = 0.6125 Pl =2. p e I po2 = 0.7528 e e A2 1. p{ = 0.* 2. Try Try c. Fig. Af. For this to happen M. Mx = 1. b. We are led in this case by the calculations in case b. is not altered at all.56.2 x 105 Pa.6809. itself must be supersonic.14. and try right away Mi =1. i. M2== 0. u{.03x105 Pa.668x105 Pa < pe < 3.668xlO5 Pa. 13. = ^ = 1. The flows obtained are: a.0944 1U ik. Uj. The lowest exit pressure that may still correspond to a normal shock wave is/>c= 2.e. c.As a result of this.042x10 3 .6.65.432 Fluid Mechanics .1. Solutions of the type in part b are possible for 2. p2 =2..34.82 x 105 Pa < 3 x 105 Pa. Complete subsonic flow. Me = 0. undergoes a normal shock. .9xl0 3 m 2 . „ „ i n _ 3 2 A = = 1.35 and repeat: Me = 0.7528 x 3. Oblique Shocks and PrandtlMeyer Expansion Consider a flow wx encountering an oblique shock. Two oblique shock waves appear.
by Eq. Fig. For large enough v2 = vx.11 Shocks at a wedge.10 Oblique shock.. (13. The change of entropy in this case. One step b.47). An. Many steps Figure 13. is i. Two steps c. Compressible Flow 433 Shock Figure 13. one quarter of case a.e. .12. Figure 13. Furthermore. Case a is a turn as already discussed. (13. 13. We note. each of 9/2. the change of entropy is . however.12 Compressive turning of supersonic flow. In case b the turn is reached in two steps.w2 may still be supersonic and Apxlpx may indeed be quite small. it can be shown that for small turning angles 9 [see Eq. say. The flow then approaches an isentropic one.13. that each step generates its own shock wave and that the two waves meet. Consider the flow w1 which must turn by the angle 9. In case c.46)]. (1347) shock a.
13a. and these do meet.. For pressures below D there is a PrandtlMeyer expansion. Since every point in a supersonic flow has a right to a Mach line.= 0 and the flow is isentropie. in a way similar to the piston flow. its Mach line. we may draw some of these. Such a supersonic expansion yields M as a function of the turn angle. PrandtlMeyer angle vis also given in Table Dl. these Mach lines hardly meet and the flow is isentropie. and note that they diverge.13 is also an isentropie expansion.6: For exit pressures between points E and D. Fig.e.12 to show that now we have isentropie expansion. Fig. i. case b in Fig.10. Still. reversible. Also find what flows result for the exit pressures . In the close vicinity of the rounded bend. Now consider a supersonic flow along a wall which turns away from the flow.3.434 Fluid Mechanics ( As = lim n — = lim —=. 13. however. each differential step generates its differentially weak shock. 13. a. Fig.e. 13. Gradual turn \ \ b. Furthermore. i. We may now complete the description of the nozzle flow.11 Complete case c in Example 13. called the PrandtlMeyer angle. Example 13. oblique shocks occur outside the nozzle exit. There is no compressive counterpart to this function. 13..13 Supersonic expansion by turning. because in compression the Mach lines converge to generate partial shocks and these meet to form stronger shocks. We may repeat the argument leading to case c in Fig. because the Mach lines diverge. 13. Corner Figure 13.
56. . The flow in the divergent part is fully supersonic. The exit pressure is the design pressure.13. pe = 0. e.01. This result is different from that obtained from the equations for subsonic flows with negligible shear. Expansion w Shock Expansion Figure 13. up to M = 2. and the phenomenon becomes three dimensional.0. This is followed by threedimensional phenomena. There are oblique shocks outside the exit.14 Diamondshaped wing in supersonic flow. Lift and Drag Finally we note that because of the increase in entropy through shock waves.5x105 Pa. At the exit the flow is supersonic with M = 1. e. Compressible Flow d. the equations for supersonic flow yield both lift and drag. d. as seen in Fig. which could predict only lift. Solution c.2265 rad.2387 = 0. 13.4652 . 435 pe = 105 p a . The flow in the nozzle is at the design conditions.14. There is a PrandtlMeyer outward expansion with the angle Av= 0.
New York. "Mathematical Theory of Compressible Fluid Flow.W.2a." Holt. is . Use dp _(dp\ dp {dpjT in Eq. Owczarek. J. Walker. A. "The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow. Chapman and W. (13.A.H." Academic Press. Jennings.4) was obtained by Newton. 1 bar? In helium at the same state? In hydrogen? In a 1:1 molar mixture of helium and hydrogen? b. P Find the speed of sound in water.1a. Problems 13.4) and recalculate the speed of sound c. New York. 1957. New York." Wiley." McGrawHill." 2vols. 1953. 90°C. 1971. Rinehard and Winston.B.F. b. "Fundamentals of Gas Dynamics.1 ^ 1 = 4. Shapiro. H. Ronald Press." McGrawHill. Roshko. What is the speed of sound in air at 300 K. R. 1971. "Elements of Gas Dynamics.4xlO~ 10 m 2 /N. 1958. Find the speed of sound in steel. What are the errors? 13.436 Fluid Mechanics References A.H. 1958. New York. . who first assumed the process to be isothermal rather than isentropic. A. New York.. The isentropic compressibility of water at 1 bar. and E is the Young modulus. The isentropic compressibility of steellike solids is where v is the Poisson ratio. Liepmann and A. New York. "Gas Dynamics. Equation (13. Cambel and B. von Mises. "Introductory Gas Dynamics.
p . Let A.5xl0 5 Pa. c and for the pressure at which the sonic speed appears. wherep e = 1. to pl . at 2xlO5 Pa. m. b. Assume ideal gas behavior.4 Nozzle. Find Mach numbers. The throat crosssectional area in Problem 13. find the dimensions at the throat and at the exit.4. Compressible Flow 437 13. In section 1: u . T = 300 K. d.6 In Problem 13. Find the new mass flowrate. and then continues. 13. sonic speeds and stagnation pressures for a. 300 K.5. is changed to a. air. 13. . b. and that of the exit is Ae. 105Pa. hydrogen.4 Assume onedimensional adiabatic frictionless flow through the nozzle shown in Fig. b.13.3 Helium at stagnation. c. to p2 = O. 7 = 300 K. and the pressure at the throat for the same nozzle. b. and draw a scheme of a convergentdivergent nozzle which transfers 1 kg/s air from vessel A.5 Design.5 is A*.. With the same stagnation conditions as in Problem 13.. 13. but then there is a shock wave at A. 50 mm 35 mm i 20 mm I Figure P13.5 the pressure at the exit. Calculate the velocities in sections 2 and 3 for the fluids: a. Find the Mach number and the pressure at the throat. just before the shock and at the exit. speeds.105 Pa. molten lead. c. the sonic speed is reached at A*. water. and then continues.5xl05 Pa. P13. wherep 0 = 106Pa. pe. i.5xlO5 Pa. = (A* + Ae)l2. to p3 ~ 0. expands isentropically: a.e.8xlO 6 Pa. at A.20 m/s. to vessel B. 9. 13.7.
