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William Lee

Chapter 4 REVIEW QUESTIONS

B) In the Mediterranean, both the Greek and Rome featured a combination of democracy and
aristocratic rule. In Greece, there were city-states that both had very different ways of doing
things. For example, in Athens, the executive officers and judges were chosen by the people.
They had the principle or idea, that any citizen could and should be able to serve. Also there were
assemblies held every ten days, where the people would review the judges and executive
officers, and had the ability to kick someone out of their position if the majority of the assembly
agreed too. Although women at that time were not allowed to have citizenship and half of the
adult males weren't even citizens because they were slaves and foreigners, this is still something
that we could call the start of a democratic society. Many other city-states also took this in and
held small assemblies. But in some city states like Sparta, the military was the most powerful and
many people in Sparta often encouraged reckless military actions, eager for government jobs and
spoils of war. In Rome, they had many things like Greece, but had something more. In addition
to the periodic assemblies, they had an organized group of people called the Senate that were
voted for. There were usually two people within the Senate that had primary executive power,
but within times of crisis, the Senate were allowed to choose a dictator to hold emergency
authority until the time of crisis has past.
C)For the Romans, warfare helped the Romans get a constant stream of money, as the tribute
from the conquered states powered the Government. As they conquered more and more places,
they were able to learn new cultures and ideas and also spread theirs. Sadly thought at the same
time, this is what led to the downfall of the Roman Empire. As they continued to expand, it
became harder and harder to keep control of and maintain their borders especially with the
pressure from the Huns and other outside foreign threats. Eventually, Rome was invaded and the
whole Roman Empire collapsed.
E)The Greek and Roman religions both worshipped mainly the same gods, only with different
names, and slightly different purposes for some of them. They had gods and goddesses for each
a certain things like a god of wars(Mars; Ares), a god of Sea(Poseidon; Neptune), a goddesses of
love(Venus; Aphrodite) and such. They had many myths and stories including these gods and the
god's children like Hercules, that had many morals and lessons in the end. People would sacrifice
offerings to the gods when they wished for something. For example, if people were heading into
war, they would burn sacrifices to the god of war, Mars/Ares so that he would favor them when
they headed into war and grant them victory.
F)The Greek and Romans made very good discoveries in architecture, art, and little to science.
Much of their accomplishments were in the architect field where they invented the arch, which
led to the discovery of the dome and made elaborate pillars of stone.

H)First of all, woman were not treated equally and were expected to treat their husbands well
and help with anything or everything the husband wanted. Also there were many slaves that were
used in order to build things and such. The highest level on the social division were they people
with power, like the senate for Rome and the Office Executives for Greece. Slaves were the
lowest in the level and were treated as if they had little or no value.
G)Many farmers had trouble in their agriculture work because of the numerous amount of unpaid
laborers like slaves. The Greeks and the Romans were both not very interested in developing
technological advancements that would help contribute to agriculture. This was partly because of
the number of slaves and partly because of the overall orientations of the upper class culture.

MAP EXCERCISES
B)
1) Hellenistic states probably arose all though out of what used to be Alexander empires,
with probably small mountains or rivers to serve as boundaries.
2)Since they were spread out so far and conquered new territory, they were probably
exposed to new ideas, new cultures, and different systems of government where the empires
could probably expand their knowledge and maybe change some things so that their empire
would run more smoothly.
C)
1)The Romans had a very big geographic advantage, as the whole entire empire of Rome
was staged around the Mediterranean Sea, which allowed the city-states of Rome to trade fairly
easily. Also because Rome was in control of the Sea, they would be able to tax any merchants
coming from the Atlantic that want to head to the Red Sea/Arabic Sea and vice versa.
2)Since they were not very well grouped up well and were separated, first of all, each
city-state should have their own strong army of foot soldiers. And since they had huge access to a
big sea that was literally in their control and gave them lots of power, they would also need a
strong navy to defend it.
3)Since getting into Rome by sea was only possible by one way, the small passage
through the tiny opening next to Tingis, all the Romans would have to do is blockade that area
and set up sieges around it so that no one would be able to enter.
4)They took over the small northern shore of Africa with a small bit of western Arabia
and Britain, with some of Germany and completely in control of the peninsula.