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WILLS,ESTATESANDSUCCESSIONACT
[SBC2009]CHAPTER13
AssentedtoOctober29,2009
Contents
Part1DefinitionsandInterpretation

1Definitionsandinterpretation

Part2FundamentalRules

Division1MeaningofSpouse,EffectofAdoptionandConstructionof
Instruments

2WhenapersonisaspouseunderthisAct

3Effectofadoption

4Constructionofinstruments

Division2SurvivorshipRules

5Fundamentalrulewhenpersonsdiesimultaneously

6Generalpresumptiondispositionofpropertyonsimultaneousdeaths

7Generalpresumptionsubstitutepersonalrepresentative

8Posthumousbirths

8.1Posthumousbirthsifconceptionafterdeath

9Survivalofbeneficiaries

10Fivedaysurvivalrule

11PriorityofInsuranceActprovisions

Division3Nisga'aFinalAgreementandFirstNations'FinalAgreements

12Repealed

13WillorculturalpropertyofNisga'acitizens

14Willorculturalpropertyoftreatyfirstnationmembers

15NoticeofapplicationforrepresentationgrantrespectingNisga'acitizens
andtreatyfirstnationmembers

16ServiceonNisga'aLisimsGovernmentortreatyfirstnation

1718Notinforce

18.1DisposalofNisga'aLandsinestate

18.2Disposaloflandintreatylandsinestate

18.3NorighttoacquireNisga'aLandsortreatylands

Part3WhenaPersonDiesWithoutaWill

19Uniforminterpretationwithlawsofotherprovinces

Division1DistributionofEstateWhenThereisNoWill

20Spousebutnodescendants

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21Spouseanddescendants

22Twoormorespouses

23Nospousebutintestateleavingdescendantsorrelatives

24Distributiontodescendants

25Partialintestacy

Division2SpousalHome

26Righttospousalhome

27Noticebypersonalrepresentative

28Prohibitionondisposingofspousalhome

29Noticeexercisingrighttospousalhome

30Disputeovervalueofdeceasedperson'sinterest

31Purchaseofspousalhomebysurvivingspouse

32Occupancycostsofspousalhome

33Retentionofspousalhome

34Registrablecharges

35Circumstanceswhenregistrablechargebecomespayable

Part4Wills
Division1MakingaWill

36Whocanmakeawill

37Howtomakeavalidwill

38Willbymembersofmilitaryforces

39Clarificationofdoubtaboutsignatureplacement

40Witnessestowills

Division2LegalEffectofaWill

41Propertythatcanbegiftedbywill

42Meaningofparticularwordsinawill

43Giftstowitnesses

44Residueofestate

45Giftoflandcontemplatingdivision

46Whengiftscannottakeeffect

47Propertyencumberedbysecurityinterest

48Relieffromdispositionofproperty

49Willexercisingapowerofappointment

50Rulesifassetsarenotsufficient

51Giftsofunownedproperty

52Undueinfluence

Division3AbrogationofCommonLawRules

53Commonlawpresumptionsabrogated

Division4Altering,RevokingandRevivingWills

54Howtoalterwill

55Howtorevokewill

56Revocationofgifts

57Revivalofwill

Division5CuringDeficienciesandRectificationofWills

58Courtordercuringdeficiencies

59Rectificationofwill

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Division6VariationofWills

60Maintenancefromestate

61Timelimitandservice

62Evidence

63Courtmaymakeordersubjecttoconditions

64Lumpsumorperiodicpayments,transferofpropertyortrust

65Paymentsfallrateablyonestate

66Powertosuspendadministrationandexemptfromorder

67Powerofcourttoallowcommutation

68Effectoforder

69Registrationoftitle

70Mortgageinanticipationoforderinvalid

71Courtmaycancelorvaryorder

72AppealtoCourtofAppeal

Division7RegistrationofNoticeofWill

73Filingofnoticeofwill

74Filingofnoticeofrevocation

75Filingnoticeofchangeofplaceofwill

76Registrargeneral'srecords

77Searchofrecords

78Validityofwillorrevocationnotaffected

Division8ConflictofLaws

79Interpretation

80Validityofwillsmadeinaccordancewithotherlaws

81Resorttootheraidstoconstruction

82Interestinanimmovable

Division9AdoptionofConventionProvidingaUniformLawontheFormofan
InternationalWill
83Conventionadopted

Part5BenefitPlans

84ApplicationofPart

Division1DesignationRequirements

85Designatedbeneficiaries

86Severaldesignatedbeneficiaries

87Irrevocabledesignations

88Effectofirrevocabledesignation

Division2OtherBenefitPlanProvisions

89Whendesignationsmaynotbechanged

90Maintainingpreviousdesignations

91Designatedbeneficiarydyingbeforeparticipant

92Trusteefordesignatedbeneficiary

93Enforcingpaymentofbenefit

94Benefitplanadministratordischargedofliability

95Benefitnotpartofestate

Division3DesignatedBeneficiariesinaWill

96Alterationorrevocationofdesignationinwill

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97Designationinwill

98Effectofdesignationinpurportedwills

99Effectofrevivalofwillondesignation

100Effectivedateofdesignationandrevocation

Part6AdministrationofEstates
Division1ApplicationofthisPartandVestingofProperty

101Application

102Vestingofpropertyondeath

103Administrationpendinglegalproceedings

104Renunciationofexecutorship

105Forfeitureofexecutorship

106Oppositiontoissueofrepresentationgrant

107Executornotjoininganapplication

108Requirementtoacceptexecutorshiportoexplain

Division2

109120Notinforce

Division3ApplicationforGrantofProbateorAdministration

121Noticeofproposedapplicationforgrantofprobateoradministration

122Applicationforgrantofprobateoradministrationdisclosure

123Productionofdocumentsandproperty

124OpportunityforPublicGuardianandTrusteetocomment

125DirectionbyPublicGuardianandTrusteesealedapplications

126PublicGuardianandTrusteetopaybeneficiariesandintestatesuccessors
directly

127ImmunityforPublicGuardianandTrustee

128Securityforadministrationofestates

Division4GrantofProbateorAdministration

129Grantofprobateoradministration

130Priorityamongapplicantsintestateestate

131Priorityofapplicantsadministrationwithwillannexed

132Specialcircumstances

133Administrationofpartialintestacy

134Administrationifsoleexecutoraminor

135Effectivedateofgrantforintestateestate

136Effectofrepresentationgrant

137Relianceonrepresentationgrant

Division5ForeignPersonalRepresentatives,ResealingForeignGrantand
AncillaryGrant

138Resealingforeigngrantandancillarygrants

139Limitedgranttoattorneyofforeignpersonalrepresentative

140Curingdeficienciesinforeignwills

Division6RevocationofGrantofProbateorAdministration

141Revocationofgrantofprobateoradministration

Division7PersonalRepresentativesPowers,DutiesandLiabilities

142Personalrepresentativesgeneralauthority

143ApplicationofTrusteeActtopersonalrepresentatives

144AbolitionofruleinAllhusenv.Whittel

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145Executorofdeceasedexecutor

146Limitationperiodfordisputedclaimsagainstestate

147Whenbeneficiarycannotbefoundordoesnotclaimgift

148Dispositionbyexecutorswhodonotrenounceorjoinapplicationforgrant
ofprobate

Division8PersonalRepresentativesLegalLiabilityandLegalProceedings

149Liabilityofpersonalrepresentatives

150Proceedingsbyandagainstestate

151Beneficiaryorintestatesuccessormaysuewithleaveofcourt

152Personalrepresentativerelieffromliabilityundercontract

153Distributionofminor'sinterest

154Noticetocreditors

155Distributionofestate

156Personalrepresentativedeemedtobetrustee

Division9Discharge,RemovalandSubstitutionofPersonalRepresentatives

157Personalrepresentativemayapplytobedischarged

158Applicationtoremoveorpassoverpersonalrepresentative

159Appointmentofsubstitutepersonalrepresentative

160Vestingofestateinpersonalrepresentative

161Formerpersonalrepresentativetofacilitatepropertyanddocument
transfer

Division10DevolutionofLand

162Devolutionandadministrationofland

163Transferoflandtobeneficiarymaybesubjecttoacharge

Division11PublicGuardianandTrustee

164ApplicationforgrantofprobateoradministrationbyPublicGuardianand
Trustee

165CourtappointmentwithconsentofPublicGuardianandTrustee

166PowersofPublicGuardianandTrustee

167Powersbeforegrantissued

168Grantofprobateoradministrationdespitepreviousgrant

Division12InsolventEstates

169Definitions

170Howproceedsfrominsolventestatearetobespent

171Provabledebts

172Conditional,contingentandunliquidatedclaims

173Securedcreditors

174Debtscontractedindividuallyandonbehalfofpartnership

Division13DeceasedWorker'sWages

175Definition

176Wagespayabletosurvivingspouse

177Wagesnotsubjecttoadministration

178Evidenceofentitlement

179Dischargeofemployer

180Applicationtocourttodeterminecompetingclaims

Division14OtherMattersandRegulations
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181Representationofmentallyincapableperson

182Noticestominor

183Openingsafetydepositboxes

184Powertomakeregulations

Part7TransitionalProvisions,RepealsandConsequentialandRelated
Amendments
Division1TransitionalProvisions

185TransitionapplicationofParts2,3and6

186TransitionapplicationofPart4

187TransitionapplicationofPart5

188TransitionEstateAdministrationAct

189Transitionpropertyencumberedbysecurityinterest

190Transitiondirectionbycourt

Division2Repeals

191EstateAdministrationAct

192ProbateRecognitionAct

193WillsAct

194WillsVariationAct

Division3ConsequentialandRelatedAmendments

195
268

269Repealofconsequentialamendmentsthatmaybecomeinoperative

270Commencement

Schedule1
Schedule2

Part1DefinitionsandInterpretation
Definitionsandinterpretation

1(1)InthisAct:
"beneficiary"means
(a)apersonnamedinawilltoreceiveallorpartofanestate,
or
(b)apersonhavingabeneficialinterestinatrustcreatedbya
will
"benefit",inrelationtoabenefitplan,meansabenefitpayable
underabenefitplanonthedeathofaparticipant
"benefitplan"means
(a)anyoneormoreofthefollowingforthebenefitof
employeesorformeremployeesofanemployer,agentsor
formeragentsofanemployer,thedependantsofanyofthem
oradesignatedbeneficiary:
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(i)apensionplanorretirementplan
(ii)awelfarefundorprofitsharingfund
(iii)atrust,scheme,contractorarrangement,
(b)afund,trust,scheme,contractorarrangementforthe
paymentofanannuityforlifeorforafixedorvariableterm,
(c)aretirementsavingsplanorretirementincomefund
registeredundertheIncomeTaxAct(Canada),
(d)afund,trust,scheme,contractorarrangementdescribed
intheregulationsmadeunderthisAct,or
(e)ataxfreesavingsaccountwithinthemeaningofthe
IncomeTaxAct(Canada),
whetheritwascreatedbefore,onorafterthisdefinitioncomesinto
force
"court"meanstheSupremeCourt
"descendant"meansalllinealdescendantsthroughallgenerations
"designatedbeneficiary"meansapersontowhomorforwhose
advantageabenefitispayablebyadesignation
"designation"meansthedesignationofadesignatedbeneficiaryin
accordancewithsection85[designatedbeneficiaries]
"estate"meansthepropertyofadeceasedperson
"foreigngrant"meansagrantofprobate,includinglettersof
verificationissuedinQuebec,oragrantofadministrationorother
documentpurportingtobeofthesamenatureissuedbyacourt
outsideBritishColumbia
"foreignpersonalrepresentative"meansapersonal
representativetowhomaforeigngranthasbeenmade
"gift"includes
(a)abeneficialdeviseorbequest,and
(b)anappointmentaffectingpropertyotherthanthe
appointmentofapersonasexecutorofthewill
"instrument"includesatestamentaryinstrumentandotherlegal
documents,butdoesnotincludeaninstrument,otherthanawill,to
whichtheInsuranceActapplies
"intestate"meansapersonwhodieswithoutawill
"intestateestate"meanstheestateofapersonwhodieswithout
awill
"intestatesuccessor"meansapersonwhoisentitledtoreceiveall
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orpartofanintestateestate
"land"includesbuildingsandfixtures,andeveryright,title,interest,
estateorclaimtoorinland
"nominee"includes
(a)apersongrantedpoweroverfinancialaffairsunderthe
PatientsPropertyAct,
(b)anattorneyactingunderanenduringpowerofattorneyas
describedinPart2[EnduringPowersofAttorney]ofthePower
ofAttorneyAct,
(c)arepresentativeactingunderarepresentationagreement
madeundersection7(1)(b)[standardprovisions]ofthe
RepresentationAgreementAct,and
(d)apersonappointedundersection51(2)[mentally
incompetentIndians]oftheIndianAct(Canada)orthe
MinisterofAboriginalAffairsandNorthernDevelopment
"participant"meansapersonwhomakesadesignationand,except
whenthecontextotherwiserequires,includesanattorneyor
committeewhomakesadesignationundersection85[designated
beneficiaries]
"personalproperty"meanseverykindofpropertyotherthanland
"property"meanslandandpersonalproperty
"registrablecharge"meansachargecreatedbyanorderofthe
courtundersection33(2)[retentionofspousalhome]andmade
effectivebyregistrationinalandtitleofficeundersection
34[registrablecharges]
"registrargeneral"hasthesamemeaningasintheVitalStatistics
Act
"representationgrant"means
(a)thegrantofprobateofawillinBritishColumbia,whether
madeforgeneral,specialorlimitedpurposes,
(b)thegrantofadministrationoftheestateofadeceased
personinBritishColumbia,withorwithoutwillannexed,
whethermadeforgeneral,specialorlimitedpurposes,
(c)theresealinginBritishColumbiaofagrantofprobateofa
willoragrantofadministrationoftheestateofadeceased
person,
(d)anancillarygrantofprobateoradministration,or
(e)[Notinforce.]

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"securityinterest"meansaninterestinpropertythatsecures
paymentorperformanceofanobligation
"spousalhome"means
(a)aparcelofland,ownedorownedincommonbythe
deceasedpersonandnotleasedtoanotherperson,that
(i)isshownasaseparatetaxableparcelonataxation
rollforthecurrentyearpreparedundertheTaxation
(RuralArea)Actoronanassessmentrollusedforthe
levyingoftaxesinamunicipality,and
(ii)hasasimprovementssituatedonitabuilding
assessedandtaxedinthecurrentyearasan
improvement,inwhichthedeceasedpersonandhisor
herspousewereordinarilyresident,
(b)ashareownedorownedincommonbythedeceased
personinacorporationwhosecharter,asdefinedinsection1
(1)oftheBusinessCorporationsAct,providesthatabuilding
ownedoroperatedbythecorporationmustbeownedand
operatedexclusivelyforthebenefitofshareholdersinthe
corporationwhoareoccupantsofthebuilding,ifthevalueof
theshareisequivalenttothecapitalvalueofasuiteownedby
thecorporation,inwhichsuitethedeceasedpersonandhisor
herspousewereordinarilyresidentandwhichwasnotleased
toanyotherperson,
(c)amanufacturedhome,asdefinedintheManufactured
HomeAct,situatedonlandnotownedbytheownerofthe
manufacturedhomeandinwhichthedeceasedpersonandhis
orherspousewereordinarilyresident,or
(d)aparceloflandonNisga'aLandsortreatylandsthathas
asimprovementssituatedonitabuildinginwhichthe
deceasedpersonandhisorherspousewereordinarily
resident,
(i)ownedorownedincommonbythedeceasedperson
andnotleasedtoanotherperson,
(ii)heldorheldincommonbythedeceasedpersonby
wayofarighttopossessionunderNisga'alawandnot
leasedtoanotherperson,or
(iii)heldorheldincommonbythedeceasedpersonby
wayofaninterestunderthelawsofatreatyfirstnation
andnotleasedtoanotherperson
"spouse"hasthemeaninggiventoitinsection2[whenapersonis
aspouseunderthisAct]
"taxingtreatyfirstnation"hasthesamemeaningasintheTreaty
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FirstNationTaxationAct
"testamentaryinstrument"meansawillordesignationora
documentnamingapersontoreceiveapaymentorseriesof
paymentsondeathunderaplanorarrangementofatypesimilarto
abenefitplan
"will"means
(a)awill,
(b)atestament,
(c)acodicil,
(d)anappointmentbywillorbywritinginthenatureofawill
inexerciseofapower,
(e)anythingorderedtobeeffectiveasawillundersection
58[courtordercuringdeficiencies],or
(f)anyothertestamentarydispositionexceptthefollowing:
(i)adesignationunderPart5[BenefitPlans]
(ii)adesignationofabeneficiaryunderPart3[Life
Insurance]orPart4[AccidentandSicknessInsurance]
oftheInsuranceAct
(iii)atestamentarydispositiongovernedspecificallyby
anotherenactmentorlawofBritishColumbiaorof
anotherjurisdictioninoroutsideCanada
"willmaker"meansapersonwhomakesawill
"willmaker'ssignature"includesasignaturemadebyanother
personinthemannerdescribedinsubsection(2).
(2)Areferencetothesignatureofawillmakerincludesasignature
madebyanotherpersoninthewillmaker'spresenceandbythewill
maker'sdirection,andthesignaturemaybeeitherthewillmaker'sname
orthenameofthepersonsigning.
(3)IfthereisanyconflictorinconsistencybetweenthisActandthe
TrusteeActwithrespecttothepowersanddutiesorofficeofapersonal
representative,thisActprevailstotheextentoftheconflictor
inconsistency.