5. suggested that a convergentdivergent nozzle be used. This truncated nozzle is used instead of the designed one. enters a pipe of an inner diameter 0.lxlO 5 Pa. 13. which has the same minimal cross section as in Problem 13.2. The measured gauge pressures were: l..8 Fluid Mechanics A compressor takes in air at the atmospheric pressure p = 105 Pa and discharges the compressed air into a high pressure settling tank.1.13 Both nozzles. 13.8. 0.12 Design a nozzle which discharges 1 kg/s air from a vessel at stagnation conditions.015 m.13 are repeated in space. 2. Find A*. 4. the designed and the truncated one. instead of using air. connects to the settling tank a thermometer and a convergent nozzle with a minimal crosssectional area of 20 x 104m2.8 did.6x105 Pa.10 A Pitot tube is used to measure the speed of an airplane. Assuming atmospheric pressure of 105 Pa and isentropic processes except through shock waves.023. An engineer who has to measure the performance curve of the compressor.7.438 13. 13.12.12 are tested under the conditions of Problem 13.12 and 13. 13. However. hydrogen is being used. Find the pipe length at which sonic speed is reached.0. 1. Find the four new thrust forces. the mass flux of the compressed air as a function of the compression pressure. . i. Find the total thrust force applied to the vessel now. such that only one equation had to be used to compute the mass fluxes in the five measurements taken there.3. 13.14 The four tests of Problems 13. to the atmosphere at p =105 Pa.0xl0 5 Pa and 6. 1.11 Helium at p0 = 3xl0 5 Pa. find the pressures read on the Pitot differential manometer and the speeds of the airplane.e. Ae and the total thrust force which acts on the vessel.5x105 Pa. The friction coefficient i s / = 0. Find the thrust forces acting on the vessel now. To = 400 K. 0. po= 8. 13. To= 400 K.0xl0 5 Pa. corresponding to Mach numbers of 0. of Problem 13. For reasons of material availability the nozzle designed above has been manufactured with its divergent part opening only up to the crosssectional area of A1(A* +Ae)/2. Find the corresponding mass flowrates. In all the measurements the temperatures were between 350 K and 355 K. who saw what the one in Problem 13.9 A second engineer.0.0x105 Pa.1. Design such a nozzle.
The speed of the air. d. before the critical section at point 2. Ve. and k = 1.21 A rocket. 13. p l. where A2 Ax. Find: e. 13. p2.19 The nozzle of Problem 13.4. 13. At the exit of the pipe the speed of the gas is V3. i. g. m2. where Aj=(A + Ae)l2.21.13. Find the pressure left immediately behind the shock. V2. Find the highest pressure suffered by the wall. The exit crosssectional area. Me. T o = 4 2 0 K .18 The nozzle of Problem 13. The speed of the air. Compressible Flow 439 13.? 13. The mass flux. at section A2. f. and the mass flux through the pipe is m. Ae. It still connects the pressure vessel to the outside. Find: e. The speed of the gas at the exit from the nozzle. The outside atmospheric pressure is />a = 100kPa. atA 2 . Is V3 smaller. h. equal to or greater than V2? j . The pressure. V b at Ax. g. The exit Mach number. equal to or greater than m 2 . mu atAi. h. f. The Mach number. The gas is approximately ideal.18 is further cut. 13. M2. The Mach number. b. c. It is then reflected back. with R = 287 J/kgK.16 The shock wave of Problem 13. The mass flux. Is the air immediately behind the shock quiescent? If not.17 A large pressure vessel contains gas at the stagnation properties: p o = 4 0 0 k P a . has a cylindrical exhaust pipe of the diame . A convergentdivergent nozzle is designed to pass a mass flux of 1 kg/s from the vessel to the outside. Mx. smaller. Find: a.20 The pressure vessel of Problem 13. what is its velocity and in which direction? 13. It still connects the pressure vessel to the outside.17 is also connected to the outside by a pipe of a constant crosssectional area of A3 = A2.15 hits a wall in a direct frontal collision. at A2.17 is cut after the critical section at point 1. shown in Fig. The speed of the shock is us = 694 m/s.15 A normal shock wave moves through quiescent air at/? = 105Pa. The critical crosssectional area. at A2. Is rho. The pressure. A*. T=300K. P13. Find the speed of the reflected wave. at A l. at section A j .
The air then flows to a combustion chamber where its temperature is raised by 1.22. and then the air expands in a nozzle. 13. 13. Assuming the airplane operates at that new highest pressure.22 must have the same mass rate of air supply as in Problem 13. flies now at a higher altitude. 13. Find the maximum attainable pressure and the ratio between the area of the diffuser at the intake and that where the higher pressure is obtained. For 1 kg/s air. d = 0.e. T= 280 K.5 kg/s.22.22 A jetpropelled airplane flies at 900 km/h. The air intake into the engine is designed as a diffuser. To achieve this.. find the ratio between the mass rate of air intake under the conditions of this problem and that of Problem 13.21 Rocket.22. Assume isentropic compression and expansion.3. The outside pressure is 100kPa. with k— 1.23 The airplane of Problem 13.24 At takeoff the airplane of Problem 13. the air coming out of the diffuser passes through a compressor where it is compressed by a compression ratio of 1 : 20.22. Find this pressure. with the diffuser designed in that problem.000 K. The rocket moves with a constant speed and exhausts gas at the rate of 0. 300 K. Now.25 Relating to the airplane in Problem 13.440 Fluid Mechanics ter d0. as part of a nozzle that takes in the outside air and brings it to the speed of the airplane while increasing its pressure. . The outside air is at 105 Pa.4.025 m I u Figure P13. To. Then the air expands in a turbine where energy is extracted just enough to run the compressor. 13.000 K. Find the highest pressure which can be obtained now at the exit of the diffuser. and R = 287 J/kgK. however. the engine compressor must set a lower pressure just at the exit from the diffuser. where the outside air is at 5 x l O 4 P a . Find the force on the rocket.025 m instead of a nozzle. The gas is approximately ideal. the airplane is at zero speed. The stagnation properties of the gas in the rocket are/? o =400kPa. i.
with an adiabatic efficiency of 70%. This means that the expansion in the turbine is still adiabatic but that the power extracted from the gas is only 70% of what could be extracted by isentropic expansion. 13. Fig. Find the pressure near the wall and the speed of the reflected shock. 13.0/0. Now the Figure P13.25 is changed to a cheaper one. i.e. Find the thrust of the engine.27 The compressor in Problem 13. This means that the compression in the compressor is still adiabatic but that the power needed to compress the gas is 1. 13.22. It hits the Quiescent air wall and a normal shock wave is reflected from the Incoming air at 450 m/s wall and propagates against the stream of the incoming air. which remains the same as in Problem 13. and behind the shock. must now supply the increased power necessary to run the compressor. Find the critical diameter and the exit diameter of the jet nozzle now.28 stream of air passes through the reflected shock. 13. and the gas exits from the turbine at a lower pressure. Fig. flows with the shock speed of 450 m/s perpendicular to a wall. the air is stationary with respect to the wall because it must satisfy this boundary condition.28.25. The turbine. .28 A continuous stream of air at Reflected 105Pa.7 times that needed in an isentropic compression. with an adiabatic efficiency of 70%. 300 K. Find the lift and the drag induced by the shocks and the PrandtlMeyer expansion for cases a and b. 300 K. Find the critical diameter and the exit diameter of the jet nozzle now. Compressible Flow 441 design the nozzle for operating under the conditions of Problem 13. Find the thrust of the engine.PI3.26 The turbine in Problem 13. the gas must exit from the turbine at a lower pressure. To obtain the power necessary to run the compressor.29.29 A diamondshaped supersonic wing moves in air at 105 Pa..25 is changed to a cheaper one. on the wall side. Find the thrust of the engine. at 500m/s.13. find the critical diameter and the exit diameter. PI3.
442 Fluid Mechanics PM PM Expansion b. The resulting flow must have the same pressure and the same direction everywhere.3xl05 Pa. Find the new pressure and direction. Figure P13. P13. 300 K. moving at 450 m/s meets with another stream at 1. Figure P13.30 A stream of air at 105 Pa.30.29 Diamondshaped wings in supersonic flow. 13. The meeting takes place at an angle of 20°. Fig. moving at 450 m/s.30 . 300 K.
such as the flow between two parallel plates. A typical example of the latter is the dough climbing up the beater of a food mixer. Similarly we may define an apparent viscosity of a nonNewtonian fluid by {^} (142) 443 .1) than those that do. Elastic effects which strongly influence timedependent flows and "stretching" flows are outside the scope of this book. follow Eq. slurries. Typical nonNewtonian fluids are paints. NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS A Newtonian fluid has been defined inChapter 5 as one which satisfies a linear relationship between its stress and its rate of strain. air. water and petroleum.1) quite accurately. The Newtonian fluid of Eq. (14. fi. Indeed. However. polymer melts. and there is no reason to believe that all real fluids should obey it. Figure 14. there are more fluids that do not behave according to Eq. while others show effects of "memory" which are related to their viscoelastic behavior. jellies and similar food products. Some of these fluids simply exhibit nonlinear viscous effects. the three fluids most abundant in nature.14. foams. (14. this relationship is expressed as Equation (14. (14. This equation is a mathematical statement. blood.1) is represented by the straight line of constant slope. For a simple unidirectional flow.1 shows curves of stress versus rate of strain for several classes of fluids. Fluids whose behavior cannot be described by Newton's law of viscosity are called nonNewtonian fluids. The constant viscosity of a Newtonian fluid is defined as the ratio between a given shear stress and the resultant rate of strain. etc.1) is known as Newton's law of viscosity. pastes. passing through the origin. Only nonlinear viscous effects will be dealt with in this chapter.
This curve is fitted by means of an equation called the constitutive equation of the fluid. (14.444 Fluid Mechanics Here. Comparing Eqs. 14. The Newtonian fluid is. For n > 1 the fluid is known as dilatant. the apparent viscosity is not a constant but depends on the rate of strain.4) .2) and (14. rateofstrain relationships for different fluids. a special case of the powerlaw fluid with n = 1. One of the simplest constitutive equations describing the flow behavior of a nonNewtonian fluid is that of the powerlaw model: (14.1. The relationship between the shear rate and the rate of strain is found experimentally by a series of viscometric measurements at different shear rates. Plotting the results as in Fig. the curve obtained is called a flow curve.3) For cases of n < 1 the fluid is referred to as the pseudoplastic fluid. Bingham Plastic Pseudoplastic (n < 1) Newtonian Fluid Dilatant (n> 1) Figure 14. however. of course.3) it is noted that the apparent viscosity of a powerlaw fluid may be expressed as Mapp = K du dy ra1 (14.1 Stress vs.
one has to extend the constitutive relationships to two./zapp goes to infinity. Another fluid shown in Fig. Above x0 the increase in T is proportional to the shear rate. while the sign of the shear stress is determined by the sign of du/dy. Equation (14.4) shows that as the shear rate approaches zero. In many cases the powerlaw model describes the behavior of the fluid only over a limited range of shear rates.5) the term in the square brackets. 14. it can be described by du\ .2) to yield K du n\ du (14. In particular. In order to deal with higher dimensional flows. because in Eq. . the apparent viscosity..} dx i) .e. This fluid does not flow below a certain yield stress To. i. .6) J This model includes as special cases the powerlaw fluid when a = 0 and the Newtonian fluid for b . dy L (14.14.4) may be combined with (14. Inspection of Eq. it breaks down at very low shear rates. A slightly more complex model that takes this into account is the Ellis model: fa + 6  T  l T .5) The powerlaw model as expressed by Eq. is always positive. (14. we start again with the Newtonian fluid and then extend our results to nonNewtonian fluids. To do this.1 is the Bingham plastic. The constitutive equations given above were written in onedimensional form and thus could be used to solve problems of unidirectional flows only. dy This model may also be derived as a special case of the Ellis model. J [dxj du. (14.0. NonNewtonian Fluids 445 The absolute value sign is introduced to insure that the apparent viscosity is the same for shear rates equal in magnitude but acting in opposite directions. experience shows that most nonNewtonian fluids approach Newtonian behavior at low shear rates. fo lTl>T 0 . On the other hand.and threedimensional cases.5) is to be preferred over that of (14. Thus.3). (14. The stress versus rateofstrain relationship for an incompressible Newtonian fluid is (du.
Hence for this case Now whatever form this f(I2) attains.37) Similarly.e. equals simply V • q.446 Fluid Mechanics or by Eq. The scalar invariants of a tensor are those combinations of the components that do not vary under rotation of the coordinate system. the apparent viscosity of the powerlaw model for a twodimensional flow may be put in the following form which satisfies this condition: .9) xij=2\im£ij. The three scalar invariants of the rateofstrain tensor are h = £y£y = e?i + e 2 + 4 + 2e\2 + 2ej3 + 2ef3. where the third invariant is the determinant of the matrix of e^ . The shear rate £.. i.10) «=A*app ( 1 ^ + 4 ^ 1 and Again.10) reveals that the stress on the lefthand side stands for a second order tensor.. For example. I3 =detl£yl. Hence For twodimensional flows 73 = 0. The only way for a function of a tensorial quantity to be a scalar is by being a function of the scalar invariants of the tensor. (14. 7j. a tensor of rank zero. fiapp is not constant but some function of the rate of deformation: Although we do not know a priori the expression for fiapp. In order to preserve the tensorial rank of the equation. we may note the following facts: Inspection of Eq. (5. it requires that /iapp be a scalar. it must reduce to a simple onedimensional form. which vanishes for incompressible fluids. one may write for a nonNewtonian fluid T (14. The first invariant. (14.on the righthand side stands also for a second order tensor. once the flow is unidirectional..
5). Eq. (14. the stress versus rateofstrain relationship becomes nl" +2 K ( dv"] — {dyj (du dv + —+ ^ [dy dx The scalar expression in the square brackets is. such as the flow in a circular pipe. with vz = vz{ r ).14.16) which for a flow with ve=ve(r) simplifies to d (ve (14. (5. dr nl' dr (14. NonNewtonian Fluids n1 f^app 447 (14. It reads nl K \dr r d6 r dr\r ) r dO )' dr\r ) r d6 (14. which can be solved for particular cases.18) and for unidirectional flows. (14.38) . (5. Eqs. The constitutive equation for a powerlaw fluid in polar coordinates is derived similarly.17) Similarly for axisymmetrical flows nl K d Y IF) +2 dvz)2 (dvz dvr {~dt) +{~dt+ dz dr dz (14.14) reduces to T = K du du dy (14.15) which corresponds to the onedimensional form of Eq. the apparent viscosity.19) The stress versus rateofstrain relationships given by the constitutive equations may now be substituted into the momentum equations.40) or Eq. The following examples illustrate this point. of course. dv.(5.13)  Hence. For unidirectional flows where u .u(y).41). .
Substitution of xrz from (14. Equation (14.47) we conclude that P is a function of z only and dP/dz in Eq. Thus (14.22) and dr (14. From Eq.45) dr ' (6. solved in Chapter 6 for a Newtonian fluid.24) £ = eK d dvz r dr dr n AP_ Az Integration and the use of the boundary condition Eq. Eqs.21) with the boundary conditions (14. (6.448 Fluid Mechanics Flow of a Powerlaw Fluid in a Circular Tube This problem.23) result in dvz AP 17 2KB AZ The absolute value sign may now be dropped because dv/dr is always negative .50). is considered again using a powerlaw model.48) .23) = 0. simplify to dP_ 0= (6. (5.21) is rewritten in a slightly more convenient form by making use of a sign coefficient e: dujdy \du/dy\ • The value of £ is 1 or +1.20) dz where P p+ pgh is the modified pressure. (14.19) results in rel d_ Kr ~d~r AP • dr dr 7 Az (14. depending on the sign of dv/dr. (14.20) may be replaced by AP/Az. The momentum equations for steady flow in a circular pipe.46) r dB (14.(5.
1 Find the change in the volumetric flowrate of a fluid flowing in a pipe when the pressure drop along the pipe is doubled. For a Newtonian fluid. Example 14.29) and the average velocity is (14.25) yields The volumetric flow rate is given in terms of the centerline velocity as 2 3n + \ ° (14..e. b. thus I f AP\] Az rl/n A second integration yields ~Rn+l ( AP n + \ 2K I Az (14. v0.30) The appropriate expressions in Chapter 6 for Newtonian flow in a tube may be obtained by setting n = 1. For a powerlaw fluid with n = 0. (14. i.25) The volumetric flow rate is obtained as Q= Az (14. NonNewtonian Fluids 449 in tube flow. e = —1. is obtained from Eq. .14.25) by setting r = 0: AP^ (14 27) ' which combined with (14. a.26) The centerline velocity.2.