Part2FundamentalRules
Division1MeaningofSpouse,EffectofAdoptionandConstructionof
Instruments
WhenapersonisaspouseunderthisAct

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2(1)Unlesssubsection(2)applies,2personsarespousesofeachother
forthepurposesofthisActiftheywerebothaliveimmediatelybeforea
relevanttimeand
(a)theyweremarriedtoeachother,or
(b)theyhadlivedwitheachotherinamarriagelike
relationshipforatleast2years.
(2)Twopersonsceasebeingspousesofeachotherforthepurposesof
thisActif,
(a)inthecaseofamarriage,aneventoccursthatcausesan
interestinfamilyproperty,asdefinedinPart5[Property
Division]oftheFamilyLawAct,toarise,or
(b)inthecaseofamarriagelikerelationship,oneorboth
personsterminatetherelationship.
(2.1)ForthepurposesofthisAct,spousesarenotconsideredtohave
separatedif,withinoneyearafterseparation,
(a)theybegintolivetogetheragainandtheprimarypurpose
fordoingsoistoreconcile,and
(b)theycontinuetolivetogetherforoneormoreperiods,
totallingatleast90days.
(3)Arelevanttimeforthepurposesofsubsection(1)isthedateof
deathofoneofthepersonsunlessthisActspecifiesanothertimeasthe
relevanttime.
Effectofadoption

3(0.1)Inthissection,"preadoptionparent"meansapersonwho,
beforetheadoptionofachild,wasthechild'sparent.
(1)Subjecttothissection,iftherelationshipofparentandchildarising
fromtheadoptionofachildmustbeestablishedatanygenerationin
ordertodeterminesuccessionunderthisAct,therelationshipistobe
determinedinaccordancewiththeAdoptionActrespectingtheeffectof
adoption.
(2)Subjecttosubsection(3),ifachildisadopted,
(a)thechildisnotentitledtotheestateofhisorherpre
adoptionparentexceptthroughthewillofthepreadoption
parent,and
(b)apreadoptionparentofthechildisnotentitledtothe
estateofthechildexceptthroughthewillofthechild.
(3)Adoptionofachildbythespouseofapreadoptionparentdoesnot
terminatetherelationshipofparentandchildbetweenthechildandthe
preadoptionparentforpurposesofsuccessionunderthisAct.
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Constructionofinstruments

4(1)IfthisActprovidesthataprovisionofthisActissubjecttoa
contraryintentionappearinginaninstrument,thatcontraryintention
mustappearintheinstrumentorarisefromanecessaryimplicationof
theinstrument.
(2)Extrinsicevidenceoftestamentaryintent,includingastatement
madebythewillmaker,isnotadmissibletoassistintheconstructionof
atestamentaryinstrumentunless
(a)aprovisionofthewillismeaningless,
(b)aprovisionofthetestamentaryinstrumentisambiguous
(i)onitsface,or
(ii)inlightofevidence,otherthanevidenceofthewill
maker'sintention,demonstratingthatthelanguageused
inthetestamentaryinstrumentisambiguoushaving
regardtosurroundingcircumstances,or
(c)extrinsicevidenceisexpresslypermittedbythisAct.

Division2SurvivorshipRules
Fundamentalrulewhenpersonsdiesimultaneously

5(1)If2ormorepersonsdieatthesametimeorincircumstancesthat
makeituncertainwhichofthemsurvivedtheotherorothers,unlessa
contraryintentionappearsinaninstrument,rightstopropertymustbe
determinedasifeachhadsurvivedtheotherorothers.
(2)If
(a)twoormorepersonsholdpropertyasjointtenants,orhold
ajointaccount,and
(b)bothorallofthemdieatthesametimeorin
circumstancesthatmakeituncertainwhichofthemsurvived
theotherorothers,
unlessacontraryintentionappearsinaninstrument,forthepurposeof
determiningrightstoproperty,eachpersonisdeemedtohaveheldthe
propertyoraccountastenantsincommonwiththeotherorwitheachof
theothers.
Generalpresumptiondispositionofpropertyonsimultaneousdeaths

6If
(a)aninstrumentprovidesforthedispositionofpropertyin
theeventthatapersonnamedintheinstrument
(i)diesbeforeanotherperson,
(ii)diesatthesametimeasanotherperson,or
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(iii)diesincircumstancesthatmakeituncertainwhich
ofthemsurvivedtheother,and
(b)thenamedpersondiesatthesametimeastheother
personorincircumstancesthatmakeituncertainwhichof
themsurvivedtheother,
forthepurposeofthatdisposition,theeventforwhichtheinstrument
providesisconclusivelydeemedtohaveoccurred.
Generalpresumptionsubstitutepersonalrepresentative

7If
(a)awillprovidesforasubstitutepersonalrepresentativein
theeventthatanexecutornamedinthewill
(i)diesbeforethewillmaker,
(ii)diesatthesametimeasthewillmaker,or
(iii)diesincircumstancesthatmakeituncertainwhich
ofthemsurvivedtheother,and
(b)thenamedexecutordiesatthesametimeasthewill
makerorincircumstancesthatmakeituncertainwhichof
themsurvivedtheother,
forthepurposeofthegrantofprobate,theeventforwhichthewill
providesisconclusivelydeemedtohaveoccurred.
Posthumousbirths

8Descendantsandrelativesofanintestate,conceivedbeforethe
intestate'sdeathbutbornaftertheintestate'sdeathandlivingforat
least5days,inheritasiftheyhadbeenborninthelifetimeofthe
intestateandhadsurvivedtheintestate.
Posthumousbirthsifconceptionafterdeath

8.1(1)Adescendantofadeceasedperson,conceivedandbornafterthe
person'sdeath,inheritsasifthedescendanthadbeenborninthe
lifetimeofthedeceasedpersonandhadsurvivedthedeceasedpersonif
allofthefollowingconditionsapply:
(a)apersonwhowasmarriedto,orinamarriagelike
relationshipwith,thedeceasedpersonwhenthatpersondied
giveswrittennotice,within180daysfromtheissueofa
representationgrant,tothedeceasedperson'spersonal
representative,beneficiariesandintestatesuccessorsthatthe
personmayusethehumanreproductivematerialofthe
deceasedpersontoconceiveachildthroughassisted
reproduction
(b)thedescendantisbornwithin2yearsafterthedeceased
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person'sdeathandlivesforatleast5days
(c)thedeceasedpersonisthedescendant'sparentunderPart
3oftheFamilyLawAct.
(2)Therightofadescendantdescribedinsubsection(1)toinheritfrom
therelativesofadeceasedpersonbeginsonthedatethedescendantis
born.
(3)Despitesubsection(1)(b),acourtmayextendthetimesetoutin
thatsubsectionifthecourtissatisfiedthattheorderwouldbe
appropriateonconsiderationofallrelevantcircumstances.
Survivalofbeneficiaries

9(1)If
(a)arightofabeneficiarytoreceivepropertyisconditionalon
thebeneficiarysurvivinganotherperson,and
(b)thebeneficiarydiesatthesametimeastheotherperson
ordiesincircumstancesthatmakeituncertainwhichofthem
survivedtheother,
thebeneficiaryisconclusivelydeemedtohavepredeceasedtheother
person.
(2)If
(a)propertyisleftto2ormorebeneficiariesortothe
survivingbeneficiaryorbeneficiaries,and
(b)bothoralldieatthesametimeorincircumstancesthat
makeituncertainwhichofthemsurvivedtheotherorothers,
unlessacontraryintentionappearsinaninstrument,thepropertymust
bedividedintoasmanyequalsharesastherearebeneficiaries,andthe
sharesmustbedistributedrespectivelytothosepersonswhowouldhave
beenentitledtoashareintheeventthateachofthebeneficiarieshad
survived.
Fivedaysurvivalrule

10(1)Apersonwhodoesnotsurviveadeceasedpersonby5days,ora
longerperiodprovidedinaninstrument,isconclusivelydeemedtohave
diedbeforethedeceasedpersonforallpurposesaffectingtheestateof
thedeceasedpersonorpropertyofwhichthedeceasedpersonwas
competenttogivebywilltoanother.
(2)If2ormorepersonsholdpropertyasjointtenants,orholdajoint
account,and
(a)inthecaseof2persons,itcannotbeestablishedthatone
ofthemsurvivedtheotherby5days,
(i)onehalfofthepropertypassesasifoneperson
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survivedtheotherpersonby5days,and
(ii)onehalfofthepropertypassesasiftheother
personreferredtoinsubparagraph(i)hadsurvivedthe
firstpersonreferredtoinsubparagraph(i)by5days,
and
(b)inthecaseofmorethan2persons,itcannotbe
establishedthatatleastoneofthemsurvivedtheothersby5
days,thepropertymustbedividedintoasmanyequalshares
astherearejointtenantsorpersonsholdingthejointaccount,
andthesharesmustbedistributedrespectivelytothose
personswhowouldhavebeenentitledtoashareintheevent
thateachofthepersonshadsurvived.
(3)Thissectiondoesnotapplytotheappointmentofapersonal
representativeinawill.
(4)Nothinginthissectionaffectsthelawofresultingtrusts.
PriorityofInsuranceActprovisions

11ThisDivisiondoesnotapplytoinsurancemoneytowhichsection
83[simultaneousdeaths]or130[simultaneousdeaths]oftheInsurance
Actapplies.

Division3Nisga'aFinalAgreementandFirstNations'Final
Agreements
Repealed

12[Repealed201167.]
WillorculturalpropertyofNisga'acitizens

13(1)Inthissection,"culturalproperty"hasthesamemeaningasin
paragraph115oftheNisga'aGovernmentChapteroftheNisga'aFinal
Agreement.
(2)Asprovidedinparagraph118oftheNisga'aGovernmentChapterof
theNisga'aFinalAgreement,theNisga'aLisimsGovernmentmay
commenceaproceedingunderthisActinrespectofthewillofaNisga'a
citizenthatprovidesforthedevolutionofculturalproperty.
(3)InanyjudicialproceedingunderthisActinwhichthevalidityofthe
willofaNisga'acitizenorthedevolutionoftheculturalpropertyofa
Nisga'acitizenisatissue,theNisga'aLisimsGovernmenthasstandingin
theproceedingasprovidedinparagraph117oftheNisga'aGovernment
ChapteroftheNisga'aFinalAgreement.
(4)Inaproceedingdescribedinsubsection(2)ortowhichsubsection
(3)applies,thecourtmustconsider,amongothermatters,anyevidence
orrepresentationsinrespectofNisga'alawsorcustomsdealingwiththe
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devolutionofculturalpropertyasprovidedinparagraph119ofthe
Nisga'aGovernmentChapteroftheNisga'aFinalAgreement.
(5)Asprovidedinparagraph120oftheNisga'aGovernmentChapterof
theNisga'aFinalAgreement,theparticipationoftheNisga'aLisims
Governmentinaproceedingdescribedinsubsection(2)ofthissectionor
towhichsubsection(3)appliesmustbeinaccordancewiththeapplicable
SupremeCourtCivilRulesanddoesnotaffectthecourt'sabilityto
controlthecourt'sprocess.
Willorculturalpropertyoftreatyfirstnationmembers

14(1)Inthissection,"culturalproperty",inrelationtoatreatyfirst
nation,hasthesamemeaningasinthefinalagreementofthetreatyfirst
nation.
(2)Ifthefinalagreementofatreatyfirstnationsoprovides,thetreaty
firstnationmaycommenceandmayinterveneinaproceedingunderthis
Actinrespectofthewillofatreatyfirstnationmemberofthetreatyfirst
nationthatprovidesforthedevolutionofculturalproperty.
(3)Ifthefinalagreementofatreatyfirstnationsoprovides,inany
judicialproceedingunderthisActinwhich
(a)thevalidityorvariationofthewillofatreatyfirstnation
memberofthattreatyfirstnation,or
(b)thedevolutionofculturalpropertyofatreatyfirstnation
memberofthetreatyfirstnation
isatissue,thattreatyfirstnationhasstandingintheproceeding.
(4)Inaproceedingdescribedinsubsection(2)ortowhichsubsection
(3)applies,thecourtmustconsider,amongothermatters,anyevidence
orrepresentationsinrespectoftheapplicabletreatyfirstnation'slawsor
customsdealingwiththedevolutionofculturalproperty.
(5)Theparticipationofatreatyfirstnationinaproceedingdescribedin
subsection(2)ortowhichsubsection(3)appliesmustbeinaccordance
withtheapplicableSupremeCourtCivilRulesanddoesnotaffectthe
court'sabilitytocontrolthecourt'sprocess.
NoticeofapplicationforrepresentationgrantrespectingNisga'acitizens
andtreatyfirstnationmembers

15(1)IfadeceasedpersonwasaNisga'acitizen,anapplicantforagrant
ofprobateoradministrationinrespectoftheestateoftheNisga'acitizen
must,inadditiontogivingnoticeundersection121(1)[noticeof
proposedapplicationforgrantofprobateoradministration],
(a)mailordeliveranoticeoftheapplicationtotheNisga'a
LisimsGovernment,and
(b)ifthedeceasedpersonleftawillandtheNisga'aLisims
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Governmentrequestsacopyofitwithin30daysofreceiving
thenoticeunderparagraph(a)ofthissubsection,mailor
deliveracopyofthewilltotheNisga'aLisimsGovernment.
(2)Thecourtmustnotgrantorresealprobateoradministrationin
respectoftheestateofaNisga'acitizenunlesstheapplicantorthe
applicant'slawyer,inadditiontosatisfyingtherequirementsunder
subsection(1),certifiesthatheorshehas
(a)mailedordeliveredanoticeoftheapplicationtothe
Nisga'aLisimsGovernment,and
(b)ifthedeceasedNisga'acitizenleftawillandtheNisga'a
LisimsGovernmentrequestedacopyofitwithin30daysof
receivingthenoticeundersubsection(1)(a),mailedor
deliveredacopyofthewilltotheNisga'aLisimsGovernment.
(3)Ifthedeceasedpersonwasatreatyfirstnationmember,anapplicant
foragrantofprobateoradministrationinrespectoftheestateofthe
treatyfirstnationmembermust,inadditiontogivingnoticeunder
section121(1),
(a)mailordeliveranoticeoftheapplicationtothetreatyfirst
nation,and
(b)ifthedeceasedtreatyfirstnationmemberleftawilland
thetreatyfirstnationrequestsacopyofitwithin30daysof
receivingthenoticeunderparagraph(a)ofthissubsection,
mailordeliveracopyofthewilltothetreatyfirstnationof
whichthedeceasedpersonwasamember.
(4)Ifatreatyfirstnationhasstandingundersection14(3)inajudicial
proceeding,thecourtmustnotgrantorresealprobateoradministration
inrespectoftheestateofatreatyfirstnationmemberofthetreatyfirst
nationunlesstheapplicantortheapplicant'slawyer,inadditionto
satisfyingtherequirementsundersubsection(3)ofthissection,certifies
thatheorshehas
(a)mailedordeliveredanoticeoftheapplicationtothetreaty
firstnation,and
(b)ifthedeceasedtreatyfirstnationmemberleftawilland
thetreatyfirstnationrequestedacopyofitwithin30daysof
receivingthenoticeundersubsection(3)(a),mailedor
deliveredacopytothetreatyfirstnation.
ServiceonNisga'aLisimsGovernmentortreatyfirstnation

16AproceedinginrespectofthewillofaNisga'acitizenoratreatyfirst
nationmembermustnotbeheardbythecourtattheinstanceofaparty
claimingthebenefitofDivision6[VariationofWills]ofPart4[Wills]
unlessacopyoftheinitiatingpleadingorpetitionhasbeenservedonthe
Nisga'aLisimsGovernmentorthetreatyfirstnation,asapplicable.
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Notinforce

1718[Notinforce.]
DisposalofNisga'aLandsinestate

18.1(1)SubjecttoanyapplicableNisga'alaw,ifadeceasedpersonownsa
parceloflandlocatedonNisga'aLandsorholdsarighttopossession
underNisga'alawofaparceloflandlocatedonNisga'aLandsand
(a)thedeceasedpersondiesleavingawillinwhichthe
deceasedpersonmakesagiftoftheparceloflandortheright
topossessionoftheparceloflandtoabeneficiarywho,under
Nisga'alaw,cannotacquiretheparceloflandortherightto
possessionoftheparceloflandbytransfer,or
(b)thedeceasedpersondieswithoutleavingawillandthe
parceloflandwouldbedistributedtoadescendantunderthis
Actwho,underNisga'alaw,cannotacquiretheparcelofland
ortherighttopossessionoftheparceloflandbytransfer,
theNisga'aLisimsGovernmentoraNisga'aVillageGovernment,after
oneyearfromthedateofdeathofthedeceasedperson,mayapplyto
thecourtforanorderestablishingtermsandconditionsinrespectofthe
dispositionoftheparceloflandortherighttopossessionoftheparcelof
landwithinoneyearafterthedateofthecourtorder,unlessthecourt
extendstheperiodoftimewithinwhichtheparceloflandortherightto
possessionoftheparceloflandmustbedisposedof.
(2)IftheNisga'aLisimsGovernmentoraNisga'aVillageGovernment
makesanapplicationundersubsection(1),itmustgivenoticetothe
personalrepresentativeofthedeceasedpersonor,ifthereisnopersonal
representative,toeverypersonwhowouldbeanintestatesuccessor
entitledtoshareintheestateifitwereanintestateestate.
Disposaloflandintreatylandsinestate

18.2(1)Subjecttoanyapplicablelawsofatreatyfirstnation,ifadeceased
personownsaparceloflandlocatedontreatylandsorholdsaninterest
underlawsofatreatyfirstnationinaparceloflandlocatedontreaty
landsand
(a)thedeceasedpersondiesleavingawillinwhichthe
deceasedpersonmakesagiftoftheparceloflandorthe
interestintheparceloflandtoabeneficiarywho,underthe
lawsofthetreatyfirstnation,cannotownoracquiretheparcel
oflandorholdaninterestintheparcelofland,or
(b)thedeceasedpersondieswithoutleavingawillandthe
parceloflandwouldbedistributedtoadescendantunderthis
Actwho,underthelawsofthetreatyfirstnation,cannotown
oracquiretheparceloflandorholdaninterestintheparcelof
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land,
thetreatyfirstnation,afteroneyearfromthedateofdeathofthe
deceasedperson,mayapplytothecourtforanorderestablishingterms
andconditionsinrespectofthedispositionoftheparceloflandorthe
interestintheparceloflandwithinoneyearafterthedateofthecourt
order,unlessthecourtextendstheperiodoftimewithinwhichtheparcel
oflandortheinterestintheparceloflandmustbedisposedof.
(2)Ifthetreatyfirstnationmakesanapplicationundersubsection(1),it
mustgivenoticetothepersonalrepresentativeofthedeceasedperson
or,ifthereisnopersonalrepresentative,toeverypersonwhowouldbe
anintestatesuccessorentitledtoshareintheestateifitwerean
intestateestate.
NorighttoacquireNisga'aLandsortreatylands

18.3DespiteanyotherprovisionofthisAct,aperson,exceptforapersonin
thecapacityofpersonalrepresentative,doesnotacquire,underthisAct,
(a)ownershiporarighttopossessionunderNisga'alawofa
parceloflandlocatedonNisga'aLands,or
(b)ownershipoforaninterestunderthelawsofatreatyfirst
nationinaparceloflandlocatedontreatylands,
ifthepersoncannotacquiretheownershipoftheparceloflandorthe
righttopossessionoftheparceloflandbytransferunderNisga'alaw,or
thepersoncannotownoracquiretheparceloflandorholdaninterestin
theparceloflandunderthelawsofthetreatyfirstnation.

Part3WhenaPersonDiesWithoutaWill
Uniforminterpretationwithlawsofotherprovinces

19ThisPartmustbeinterpretedsoastoeffectitsgeneralpurposeof
makinguniformthelawoftheprovincesthatenactidenticalor
substantiallythesameprovisions.

Division1DistributionofEstateWhenThereisNoWill
Spousebutnodescendants

20Ifapersondieswithoutawillleavingaspousebutnosurviving
descendant,theintestateestatemustbedistributedtothespouse.
Spouseanddescendants

21(1)Inthissection:
"householdfurnishings"meanspersonalpropertyusually
associatedwiththeenjoymentbythespousesofthespousalhome
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"netvalueofanintestateestate"meansthevalueofan
intestateestateafterdeductingfromitsfairmarketvalue,both
insideandoutsideBritishColumbia,
(a)thevalueofhouseholdfurnishingsdistributedtoaspouse
undersubsection(2),and
(b)charges,debts,funeralandadministrationexpenses,and
feesundertheProbateFeeAct,payablefromtheestate.
(2)Ifapersondieswithoutawillleavingaspouseandsurviving
descendants,thefollowingmustbedistributedfromtheintestateestate
tothespouse:
(a)thehouseholdfurnishings
(b)apreferentialshareoftheintestateestateinaccordance
withsubsection(3)or(4).
(3)Ifalldescendantsreferredtoinsubsection(2)aredescendantsof
boththeintestateandthespouse,thepreferentialshareofthespouseis
$300000,oragreateramountifprescribed.
(4)Ifalldescendantsreferredtoinsubsection(2)arenotcommonto
theintestateandthespouse,thepreferentialshareofthespouseis$150
000,oragreateramountifprescribed.
(5)Ifthenetvalueofanintestateestateislessthanthespouse's
preferentialshareundersubsection(3)or(4),theintestateestatemust
bedistributedtothespouse.
(6)Ifthenetvalueofanintestateestateisthesameasorgreaterthan
thespouse'spreferentialshareundersubsection(3)or(4),
(a)thespousehasachargeontheintestateestateforthe
amountofthespouse'spreferentialshareundersubsection(3)
or(4),and
(b)theresidueoftheintestateestate,aftersatisfactionofthe
spouse'spreferentialshare,mustbedistributedasfollows:
(i)onehalftothespouse
(ii)onehalftotheintestate'sdescendants.
Twoormorespouses

22(1)If2ormorepersonsareentitledtoaspousalshareofanintestate
estate,theysharethespousalshareintheportionstowhichtheyagree,
oriftheycannotagree,asdeterminedbythecourt.
(2)If2ormorepersonsareentitledtoapplyorhavepriorityasaspouse
underthisActinrespectofanintestateestate,theymayagreeonwho
istoapplyorwhoistohavepriority,butiftheydonot,thecourtmay
makethedecision.

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Nospousebutintestateleavingdescendantsorrelatives

23(1)Thissectionappliesifapersondieswithoutawillandwithout
leavingasurvivingspouse.
(2)Subjecttosubsection(3)andsection24,ifapersondieswithout
leavingasurvivingspouse,theintestateestatemustbedistributed
(a)totheintestate'sdescendants,
(b)ifthereisnosurvivingdescendant,totheintestate's
parentsinequalsharesortotheintestate'ssurvivingparent,
(c)ifthereisnosurvivingdescendantorparent,tothe
descendantsoftheintestate'sparentsorparent,
(d)ifthereisnosurvivingdescendant,parentordescendant
ofaparent,buttheintestateissurvivedbyoneormore
grandparentsordescendantsofgrandparents,
(i)anequalparttothesurvivingparentsorparentof
eachoftheintestate'sparents,inequalsharesofthe
part,butifaparentoftheintestatehasnosurviving
parents,thatparttothedescendantsofthosedeceased
grandparents,and
(ii)forthepurposeofsubparagraph(i),apartis
determinedbydividingtheestatebythenumberof
parentsoftheintestate
(A)whohaveasurvivingparent,or
(B)whodonothaveasurvivingparentbutwhose
deceasedparentshaveasurvivingdescendant,
(e)ifthereisnosurvivingdescendant,parent,descendantofa
parent,grandparentordescendantofagrandparent,butthe
intestateissurvivedbyoneormoregreatgrandparentsor
descendantsofgreatgrandparents,
(i)anequalparttothesurvivinggrandparentsor
grandparentofeachoftheintestatesparents,inequal
sharesofthepart,butifagrandparentoftheintestate
hasnosurvivingparents,thatparttothedescendantsof
thosedeceasedgreatgrandparents,and
(ii)forthepurposeofsubparagraph(i),apartis
determinedbydividingtheestatebythenumberof
parentsoftheintestate
(A)whohaveasurvivinggrandparent,or
(B)whodonothaveasurvivinggrandparentbut
whosedeceasedgrandparentshaveasurviving
descendant,or
(f)ifthereisnopersonwhoisentitledunderparagraphs(a)to
(e),thewholeintestateestatepassestothegovernmentand
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issubjecttotheEscheatAct.
(3)Forthepurposesofthissection,personsofthe5thorgreaterdegree
ofrelationshiptotheintestateareconclusivelydeemedtohave
predeceasedtheintestate,andanypartoftheintestateestatetowhich
thosepersonswouldotherwisebeentitledmustbedistributedtoother
descendantsentitledtotheestate.
(4)Subsection(3)doesnotaffect
(a)therightofanintestate'sdescendantstoinheritthe
intestateestateeventhoughtheyareofagreaterdegreeof
relationshipthanthelimitimposedbythatsubsection,or
(b)therightofapersontoapplyundertheEscheatActonthe
basisofalegalormoralclaimagainsttheformerownerofan
estatethathasescheatedtothegovernmentaspropertyto
whichnopersonisentitledtosucceedastheowner.
(5)Forthepurposeofsubsection(3),
(a)degreesofrelationshiparetobecomputedbycounting
upwardfromtheintestatetothenearestcommonancestorof
theintestateandhisorherrelative,andthendownwardtothe
relative,and
(b)relativesofthehalfkinshipinheritequallywiththoseofthe
wholekinshipinthesamedegree.
Distributiontodescendants

24(1)WhenadistributionistobemadeunderthisParttothedescendants
ofaperson,thepropertythatistobesodistributedmustbedividedinto
anumberofequalsharesequivalenttothenumberof
(a)survivingdescendants,and
(b)deceaseddescendantswhohaveleftdescendants
survivingtheperson,
inthegenerationnearesttothepersonthatcontainsoneormore
survivingmembers.
(2)Eachsurvivingmemberofthegenerationnearesttothepersonthat
containsoneormoresurvivingmembersmustreceiveoneshare,and
thesharethatwouldhavebeendistributedtoeachdeceasedmemberif
survivingmustbedividedamongthatmember'sdescendantsinthe
samemannerasundersubsection(1)andthissubsection.
(3)[Repealed2014954.]
Partialintestacy

25ThisDivisionalsoappliestothatpartofanestatethatisneitherthe
subjectofagiftnorotherwisedisposedofbyawill.
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Division2SpousalHome
Righttospousalhome

26(1)ThisDivisionappliesto
(a)anintestateestatethatincludesaspousalhome,and
(b)anestateinrespectofwhichthespousalhomeisnotthe
subjectofagiftorotherwisedisposedofbyawill.
(2)IfthisDivisionapplies,thesurvivingspousemayacquirethespousal
homefromthepersonalrepresentativetosatisfy,inwholeorinpart,the
survivingspouse'sinterestintheestateinaccordancewiththisDivision.
Noticebypersonalrepresentative

27(1)IfthisDivisionapplies,thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceased
personmust,atthetimeanapplicationforarepresentationgrantis
made,givenoticetothesurvivingspouseoftherightofthesurviving
spousetoacquirethespousalhomeinaccordancewiththisDivision.
(2)Asurvivingspousemustexercisetherighttoacquirethespousal
homeduringtheperiodendingnolaterthan180daysafterthedateon
whichtherepresentationgrantisissuedtothepersonalrepresentative
unlessthecourt,beforeoraftertheexpirationofthatperiod,extendsthe
timebywhichtherightmaybeexercised.
(2.1)IfthespousalhomeislocatedonNisga'aLandsortreatylands,the
personalrepresentativemust,atthetimeanapplicationfora
representationgrantismade,givenoticeofsection18.3[norightto
acquireNisga'aLandsortreatylands]tothesurvivingspouseinaddition
tothenoticeundersubsection(1).
(3)Ifthecourtgrantsanextensionoftheperiodreferredtoin
subsection(2),apersonalrepresentativewhodisposesofthespousal
homeisnotliableifthedisposalismade
(a)after180daysfromthedatetherepresentationgrantis
issued,and
(b)beforethenoticeoftherighttoacquirethespousalhome
isdeliveredtothepersonalrepresentativeundersection29
(1)orbeforethecourt,undersubsection(2)ofthissection,
extendsthetimebywhichthatrightmaybeexercised.
Prohibitionondisposingofspousalhome

28Apersonalrepresentativemustnot,withoutthewrittenconsentofthe
survivingspouse,disposeofthespousalhomeduringthe180daysafter
thedateonwhichtherepresentationgrantisissuedorforanyperiodof
timeextendedundersection27(2)unlessassetsotherthanthespousal
homearenotsufficienttopaythedebtsandliabilitiesoftheestateanda
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mortgageorchargeonthespousalhomewouldnotraisesufficient
moneytopaythosedebtsandliabilities.
Noticeexercisingrighttospousalhome

29(1)Asurvivingspousemayexercisehisorherrighttoacquirethe
spousalhomebydelivering,withintherequiredtimereferredtoinsection
27(2),awrittennoticeto
(a)thepersonalrepresentativeofthedeceasedperson,unless
thesurvivingspouseisthepersonalrepresentative,
(b)thedescendantsofthedeceasedpersonentitledtoshare
intheintestateestateorthatpartoftheestatethatistobe
treatedasanintestateestate,and
(c)thePublicGuardianandTrustee,ifoneormoreofthe
descendantsofthedeceasedpersonentitledtoshareinthe
intestateestateorthatpartoftheestatethatistobetreated
asanintestateestateisaminororamentallyincapable
personwithoutanominee.
(2)Anoticeundersubsection(1)mustcontain
(a)astatementtotheeffectthatthesurvivingspouse
requiresthepersonalrepresentativetotransfertheinterestin
thespousalhometothesurvivingspouse,and
(b)astatementofthevaluethesurvivingspouseplaceson
thedeceasedperson'sinterestinthespousalhomeasofthe
dateofthedeceasedperson'sdeath.
Disputeovervalueofdeceasedperson'sinterest

30(1)Ifthepersonalrepresentativedisputesthevalueofthedeceased
person'sinterestinthespousalhomesetoutinanoticeundersection
29,thepersonalrepresentativemustdelivertothesurvivingspouse,
withinareasonabletime,awrittenresponsetothenoticestatingthe
valuethepersonalrepresentativeplacesonthedeceasedperson's
interest.
(2)Ifthepersonalrepresentativeandthesurvivingspousedonotagree
onthevalueofthedeceasedperson'sinterestinthespousalhome,the
survivingspouseorthepersonalrepresentativemayapplytothecourt
foranorderdeterminingthevalueofthedeceasedperson'sinterest.
(3)Ifasurvivingspousewhoexercisestherighttoacquirethespousal
homeisthesolepersonalrepresentativeofthedeceasedperson,the
survivingspousemustapplytothecourtforanorderdeterminingthe
valueofthedeceasedperson'sinterestinthespousalhomeunless
(a)thedescendantsentitledtoshareintheintestateestateor
thatpartoftheestatethatistobetreatedasanintestate
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estate,and
(b)thePublicGuardianandTrustee,ifoneormoreofthe
descendantsofthedeceasedpersonentitledtoshareinthe
intestateestateorthatpartoftheestatethatistobetreated
asanintestateestateisaminororamentallyincapable
personwithoutanominee,
agreeinwritingtothevaluethatthesurvivingspouseplacesonthe
deceasedperson'sinterest.
(4)Ifthesurvivingspouse,beingthesolepersonalrepresentative,does
notapplytothecourtforanorderundersubsection(3)within180days
ofthedateofthenoticereferredtoinsection29,
(a)adescendantentitledtoshareintheestateorthatpartof
theestatethatistobetreatedasanintestateestate,or
(b)thePublicGuardianandTrustee,ifoneormoreofthe
descendantsofthedeceasedpersonentitledtoshareinthe
intestateestateorthatpartoftheestatethatistobetreated
asanintestateestateisaminororamentallyincapable
personwithoutanominee,
mayapplytothecourtforanorderdeterminingthevalueofthe
deceasedperson'sinterestinthespousalhome.
Purchaseofspousalhomebysurvivingspouse

31(1)Ifthefairmarketvalueofthedeceasedperson'sinterestinthe
spousalhomeexceedsthevalueofthesurvivingspouse'sinterestinthe
estateundersection21[spouseanddescendants],subjecttosubsection
(3)ofthissection,thesurvivingspousemaypurchasetheremainderof
thedeceasedperson'sinterestfromthepersonalrepresentative,orfrom
thoseinwhomthatinterestbeneficiallyvests,inaccordancewiththe
valuationofthedeceasedperson'sinterestinthespousalhomeas
determinedunderthisDivision.
(2)Thesurvivingspousemaypurchasethedeceasedperson'sinterestin
thespousalhomeunderthisDivisionwhetherornotthesurvivingspouse
isapersonalrepresentativeofthedeceasedpersonanddespiteanyrule
oflawconcerningthepurchaseoftrustpropertybyatrustee.
(3)Beforeasurvivingspousemaymakeanapplicationundersection33,
thesurvivingspousemustprovidefinancialinformationassetoutinthe
SupremeCourtCivilRulesto
(a)thepersonalrepresentativeofthedeceasedperson,and
(b)thedescendantsofthedeceasedpersonentitledtoshare
intheintestateestateorthatpartoftheestatethatistobe
treatedasanintestateestate.

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Occupancycostsofspousalhome

32Asurvivingspousewhooccupiesthespousalhomependinghisorher
purchaseofthespousalhomeunderthisDivisionmustpay,fromthedate
ofdeathofthedeceasedpersontothedateofthepurchaseofthe
spousalhome,
(a)thecostofinsuringthespousalhomeagainstdamage,
destructionandpublicliability,
(b)allapplicabletaxes,otherthananyprescribedtaxes,
assessedagainstthespousalhomefromthedateofdeathof
thedeceasedpersontothedateofpurchaseofthespousal
home,
(c)allreasonableandnecessaryexpensestomaintainand
repairthespousalhome,
(d)ratesandchargesforelectricity,gas,fuel,oilandwater
consumedandsimilarutilitiesatthespousalhome,and
(e)aperiodicpaymentthatfallsdueunderanymortgageon
thespousalhomeandanybonusorpaymentofapenalty
resultingfromanyprepaymentbythesurvivingspouse.
Retentionofspousalhome

33(1)Onapplicationbyasurvivingspouse,thecourtmaymakeanorder
undersubsection(2)if
(a)thesurvivingspouseisordinarilyresidentinthespousal
homeatthetimeofthedeceasedperson'sdeath,
(b)assetsintheestatearenotsufficienttosatisfythe
interestsofalldescendantsentitledtoshareintheintestate
estateorthatpartoftheestatethatistobetreatedasan
intestateestatewithoutdisposingofthespousalhome,
(c)thecourtissatisfiedthatpurchasingthespousalhome
undersection31wouldimposeasignificantfinancialhardship
onthesurvivingspouse,
(d)thecourtissatisfiedthat,inallthecircumstances,a
greaterprejudicewouldbeimposedonthesurvivingspouseby
beingunabletocontinuetoresideinthespousalhomethan
wouldbeimposedonthedescendantsentitledtoshareinthe
intestateestateorthatpartoftheestatethatistobetreated
asanintestateestatebyhavingtowaitanindeterminate
periodoftimetoreceiveallorpartoftheirshareofthe
intestateestate,and
(e)either
(i)thesurvivingspousehasresidedinthespousal
homeforasufficientperiodoftimetohaveestablisheda
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connectiontothespousalhome,or
(ii)thesurvivingspousehasasufficientconnection
withthecommunityormembersofthecommunityinthe
vicinityofthespousalhometowarrantanorderunder
subsection(2).
(2)Thecourtmay,subjecttoanytermsorconditionsthecourtconsiders
appropriate,makeanorderdoingoneormoreofthefollowing:
(a)vestingthesameinterestinthespousalhomeinthe
survivingspousethatthedeceasedpersonhad
(b)specifyingtheamountofmoneythesurvivingspousemust
paytothedescendantstowardssatisfactionoftheirinterestin
theestate
(c)convertingtheremainingunpaidinterestofthe
descendantsintheintestateestateintoaregistrablecharge
againstthetitletothesurvivingspouse'sinterestinthe
spousalhome
(d)determininganinterestrate,asthattermisdefinedin
section7[interestrate]oftheCourtOrderInterestAct,orat
anyotherratethecourtconsidersappropriate,fortheamount
thedescendantsareentitledtounderparagraph(c)ofthis
subsection
(e)determiningthevalueoftheregistrablechargereferredto
inparagraph(c)toincludetheprincipalamountowingtothe
descendantsentitledtoshareintheintestateestateorthat
partoftheestatethatistobetreatedasanintestateestate
andtheexpectedvalueofthefutureinterestthatwillbe
earnedunderparagraph(d).
Registrablecharges

34(1)Aregistrablechargereferredtoinsection33(2)becomesdueand
payableinthecircumstancesspecifiedbythecourt,havingregardto
prevailingresidentiallendingpracticesinCanada,butifnoneare
specified,becomesdueandpayableontheearliestofthefollowing:
(a)twelvemonthsafterthedateofdeathofthesurviving
spouse
(b)twelvemonthsafterthedatethesurvivingspouseceases
residinginthespousalhome
(c)thecompletiondateofthesaleofthespousalhome.
(2)Ifaregistrablechargepayableundersubsection(1)isnotpaid,the
owneroftheregistrablechargemaytakeanyactionthatamortgageeof
landmaytakeundertheprescribedstandardmortgagetermsunderthe
LandTitleAct.
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(3)Aregistrablechargeisnotenforceableuntilaformapprovedbythe
DirectorofLandTitlesaccompaniedbyacertifiedcopyofthecourtorder
undersection33(2),inrelationtotheregistrablecharge,isregistered
undertheLandTitleAct.
(4)Theownerofaregistrablecharge,onreceiptofpaymentofthetotal
amountsecuredbytheregistrablecharge,mustdelivertotheregistered
ownerofthespousalhomeortothatperson'srepresentativeareleaseof
theregistrablechargeintheformapprovedbytheDirectorofLand
Titles.
(5)Aregistrablechargemaybereleasedfromthetitletothespousal
homebyfilinginalandtitleoffice
(a)areleaseoftheregistrablechargeexecutedbytheowner
oftheregistrablechargeintheformapprovedbytheDirector
ofLandTitles,or
(b)acertifiedcopyofacourtorderreleasingtheregistrable
charge.
Circumstanceswhenregistrablechargebecomespayable