450 Fluid Mechanics Solution The volumetric flowrate given by Eq. Thus: a. For a Newtonian fluid b. Figure 14. doubling the pressure drop will increase the flowrate 32fold.2 Flow of a Bingham plastic between two parallel plates. (14.27) for a powerlaw fluid also holds for a Newtonian fluid with n = 1.^ Ax + . For a powerlaw fluid l/n 1 Hence. The momentum equation for this case is derived similarly to Eq.32) .2.^ dy (14. (14. Fig. 14.31) with the boundary conditions u{d) = 0.21): 0=. (6. Flow of a Bingham Plastic Material between Parallel Plates Consider the flow of a Bingham plastic material between two stationary parallel plates separated by a distance Id.
y(0) = 0.34) resulting in Ax ° dy ' which upon substitution of i0 from Eq.. (14.d.34) yields the distance ± yh within which du/dy = 0.36) yields (14 37) —{yyi) = /i—Ax dy Integration between the limits y{ and y gives uul=  {yyi)2 (14. (14. dy or T. u = ul= const. goes through zero at the centerline and has a minimum at y = + d. The constant velocity ux may now be evaluated from the boundary condition at y = d. ..40) reduces to the Newtonian profile for the special case of yl = 0. Substitution of T0 for T^ in Eq.31) with the boundary condition Eq. (14.7). The constitutive relationship for a Bingham plastic is given by Eq.e. (14 40)  Equation (14. y^^y^y^.2. (14.34) The shear stress given in Eq.14.33) results in 'AP (14. 451 (14.38) Equation (14. NonNewtonian Fluids ^  M = 0. i.35) with *•(£>•• W ( f > Equation (14. It has a maximum at y .38) holds for the regions yl < y < d and d < y < yx. (14.33) Integration of Eq.34) is a linear function of v as shown in Fig. 14.32): and finally y>y\. (14. y<y. (14. (14.7) is combined with (14. Eq.
derive an expression for the maximum film thickness which just will not flow down a vertical wall.45) yield O=4 dx p y dy From the second equation. respectively. The momentum equation for this film flow simplifies to •«—§» Figure 14.2 Many paints behave like a Bingham plastic. Eqs. <5raax.3 With the boundary conditions of zero shear at the interface and zero velocity on the solid wall. (5.0 holds everywhere. The maximum thickness. Hence dp/dx .7). 14. and therefore dx dx This equation holds in the bulk as well as on the airliquid interface. Solution Assume that creeping flow conditions apply in this case. With the coordinates of Fig. Hence .3. yields du  — . yx _=0 and u(S) = O.To and du/dy = 0. is obtained for r . where dp/dx = 0. For such a paint. p ^p(y). (14. for \>rn for 0< T< and du =0 T0 . Integration of this momentum equation with the first boundary condition yields and combining this with the constitutive equation for a Bingham plastic fluid. Eq.452 Fluid Mechanics Example 14.42) and (5.
41) (14.14.14) is modified to K du ~dy ral (14. The Boundary Layer Equations for a Powerlaw Fluid Consider the flow of a powerlaw fluid in a twodimensional boundary layer.43) where the components of the stress tensor are given by K du) rA dv  dx) \dy) du dv \dy dx The considerations of orders of magnitudes that led to the boundary layer equations in Chapter 8 may be repeated here.41) and (14. The order of magnitude analysis simplifies the expression for the apparent viscosity given in the square brackets in Eq.42) dy dv _ dy (14.14). (14. (14. The momentum and continuity equations for the twodimensional flow are dx dy) dx dx dy dv) dy) dP dx dy dx dx .42): du lx" du^ 'dy dP _d_ du eK dx dx dx dy dy eK du_ dy dx_ 1 + du ~dy. dv dx du dx (14.45) . (14. NonNewtonian Fluids 453 and 8 =£max Pg A film thicker than (5max results in the sagging of the paint.44) dx This expression may now be substituted in Eqs. (14. and Eq.
\du/dy\ • Repeated application of order of magnitude analysis reduces Eq. (14. New York. "Fluid Mechanics.43). constitute the boundary layer equations for a powerlaw fluid. this reduces to the Reynolds number for a Newtonian fluid." Wiley.48) may be put in dimensionless form to yield the definition of a Reynolds number for a powerlaw fluid.V." Wiley. 1968. B. A. (14.C. (14. Coleman. S. Markowitz and W.46) to 0= dP_ dy' (14. 1.48) together with the continuity equation. Reiner. J." Vol." SpringerVerlag.45) reduces to dP du du du p\ u— + v— \ = —— + K— dx dy dx dy (14. "The Flow of High Polymers.45). R. B. Noll. New York. Strain and Flow.46) where again du/dy £ = . "Flow Properties of Polymer Melts.D. Tobolsky. M. Eq.49) Again. New York. Middleman. "Properties and Structure of Polymers. Hassager." WileyInterscience. "Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids. Equation (14. A. "Deformation.48) Equation (14. Brydson." WileyInterscience.47) leading to dP I dx = dPI dx in Eq. London. 1966. 1977. "Viscometric Flows of NonNewtonian Fluids.454 Fluid Mechanics ( dv dx dv dyj dP dy d du eK dx dy dv) n d du < ~dy) + dy eK du 1" dx dy\ ~d~u~ dy _ (14. Bird. 1960. References R. New York. New York. ." Van Nostrand. (14. H. for n = 1. and Eq. Re = LnU2~nr K (14. 1960. 1970. Armstrong and O.
4 It is conventional to represent the momentum associated with fluid passing through a given cross section of a tube as mV. and 1 \APR2 li\_ AL T2 APIL TOR = const. where m is the mass flowrate and V is the average fluid velocity.70 Use the data to predict the pressure drop required to cause the same fluid to flow at wave = 0.02 16 0. NonNewtonian Fluids 455 Problems 14.1 Show that for the laminar flow of a Bingham plastic fluid the velocity distribution in a circular pipe is given by ro<r<R. 14. In reality a velocity distribution exists. T0 > 0. M = fimV.193 27 29 30 0. Further.107 24 0. Determine the numerical value of fi for the laminar flow of a powerlaw fluid in a circular pipe. 1(2LT0 3 I PR 14.055 20 0. i. AP (N/cm2 ) 3 Q (cm /s) 12 0.3 The following data relate the flow rate Q to the pressure drop AP for the flow of a nonNewtonian fluid through a capillary tube of diameter 2 mm and of length 25 cm. show that this may be integrated to give 4 Q=KR AP\^ 8 Lx0 3 APR . 0<r<ro.2. Derive expressions for the velocity profile..490 0. average velocity and volumetric flowrate for this case.14.1 m/s through a pipe with a diameter of 3 cm and a length of 100 m.e. and a factor (3 should be introduced to take this into account. 14.306 0. . where r0 is the pipe radius corresponding to To.2 Consider film flow of a Bingham plastic material on the vertical wall described in Example 14.
The size of the gap is also D.2) in a plane shear flow between two parallel plates is 0. 14. Assume the flow laminar and fully developed. Find the pressure drop along the annulus. Find the shear stress on the plates. 14.1 m diameter for pressure drops of 0.4. The same fluid flows in the gap between two parallel flat plates.5 x 104 Assuming a powerlaw fluid.0xlO 4 Pa/m. 14. Compare your results with those of Problem 6. n— 1.05 m gave the following readings: Q (mVs) AP/L (Pa/m) 0. The length of the annulus is 100 m. find K and n.6 The pipe and the plates of Problem 14.8 Measurements of pressure drop along a fully developed flow in a pipe of diameter 0. Calculate the ratio between the flowrate of the fluid in the pipe and the flowrate between the plates per width of D.10 In a plane shear flow the upper plate is 0. a. b.5x10 4 Pa/m and of 2.8 find the volumetric flowrates in a pipe of 0. Calculate the ratio between the power needed to pump the fluid through the pipe and that needed to pump between the plates. 14.12 m.8. 0.2.25. 14.05m3/s through the annular gap with an inner radius of 0. c. Find the magnitude and location of the maximum velocity in the annular gap.0.10.5 A powerlaw fluid flows in a pipe which has the diameter D. The fluid is that of Problem 14.7 A powerlaw fluid with w = 0.0 m/s. The same pressure gradient exists in both systems.1 m above the lower plate and moves at 1. Find how fast the upper plate moves.9 For the powerlaw fluid of Problem 14. 14. The shear stress on the plates is 100 N/m2. Compare your results with those of Problem 6.10m and an outer radius of 0. Perform your calculations for n = 0.456 Fluid Mechanics 14.8. .5 and K.001 104 0.001 (in SI units) flows at the rate of 0.11 The layer of a powerlaw fluid (K .5 are now used such that the flowrate in the pipe is the same as that between the plates per width D.002 1.01 m thick.15. 0.