35(1)Inthissection,"charge"hasthesamemeaningasintheLandTitle
Act.
(2)Inadditiontothecircumstancesdescribedinsection34(1),a
registrablechargealsobecomesdueandpayableifthecourt,on
applicationbyoronbehalfoftheowneroftheregistrablecharge,orders
thatitshouldbecomedueandpayablebecauseofthefollowing:
(a)thesurvivingspousehasnotpaidanamountrequiredto
bepaidunderorsecuredbyachargeregisteredagainstthe
titleofthespousalhomeinprioritytotheregistrablecharge
(b)ataxorotherchargeisleviedagainstthetitleofthe
spousalhomeandhasnotbeenpaid,unlesspaymenthas
beenlawfullydeferred
(c)anactionorfailuretotakeactionjeopardizesthevalueof
thespousalhometosuchanextentthatitnolongerprovides
sufficientsecurityforthetotalamountsecuredbythe
registrablecharge
(d)theprovisionsoftheregistrablechargehavenotbeen
compliedwithoraneventhasoccurredpursuanttothose
provisionsbywhichtheamountsecuredbytheregistrable
chargebecomesdueandpayable.
(3)Ifaregistrablechargebecomespayablebyorderofthecourtunder
subsection(2),thesurvivingspousehasaperiodof180daystosellhis
orherinterestinthespousalhomeinordertopay,infull,theamount
securedbytheregistrablecharge.
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(4)Aftertheperiodreferredtoinsubsection(3),theownerofthe
registrablechargemaytakeanyactioninrespectoftheregistrable
chargethatamortgageeoflandmaytakeundertheprescribedstandard
mortgagetermsundertheLandTitleActifthesurvivingspousehasnot
soldhisorherinterestinthespousalhomeortheownerofthe
registrablechargehasnotbeenpaid.
(5)Theownerofaregistrablechargemay,beforeorafteritisregistered
inalandtitleoffice,postponethepriorityoftheregistrablechargeto
othercharges.
(6)Theownerofaregistrablechargemaysell,assignorotherwise
disposeoftheregistrablechargebeforeorafteritisregisteredinaland
titleofficeinaformapprovedbytheDirectorofLandTitles.
(7)Ifthesaleofaspousalhomeyieldssaleproceedsthatarenot
sufficienttopaythefullamountsecuredbyaregistrablechargethecourt
mayorderthereleaseoftheregistrablecharge,butmaynotmakeany
ordertorecoverfromtheestate,thesurvivingspouseortheestateof
thesurvivingspouseanyshortfallresultingfromtheinsufficiencyofsale
proceedstopaytheamountsecuredbytheregistrablecharge.

Part4Wills
Division1MakingaWill
Whocanmakeawill

36(1)Apersonwhois16yearsofageorolderandwhoismentally
capableofdoingsomaymakeawill.
(2)Awillmadebyapersonunder16yearsofageisnotvalid.
Howtomakeavalidwill

37(1)Tobevalid,awillmustbe
(a)inwriting,
(b)signedatitsendbythewillmaker,orthesignatureatthe
endmustbeacknowledgedbythewillmakerashisorhers,in
thepresenceof2ormorewitnessespresentatthesametime,
and
(c)signedby2ormoreofthewitnessesinthepresenceofthe
willmaker.
(2)Awillthatdoesnotcomplywithsubsection(1)isinvalidunless
(a)thecourtordersittobeeffectiveasawillundersection
58[courtordercuringdeficiencies],
(b)itisawillrecognizedasvalidundersection80[validityof
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willsmadeinaccordancewithotherlaws],or
(c)itisvalidunderanotherprovisionofthisAct.
Willbymembersofmilitaryforces

38(1)AmemberoftheCanadianForceswhileplacedonactiveservice
undertheNationalDefenceAct(Canada),oramemberofthenaval,land
orairforceofanymemberoftheBritishCommonwealthofNationsorany
allyofCanadawhileonactiveservicemay,regardlessofhisorherage,
makeagiftofpropertybywillinwriting,signedbythewillmakeratits
endorbysomeotherpersoninthepresenceofandbythedirectionof
thewillmaker.
(2)Ifthewillissignedbythewillmaker,thereisnoneedforawitness
tobepresenttowitnessortosignthewillasawitness.
(3)Ifthewillissignedbyanotherperson,thesignatureofthatother
personmustbewitnessedbythesignatureofatleastoneperson,who
mustsignthewillinthepresenceofthewillmakerandofthatother
person.
Clarificationofdoubtaboutsignatureplacement

39(1)Awillisconclusivelydeemedtobesignedatitsendifthewill
maker'ssignatureisplacedsothatitisapparentonthefaceofthewill
thatthewillmakerintendedtogiveeffecttothewill,includingin,butnot
limitedto,thefollowingcircumstances:
(a)thewillmaker'ssignatureisplaced
(i)atoraftertheendofthewill,or
(ii)following,underorbesidetheendofthewill
(b)thewillmaker'ssignaturedoesnotimmediatelyfollowthe
endofthewill
(c)ablankspaceintervenesbetweentheconcludingwordsof
thewillandthewillmaker'ssignature
(d)thewillmaker'ssignature
(i)isplacedamongthewordsofatestimoniumclause
orofanattestationclause,
(ii)followsorisafterorunderanattestationclause
eitherwithorwithoutablankspaceintervening,or
(iii)followsorisafter,underorbesidethenameofa
witnesswhosignedthewill
(e)thewillmaker'ssignatureisonasideorpageorother
portionofthewillonwhichnodisposingpartofthewillis
writtenabovethewillmaker'ssignature
(f)thereappearstobesufficientspacetocontainthewill
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maker'ssignatureonoratthebottomofthesideorpageor
otherportionofthesamepaperonwhichthewilliswritten
andprecedingthatonwhichthewillmaker'ssignature
appears.
(2)Awillmaker'ssignaturethatconformstothissectiondoesnotgive
effectto
(a)agiftordirectioninthewillthatfollowsthewillmaker's
signature,or
(b)agiftordirectioninsertedinthewillafterthewillmaker
signedthewill.
Witnessestowills

40(1)Signingwitnessestoawillmaker'ssignaturemustbe19yearsof
ageorolder.
(2)Apersonmaywitnessawilleventhoughheorshemayreceiveagift
underit,butthegiftmaybevoidundersection43[giftstowitnesses].
(3)Awillisnotinvalidonlybecauseawitnesswas,atthetimethewill
wassignedbythewillmaker,orafterwardsbecame,legallyincapableof
provingthewill,unlessthewitnesswasnot19yearsofageorolderat
thetimethewillwassignedbythewillmaker.

Division2LegalEffectofaWill
Propertythatcanbegiftedbywill

41(1)Apersonmay,bywill,makeagiftofpropertytowhichheorsheis
entitledatlaworinequityatthetimeofhisorherdeath,including
propertyacquiredbefore,onorafterthedatethewillismade.
(2)Unlessacontraryintentionappearsinawill,whenawillrefersto
property,thewill,withrespecttotheproperty,istobeinterpretedasifit
hadbeenmadeimmediatelybeforethedeathofthewillmaker.
(3)Agiftinawill
(a)takeseffectaccordingtoitsterms,and
(b)subjecttothetermsofthegift,givestotherecipientof
thegifteverylegalorequitableinterestinthepropertythat
thewillmakerhadthelegalcapacitytogive.
Meaningofparticularwordsinawill

42(1)Thissectionissubjecttoacontraryintentionappearinginawill.
(2)Agiftofpropertyinawilltopersonsdescribedas"heir"or"nextof
kin"ofthewillmakerorofanotherpersontakeseffectasifithadbeen
madetothepersonsamongwhomandinthesharesinwhichtheestate
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ofthewillmakerorotherpersonwouldhavebeendivisibleifthewill
makerorotherpersonhaddiedwithoutawill.
(3)Inagiftofpropertyinawill
(a)thewords
(i)"diewithoutissue",
(ii)"diewithoutleavingissue",or
(iii)"havenoissue",or
(b)otherwordsimportingeithernodescendantsorno
descendantsinaperson'slifetimeoratthetimeofthewill
maker'sdeathoracompleteabsenceofdescendants,
aredeemedtorefertonodescendantsornodescendantsinthelifetime
oratthetimeofdeathofthatpersonandnottoacompleteabsenceof
descendantsofthatperson.
(4)Agiftofpropertytoaclassofpersonsthat
(a)isdescribedasawillmaker's"issue"or"descendants"or
byasimilarword,and
(b)encompassesmorethanonegenerationofbeneficiaries,
mustbedistributedasifitwerepartofanintestateestatetobe
distributedtodescendants.
Giftstowitnesses

43(1)Unlessacourtotherwisedeclaresundersubsection(4),agiftina
willisvoidifitisto
(a)awitnesstothewillmaker'ssignatureortothespouseof
thatwitness,
(b)apersonsigningthewillbythewillmaker'sdirection,or
thespouseofthepersonsigning,or
(c)apersonclaimingunderaperson,otherthanthewill
maker,referredtoinparagraph(a)or(b).
(2)Forthepurposesofsubsection(1),therelevanttimefordetermining
whetheronepersonisthespouseofanotheristhetimewhenthewill
wasmade.
(3)Ifagiftisvoidundersubsection(1),theremainderofthewillisnot
affected.
(4)Onapplication,thecourtmaydeclarethatagifttoapersonreferred
toinsubsection(1)isnotvoidandistotakeeffect,ifthecourtis
satisfiedthatthewillmakerintendedtomakethegifttothepersoneven
thoughthepersonorhisorherspousewasawitnesstothewill.
(5)Extrinsicevidenceisadmissibleforthepurposesofestablishingthe
willmaker'sintentionundersubsection(4).
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Residueofestate

44Ifawilldoesnotgiveorotherwisedisposeofallofthewillmaker's
property,thepropertythatisnotthesubjectofagiftorotherwise
disposedofinthewill
(a)mustbedistributedtothepersonswhowouldbeentitledif
thatpropertywereanintestateestate,and
(b)ifthereisnopersonwhowouldbeentitledunder
paragraph(a),passestothegovernmentandissubjecttothe
EscheatAct.
Giftoflandcontemplatingdivision

45Ifagiftoflandinawillto2ormorebeneficiariescontemplatesa
physicaldivisionoftheparcelbysubdivisionorotherwise,thegifttakes
effectasagifttothebeneficiariesastenantsincommoninproportionto
theirinterests,unlessacontraryintentionappearsinthewill.
Whengiftscannottakeeffect

46(1)Ifagiftinawillcannottakeeffectforanyreason,includingbecause
abeneficiarydiesbeforethewillmaker,thepropertythatisthesubject
ofthegiftmust,subjecttoacontraryintentionappearinginthewill,be
distributedaccordingtothefollowingpriorities:
(a)tothealternativebeneficiaryofthegift,ifany,namedor
describedbythewillmaker,whetherthegiftfailsforareason
specificallycontemplatedbythewillmakerorforanyother
reason
(b)ifthebeneficiarywasthebrother,sisteroradescendantof
thewillmaker,totheirdescendants,determinedatthedateof
thewillmaker'sdeath,inaccordancewithsection42
(4)[meaningofparticularwordsinawill]
(c)tothesurvivingresiduarybeneficiaries,ifany,namedin
thewill,inproportiontotheirinterests.
(2)Ifagiftcannottakeeffectbecauseabeneficiarydiesbeforethewill
maker,subsection(1)applieswhetherthebeneficiary'sdeathoccurs
beforeorafterthewillismade.
Propertyencumberedbysecurityinterest

47(1)Inthissection,"purchasemoneysecurityinterest"meansa
securityinteresttakeninlandorintangiblepersonalpropertythat
(a)securescredit,includinginterestcharges,providedtothe
willmakertoacquire,improveorpreservethelandortangible
personalproperty,and
(b)isregisteredundertheLandTitleActorthePersonal
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PropertySecurityAct.
(2)Theinterestofabeneficiaryinagiftofpropertyencumberedbya
purchasemoneysecurityinterestis,asbetweenthedifferentpersons
claimingthroughthewillmaker,primarilyliabletopaythedebtsecured
bythepurchasemoneysecurityinteresttotheextentthatthedebtis
attributabletotheacquisition,improvementorpreservationofthe
property.
(3)Ifapurchasemoneysecurityinterestappliestomorethanonegiftof
propertyinawill,eachpropertyisliableforpaymentofthepurchase
moneysecurityinterestproportionally,totheextentthatthedebtis
attributabletotheacquisition,improvementorpreservationofeach
property.
(4)Subsections(2)and(3)aresubjecttoacontraryintentionappearing
inthewill,butacontraryintentionisnotsignifiedby
(a)ageneraldirectioninthewillforthepaymentofdebts,or
(b)achargeofdebtsonthewillmaker'sestate,
unlessthewillmakerfurthersignifiesthatintentionbywordsexpressly
orbynecessaryimplicationreferringtoallorsomepartofthedebt
securedbythepurchasemoneysecurityinterest.
(5)Nothinginthissectionaffectstherightofasecuredpartytoobtain
paymentorsatisfactioneitheroutofotherpropertyofthedeceased
personorotherwise.
Relieffromdispositionofproperty

48(1)Inthissection,"proceeds"meansthegrossproceedsatthetimeof
disposition,andincludes
(a)nonmonetaryconsideration,and
(b)inthecaseofagift,thefairmarketvalueofthegift.
(2)Ifpropertythatisthesubjectofagiftinawillisdisposedofbya
nominee,thebeneficiaryofthegiftisentitledtoreceivefromthewill
maker'sestateanamountequivalenttotheproceedsofthegiftasifthe
willhadcontainedaspecificgifttothebeneficiaryofthatamount.
(3)Subsection(2)doesnotapplyif
(a)thedispositionismadetocarryoutinstructionsgivenby
thewillmakeratatimewhenthewillmakerwaslegally
capableofgivinginstructions,or
(b)acontraryintentionappearsinthewill.
Willexercisingapowerofappointment

49AwillmadeinaccordancewiththisActis,astoform,avalidexecution
ofapowerofappointmentbywill,evenifithasbeenexpresslyrequired
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thatawillinexerciseofthepowerbemadeinsomeformotherthanthat
inwhichitismade.
Rulesifassetsarenotsufficient

50(1)Thissectionissubjecttoacontraryintentionappearinginawill.
(2)Ifawillmaker'sestateisnotsufficienttosatisfyalldebtsandgifts,
thedebtsandgiftsmustbesatisfiedorreducedinaccordancewiththis
section.
(3)Landchargedbythewillmakerwithpaymentofdebtsorpecuniary
gifts,orboth,isprimarilyliableforthedebtsandgifts,despiteafailure
ofthewillmakertoexpresslyexoneratethepersonalproperty.
(4)Landandpersonalpropertymustbereducedtogether.
(5)Subjecttosubsection(3),assetsarereducedinthefollowingorder:
(a)propertyspecificallychargedwithadebtorleftontrustto
payadebt
(b)propertydistributedasanintestateestateandresidue
(c)general,demonstrativeandpecuniarylegacies
(d)specificlegacies
(e)propertyoverwhichthewillmakerhadageneralpowerof
appointment.
Giftsofunownedproperty

51(1)Subjecttosubsection(2),
(a)agiftofpropertythatthewillmakerdoesnotownisvoid,
and
(b)therightsofabeneficiaryarenotaffectedbythe
purportedgiftbythewillmakerofpropertyownedbythe
beneficiary.
(2)Awillmakermaymakeagiftofpropertythatisconditionalonthe
dispositionbythebeneficiaryofpropertyownedbythebeneficiary.
Undueinfluence

52Inaproceeding,ifapersonclaimsthatawilloranyprovisionofit
resultedfromanotherperson
(a)beinginapositionwherethepotentialfordependenceor
dominationofthewillmakerwaspresent,and
(b)usingthatpositiontoundulyinfluencethewillmakerto
makethewillortheprovisionofitthatischallenged,
andestablishesthattheotherpersonwasinapositionwherethe
potentialfordependenceordominationofthewillmakerwaspresent,
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thepartyseekingtodefendthewillortheprovisionofitthatis
challengedortoupholdthegifthastheonusofestablishingthatthe
personinthepositionwherethepotentialfordependenceordomination
ofthewillmakerwaspresentdidnotexerciseundueinfluenceoverthe
willmakerwithrespecttothewillortheprovisionofitthatis
challenged.

Division3AbrogationofCommonLawRules
Commonlawpresumptionsabrogated

53(1)Thepresumptionoflawthatagiftbyawillmakermadeduringhis
orherlifetimetoachildofthewillmakerortoapersontowhomthe
willmakerstandsinplaceofaparentisanadvancementofaportion
thatisintendedtorevokeagiftinthewillmaker'swillinfavourofthe
childorpersonisabrogatedandthegiftinthewilltakeseffectaccording
toitsterms.
(2)Thepresumptionoflawthatalegacyisrevokedbyagiftinthesame
amountasthelegacymadebythewillmakerduringthewillmaker's
lifetimeisabrogatedandthelegacytakeseffectaccordingtoitsterms.
(3)Thepresumptionoflawthatadebtowedbyawillmakerissatisfied
byalegacytothecreditorequaltoorgreaterthanthedebtisabrogated
andthedebtcontinuestobeaclaimagainstthewillmaker'sestate.
(4)Thepresumptionoflawthatabindingpromisebyapersontomakea
gifttoadvanceachildinlifeissatisfiedtotheextentofthebenefit
promisedbyagiftintheperson'swilltothechildisabrogatedandthe
promiseremainsbindingonthepersonandtheperson'sestate.
(5)Theabrogationofapresumptionsetoutinanyofsubsections(1)to
(4)issubjecttoacontraryintentionappearinginthewillorotherwise
andextrinsicevidenceisadmissibletoprovethecontraryintention.

Division4Altering,RevokingandRevivingWills
Howtoalterwill

54(1)Tomakeavalidalterationtoawillthealterationmustbemadein
thesamewaythatavalidwillismadeundersection37[howtomakea
validwill].
(2)Subjecttosubsection(4),analterationtoawillisvalidifthe
signatureofthewillmakertothealteration,andthewitnessestothat
signatureofthewillmaker,aremade
(a)inthemarginorinsomeotherpartofthewilloppositeto
orneartothealteration,or
(b)attheendoforoppositetoamemorandumreferringtothe
alterationandwritteninsomepartofthewill.
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(3)Analterationtoawillthatisnotmadebythewillmakerin
accordancewiththissectionisineffective
(a)excepttoinvalidateawordorprovisionthatthealteration
makesillegible,unlessthecourtreinstatestheoriginalwordor
provisionundersection58(4)[courtordercuring
deficiencies],or
(b)unlessthecourtordersthealterationtobeeffectiveunder
section58.
(4)Analterationtoawillthatdoesnotcomplywithsubsection(2)is
validif
(a)thealteration
(i)doesnotsubstantivelyaltertheeffectofthewill,
and
(ii)isinrespectofform,styleornumberingorisa
typographicalerror,or
(b)thereisevidencetoestablishthatthealterationwasmade
beforethewillwasexecuted,ifthealterationsubstantively
alterstheeffectofthewill.
Howtorevokewill

55(1)Awillorpartofawillisrevokedonlyinoneormoreofthefollowing
circumstances:
(a)byanotherwillmadebythewillmakerinaccordancewith
thisAct
(b)byawrittendeclarationofthewillmakerthatrevokesall
orpartofawillmadeinaccordancewithsection37[howto
makeavalidwill]
(c)bythewillmaker,orapersoninthepresenceofthewill
makerandbythewillmaker'sdirection,burning,tearingor
destroyingallorpartofthewillinsomemannerwiththe
intentionofrevokingallorpartofit
(d)byanyotheractofthewillmaker,oranotherpersonin
thepresenceofthewillmakerandbythewillmaker's
direction,ifthecourtdeterminesundersection58that
(i)theconsequenceoftheactofthewillmakerorthe
otherpersonisapparentonthefaceofthewill,and
(ii)theactwasdonewiththeintentofthewillmaker
torevokethewillinwholeorinpart.
(2)Awillisnotrevokedinwholeorinpartbypresuminganintentionto
revokeitbecauseofachangeincircumstances.
Revocationofgifts
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56(1)Thissectionissubjecttoacontraryintentionappearinginawill.
(2)Ifawillmaker
(a)makesagifttoapersonwhowasorbecomesthespouse
ofthewillmaker,
(b)appointsasexecutorortrusteeapersonwhowasor
becomesthespouseofthewillmaker,or
(c)confersageneralorspecialpowerofappointmentona
personwhowasorbecomesthespouseofthewillmaker,
andafterthewillismadeandbeforethewillmaker'sdeaththewill
makerandhisorherspouseceasetobespousesundersection2
(2)[whenapersonisaspouseunderthisAct],thegift,appointmentor
powerofappointmentisrevokedandthegiftmustbedistributedasif
thespousehaddiedbeforethewillmaker.
(3)Despitesection2(2.1),theoperationofsubsection(2)ofthissection
isnotaffectedbyasubsequentreconciliationofthewillmakerandthe
spouse.
(4)Forthepurposesofsubsection(2),therelevanttimefordetermining
whetheraperson
(a)wasthespouseofawillmakerisatthetimethewillwas
made,or
(b)becamethespouseofthewillmakerisatanytimeafter
thewillwasmadeandbeforethespousesceasedtobe
spousesundersection2(2).
Revivalofwill

57(1)Awillorpartofawillthathasbeenrevokedisrevivedonlybyawill
thatshowsanintentiontogiveeffecttotherevokedwillorthepartthat
wasrevoked.
(2)Unlessacontraryintentionappearsinthewillthatrevivesawill
undersubsection(1),ifawillthathasbeenpartlyrevokedand
afterwardswhollyrevokedisrevived,therevivaldoesnotextendtothe
partthatwasrevokedbeforetherevocationofthewhole.
(3)Ifawillhasbeenrevivedbyacodicilorhas,byacodicil,beenre
signedinthepresenceof2witnesses,thewillisdeemedtohavebeen
madeatthetimeitwasrevivedorresigned.
(4)Awillorpartofawillthathasbeenrevokedmaynotberevived
except
(a)byanorderofthecourtundersection58ifthecourtis
satisfiedthatthewillmakerintendedtogiveeffecttothewill
orpartofthewillthatwasrevoked,or
(b)inaccordancewithanyotherprovisionofthisActthat
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recognizestherevivalofawill.

Division5CuringDeficienciesandRectificationofWills
Courtordercuringdeficiencies

58(1)Inthissection,"record"includesdatathat
(a)isrecordedorstoredelectronically,
(b)canbereadbyaperson,and
(c)iscapableofreproductioninavisibleform.
(2)Onapplication,thecourtmaymakeanorderundersubsection(3)if
thecourtdeterminesthatarecord,documentorwritingormarkingona
willordocumentrepresents
(a)thetestamentaryintentionsofadeceasedperson,
(b)theintentionofadeceasedpersontorevoke,alteror
reviveawillortestamentarydispositionofthedeceased
person,or
(c)theintentionofadeceasedpersontorevoke,alteror
reviveatestamentarydispositioncontainedinadocument
otherthanawill.
(3)Eventhoughthemaking,revocation,alterationorrevivalofawill
doesnotcomplywiththisAct,thecourtmay,asthecircumstances
require,orderthatarecordordocumentorwritingormarkingonawillor
documentbefullyeffectiveasthoughithadbeenmade
(a)asthewillorpartofthewillofthedeceasedperson,
(b)asarevocation,alterationorrevivalofawillofthe
deceasedperson,or
(c)asthetestamentaryintentionofthedeceasedperson.
(4)Ifanalterationtoawillmakesawordorprovisionillegibleandthe
courtissatisfiedthatthealterationwasnotmadeinaccordancewiththis
Act,thecourtmayreinstatetheoriginalwordorprovisionifthereis
evidencetoestablishwhattheoriginalwordorprovisionwas.
Rectificationofwill

59(1)Onapplicationforrectificationofawill,thecourt,sittingasacourt
ofconstructionorasacourtofprobate,mayorderthatthewillbe
rectifiedifthecourtdeterminesthatthewillfailstocarryoutthewill
maker'sintentionsbecauseof
(a)anerrorarisingfromanaccidentalsliporomission,
(b)amisunderstandingofthewillmaker'sinstructions,or
(c)afailuretocarryoutthewillmaker'sinstructions.
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(2)Extrinsicevidence,includingevidenceofthewillmaker'sintent,is
admissibletoprovetheexistenceofacircumstancedescribedin
subsection(1).
(3)Anapplicationforrectificationofawillmustbemadenolaterthan
180daysfromthedatetherepresentationgrantisissuedunlessthe
courtgrantsleavetomakeanapplicationafterthatdate.
(4)Ifthecourtgrantsleavetomakeanapplicationforrectificationofa
willafter180daysfromthedatetherepresentationgrantisissued,a
personalrepresentativewhodistributesanypartoftheestatetowhich
entitlementissubsequentlyaffectedbyrectificationisnotliableif,in
reasonablerelianceonthewill,thedistributionismade
(a)after180daysfromthedatetherepresentationgrantis
issued,and
(b)beforethenoticeoftheapplicationforrectificationis
deliveredtothepersonalrepresentative.
(5)Subsection(4)doesnotaffecttherightofanypersontorecoverfrom
abeneficiaryanypartoftheestatedistributedinthecircumstances
describedinthatsubsection.

Division6VariationofWills
Maintenancefromestate

60Despiteanylaworenactmenttothecontrary,ifawillmakerdies
leavingawillthatdoesnot,inthecourt'sopinion,makeadequate
provisionforthepropermaintenanceandsupportofthewillmaker's
spouseorchildren,thecourtmay,inaproceedingbyoronbehalfofthe
spouseorchildren,orderthattheprovisionthatitthinksadequate,just
andequitableinthecircumstancesbemadeoutofthewillmaker's
estateforthespouseorchildren.
Timelimitandservice

61(1)Aproceedingcommencedbyapersonclaimingthebenefitofthis
Divisionmustnotbeheardbythecourtunless
(a)theproceedingiscommencedwithin180daysfromthe
datetherepresentationgrantisissuedinBritishColumbia,
(b)acopyoftheinitiatingpleadingorpetitionhasbeenserved
ontheexecutorofthewillnolaterthan30daysafterthe
expiryofthe180dayperiodreferredtoinparagraph(a)
unlessthecourt,beforeoraftertheexpirationofthe30days,
extendsthetimeforservice,and
(c)ifthereareminorchildrenofthewillmaker,orifthe
spouseorachildofthewillmakerismentallyincapable,a
copyoftheinitiatingpleadingorpetitionhasbeenservedon
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thePublicGuardianandTrustee.
(2)AproceedinginrespectofthewillofaNisga'acitizenoratreatyfirst
nationmembermustnotbeheardbythecourtattheinstanceofaparty
claimingthebenefitofthisDivisionunlessacopyoftheinitiating
pleadingorpetitionhasbeenservedontheNisga'aLisimsGovernment
orthetreatyfirstnation,asapplicable.
(3)IfthePublicGuardianandTrusteeisservedwithacopyofthe
initiatingpleadingorpetitionundersubsection(1),thePublicGuardian
andTrusteeisentitledtoappear,tobeheardandtoanycoststhatthe
courtorders.
(4)Ifaproceedinghasbeencommencedonbehalfofapersonunderthis
Division,itmaybetreatedbythecourtas,andsofarasregardsthe
questionoflimitationisconclusivelydeemedtobe,aproceedingon
behalfofallpersonswhomightapply.
(5)Within10daysfromthedateoftheissueoftheinitiatingpleadingor
petition,aplaintiffinaproceedingunderthisDivisionmayregister,inthe
landtitleofficeinwhichthetitletolandsoughttobeaffectedis
registered,acertificateofpendinglitigationagainstthelandinaform
approvedundertheLandTitleAct.
Evidence

62(1)Inaproceedingundersection60,thecourtmayaccepttheevidence
itconsidersproperrespectingthewillmaker'sreasons,sofarasmaybe
determined,
(a)formakingthegiftsmadeinthewill,or
(b)fornotmakingadequateprovisionforthewillmaker's
spouseorchildren,
includinganywrittenstatementsignedbythewillmaker.
(2)Inestimatingtheweighttobegiventoastatementreferredtoin
subsection(1),thecourtmusthaveregardtoallthecircumstancesfrom
whichaninferencemayreasonablybedrawnabouttheaccuracyor
otherwiseofthestatement.
Courtmaymakeordersubjecttoconditions

63Thecourtmay
(a)attachtoanorderunderthisDivisionanyconditionsthatit
thinksappropriate,or
(b)refusetomakeanorderinfavourofapersonwhose
characterorconduct,inthecourt'sopinion,disentitlesthe
persontothebenefitofanorderunderthisDivision.
Lumpsumorperiodicpayments,transferofpropertyortrust
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64InmakinganorderunderthisDivisionthecourtmay,ifitthinksitis
appropriate,orderthat
(a)theprovisionforthewillmaker'sspouseorchildrenisto
consistofalumpsum,aperiodicorotherpaymentora
transferofproperty,or
(b)atrustbecreatedinfavourofthewillmaker'sspouseor
children.
Paymentsfallrateablyonestate

65(1)Unlessthecourtotherwisedetermines,theincidenceofthe
paymentsorderedbythecourtunderthisDivisionfallsrateablyonthe
willmaker'sestate.
(2)Iftheauthorityofthecourtdoesnotextendorcannot,directlyor
indirectly,bemadetoextendtothewholeestate,subsection(1)applies
toasmuchoftheestateasislocatedinBritishColumbia.
Powertosuspendadministrationandexemptfromorder

66Thecourtmay,subjecttoanytermsorconditionsthecourtconsiders
appropriate,makeoneorbothofthefollowingorders:
(a)suspending,inwholeorinpart,theadministrationofthe
willmaker'sestate
(b)exemptinganypartofthewillmaker'sestatefromthe
effectofanorderundersection60[maintenancefromestate].
Powerofcourttoallowcommutation

67(1)Thecourtmaymakeanorderthataperiodicpaymentorlumpsum
istobepaidbyabeneficiarytorepresent,orincommutationof,the
proportionofthesumorderedtobepaidthatfallsonthepartofthe
estateinwhichthebeneficiaryisinterested,andthatthepartisreleased
fromfurtherliability.
(2)Inmakinganorderundersubsection(1),thecourtmaygive
directionsconcerningthesecurityanddispositionoftheperiodicpayment
orlumpsumundersubsection(1).
Effectoforder

68OnanorderbeingmadeunderthisDivision,thepartoftheestate
comprisedinitoraffectedbyitmustbeheldsubjecttotheprovisionsof
theorder,buttheorderdoesnotbindlandunlesstheorderisregistered,
inthelandtitleofficeinwhichthetitletothelandisregistered,asa
chargeagainstthelandaffected.
Registrationoftitle
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69(1)Titletopropertydistributedbygiftinawilltoabeneficiarymustnot
beregisteredinalandtitleofficeexceptafterthetimesetoutinsection
155[distributionofestate]unless
(a)thebeneficiariesentitledunderthewillconsenttothe
registration,or
(b)acourtapprovestheregistration.
(2)Aregistrationundersubsection(1)issubjecttotheliabilityofbeing
subjecttoanorderunderthisDivision.
Mortgageinanticipationoforderinvalid

70(1)ApersonforwhomprovisionismadeunderthisDivisionmustnot
anticipatethatprovision.
(2)Amortgage,chargeorassignmentofanykindoforoveraprovision
referredtoinsubsection(1)isofnoeffectifitismadebeforetheorder
ofthecourtismade.
(3)Amortgage,chargeorassignmentmadeafteranorderofthecourt
referredtoinsubsection(2)ismadeisofnoeffectunlessitismadewith
thecourt'spermission.
Courtmaycancelorvaryorder

71Ifthecourthasorderedperiodicpayments,orthatalumpsumbe
investedforthebenefitofaperson,thecourtmay
(a)inquirewhether,atanysubsequentdate,changesinthe
circumstancesofthepersoninwhosefavourtheorderwas
madehaveresulted,inwholeorinpart,intheperson's
entitlementtoadequateprovisionseparatefromtheorder,
and
(b)cancel,varyorsuspenditsorder,ormakeanotherorder.
AppealtoCourtofAppeal

72Apersonwhoconsidershimselforherselfprejudiciallyaffectedbyan
orderunderthisDivisionmayappealtotheCourtofAppeal.

Division7RegistrationofNoticeofWill
Filingofnoticeofwill

73Ifapersonmakesawill,anoticeofwillmaybefiledwiththeregistrar
generalinaformsatisfactorytotheregistrargeneral.
Filingofnoticeofrevocation

74Ifawillisrevoked,whetherornotanoticewasfiledundersection73,a
noticeofrevocationinaformsatisfactorytotheregistrargeneralmaybe
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filedwiththeregistrargeneral.
Filingnoticeofchangeofplaceofwill

75Ifanoticehasbeenfiledundersection73andthewillisnolonger
locatedattheplacementionedinthenotice,noticeofthechangeina
formsatisfactorytotheregistrargeneralmaybefiledwiththeregistrar
general.
Registrargeneral'srecords

76Theregistrargeneralmustmaintain,inasystemthattheregistrar
generalbelievesfacilitatesaccesstoinformationbythosewhorequireit,
arecordofeverynoticefiledunderthisDivision.
Searchofrecords

77(1)AlawyeroramemberoftheSocietyofNotariesPublicofBritish
Columbiamay,onapplicationinaformsatisfactorytotheregistrar
general,ascertainfromtheregistrargeneralwhetherornotanoticehas
beenfiledunderthisDivision.
(2)ApersonotherthanalawyeroramemberoftheSocietyofNotaries
PublicofBritishColumbiamay,onwrittenapplicationaccompaniedeither
byacertificateofthedeathofthepersonnamedintheapplicationorby
astatutorydeclarationprovingtothesatisfactionoftheregistrargeneral
thatthepersonnamedintheapplicationhasdied,ascertainfromthe
registrargeneralifthepersonnamedintheapplicationhasfiledanotice
underthisDivision.
(3)Theregistrargeneralmust
(a)issuetoanapplicantundersubsection(1)or(2)
(i)thesearchresultsforthepersonnamedinthe
application,and
(ii)acertificateshowingthecontentsofthelastnotice
thatisrelevanttotheapplication,and
(b)permittheapplicant,ortheagentoftheapplicant,to
inspectthenotices.
(4)TheregistrargeneralmayprovidealawyerormemberoftheSociety
ofNotariesPublicofBritishColumbiawhoisanapplicantunder
subsection(1)with
(a)acopyofanoticefiledunderthisDivision,or
(b)accessbycomputerorotherwisetoinformationcontained
inanoticefiledunderthisDivision.
(5)Exceptasprovidedinthissection,theregistrargeneralmustnot
providetoanypersoninformationregardingnoticesfiledunderthis
Divisionorinformationaboutwhetherornotanoticehasbeenfiled.
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Validityofwillorrevocationnotaffected

78Thevalidityofawillandthevalidityofarevocationofawillarenot
affectedbyfilingornotfilinganoticeunderthisDivision.

Division8ConflictofLaws
Interpretation

79(1)InthisDivision,areferencetothelawofaplaceotherthanBritish
Columbiaisareferencetotheinternallawonlyofthatplaceanddoesnot
includeitsconflictoflawsrules.
(2)ArequirementofthelawofaplaceotherthanBritishColumbiathat
(a)certainformalitiesmustbeobservedbywillmakersofa
particulardescriptionwhenmakingawill,or
(b)witnessestowillsmusthavecertainqualifications
isaformalrequirementonlythatdoesnotaffecttheessentialvalidityof
thewill.
Validityofwillsmadeinaccordancewithotherlaws

80(1)Awillisvalidastotheformalrequirementsformakingthewillandis
admissibletoprobateifitismadeinaccordance
(a)withthelawoftheplacewherethewillismade,
(b)withthelawofthewillmaker'sdomicile,eitheratthedate
thewillismadeoratthedateofthewillmaker'sdeath,
(c)withthelawofthewillmaker'sordinaryresidence,either
atthedatethewillismadeoratthedateofthewillmaker's
death,
(d)withthelawofacountryofwhichthewillmakerwasa
citizen,eitheratthedatethewillismadeoratthedateofthe
willmaker'sdeath,
(e)withthelawofBritishColumbia,butthewillismade
outsideBritishColumbia,
(f)withthelawoftheplacewherethewillmaker'spropertyis
situatedatthedatethewillismadeoratthedateofthewill
maker'sdeath,
(g)inthecaseofawillmadeonboardavesseloraircraftof
anydescription,withthelawoftheplacewithwhich,having
regardtotheregistration,ifany,ofavesseloraircraft,the
vesseloraircraftismostcloselyconnected,or
(h)totheextentthatthewillexercisesapowerof
appointment,withthelawgoverningtheessentialvalidityof
thatpower.
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(2)Ifawillisnotvalidundersubsection(1),itisdeemedtobevalidifa
subsequentamendmenttothelawoftherelevantjurisdictionbeforethe
deceasedperson'sdeathwouldhavevalidatedthewill.
(3)Theformalvalidityofawillthatrevokes
(a)awillthatwouldbetreatedasformallyvalidunderthis
Division,or
(b)aprovisionofawillthatwouldbetreatedunderthis
Divisionasaformallyvalidprovision,
maybedeterminedbyreferencetoanylawunderwhichtherevokedwill
orprovisionofthewillwouldbetreatedasformallyvalidandthatis
relevantforthatpurposeunderthisDivision.
Resorttootheraidstoconstruction

81IntheconstructionofawilltowhichthisDivisionapplies,thecourtmay
resorttothelawoftheplacewherethewillmakerwasdomiciledorwas
ordinarilyresidentatthetimethewillwasmade.
Interestinanimmovable

82(1)Ifthevalueofpersonalpropertyconsistsmainlyorwhollyinitsuse
inconnectionwithaninterestinanimmovablebytheowneroroccupier
ofthepersonalproperty,therighttoaninterestinthepersonalproperty
underawillisgovernedbythelawoftheplacewheretheimmovableis
located.
(2)Insubsection(1),"interestinanimmovable"includesanyestate
orinterestinlandwhethertheestateorinterestisrealpropertyor
personalproperty,andincludesaleaseholdestate.