.11 is cooled while the upper plate is insulated.0 at the lower plate. As a result the powerlaw fluid changes its n value from 0. a. linearly. Find the velocity profile between the plates.8 at the upper plate to 1.14. Find the speed of the upper plate. NonNewtonian Fluids 457 14.12 The lower plate in the shear flow system of Problem 14. b.
.
764 ft2/m2 144 in. Length 2.317 L/ft3 7. any expression may be multiplied or divided by any of these factors without change in.349 g/oz 9.609 km/mi 10 12 in.0 cm2/ft2 28.205 lbf/kgf Force 459 . 3 3.448 N/lbf 32.APPENDIXES APPENDIX A: UNIT CONVERSION FACTORS Each of the following conversion factors is dimensionless and equals unity.48 gal/ft3 Area 6. 30.59 g/lbm 14.807 N/kgf 7.728 in. 2 Volume 16.174 lbm/slug 28.2046 lbm/kg 32. its physical magnitude.7845 L/gal 3 1.233 poundal/N 105 dyn/N 4.280 ft/mi 10 A/m 3 ft/yd 10.480 cm/ft 3.000 lbm/ton 2.281 ft/m 1. /ft 3 4qt/gal Mass 453.2/ft2 929.594 kg/slug 2.174poundayibf 2. Hence./ft 5.387 cm 3 /in.452 cm 2 /in.540 cm/in.
544.412.600.98xlO ftlbf/(hph) 0.25199 kcal /Btu 1.018 3 32.116.345 lbm/ft 3 lbm/fr* slug/ft5 lbm / gal g/cm 3 Viscosity 100 CP 1.56 ftlbf/s kW 3.ft.8949 atm psi kPa psi Energy 1.174 g/cm 3 kg/m 3 8.°F cal/scm°C Pressure .6552 xlO ftlbf/kWh 3.0 ft • lbf / s hp 737..6723kg / (m • s) cp kg / (m • s) lbm/(fts) g / (cm • s) Thermal Conductivity W/m.06723 cp lbm/(fts) 0.000 slug/ft 3 g/cm kg/m 3 16.18676 kJ/kcal 6 1.46 Btu/(hph) 101.0 kJ/kWh 0.16 ftlbf/Btu 860.696 • atm bar 100 1.0kcal/kWh 0.3410 hp/kW 778.730278Btu/hft°F 241.000 g / (cm • s) .2 bar lbf / ft Q lbf/ft 2 psi dyn / cm2 Pa psi 760mmHg atm 2 6.01325atm kgf/cm 2 atm .428 1.bars 1.8 Btu /kWh 1.460 Fluid Mechanics Density 62.252 kcal/Btu 2.°C 1.8 Btu / lbm kcal / kg 550.9403 lbm/ft 3 g/cm 3 1..05505kJ/Btu 6 1.9 Btu/h.92 kgfm/kJ 4.lbm/(fth) 0.35582 J/(ftlbf) 2.746 kW/hp . 144 14.0332 kPa 2.
792xlO3 1.36 7.658 9.557 9.2 990.007 0.897 0.26 7.656 0.94 V Surface tension a .41 7.556 0.68 6.779 9.01 6.82 6.1 992.438 T Density Viscosity Kinematic viscosity P [ kg/rr.317 0.141 1.12 5.296 7.789 9.1 995.62xlO2 7.0 999.8 971.798 9.727 0.308 1.477 0.328 0.519 1.752 9.367 0.499 9.92 6.9 1000.415 0.10 7.549 0.697 9.737 9.2 997.599 0.140 1.806 9.801 0.50 6.1 983.30 6.7 999.2 988.894 0.720 9.767 9.804 0.723 0.600 9.660 0.406 0.18 7.54 7.357 0.803 9.7 994.792X106 1.3] [ kg/ms] [ m2/s] [N/m] 999.605 0.805 9.284 1.005 0.308 1.519 1.Appendixes 461 APPENDIX B: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER AND AIR TABLE Bl: PROPERTIES OF WATER Temperature [°C] Specific weight 7 [ N/m3] 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 9.469 0.3 958.1 998.2 977.4 1.8 965.48 7.
56 1.51 1.09 2.61 1.00 2.462 Fluid Mechanics TABLE B2: PROPERTIES OF AIR AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE Temperature Density Viscosity Kinematic viscosity T [°C] [K] P [kg/m3] [kg/ms] [m2/s] 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 223 233 243 253 263 273 283 293 303 313 323 333 343 353 363 373 423 473 523 573 1.998 1.24 1.675 0.75 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250 300 V .127 1.95 2.08 4.42 1.30 2.17 2.921x105 0.946 0.79 1.05 2.247 1.060 1.616 1.76 1.81 1.394 1.60 1.69 1.46X105 1.57 2.38 2.092 1.93 0.164 1.91 1.000 0.99 2.13 2.72 1.746 0.75 2.09 2.51 1.86 1.834 0.45 4.89 1.67 1.85 3.16 1.342 1.19 2.292 1.514 1.973 0.030 1.452 1.33 1.204 1.582 1.08 1.
770 8.496X105 8.797 Air Water Mercury Glycerin Engine oil * At 373 K.55 xlO 3 1.752 xlO.580 1.568x105 6 4 0.264 840 1.0819 8.3 1.0166 0.14 xlO 0.4915 1.222X104 0.7 13.106x104 0.18 xlO.708 0.1774 1.5 0.Appendixes 463 APPENDIX C: PROPERTIES OF SOME COMMON FLUIDS (At 300 K and atmospheric pressure) Fluid Density Viscosity Kinematic viscosity P [kg/m3] [kg/nvs] [m2/s] Thermal conductivity k [W/mK] Thermal diffusivity Prandtl number a [nvVs] Pr 0. 995.095X10 Carbon dioxide 1.475x104 5.963X10" 1.690 4.947X107 21.738x104 276 .025 0.846X10.64 xlO.286 V Hydrogen 5 1.1.706 1.182 1.137 0.7 0.606x106 1.321 xlO.03 xlO.0262 0.554X104 0.5 0.85 7 8.2 2.60 xlO4 8.614 1.6 0.
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624 0.004 1.650 0.007 1.724 0.790 0.4000 (cont. k = c/cv = 1. ) M 0.850 0.000 1.870 0.735 0.598 0.034 1.038 1.858 0.617 0.880 0.643 0.863 0.879 0.656 0.810 0.869 0.750 0.591 0.566 0.780 0.884 0.030 1.650 0.729 0.553 0.689 0.534 0.047 1.847 0.559 0.528 P'Po A/A* 0.001 1.018 1.703 0.889 0.630 0.887 0.756 0.000 0.671 0.663 0.541 0.861 0.009 1.639 1.660 0.750 0.692 0.850 0.714 0.910 0.687 0.682 0.698 0.682 0.745 0.719 0.760 0.676 0.899 0.000 0.636 0.024 1.890 0.800 0.761 0.881 0.766 0.Appendixes 465 SUBSONIC FLOW.001 1.900 0.676 0.840 0.003 1.578 0.876 0.970 0.860 0.708 0.820 0.842 0.855 0.836 0.006 1.585 0.666 0.830 0.021 1.866 0.062 1.057 1.043 1.645 0.920 0.833 0.000 .960 0.871 0.770 0.015 1.572 0.011 1.950 0.052 1.027 1.013 1.940 0.896 0.740 0.655 0.853 0.892 0.611 0.894 0.990 m0 P/Po P'Po A/A* M mo P/Po 0.002 1.604 0.980 1.669 0.547 0.930 0.634 1.874 0.844 0.839 0.
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820 0.583 0.802 0.674 0.022 1.493 P/Po 0.860 0.590 0.524 0.596 0.025 1.738 0.799 0.603 0.544 0.890 0.810 0.506 0.980 1.870 0.487 P/Po A/A* 0.821 0.000 P/Po 0.499 0.704 0.719 0.019 1.787 0.679 0.780 0.008 1.791 0.004 1.776 0.6667 (cont.669 0.664 0.014 1.005 1.817 0.650 1.880 0.006 1.016 1.610 0.910 0.537 0.960 0.761 0.709 0.769 0.570 0.000 .714 0.728 0.694 0.518 0.900 0.654 A/A* 1.563 0.850 0.970 0.743 0.950 0.920 0.000 1.754 0. k = c/cv = 1.531 0.795 0.810 0.723 0.010 1.699 0.990 P/Po 0.012 1.806 0.750 0.028 1.689 0.557 0.757 0.003 1.830 0.784 0.772 0.813 0.000 M 0.001 1.765 0.468 Fluid Mechanics SUBSONIC FLOW. ) M 0.550 0.576 0.031 1.512 0.002 1.940 0.840 0.930 0.659 0.684 0.733 0.001 1.
70 0.0626 15.2177 0.2266 0.8929 2.38 0.2767 0.1845 2.6070 0.77 0.8285 9.8417 1.6407 0.2130 3.98 0.3012 3.9963 1.1004 0.7934 0.5713 3.2625 5.6015 0.10 4.7143 1.0575 1.9482 2.0983 1.7626 12.4185 3.94 0.2367 0.1603 0.72 0.4286 0.91 0.4693 2.5031 0.3683 3.1202 0.1079 0.5806 1.0354 0.40 3.8675 1.00 1.2500 0.4904 0.5327 0.4741 P/Pi T/T.2809 3.5862 .0626 26. 1.5714 0.45 0.6864 0.0038 0.2806 0.0522 0.0099 0.7626 21.2576 0.6018 1.5093 0.5002 0.2625 4.4752 0.4838 3.0568 4.6341 1.0081 0.4372 1.9626 2.26 0.20 2.7462 1.8000 4.9999 3.4789 7.40 1.0483 3.30 2.4948 1.9512 2.5216 3.9598 3.3625 3.3919 1.5933 0.5032 3.5098 0.6048 0.10 1.5625 2.20 1.3705 8.7121 7.18 0.4286 0.1196 0.7626 19.22 0.0351 0.3272 0.05 0.40 2.5116 0.1172 6.1456 0.5707 0.2160 0.8057 2.20 3.00 3.0049 0.2468 0.7501 20.6403 5.3243 0.2625 1.2845 0.1043 0.1574 0.7500 5.0073 0.1484 1.1111 0.8462 0.2973 1.1290 0.4236 3.6228 2.80 0.0762 0.50 3.20 4.1275 3.4801 0.90 0.1720 0.6757 0.1453 0.60 4.3074 0.90 5.1360 3.87 0.7699 8.3118 3.5396 0.7157 0.60 0.2610 A AHA 4.80 3.5222 0.70 1.2480 3.3488 2.2857 2.80 4.90 3.4816 0.Appendixes 469 SUPERSONIC FLOW.0413 0.1348 0.2629 0.0002 32.9302 8.9500 3.4831 0.0873 0.3626 14.4926 0.2107 2.6880 4.3425 0.1342 0.1967 0.2000 2.99 1.8001 22.0672 8.66 0.09 0.0713 0.2626 11.1579 0.5625 8.1071 0.0438 0.4949 0.0391 0.0034 0.4865 0.5524 2.5063 0.6539 3.1160 0.0001 11.4320 0.70 2.5501 10.5813 0.89 0.1014 7.3747 5.6226 0.2627 1.0023 5.30 4.1396 0.14 0.02 0.50 4.1851 0.5501 13.3126 0.0071 1.9107 5.0054 0.2898 2.4775 0.8297 1.7704 2.2002 27.1948 1.95 0.60 1.80 2.3805 2.3520 1.60 3.1514 0.8000 6.3771 6.96 0.4763 0.10 2.4788 0.6667 M 1.6618 0.0313 0.7133 1.6803 8.2379 0.0066 0.3619 0.5500 1.2754 1.5391 3.0333 1.63 0.0524 0.42 0.4808 0.60 2.1880 0.0815 0.5455 0.9131 0.2000 8.0193 0.3826 0.8001 18.50 2.5556 3.8635 6.0782 2.0459 0.48 0.7508 0.0217 0.9999 3.0153 0.3625 6.4538 0.8587 4.00 4.1496 1.2004 0.8626 23.0788 0. k = c/cv = 1.3627 28.9156 7.0627 0.8338 2.3753 0.0123 0.6160 5.0089 0.0172 0.5554 0.90 4.82 0.3941 3.0589 0.0669 0.0060 0.1527 4.6432 6.6668 3.90 2.0137 0.0370 0.0686 0.1242 0.3334 0.2060 0.3409 3.7026 2.52 0.4048 0.7982 2.30 1.7992 10.6396 0.0045 0.6425 2.0936 3.0403 0.2076 1.1647 0.9983 2.4809 3.0554 0.10 3.7051 5.1250 0.8625 2.30 0.3058 0.1704 0.1390 2.3635 0.40 4.75 0.8626 9.0935 0.4927 2.4632 3.85 0.2922 1.1396 5.8626 17.0491 0.4220 4.0267 1.5177 0.93 0.0041 0.4510 2.7126 0.7627 31.5388 0.1034 P'Po P'Po A/A* V 0.3046 9.9819 6.70 3.9501 16.2915 0.1388 0.2058 3.0906 0.5613 0.58 0.5073 7.5312 1.00 2.4974 0.0110 0.68 0.0982 1.3390 6.9500 7.1847 0.2139 0.9501 25.8968 4.5530 0.0599 0.84 0.3706 8.4884 0.1797 0.0244 0.4848 0.34 0.80 1.0769 2.0464 0.79 0.2001 15.5502 29.3139 5.1941 7.30 3.4415 3.55 0.4704 0.50 1.0276 0.70 4.1152 0.4414 1.10 0.1757 3.01 0.00 5.5272 0.3963 0.6301 2.5136 0.