Division9AdoptionofConventionProvidingaUniformLawonthe
FormofanInternationalWill
Conventionadopted

83(1)Inthissection,"convention"meanstheConventionProvidinga
UniformLawontheFormofanInternationalWillsetoutinSchedule2to
thisAct.
(2)Theconvention
(a)isinforceinBritishColumbia,and
(b)appliestowillsaslawofBritishColumbia,andtherules
regardinganinternationalwill,setoutintheAnnextothe
convention,arelawinBritishColumbia6monthsafterthedate
onwhichthegovernmentofCanadasubmitstothe
governmentoftheUnitedStatesofAmericaadeclarationthat
theconventionextendstoBritishColumbia.
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(3)Thefollowingarepersonsauthorizedtoactinconnectionwithan
internationalwill:
(a)lawyers
(b)membersoftheSocietyofNotariesPublicofBritish
Columbia.
(4)Nothinginthissectiondetractsfromoraffectsthevalidityofawill
thatisvalidunderthelawsinforceinBritishColumbiaotherthanthis
section.
(5)Section58[courtordercuringdeficiencies]appliestoawill
purportingtobesignedorwitnessed,orboth,inaccordancewiththe
convention.
(6)Thissectionappliestowillsmadebefore,onorafterthedatethis
sectioncomesintoforceifthewillmakerhasnotdiedbeforethatdate.
(7)TheministermustpublishintheGazetteanoticesettingoutthedate
thatistheeffectivedateforthissectionassoonasthedatethatis6
monthsafterthedateonwhichthegovernmentofCanadasubmitsthe
declarationundersubsection(1)isdetermined.

Part5BenefitPlans
ApplicationofPart

84(1)ThisPartapplieswhetherornotabenefitplangivesaperson
entitledtoabenefitundertheplantherighttomakeadesignation.
(2)IfabenefitplanprovisionisinconsistentwiththisPart,thisPart
prevailsunlessthebenefitplanprovisionthatisinconsistentis
authorizedunderanotherenactmentofBritishColumbiaorCanada.
(3)ThisPartdoesnotapplytoacontractofinsuranceortoadeclaration
towhichPart3[LifeInsurance]orPart4[AccidentandSickness
Insurance]oftheInsuranceActapplies.
(4)IfthisPartconflictsorisinconsistentwithanotherenactmentof
BritishColumbiaorCanada,theotherenactmentprevails.

Division1DesignationRequirements
Designatedbeneficiaries

85(1)Aparticipantmay
(a)designateanotherpersonorpersonstowhomorforwhose
advantagethebenefitispayableasadesignatedbeneficiary,
and
(b)unlessthedesignationisirrevocableundersection87,
alterorrevokethedesignation.
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(2)Adesignation,alterationorrevocationunderthissection
(a)isonlyeffectiveifthedesignation,alterationorrevocation
(i)isinwriting,
(ii)isnotalteringorrevokingapreviousdesignation
thatisirrevocableundersection87,and
(iii)issignedbythepersonmakingit,orbyanother
personinthepresenceofthepersonmakingitandby
hisorherdirection,
andthesignaturemaybeinthenameofthepersonmakingit
orthepersonsigningbyhisorherdirection,
(b)maybemadeinawill,butifitis,
(i)thedesignationisonlyeffectiveifitrelates
expresslytoabenefitplan,eithergenerallyor
specifically,and
(ii)Division3[DesignatedBeneficiariesinaWill]ofthis
Partappliestothedesignation,and
(c)issubjecttosection89[whendesignationsmaynotbe
changed].
(3)Apersongrantedpoweroveranadult'sfinancialaffairsunder
(a)Part2ofthePowerofAttorneyAct,or
(b)thePatientsPropertyAct
maymake,alterorrevokeadesignationunderthissectiononlyif
expresslyauthorizedtodosobythecourtandthedesignationisnot
madeinawill.
Severaldesignatedbeneficiaries

86If2ormoredesignatedbeneficiariesaredesignatedotherthan
alternatively,butnodivisionismadeofthebenefitpayableunderthe
benefitplanontheparticipant'sdeath,thebenefitispayabletothe
designatedbeneficiariesinequalshares.
Irrevocabledesignations

87(1)Aparticipantmaymakeanirrevocabledesignation.
(2)Anirrevocabledesignationhaseffectasanirrevocabledesignation
onlyif,duringthelifetimeoftheparticipant,itisfiledwithanofficein
Canadaspecifiedforthatpurposebythebenefitplanadministrator.
(3)Ifaperson
(a)makesanirrevocabledesignationbywill,or
(b)makesanirrevocabledesignationthatisnotfiledin
accordancewithsubsection(2),
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thedesignationtakeseffectasarevocabledesignation.
Effectofirrevocabledesignation

88(1)Whileadesignatedbeneficiaryofanirrevocabledesignationisliving,
theparticipantmaynotalterorrevokethedesignationwithoutthe
consentofthedesignatedbeneficiary.
(2)Abenefitthatisthesubjectofanirrevocabledesignation
(a)isnotsubjecttothecontroloftheparticipantorthe
participant'screditors,and
(b)doesnotformpartoftheparticipant'sestate.

Division2OtherBenefitPlanProvisions
Whendesignationsmaynotbechanged

89Iftheamountordurationofapaymentunderabenefitplanis
determinedhavingregardtothepersonentitledtoabenefitundera
benefitplan,unlessotherwisepermittedunderthetermsoftheplan,the
personorpersonsnamedasdesignatedbeneficiaryordesignated
beneficiariesmaynotbechangedafterthepaymentsstart.
Maintainingpreviousdesignations

90(1)Subjecttosubsection(2),anewdesignationofthesamedesignated
beneficiarymaybemade,otherthanbywill,byarepresentativeofthe
participant,includingbyoneofthefollowing:
(a)apersongrantedpoweroverfinancialaffairsunderthe
PatientsPropertyAct
(b)anattorneyactingunderanenduringpowerofattorneyas
describedinPart2[EnduringPowersofAttorney]ofthePower
ofAttorneyAct
(c)arepresentativeactingunderarepresentationagreement
madeundersection7(1)(b)[standardprovisions]ofthe
RepresentationAgreementAct
(d)apersonappointedundersection51(2)[mentally
incompetentIndians]oftheIndianAct(Canada)orthe
MinisterofAboriginalAffairsandNorthernDevelopment.
(2)Subsection(1)operatesonlyifthedesignationrenews,replacesor
convertsasimilarinstrumentmadebytheparticipantwhilecapable.
(3)Ifabenefitplanadministratoractsinaccordancewithanew
designationdescribedinsubsection(1),thebenefitplanadministratoris
entitledtorelyonthatdesignationandisdischargedinrespectofthat
benefit.

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Designatedbeneficiarydyingbeforeparticipant

91Ifadesignatedbeneficiarydiesbeforetheparticipant,andnodisposition
oftheshareofthedeceaseddesignatedbeneficiaryisprovidedforinthe
designation,theshareispayable
(a)tothesurvivingdesignatedbeneficiary,
(b)ifthereismorethanonesurvivingdesignatedbeneficiary,
tothesurvivingdesignatedbeneficiariesinequalshares,or
(c)ifthereisnosurvivingdesignatedbeneficiary,tothe
participant'spersonalrepresentative.
Trusteefordesignatedbeneficiary

92(1)Aparticipantmay,inthesamemannerasadesignation,appointor
alterorrevoketheappointmentofatrusteeforadesignatedbeneficiary.
(2)Apaymentmadebyabenefitplantothetrusteeforadesignated
beneficiarydischargesthebenefitplanadministratortotheextentofthe
payment.
Enforcingpaymentofbenefit

93(1)Ifadesignationisineffectwhenaparticipantdies,adesignated
beneficiaryortrusteeentitledtoabenefitunderthedesignationmay
enforcepaymentofthebenefit.
(2)Abenefitplanadministratormaysetupanydefencethatwouldhave
beenavailablehadtheclaimtoenforcepaymentbeenbroughtbythe
participantortheparticipant'spersonalrepresentative.
Benefitplanadministratordischargedofliability

94Ifabenefitplanadministratortransfersabenefitinaccordancewiththe
benefitplantoadesignatedbeneficiaryortothetrusteeappointedunder
section92,thebenefitplanadministratorisdischargedinrespectofthat
benefitevenifthebenefitplanadministratorlaterreceivesanoticeof
changeofdesignatedbeneficiary.
Benefitnotpartofestate

95Abenefitpayabletoadesignatedbeneficiaryortoatrusteeappointed
undersection92underabenefitplanonthedeathofaparticipantdoes
notformpartoftheparticipant'sestateandisnotsubjecttotheclaims
oftheparticipant'screditors.

Division3DesignatedBeneficiariesinaWill
Alterationorrevocationofdesignationinwill

96Adesignationinawillmaybealteredorrevokedbyalaterdesignation
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thatisnotinawill.
Designationinwill

97(1)Arevocationinawillofadesignationrevokesadesignationthatis
notinawillonlyiftherevocationinthewillrelatestothedesignation,
eithergenerallyorspecifically,andthedesignationisnotirrevocable.
(2)Therevocationofawillrevokesadesignationinthewill.
(3)Revocationofadesignationdoesnotreviveanearlierdesignation.
Effectofdesignationinpurportedwills

98(1)Adesignationorrevocationofadesignationcontainedinapurported
willisnotinvalidmerelybecausetheinstrumentisinvalidasawill.
(2)Adesignationinapurportedwillisrevokedbyaneventthatwould
havetheeffectofrevokingtheinstrumentifithadbeenavalidwill.
Effectofrevivalofwillondesignation

99Revivalofawillbycodicildoesnotrevivearevokeddesignationinawill
unlessthecodicilexpresslyprovidesforrevival.
Effectivedateofdesignationandrevocation

100Unlessadesignationisirrevocable,adesignationorrevocationofa
designationinawilliseffectivefromthetimethewillismade.

Part6AdministrationofEstates
Division1ApplicationofthisPartandVestingofProperty
Application

101ThisPartappliestothefollowing:
(a)apersonalrepresentativeorotherpersonactingor
intendingtoactinBritishColumbiaunderawillora
representationgrant,whereverthewillismadeorthe
representationgrantisissued
(b)theadministrationoftheestateofadeceasedpersonwho
wasordinarilyresidentordomiciledinBritishColumbiaatthe
dateoftheperson'sdeath
(c)theestatesituatedinBritishColumbiaofadeceased
personwhowasnotordinarilyresidentordomiciledinBritish
Columbiaatthedateoftheperson'sdeath.
Vestingofpropertyondeath
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102(1)Onthedeathofaperson,thedeceasedperson'sestatevestsinthe
courtif
(a)theestateisanintestateestate,or
(b)anexecutorisnotnamedinthedeceasedperson'swill.
(2)Theestateofadeceasedpersonvestsintheperson'spersonal
representativewhenthepersonalrepresentativeassumesorisappointed
tothatoffice.
Administrationpendinglegalproceedings

103(1)Thecourtmayappointapersonastheadministratoroftheestateof
adeceasedpersonpendingaproceeding
(a)inwhichthevalidityofthewillofthedeceasedpersonisin
issue,or
(b)toobtainorrevokearepresentationgrant.
(2)Theadministratorofanestate
(a)hasalltherights,powersanddutiesofapersonal
representative,otherthantherighttodistributetheestate,
(b)issubjecttothecontrolofthecourtandmustactunderits
direction,and
(c)isentitledtoreasonablecompensationundertheTrustee
Actorasotherwisedeterminedbythecourt.
Renunciationofexecutorship

104(1)Apersonnamedasexecutorinawillmayrenouncehisorher
appointmentasexecutor.
(2)Therenunciationofexecutorship,unlessacourtotherwiseorders,
terminatestheexecutorshipofthepersonrenouncingit,andthe
administrationoftheestatepassesasifthepersonhadneverbeen
appointedexecutor.
Forfeitureofexecutorship

105Ifanexecutor
(a)survivesthewillmakeranddieswithoutbeinggranted
probate,or
(b)isrequiredtotakeprobateanddoesnotappear,
theappointmentoftheexecutorterminatesandtheadministrationofthe
estatepassesasifthepersonhadnotbeenappointedasexecutor.
Oppositiontoissueofrepresentationgrant

106Apersonmay,inaccordancewiththeSupremeCourtCivilRules,oppose
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theissueofarepresentationgrant.
Executornotjoininganapplication

107Ifanexecutordoesnotjoinanapplicationforagrantofprobateor
administrationwithwillannexed,theexecutorisnotliableinrespectof
assetsoftheestatecomingintothehandsofacoexecutor,an
alternativeexecutororanadministratorwithwillannexed,whetheror
notpowerisreservedtotheexecutortoapplyforasubsequent
representationgrant.
Requirementtoacceptexecutorshiportoexplain

108Ifanexecutornamedinawilldoesnotapplyforagrantofprobateofa
will,anypersoninterestedintheestatemay,inaccordancewiththe
SupremeCourtCivilRules,requiretheexecutorto
(a)acceptorrenounceprobateofthewill,or
(b)explainwhyadministrationofthedeceasedperson'sestate
shouldnotbegrantedtotheexecutorortoanotherperson
whoiswillingtoactaspersonalrepresentative.

Division2
Notinforce

109120[Notinforce.]
Division3ApplicationforGrantofProbateorAdministration
Noticeofproposedapplicationforgrantofprobateoradministration

121(1)Anapplicantforagrantofprobateoradministrationmustgive
noticeoftheproposedapplicationtothepersonsreferredtointhe
SupremeCourtCivilRules.
(2)Anapplicantorpersonalrepresentativewho,inaccordancewiththe
SupremeCourtCivilRules,makesreasonableeffortstodiscoverthe
existence,identityorwhereaboutsofpersonstowhomthenoticeunder
subsection(1)isrequiredtobegiven,butisunsuccessful,isnotliable
foranylossordamagearisingfromnotgivingtherequirednoticeexcept
forclaimstorecoverpropertyorenforceanorderunderDivision
6[VariationofWills]ofPart4[Wills].
(a)and(b)[Repealed2011634.]
Applicationforgrantofprobateoradministrationdisclosure

122(1)Anapplicantforagrantofprobateoradministrationmust
(a)makeadiligentsearchandinquirytofindthepropertyand
liabilitiesofthedeceasedperson,and
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(b)discloseinformationasrequiredundertheSupremeCourt
CivilRulesconcerningthepropertyofthedeceasedperson,
irrespectiveofitsnature,locationorvalue,thatpassestothe
applicantinhisorhercapacityasthedeceasedperson's
personalrepresentative,unless
(i)thedeceasedpersonwasnotdomiciledorordinarily
residentinBritishColumbiaatthetimeofdeath,
(ii)thepropertyissituatedoutsideBritishColumbia,
and
(iii)thepropertyhasbeen,isbeing,orwillbe
administeredbyaforeignpersonalrepresentativeor
otherwiseunderthelawofaforeignjurisdiction.
(2)Forthepurposesofsubsection(1),"foreignpersonal
representative"mayincludetheapplicant.
(3)Theapplicantforagrantofprobateoradministrationmustfilewitha
registrarofthecourtaformassetoutintheSupremeCourtCivilRules
withrespecttocomplyingwiththerequirementsofthissection.
Productionofdocumentsandproperty

123(1)Thecourtmayorderapersonhavingcontrolorpossessionofthe
followingtoproduceandbringalloranyofthemtothecourtorplace
directedbythecourt:
(a)atestamentaryinstrumentorpurportedtestamentary
instrument,includingarecordasdefinedinsection58
(1)[courtordercuringdeficiencies]
(b)adocumentrelatingtoanestate
(c)propertybelongingtoanestate
(d)arepresentationgrant.
(2)Iftherearereasonablegroundstobelievethatapersonhas
knowledgeofanythingreferredtoinparagraphs(a)to(d)ofsubsection
(1),thecourtmayorderthepersontoattendforexamination.
OpportunityforPublicGuardianandTrusteetocomment

124(1)IfthePublicGuardianandTrusteehas,inaccordancewiththe
SupremeCourtCivilRules,beengivennoticeofanapplicationfora
representationgrant,thecourtmustnotissuetherepresentationgrant
unless
(a)theapplicantprovidestothecourtthewrittencomments
ofthePublicGuardianandTrustee,or
(b)thecourtissatisfied,inanadditionalapplicationmadewith
reasonablenoticetothePublicGuardianandTrustee,thatitis
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necessaryorappropriatetoissuetherepresentationgrant
beforethePublicGuardianandTrusteegiveswritten
comments.
(2)Theapplicantmust,withrespecttoanapplicationfora
representationgrantundersubsection(1),provideacopyofthe
representationgranttothePublicGuardianandTrusteewithin45days
afteritisissued.
DirectionbyPublicGuardianandTrusteesealedapplications