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2737 15.4096 0.1025 .4655 0.4965 0.70 3.6976 0.85 0.7678 5.4336 0.1533 0.28 1.6250 0.3950 0.0012 0.30 1.0095 0.5605 3.1427 0.5322 3.0749 0.5613 2.2087 0.0005 6.60 3.3943 0.4334 33.3765 10.7807 6.0190 0.2743 0.58 M2 P2/P1 0.4854 0.90 2.3869 30.0995 1.8600 4.6861 3.7245 1.0013 0.90 5.49 1.0050 0.2804 2.9346 2.3275 0.3397 0.7097 3.0795 0.6562 1.80 3.4422 0.2318 0.0524 3.56 1.0128 0.1108 0.9648 5.0215 0.4580 0.5639 5.3867 0.7978 0.7825 0.3913 4.30 3.10 3.0169 0.00 4.37 1.5040 0.1103 0.0350 0.1480 1.2363 0.30 2.3582 4.6729 0.0151 0.2451 5.5576 0.40 4.60 1.472 Fluid Mechanics SUPERSONIC FLOW.8299 5.3047 0.2586 8.5365 0.0635 17.8403 0.1598 5.4058 0.7967 P2/P1 1.0703 1.4378 3.4829 0.4596 0.1272 2.0177 0.4241 0.9545 3.4043 4.7548 22.4719 41.7346 0.60 4.0873 3.2004 11.70 1.7963 19.4896 5.1305 0.5455 0.42 1.3832 0.16 1.1227 1.47 1.0806 4.6350 5.00 3.55 0.00 2.8147 3.51 1.7419 1.9147 27.4199 0.0852 2.2712 1.4285 0.20 2.4255 0.4000 0.50 2.2477 0.2766 4.53 1.5301 0.7477 0.5074 2.1328 9.5200 15.0242 0.4118 5.0043 0.28 0.2100 0.4668 1.70 4.2446 0.4235 0.1797 0.3658 0.71 0.1165 4.10 4.3793 0.0032 0.1971 1.7713 21.8548 5.2244 0.61 0.0068 0.0273 0.07 0.4776 7.3809 6.50 4.8694 1.0344 0.7635 3.6535 2.31 1.4452 12.2248 3.97 1.34 1.40 2.5161 0.6607 2.19 1.3303 5.8224 0.0113 28.2650 0.0079 0.00 5.0093 0.7608 23.1255 0. 1.1161 24.0010 P/Po 0.5536 3.17 0.0625 5.2473 1.40 3.9564 50.4648 2.3711 2.4974 1.05 1.22 0.4089 0.0407 0.1075 2.5211 0.33 0.2012 3.0107 0.0481 0.6073 5.3159 0.6932 2.9459 2.2180 4.5265 4.7029 5.1365 3.4448 0.0069 0.2396 0.8496 6.09 1.0037 0.8177 V 0.0580 0.3524 0.5794 0.10 0.3757 0.1556 2.6487 0.3690 1.3011 0.5629 0.5163 0.4123 0.5505 1.20 3.1304 29.12 1.5735 0.7732 1.7956 1.0939 0.4738 0.5825 0.1777 1.0209 0.0253 2.1559 5.1098 10.1895 1.3409 5.66 0.2721 T/T.50 3.2374 1.0024 0.7693 14.0027 0.50 1.3885 2.6599 0.80 2.3385 0.70 2.0247 0.2836 0.4389 0.2040 P/Po 0.3975 0.4511 0.44 1.4841 1.22 1.3000 M mo 1.45 0.0969 0.80 4. k = c/cv = 1.4130 2.2991 1.50 0.39 0.7330 11.9461 6.6019 0.0045 4.9762 3.0062 0.5905 1.6435 4.2561 0.3886 0.7322 9.40 1.6942 0.4160 12.1930 17.9504 4.0396 0.1104 8.8722 19.3906 0.0321 1.8475 22.9374 13.0056 0.0659 0.7630 2.0050 A/A* 1.89 0.90 4.0435 10.8681 2.0083 1.8893 5.0526 6.4929 0.6182 1.0015 0.3927 0.8625 4.2941 0.7174 14.0020 0.3273 0.75 0.4028 0.4287 0.6811 4.0506 1.6221 27.30 4.0058 0.0852 0.0120 0.9348 7.0291 0.0450 0.3849 0.5113 8.02 0.90 3.7863 37.80 1.0569 0.0151 0.7895 24.4087 1.9112 0.3920 3.0018 0.7728 0.9514 2.0085 0.01 1.2173 0.25 1.0673 0.8750 3.2105 0.1841 0.1434 4.3529 1.3618 1.7800 2.4160 0.3797 0.5015 4.5185 45.9565 18.93 0.10 1.3185 2.3180 3.1621 0.8104 20.60 2.8408 25.0134 0.0077 0.4709 0.1925 2.0309 0.39 1.10 2.20 1.3452 16.1800 12.3816 1.2840 0.9441 17.9462 4.6476 4.6304 0.0109 0.80 0.6048 0.4777 0.20 4.7555 4.5274 1.2671 0.11 0.2954 3.7225 0.0510 0.8464 0.
75 3.036 1.512 0.50 7.000 1.225 0.714 0.660 0.874 0.861 0.50 0.833 0.983 0.976 0. COMPRESSIBLE PIPE FLOW k=c/cv= 1.100 0.014 0.15 0.75 5.000 0.556 0.522 0.999 0.885 0.325 0.374 0.907 0.887 0.922 0.076 0.00 1.906 0.793 0.847 0.533 8.941 0.058 0.376 0.000 1.305 0.308 1.932 14.104 0.136 0.921 0.444 0.Appendixes TABLE D4: FANNO LINE.899 0.04 0.683 0.933 0.00 6.048 0.000 1.594 0.995 0.50 3.75 0.005 0.775 0.481 0.122 0.217 0.694 0.730 0.967 0.25 1.996 0.081 0.961 0.113 0.02 0.668 0.690 0.50 1.10 0.000 0.828 0.20 0.682 0.75 6.049 0.95 1.00 4.000 0.134 0.80 0.737 0.400 f(L/D) = Dimensionless distance to point of M = 1 M mo P/Po R/Ro f(L/D) 0.009 0.980 0.299 3.352 280.017 0.998 0.154 0.877 0.045 0.022 0.75 2.845 0.237 0.072 0.969 0.40 0.50 4.45 0.762 0.792 0.118 0.740 0.208 0.053 0.766 0.722 0.743 0.863 0.65 0.154 0.00 2.728 0.714 0.432 0.106 0.840 0.275 0.705 0.60 0.174 0.036 0.652 0.25 4.70 0.994 0.50 5.25 0.997 0.924 0.204 0.816 0.497 0.25 3.922 27.059 0.934 0.982 0.00 1.035 0.00 5.893 0.450 440.321 0.35 0.321 0.142 0.439 0.020 66.073 0.357 0.30 0.132 0.043 0.008 0.75 4.015 0.177 0.90 0.238 0.946 0.586 0.911 0.003 7134.093 1.952 0.181 0.633 0.957 0.753 473 .25 6.01 0.491 0.975 0.507 0.989 0.687 0.992 0.290 0.006 0.620 0.999 0.092 0.634 0.000 1.004 0.003 0.989 0.810 0.557 0.230 0.85 0.127 0.55 0.612 0.303 0.065 0.956 0.069 0.000 0.943 0.000 1.011 0.483 5.566 1.988 0.25 2.50 2.05 0.028 0.004 0.969 0.999 0.00 3.398 0.861 0.395 0.452 2.405 1778.131 0.198 0.000 1.167 0.262 0.25 5.
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78 Atmospheric pressure 55.INDEX Absolute pressure 55. 445. 310 weak 215 Bernoulli polynomial 214. 132 Accelerating coordinate system 59 Acceleration 19. 181 Absolute stability 81 Absolute velocity 125.314. 57 Average velocity 104. 340 Body force 4. 216.326. 72. 76. 219. 381 Angular acceleration 24 Angular momentum 124 theorem 123. 81 force 71. 186 Barometer 57 Barotropic flow 222. 152 angular 24 Adiabatic flow with friction 422424.453454 conservative form of 342 integral form 342345 Buckingham's n theorem 267268 Buffer layer 362.409 compressible flow. 128. 213. 20. 56. 392 turbulent 389391 Boundary layer equations 262266. 215216.107.333. 450452 Blasius equation 337 Blasius solution 334. 380 477 . 5. 426 Adiabatic process 409. 113 Boundary layer 306. 314 Bearing 279 Bernoulli equation 121. 129. 326 Bernoulli surface 215 Bingham plastic 451. 446. 333341. 445. 307. 106.377. 54. 447. 366 Bulk modulus of elasticity 1214 isothermal 13 isentropic 13 Buoyancy 291 center of 71. 23. 411 irreversible 411 Airplane wing 216 Angle of attack 379. 124 Angular velocity 126 Annular flow 195 Apparent viscosity 443. 231. extension to 221223 strong. 333345. 53. 116. 389. 453 displacement thickness 339 transition 379. 215. 444. 130.371. 453 Archimedes' law 74.