125(1)ThePublicGuardianandTrusteemay,wheneverthePublicGuardian
andTrusteeconsidersitappropriatetodoso,directthatanapplication
bythePublicGuardianandTrusteeforgrantofprobateoradministration
besealedbyaregistrarofthecourt.
(2)Onreceiptofadirectionundersubsection(1),theregistrarofthe
courtmust
(a)sealthecourtfilerespectingtheapplicationandrelated
materialspecifiedbythePublicGuardianandTrustee,and
(b)prohibitaccesstothefileexceptaspermitted
(i)bythePublicGuardianandTrustee,or
(ii)bythecourt.
(3)Thesealingofacourtfileundersubsection(2)doesnotprohibitthe
disclosurethatthereisanapplicationforgrantofprobateor
administrationorthedateofdeathofthedeceasedperson.
(4)Anapplicationandfiletowhichthissectionrelatesmustbesealed
andremainconfidentialfor180daysfromthedatetheapplicationwas
filedwiththeregistrarofthecourt,unlessthePublicGuardianand
Trusteeorthecourtauthorizesallorpartofthecourtfiletobedisclosed.
(5)Apersonmayapplytounsealafilethathasbeensealedunder
subsection(2)andmustgivenoticeoftheapplicationtothePublic
GuardianandTrusteeinordertoprovidethePublicGuardianandTrustee
withtheopportunitytomakesubmissionsontheapplication.
(6)Thecourtmay,onapplicationbythePublicGuardianandTrustee,
directthatafiletowhichthissectionappliesremainsealedforoneor
moreadditionalperiodsnotexceedingintotal18months.
(7)Apersonwho,withouttheconsentofthePublicGuardianandTrustee
orthecourt,knowinglydisclosesanyinformationthatthepersonknows
orreasonablyoughttoknowisinformationinasealedfile,commitsan
offenceandisliabletoafineofnotmorethan$10000orto
imprisonmentfornotmorethan12months,ortoboth.
(8)Thissectionappliesdespiteanyenactmenttothecontrary.
PublicGuardianandTrusteetopaybeneficiariesandintestatesuccessors
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directly

126(1)ThePublicGuardianandTrusteemustdistributeanestatedirectlyto
anybeneficiaryorintestatesuccessortowhomallorpartoftheestate
istobedistributed,asthecasemaybe,unlessthePublicGuardianand
Trusteeotherwisedecides.
(2)Subsection(1)doesnotapplytoadistributionofanestatetoa
guardianofaminor,orguardianorcommitteeofapersonincapableof
managingtheiraffairs.
(3)Subsection(1)appliesdespiteanydirection,authorization,powerof
attorney,agreement,assignmentofrightsorotherwisetothecontrary.
ImmunityforPublicGuardianandTrustee

127(1)Subjecttosubsection(2),nolegalproceedingfordamagesliesor
maybecommencedormaintainedagainstthePublicGuardianand
TrusteeoranofficeroremployeeofthePublicGuardianandTrustee
becauseofanythingdoneoromitted
(a)intheperformanceorintendedperformanceofanyduty
undersection125or126,or
(b)intheexerciseorintendedexerciseofanypowerunder
section125or126.
(2)Subsection(1)doesnotapplytoapersonreferredtointhat
subsectioninrelationtoanythingdoneoromittedbythatpersoninbad
faith.
Securityforadministrationofestates

128(1)Nosecurityfortheadministrationofanestateisrequiredtobe
providedbyanapplicantforagrantofadministrationunless
(a)aminororamentallyincapablepersonwithoutanominee
whohasauthoritytorepresentthementallyincapableperson
inestatemattersisinterestedintheestate,or
(b)thecourt,onapplicationbyapersoninterestedinthe
estate,requiressecurity.
(1.1)Ifsecurityisrequiredundersubsection(1),theapplicantfora
grantofadministrationmustapplytothecourttodeterminethesecurity
requiredandthecourtmay,onthatapplication,dooneorbothofthe
following:
(a)acceptanyformoramountofsecurity
(b)imposearestrictiononthepowersoftheproposed
administratorthatmaybeexercisedwithoutpriorapprovalof
thecourtorthePublicGuardianandTrustee.
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assignablenatureprovidedundersubsection(1)hasbeenbreached,the
courtmayorderthattheregistrarofthecourtorthepersontowhomthe
securityhasbeengivenassignthesecuritytoapersonnamedinthe
order.
(3)Apersontowhomsecurityisassignedundersubsection(2)orthe
personalrepresentativeofthatperson
(a)maysueinthatperson'sownnameorasthepersonal
representative,asthecasemaybe,and
(b)isentitledtotheamountrecoverableforabreachofa
conditionofthesecurityastrusteeforallpersonsinterested.

Division4GrantofProbateorAdministration
Grantofprobateoradministration

129(1)Thecourtmaygrantprobateofawilloradministrationofanestate
forgeneral,specialorlimitedpurposesonproof
(a)ofthevalidityofthedeceasedperson'swillorthatthe
deceasedpersondiedwithoutawill,and
(b)thatthedeceasedpersonwasordinarilyresidentor
domiciled
(i)inBritishColumbiaatthetimeofhisorherdeath,
(ii)outsideBritishColumbiaatthetimeofhisorher
deathandleftpropertyinBritishColumbia,or
(iii)outsideBritishColumbiaatthetimeofhisorher
deathandthepersonalrepresentativewillbeapartyto
aproceedingcommencedinBritishColumbia.
(2)Thecourtmaygrantprobateofawilloradministrationofanestate
eventhoughthedeceasedpersonwasnotordinarilyresidentor
domiciledinBritishColumbiaathisorherdeathandleftnopropertyin
BritishColumbia.
(3)Theregistrarofthecourtmaygrantprobateofawillor
administrationofanestateforgeneral,specialorlimitedpurposesinthe
circumstancesdescribedinsubsections(1)and(2)iftheapplicationfor
thegrantofprobateoradministrationis
(a)unopposed,and
(b)madeinaccordancewiththeapplicableSupremeCourt
CivilRules.
Priorityamongapplicantsintestateestate

130Ifapersondieswithoutawill,thecourtmaygrantadministrationofthe
deceasedperson'sestatetooneormoreofthefollowingpersonsinthe
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(a)thespouseofthedeceasedpersonorapersonnominated
bythespouse
(b)achildofthedeceasedpersonhavingtheconsentofa
majorityofthechildrenofthedeceasedperson
(c)apersonnominatedbyachildofthedeceasedpersonif
thatpersonhastheconsentofamajorityofthedeceased
person'schildren
(d)achildofthedeceasedpersonnothavingtheconsentofa
majorityofthedeceasedperson'schildren
(e)anintestatesuccessorotherthanthespouseorchildof
thedeceasedperson,havingtheconsentoftheintestate
successorsrepresentingamajorityininterestoftheestate,
includingtheintestatesuccessorwhoappliesforagrantof
administration
(f)anintestatesuccessorotherthanthespouseorchildofthe
deceasedperson,nothavingtheconsentoftheintestate
successorsrepresentingamajorityininterestoftheestate,
includingtheintestatesuccessorwhoappliesforagrantof
administration
(g)anyotherpersonthecourtconsidersappropriateto
appoint,including,withoutlimitation,andsubjecttothePublic
GuardianandTrustee'sconsent,thePublicGuardianand
Trustee.
Priorityofapplicantsadministrationwithwillannexed

131Ifapersondiesleavingawill,andtheexecutornamedinthewill
renouncesexecutorshiporisunableorunwillingtoapplyforagrantof
probate,orifnoexecutorisnamedinthewill,thecourtmaygrant
administrationwithwillannexedtooneormoreofthefollowingpersons
inthefollowingorderofpriority:
(a)abeneficiarywhoapplieshavingtheconsentofthe
beneficiariesrepresentingamajorityininterestoftheestate,
includingtheapplicant
(b)abeneficiarywhoappliesnothavingtheconsentofthe
beneficiariesrepresentingamajorityininterestoftheestate
(c)anyotherpersonthecourtconsidersappropriateto
appoint,including,withoutlimitation,andsubjecttothePublic
GuardianandTrustee'sconsent,thePublicGuardianand
Trustee.
Specialcircumstances

132(1)Despitesections130and131,thecourtmayappointas
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administratorofanestateanypersonthecourtconsidersappropriateif,
becauseofspecialcircumstances,thecourtconsidersitappropriateto
doso.
(2)Theappointmentofanadministratorundersubsection(1)maybe
(a)conditionalorunconditional,and
(b)madeforgeneral,specialorlimitedpurposes.
Administrationofpartialintestacy

133Ifapersondiesleavingawillandthewilldoesnotgiveawayor
otherwisedisposeofallofthedeceasedperson'sestate,thegrantof
probateofthewillorthegrantofadministrationwithwillannexedalso
operatesasagrantofadministrationofthepartoftheestatethatisnot
givenawayordisposedofbythewill.
Administrationifsoleexecutoraminor

134(1)Ifaminorisnamedthesoleexecutorunderawill,
(a)thecourtmustgrantadministrationwithwillannexed
(i)totheguardianoftheminor,onapplicationbythe
guardian,
(ii)iftheguardiandoesnotapply,toanotherperson
thecourtconsidersappropriateuntiltheminorreaches
19yearsofage,or
(iii)inspecialcircumstances,toanotherpersonifthe
courtconsidersitappropriate,and
(b)whentheminorreaches19yearsofage,thecourtmay
revokethegranttotheguardianorotherpersonandgrant
probateofthewilltotheformerminor.
(2)Administrationgrantedundersubsection(1)maybe
(a)conditionalorunconditional,and
(b)madeforgeneral,specialorlimitedpurposes.
Effectivedateofgrantforintestateestate

135(1)Thepersonalrepresentativeofapersonwhodiesleavingan
intestateestateisconclusivelydeemedtobethepersonal
representativefromthedateofdeathofthedeceasedperson.
(2)Despitesubsection(1),apersonalrepresentativeisnotliableforany
lossordamagetotheestatethatoccurredbeforetheeffectivedateof
therepresentationgrantunlessthepersonalrepresentativewouldhave
beenliableforthelossordamagedespitetheexistenceofa
representationgrant.

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Effectofrepresentationgrant

136Arepresentationgrant,whetherornotpowerisreservedtoanother
persontoapplyforasubsequentrepresentationgrant,givestothe
personalrepresentativeexclusiveauthoritytoadministertheestateor
thatpartoftheestatetowhichtherepresentationgrantappliesin
accordancewithitsterms.
Relianceonrepresentationgrant

137Apersonwho,relyingonarepresentationgrantandbeforehaving
noticeofanyrevocationoftherepresentationgrant,paysortransfers
propertyoftheestateorreleasesorprovidesanydocumentor
informationconcerninganestateis,despiteanydefectorirregularityin
thegrantorrevocationofit,
(a)notliableforlossordamagetoanypersonasaresultof
thepaymentortransferofpropertyorthereleaseorprovision
ofdocumentsorinformation,and
(b)dischargedasagainstthepersonalrepresentativetothe
extentofthevalueofanypaymentortransfer.

Division5ForeignPersonalRepresentatives,ResealingForeign
GrantandAncillaryGrant
Resealingforeigngrantandancillarygrants

138(1)Onapplicationbyaforeignpersonalrepresentative,thecourtmay
resealaforeigngrantmadeinanotherprovinceorinaterritoryof
Canadaorinanotherprescribedjurisdiction.
(2)Aforeignpersonalrepresentativewhoappliesfortheresealingofa
foreigngrantmust
(a)givenoticeoftheapplicationinaccordancewiththe
SupremeCourtCivilRules,
(b)discloseinformationasrequiredundertheSupremeCourt
CivilRulesconcerningthepropertyofthedeceasedperson
situatedinBritishColumbiathattheforeignpersonal
representativeseekstoadminister,and
(c)iftheapplicationrelatestoaforeigngrantof
administrationwithorwithoutwillannexedandsecurityis
requiredtobeprovidedundersection128[securityfor
administrationofestates],providesecurityinanamount
approvedbythecourt.
(3)Onaresealingwiththesealofthecourt,theforeigngrant
(a)hasthesameeffectinBritishColumbiaasifitwereissued
bythecourt,and
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(b)is,withrespecttopropertysituatedinBritishColumbia,
subjecttoanyorderofthecourttowhicharepresentation
grantissuedbythecourtwithrespecttothesameproperty
wouldbesubject.
(3.1)Theregistrarofthecourtmayresealaforeigngrantinthe
circumstancesdescribedinsubsection(1)iftheapplicationtoresealthe
foreigngrantis
(a)unopposed,and
(b)madeinaccordancewiththeapplicableSupremeCourt
CivilRules.
(4)Ifaforeigngrantcannotberesealedunderthissection,thecourt
maymakeanancillarygrantofprobateoradministrationtotheforeign
personalrepresentative.
Limitedgranttoattorneyofforeignpersonalrepresentative

139(1)Inthissection,"attorney"meansapersonwhoisappointedasthe
representativeofaforeignpersonalrepresentativeunderapowerof
attorney.
(2)Onapplicationbyanattorneyofaforeignpersonalrepresentative,
thecourtmaygrantprobateoradministrationtotheattorney,limitedto
thedeceasedperson'sestatesituatedinBritishColumbia.
Curingdeficienciesinforeignwills

140Thecourtmaymakeanorderundersection58[courtordercuring
deficiencies]inrelationtoanywillforwhichanapplicationforgrantof
probateoradministrationmaybemade.

Division6RevocationofGrantofProbateorAdministration
Revocationofgrantofprobateoradministration

141(1)Thecourtmustnotrevokeagrantofprobateoradministrationon
thesolegroundthatanoticecouldnotbegivento
(a)apersondescribedintheSupremeCourtCivilRuleswho
couldnotbediscovered,identifiedorfound,or
(b)apersontowhomnoticewasnotrequiredtobegiven
undertheSupremeCourtCivilRules.
(2)Ifagrantofprobateoradministrationisrevoked,theauthoritytoact
passesasifthepersonhadneverbeenappointedexecutor.

Division7PersonalRepresentativesPowers,DutiesandLiabilities
Personalrepresentativesgeneralauthority
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142(1)Apersonalrepresentativehasthesameauthorityovertheestatein
respectofwhichthepersonalrepresentativeisappointedasthe
deceasedpersonwouldhaveifliving,subjectto
(a)acontraryintentionappearinginthewillofthedeceased
person,and
(b)thisoranyotherenactment.
(2)Apersonalrepresentativemustexerciseauthorityto
(a)administeranddistributetheestateinrespectofwhichthe
personalrepresentativeisappointed,
(b)accounttobeneficiaries,creditorsandotherstowhomthe
personalrepresentativehasatlawadutytoaccount,and
(c)performanyotherdutiesimposedonthepersonal
representativebythewillofthedeceasedpersonorbylaw.
ApplicationofTrusteeActtopersonalrepresentatives

143(1)Sections86[applicationfordirections],89[applicationfor
remuneration]and96[jurisdictionofcourttorelievetrusteeofbreach
oftrust]oftheTrusteeActapplytoapersonalrepresentative.
(2)Subjecttosection153[distributionofminor'sinterest]ofthisAct,
section40[paymentbytrustees]oftheTrusteeActappliestoapersonal
representative.
(3)Subsections(1)and(2)applywhetherornotapersonal
representativeisalsoatrustee.
(4)Ifapersonisbothapersonalrepresentativeandatrusteewith
respecttoallorpartofthesameestate,
(a)subjecttosubsections(1)to(3),thisActappliestothat
personinrespectofamatterrelatingtotheoffice,duties,
powers,appointment,discharge,removalorsubstitutionof
thatpersonasapersonalrepresentative,and
(b)theTrusteeActappliestothatpersoninrespectofa
matterrelatingtotheoffice,duties,powers,appointment,
discharge,removalorsubstitutionofthatpersonasatrustee.
AbolitionofruleinAllhusenv.Whittel

144(1)Unlessthewillofadeceasedpersoncontainsanexpressdirectionto
thecontrary,
(a)thepersonalrepresentativeofthedeceasedperson,in
payingthedebts,funeralandtestamentaryexpenses,estate,
legacy,successionandinheritancetaxesorduties,legaciesor
othersimilardisbursementsinrelationtotheadministrationof
theestateofthedeceasedperson,mustnotapplyandmust
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notbeconsideredtohaveappliedincomeoftheestateinor
towardsthepaymentofanypartofthecapitalofthose
disbursementsorofanypartofanyinterestdueoraccruing
dueonthematthedateofdeathofthedeceasedperson,and
(b)untilthepaymentofthedisbursementsreferredtoin
paragraph(a),theincomefromthepropertyrequiredfortheir
payment,exceptforanypartofthatincomeappliedinthe
paymentofanyinterestaccruingdueonthepaymentsfrom
thedateofdeathofthedeceasedperson,mustbetreatedand
appliedasincomeoftheresiduaryestate,
butiftheassetsoftheestatearenotsufficienttopaythose
disbursementsinfull,theincomemustbeappliedinmakingupthe
deficiency.
(2)Subsection(1)isconclusivelydeemedtohavealwaysbeenthelaw
ofBritishColumbia.
(3)Despitesubsections(1)and(2),ifthepersonalrepresentativehas,
beforeApril1,1966,appliedaruleoflaworofadministrationdifferent
fromsubsection(1),theapplicationisvalidandeffective.
Executorofdeceasedexecutor

145Ifadeceasedwillmakerwasanexecutorofapersonwhodiedbefore
thewillmaker,theexecutorofthedeceasedwillmakerhasallthe
rights,powers,rightsofactionandliabilitiesofthedeceasedwillmaker
withrespecttotheestateofthedeceasedperson.
Limitationperiodfordisputedclaimsagainstestate

146(1)Thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedpersonmaygivenoticeof
intentiontotakeadvantageofthelimitationperiodprovidedbythis
sectionto
(a)apersonwhois
(i)acreditorofthedeceasedperson,or
(ii)aperson,otherthanacreditor,withaclaimagainst
theestate,noticeofwhichhasbeengiventothe
personalrepresentative,
whoseclaimisnotthesubjectofaproceedingagainstthe
deceasedpersonatthetimeofdeathoragainstthepersonal
representativeinthatcapacity,or
(b)theagentofthecreditororpersonreferredtoinparagraph
(a)(ii).
(2)Noticegivenbyapersonalrepresentativeundersubsection(1)must
(a)beinwriting,
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(b)statethatthepersonalrepresentativerejectsordisputes
theclaim,and
(c)refertothissectionandstatethatthepersonal
representativeintendstotakeadvantageofthelimitation
periodprovidedbysubsection(3).
(3)Apersontowhomthepersonalrepresentativegivesnoticeunder
subsection(1)mustcommenceaproceedinginrespectoftheclaim
within
(a)180daysafternoticeisgiven,iftheclaimorapartofitis
dueatthetimenoticeisgiven,or
(b)180daysofthetimetheclaimorapartofitfallsdue,ifno
partofitisdueatthetimenoticeisgiven.
(4)Ifthepersontowhomthepersonalrepresentativegivesnoticeunder
subsection(1)doesnotcommenceaproceedinginrespectoftheclaim
withinthetimelimitedbysubsection(3),theclaimisforeverbarred.
(5)Thissectiondoesnotapplyto
(a)aclaimagainsttheestatebyabeneficiaryorintestate
successorofthedeceasedpersontorecoverabeneficial
interesttowhichthatpersonclaimstobeentitled,or
(b)aclaimorproceedingunderDivision6[VariationofWills]
ofPart4[Wills].
Whenbeneficiarycannotbefoundordoesnotclaimgift

147(1)Thissectionappliesonlyif
(a)adeceasedpersondiedwithawillleavingaspecificgiftof
propertytoabeneficiary,and
(b)thewilldoesnotexpresslyexcludetheoperationofthis
sectionorapredecessorofthissection.
(2)Ifthepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedperson,aftermaking
reasonableefforts,isunabletolocateabeneficiarywithin12monthsof
thedateofthegrantofprobateoradministrationwithwillannexed,the
personalrepresentativemayselltheproperty,deductanycostsrelated
tothestorage,transportationandsaleofthepropertyandholdthenet
proceedsintrust.
(3)Section27.1[unclaimedmoney]ofthePublicGuardianandTrustee
Actappliestonetproceedsundersubsection(2)ofthissectionthatare
heldintrustbythePublicGuardianandTrusteeandarenotclaimedbya
beneficiarywithintheapplicableperiodprescribedunderthatAct.
(4)Ifnetproceedsundersubsection(2)areheldintrustbyapersonal
representativeotherthanthePublicGuardianandTrustee,thepersonal
representativemustpromptlypaythenetproceedsintocourtafter
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deductingthecostsofdoingso.
(5)Ifabeneficiarydescribedinsubsection(1)hasbeenlocatedand
notifiedofaspecificgiftbutneglectsorrefusestomakearrangementsto
takedeliveryofthepropertywithin180daysofthenotification,the
personalrepresentativemayselltheproperty,deductanycostsrelated
tothestorage,transportationandsaleofthepropertyandsendthenet
proceedstothebeneficiary.
(6)Ifabeneficiaryreferredtoinsubsection(5)doesnotacceptthenet
proceeds,thepersonalrepresentativemustholdthenetproceedsin
trust,andsubsection(3)or(4)applies,asthecasemaybe.
(7)Thissectiondoesnotpreventanapplicationbyapersonal
representativetothecourtundersection39[distributionofestateunder
directionofcourt]oftheTrusteeAct.
Dispositionbyexecutorswhodonotrenounceorjoinapplicationforgrant
ofprobate

148Ifoneormoreofseveralcoexecutorsnamedinawill
(a)renounceprobate,or
(b)donotjoinanapplicationforagrantofprobateandtheir
righttoapplysubsequentlyforagrantofprobateisreserved
byarepresentationgrant,
adispositionrelatingtotheestatebytheexecutorswhodonotrenounce
ortowhomthegrantofprobateisissuedisasvalidandhasthesame
effectasifeveryexecutornamedinthewillhadexecutedaninstrument
intendedtogiveeffecttothewill.