14 Elliptical pipe 378 Ellis model 445 Enthalpy 222 Equation of continuity 147149. bulk modulus of 13.156 Density 3. 186.430. 80. 165. 434 Concentric cylinder viscometer 207 Conservation of mass 98. 166 motion. 282293 Critical cross section 414 Critical Reynolds number 389. 57 Discharge coefficient 385. 184. 152 momentum theorem 109 Convergentdivergent nozzle 413.419 Convergingdiverging stream tube 412 Correction factor for compressibility 384 momentum flux 128 Couette Flow 33. definition of 6. 263. 147.478 Index CauchyRiemann conditions 315 Center of buoyancy 71. 142. 100 Fanno line 423428 Fanno number 425 First law of thermodynamics 222. 72. 263 Continuum 110. 144. 166. 387 Displacement thickness 339 Divergence theorem 147 Doublet flow 319. 164. 164 Conservative form of boundary layer equations 342 equations of motion 358 Constitutive equation 444. 198 Couette viscometer 198 Creeping flow 277. 144. 320 Drag 435 Drag coefficient 378. 333 Euler number 247 Extensive property 98. 221. 379387 Drag force 281. 171. 163. 325. 10. 169. 164. 341. 53. 452 Continuity. 418. 380 Drag on the sphere 290 Dynamic stability 80 Dynamic viscosity 11 Eddy viscosity 360 Elasticity. 73 Flow around cylinder 293295.46 Fluid properties 1014 Friction . 324 sphere 287 Flow over flat plate 334 Blasius solution 334340 Flow field 142. 174. 72 Differential Manometer. 128. 392 D'Alambert force 201 Deformation 154. 13. 401 Compressibility factor 385 Compressible flow 14. 172.155. 81 pressure 63. 445. 171 Flow nozzle 384388 Flows in narrow gaps 277 Fluid. 303307. conservative form 358 Error function 189 Euler equation 162. 401420 in nozzles 412420. 65 Centroid of area 63 of a triangle 67 Circulation 310317 Compressibility 12. equation of 148150. 99. 81 gravity 65. 310. 153 Control surface 102 Control volume 97128.447. 231 Float valve 78 Floating bodies 69.
142. 171 Momentum flux correction factor 128 Momentum flux deficiency 340 Momentum theorem for a control volume 109 Momentum thickness 339. 443 Newton's second law 99. 443 . 410 Jet engine 118 Kelvin theorem 310 Kelvin's theorem 313 Kinematic viscosity 12 Laminar sublayer 362.311 of a vector 146 Mean free path 361 Membrane equation 305 Membrane parameter. 174. 65 Momentum equations 1923. 107. 107. 145146. 342 Lift 435 Lift coefficient 381 479 Lift force 216. 313. 320. 59. 291 Newton's third law 20.157. 67 Hydrostatic Stability 79 Hydrostatics 53 Ideal gas 403 Inclined manometer 57. 64. 314 HighReynoldsnumber flow 307 Hydraulic diameter 377378 Hydraulic efficiency 227 Hydrostatic pressure 63. 84 multifluid 57. 53. 164. 166 Incompressible fluid 111 Index notation 22 integral momentum equation 108 Integral momentum theorem 108 Irrotational flow 308315 Isentropic compressibility 436 Isentropic flow 223 Isentropic process 224. 171. 58 Massflowrate 118 Mass flux 104. 318. 154. 108. 83 Manometric fluid 57. 366.Index coefficient 424 factor 363372 Friction head 227 Froude number 247 Fully developed flow 180. 109 Newtonian fluid 153. 280. 367. 380381 Loss coefficient 374. 163 Mass velocity 104 Material derivative 99.425 NavierStokes equations 160162. 163. 150152. 340 Moody diagram 362371. 403. 142. 322 Leibnitz's rule 221. 179198 Newton's law of viscosity 153. 391 Laplace equation 314. 375 Mach cone 405 Mach number 404425 Mach surface 405 Mach wedge 406 Magnetic reader 281 Magnus Effect 325 Manometer 5558 differential 57 inclined 57. 84 Incompressible flow 103. 304 Metacentric height 81 Modified pressure 181182 Moment of inertia 63. 144.172. 409. 163. 182 Gage pressure 55 Gauss'theorem 71 Generalized velocity profile 360362 Harmonic function 314 Helmholtz theorem 312. 108.
132. 430. 44. 266269 solution 189 transformation 187 variable 336 Similitude 248249. 44. 361373. 109 Nozzle 122. 21. 304 Relative roughness 363. 364 flow 35. 133 Nozzle flow 412420. 193. 448450 Pitot tube 220. 454 Reynolds stress 360 Reynolds transport theorem 97. 53. 181 gage 55 measurement 58 Pressure function 221. 254 . 335. 450. 124 Reynolds experiment 355 Reynolds lubrication theory 279 Reynolds number 247. 46. 98101. 26. 152. 454 Prandtl mixing length 360 PrandtlMeyer expansion 432434 Pressure absolute 55. 355356. 194.480 Index NonNewtonian fluids 153. 255. 6. 11. 126. 153 Shear velocity 362 Shock wave relations 428 Similarity 249252. 175 Shear stress 5. 41. 434 Oblique shock 432435 Onedimensional SISO device 110 Order of magnitude 257258 Parallel flow 317 Pascal's law 31. 133 Rocket nozzle 112 Roll angle 81 Rotation 155 Rotational flow 312 Roughness parameter. 46 Pseudoplastic fluid 444 Quasionedimensional flow 408 Ramjet 133 Rankine oval 322 Rate of deformation 153. 443454 Noncircular pipes 377 Nonisentropic flow 421 Normal stress 5. 157 tensor 157 Rate of strain 11 Rayleigh line 423428 Ray leigh problem 187189 Regular perturbation 262. 370 Relative velocity 122. 370 Seventhroot law 391 Shear flow 32. 21. 59. 269. 156. 383387 Poiseuille equation 192. 453. dimensionless 374 Roughness. 41. 184. relative 363. 336. 258 parameter 249. 255. 256. 325. 304 singular 262. 42. 59 Pathline 142. 112. 251252. 116. 109. 123. 334. 448.45 Principal stresses 40. 53. 364. 34.311 Rigid body motion 59 rotation 175 Rocket 103. 339 Potential vortex 316 Powerlaw fluid 444. 107. 143 Perfect gas 13 Perturbation 261. 263 Pipe fittings 373376 Pipe flow 190193. 364. 445. 262 regular 262. 227 Potential flow 314. 222 Pressure head 215 Principal directions 3840. 449. 38.
29. 447. 315 Specific gravity 11 Specific property 100 Specific weight 11. 445. 45 Stress matrix 23. 138 Stable boat 81 Stagnation enthalpy 409 Stagnation flow 318 Stagnation point 168. 171. 453 dynamic 11 kinematic 12 Von KarmanPohlhausen integral method 341. 166 jet 345346 source 165 Universal velocity profile 362. 126 Steiner's theorem 63 Stokes paradox 295 Stokes theorem 310. 216.315. 3036 Stress tensor 3644. 166. 343 . 20.310 Submarine 80. concentric cylinder 207 Viscosity 1112 apparent 443. 263 Sink 316 Sink flow 175 Sonic speed 403 Source flow 168.169. 46. 99. 163 Stream tube 144 Streamline 142. 81 Submerged boundaries 70 481 surface 61. 321 Stagnation pressure 414 Stagnation properties 408411. 168. 364. 380 Thermodynamic system 98. 164. 75 Surface force 4.337 Stream sheet 144. 165. 385 Venturi meter 383388 Venturi tube 216 Viscometer. 170. 143. 175 Velocity head 215 Velocity potential 314 Velocity vector 163. 444. 124. 6. 163. 102. 214 Stress. 170. 446.Index Singleinputsingleoutput (SISO) device 110 Singular perturbation 262. 153 Strong Bernoulli equation 215. 144. 144 Timeindependent flow 184 Total enthalpy 222 Turbulence 357358 Turbulent boundary layer 389391 Turbulent core 362. 107. 143 Stream function 163.366. 107 Surface forces 4. 166. 132 relative 122 Velocity field 99.5 Terminal velocity 291. 429 Static equilibrium 80 Static head 215 Steady state 103. 312 Streakline 142. normal 5. 165. 366 Vapor pressure 57 Velocity absolute 125. 69. 6 tangential 5 Stress at a point 1. 169. 175. 367 Turbulent flow 355393 Turbulent viscosity 360 Twodimensional air bearing 203 flow 163. 424. 127. 171 Vena contracta 237.171. 133. 54 Speed of sound 403 Sprinkler 126. 384. 28.
482 Index Vortex line 312 tube 314 Vortex flow 317 Vorticity vector 308309 Wall roughness 363 Water turbine 124 Waterhammer 119 Work head 227 Zone of silence 405 .