Division8PersonalRepresentativesLegalLiabilityandLegal
Proceedings
Liabilityofpersonalrepresentatives

149(1)Apersonalrepresentativeisliable,totheextentoftheassets
belongingtotheestatethatcomeintothepersonalrepresentative's
possessionorcontrol,forthewrongfulactsandomissionsorbreachesof
legaldutyofthedeceasedperson,subjecttothisoranyother
enactmenttothecontrary.
(2)Subsection(1)doesnotmakeliableanexecutorwhorenounces
probateoradministrationorwhoserightsarereservedbya
representationgrantandwhohasnotintermeddledintheestate.
Proceedingsbyandagainstestate

150(1)Subjecttothissection,acauseofactionoraproceedingisnot
annulledbyreasononlyofthedeathof
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(a)apersonwhohadthecauseofaction,or
(b)apersonwhoisormaybenamedasapartytothe
proceeding.
(2)Subjecttothissection,thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceased
personmaycommenceorcontinueaproceedingthedeceasedperson
couldhavecommencedorcontinued,withthesamerightsandremedies
towhichthedeceasedpersonwouldhavebeenentitled,ifliving.
(3)Subsections(1)and(2)donotapplytoaproceedingforlibelor
slanderoraproceedingundersection1[violationofprivacyactionable]
or3[unauthorizeduseofnameorportraitofanother]ofthePrivacyAct.
(4)Recoveryinaproceedingundersubsection(2)doesnotextendto
(a)damagesinrespectofnonpecuniaryloss,or
(b)damagesforlossoffutureincomeforaperiodfollowing
death.
(5)Apersonmaycommenceorcontinueaproceedingagainsta
deceasedpersonthatcouldhavebeencommencedorcontinuedagainst
thedeceasedpersonifliving,whetherornotapersonalrepresentative
hasbeenappointedforthedeceasedperson.
(6)Aproceedingundersubsection(5)maybecommencednamingas
defendantorrespondent
(a)thepersonalrepresentative,ifany,or
(b)thedeceasedperson.
(7)Aproceedingundersubsection(5)inwhichthedeceasedpersonis
namedasdefendantorrespondentisvaliddespitethefactthatthe
deceasedpersonisnotlivingwhentheactionorproceedingis
commenced.
(8)Allproceedingsunderthissectionbindtheestateofthedeceased
person,despiteanypreviousorsubsequentappointmentofapersonal
representative.
(9)Thissectionissubjecttosection10[limitationofactions,election
andsubrogation]oftheWorkersCompensationAct.
(10)Nothinginthissectionaffectsanyrightsunder
(a)theFamilyCompensationAct,or
(b)section103[liabilityofemployer]oftheWorkers
CompensationAct.
(11)Inaproceedingundersubsection(2),thecourtmayawarddamages
tothepersonalrepresentativeofthedeceasedpersoninrespectof
reasonableexpensesofthefuneralanddisposaloftheremainsofthe
deceasedperson,inadditiontotheremediestowhichthedeceased
personwouldhavebeenentitledifliving.
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Beneficiaryorintestatesuccessormaysuewithleaveofcourt

151(1)Despitesection136[effectofrepresentationgrant],abeneficiaryor
anintestatesuccessormay,withleaveofthecourt,commence
proceedingsinthenameandonbehalfofthepersonalrepresentativeof
thedeceasedperson
(a)torecoverpropertyortoenforcearight,dutyorobligation
owedtothedeceasedpersonthatcouldberecoveredor
enforcedbythepersonalrepresentative,or
(b)toobtaindamagesforbreachofaright,dutyorobligation
owedtothedeceasedperson.
(2)Abeneficiaryoranintestatesuccessormay,withleaveofthecourt,
defendinthenameandonbehalfofthepersonalrepresentativeofa
deceasedperson,aproceedingbroughtagainstthedeceasedpersonor
thepersonalrepresentative.
(3)Thecourtmaygrantleaveunderthissectionif
(a)thecourtdeterminesthebeneficiaryorintestatesuccessor
seekingleave
(i)hasmadereasonableeffortstocausethepersonal
representativetocommenceordefendtheproceeding,
(ii)hasgivennoticeoftheapplicationforleaveto
(A)thepersonalrepresentative,
(B)anyotherbeneficiariesorintestate
successors,and
(C)anyadditionalpersonthecourtdirectsthat
noticeistobegiven,and
(iii)isactingingoodfaith,and
(b)itappearstothecourtthatitisnecessaryorexpedientfor
theprotectionoftheestateortheinterestsofabeneficiaryor
anintestatesuccessorfortheproceedingtobebroughtor
defended.
(4)Onapplicationbyabeneficiary,anintestatesuccessororapersonal
representative,thecourtmayauthorizeapersontocontroltheconduct
ofaproceedingunderthissectionormaygiveotherdirectionsforthe
conductoftheproceeding.
Personalrepresentativerelieffromliabilityundercontract

152Thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedpersonceasestobeliablein
respectofacontract,includingalease,thatwasnotfullyperformedby
thedeceasedpersonbeforethedeceasedperson'sdeath,ifthepersonal
representative
(a)satisfiesallliabilitiesthathaveaccruedandareclaimed
underthecontractuntilthetimeoftheassignmentreferredto
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inparagraph(b),
(b)validlyassignsthecontracttoapurchaser,and
(c)setsasideareservefromtheestateinanamountfixedby
agreement,orbythecourtonapplicationbythepersonal
representative,tomeetfutureclaimsthatmaybemadein
respectofafixedordeterminedamountthedeceasedperson
agreedtopayorforwhichthedeceasedpersonwasliable
underthecontract.
Distributionofminor'sinterest

153(1)Subjecttosubsections(2)and(3),if
(a)aminorisabeneficiaryoranintestatesuccessor,and
(b)thereisnotrusteeornotrustcreatedfortheminor's
interestintheestate,
thepersonalrepresentative,ondistributionoftheestate,mustpayor
transfertheminor'sinterestintheestatetothePublicGuardianand
Trusteeintrustfortheminor.
(2)Ifaminor'sinterestinanestateconsists,inwholeorinpart,of
propertyotherthanmoney,thePublicGuardianandTrusteemay
(a)converttheminor'sinterestintheestatetomoney,
(b)transfertheminor'sinterestintheestatetotheminor,or
(c)declinetoacceptthetransferoftheminor'sinterestinthe
estateandrecommendtothecourtthatatrusteebe
appointedtoholdandadministertheminor'sinterestinthe
estateuntiltheminorreaches19yearsofage.
(3)Subsection(1)doesnotapplyif,beforedistributionoftheassetsof
theestate,thecourt,onapplicationandwithnoticetothePublic
GuardianandTrustee,appointsatrusteetoholdandadministerthe
minor'sinterestintheestateuntiltheminorreaches19yearsofage.
Noticetocreditors

154(1)Inthissection,"claimant"doesnotincludeapersonwhohas
commencedproceedingstodeterminewhetherheorsheisabeneficiary
oranintestatesuccessor.
(2)Thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedpersonmaypublisha
noticeintheGazettetocreditorsandotherclaimants
(a)requiringthemtopresenttheirclaimsagainsttheestateof
thedeceasedpersontothepersonalrepresentativewithina
specifiedperiodoftime,whichmustnotbelessthan30days
fromthedateofthepublicationintheGazette,and
(b)statingthatafterthespecifiedperiodthepersonal
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representativeproposestodistributetheestate,havingregard
onlytotheclaimsofwhichthepersonalrepresentativethen
hasnotice.
(3)Onexpirationoftheperiodspecifiedinanoticepublishedunder
subsection(2),thepersonalrepresentativemaydistributetheassetsof
theestateofthedeceasedpersonamongthepersonsentitledtothem,
havingregardtotheclaimsofwhichthepersonalrepresentativethen
hasnotice.
(4)Thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedpersonisnotliableforany
claimagainsttheestateofthedeceasedpersoniftheclaimwasnot
presentedtothepersonalrepresentativebytheendoftheperiod
specifiedinthenoticepublishedundersubsection(2).
(5)Thissectiondoesnotprejudicetherightofacreditororother
claimanttorecoverassetsoftheestateofthedeceasedpersonfromthe
personwhoreceivedthem.
Distributionofestate

155(1)Thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedpersonmustnot
distributetheestateofthedeceasedpersoninthe210daysfollowing
thedateoftheissueofarepresentationgrantexcept
(a)withtheconsentofallbeneficiariesandintestate
successorsentitledtotheestate,or
(b)byorderofthecourt.
(2)Thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedpersonmustnotdistribute
theestateofthedeceasedpersonaftertheperiodreferredtoin
subsection(1)withoutconsentofthecourtif
(a)aproceedinghasbeencommencedtodeterminewhethera
personisorisnotabeneficiaryorintestatesuccessorin
respectofthedeceasedperson'sestate,
(b)reliefissoughtunderDivision6[VariationofWills]ofPart
4[Wills],or
(c)otherproceedingshavebeencommencedwhichmayaffect
thedistributionoftheestate.
(3)Nothinginthissection
(a)affectsanyrightorremedyagainstapersontowhoman
estatehasbeendistributedinwholeorinpart,or
(b)extendsanyapplicablelimitationperiod.
Personalrepresentativedeemedtobetrustee

156Unlessthecourtordersotherwise,apersonalrepresentativegranted
administrationwithwillannexedisconclusivelydeemedtobethe
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trusteeofatrustcreatedbythewillifthewillmakerhasnotappointed
anothertrusteeinthewill.

Division9Discharge,RemovalandSubstitutionofPersonal
Representatives
Personalrepresentativemayapplytobedischarged

157(1)Thepersonalrepresentativeofadeceasedpersonmayapplytothe
courttobedischargedfromtheofficeofpersonalrepresentative.
(2)Anapplicationundersubsection(1)maybemade
(a)eitherbeforeorafteragrantofprobateoradministration
isissued,
(b)whetherornotthepersonalrepresentativeisatrusteeof
theestateorpartofit,and
(c)whetherornotthepersonalrepresentativehasdealtor
partiallydealtwiththeestateorapartofitorhastoany
extentactedintheexerciseofatrustorpowerconferredonor
vestedinthepersonalrepresentative.
(3)Apersonalrepresentativemaymakeanapplicationundersubsection
(1)withoutnoticetoanyotherpersonif
(a)theaccountsofthepersonalrepresentativehavebeen
passedundertheTrusteeAct,
(b)everybeneficiaryorintestatesuccessorwithaninterestin
thedeceasedperson'sestatehasconsentedtotheaccountsof
thepersonalrepresentativewithoutpassingundertheTrustee
Act,
(c)inthecaseofabeneficiaryorintestatesuccessorwhoisa
minorormentallyincapableperson,
(i)theguardianoftheminor'sestateoranomineehas
consentedtotheaccountsofthepersonalrepresentative
withoutpassingundertheTrusteeAct,and
(ii)thecourtissatisfiedthattheaccountsdonotneed
tobepassedundertheTrusteeAct,or
(d)thecourtotherwisedeterminesthattheaccountsofthe
personalrepresentativeneednotbepassedundertheTrustee
Act.
(4)Apersonalrepresentativewhoappliestobedischargedunder
subsection(1)withoutnoticetoanyotherpersonreferredtoin
subsection(3)mustfilethepersonalrepresentative'saccountswiththe
courtfortheperiodduringwhichthepersonalrepresentativewasin
office,unlesssubsection(3)(a)applies.
(5)Anorderdischargingapersonalrepresentativefromofficereleases
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thepersonalrepresentativefromallactions,claimsanddemandsarising
fromorinconnectionwithactsoromissionsofthepersonal
representativewhileinoffice,exceptinrespectofundisclosedactsor
omissions.
(6)Anorderdischargingapersonasapersonalrepresentativedoesnot
(a)dischargeorremovethatpersonasatrustee,or
(b)operatetoreleasethepersonfromliabilityforanything
doneoromittedbythepersoninthecapacityofatrustee.
Applicationtoremoveorpassoverpersonalrepresentative

158(1)Inthissection,"passover"meanstograntprobateor
administrationtoapersonwhohaslessprioritythananotherpersonto
becomeapersonalrepresentative.
(2)Apersonhavinganinterestinanestatemayapplytothecourtto
removeorpassoverapersonotherwiseentitledtobeortobecomea
personalrepresentative.
(3)Subjecttothetermsofawill,ifany,andtosubsection(3.1),the
court,byorder,mayremoveorpassoverapersonotherwiseentitledto
beortobecomeapersonalrepresentativeifthecourtconsidersthatthe
personalrepresentativeorpersonentitledtobecomethepersonal
representativeshouldnotcontinueinofficeorbegrantedprobateor
administration,including,withoutlimitation,ifthepersonal
representativeorpersonentitledtobecomethepersonalrepresentative,
asthecasemaybe,
(a)refusestoaccepttheofficeofortoactaspersonal
representativewithoutrenouncingtheoffice,
(b)isincapableofmanaginghisorherownaffairs,
(c)purportstoresignfromtheofficeofpersonal
representative,
(d)beingacorporation,isdissolvedorisinliquidationother
thanavoluntarydissolutionorliquidationforthepurposeof
amalgamationorreorganization,
(e)hasbeenconvictedofanoffenceinvolvingdishonesty,
(e.1)isanundischargedbankrupt,
(f)is
(i)unabletomakethedecisionsnecessarytodischarge
theofficeofpersonalrepresentative,
(ii)notresponsive,or
(iii)otherwiseunwillingorunabletoorunreasonably
refusestocarryoutthedutiesofapersonal
representative,
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toanextentthattheconductofthepersonalrepresentative
hamperstheefficientadministrationoftheestate,or
(g)apersongrantedpoweroverfinancialaffairsunderthe
PatientsPropertyAct.
(3.1)Acreditormaymakeanapplicationforanorderundersubsection
(3)(e)or(e.1)onlyifthecreditorhasaclaimformorethanaprescribed
amount.
(4)Anorderofthecourtremovingapersonalrepresentativedoesnot
removethatpersonasatrustee.
Appointmentofsubstitutepersonalrepresentative

159(1)Ifthecourtdischargesorremovesapersonalrepresentative,the
court
(a)mustappointanotherpersonwhoconsentstoactasthe
substitutepersonalrepresentative,unless
(i)theadministrationoftheestateiscomplete,or
(ii)thecourtdoesnotconsideranewappointment
necessary,and
(b)may,ifthepersonalrepresentativehasresignedoris
removedasatrustee,concurrentlyappointthepersonreferred
toinparagraph(a)astrusteeundertheTrusteeActinplaceof
thetrusteebeingdischargedorremoved.
(2)Thecourtmayrequireasubstitutepersonalrepresentativeunder
subsection(1)toprovidesecurityifsecurityisrequiredbytheSupreme
CourtCivilRules.
(3)Asubstitutepersonalrepresentativeappointedundersubsection(1)
(a)hasthesameauthoritythattheformerpersonal
representativehadinrespectoftheestate,
(b)mustperformthesamedutiesandissubjecttothesame
obligationsaswereimposedbylawontheformerpersonal
representative,and
(c)onapplicationwithoutnotice,isentitledtoreceiveagrant
ofprobateoradministration,asthecasemaybe,withoutthe
returnofthepreviousgrantifthecourtissatisfiedthatthe
returnofthepreviousgrantwouldbeimpossibleor
impractical.
(4)Agrantofprobateoradministrationtoaformerpersonal
representativeisrevokedontheappointmentofasubstitutepersonal
representative.
Vestingofestateinpersonalrepresentative
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160(1)Ifapersonisappointedasthepersonalrepresentativeofa
deceasedperson,theestateofthedeceasedpersonvestsinthe
personalrepresentativewithoutanyfurtherdeclarationororder.
(2)Ifapersonisdischargedorremovedasthepersonalrepresentative
ofadeceasedperson,theestateofthedeceasedpersonceases,without
anyfurtherdeclarationororder,tobevestedinthatperson.
(3)Thissectionapplieswhetherapersonisdischarged,removed,added
orsubstitutedasapersonalrepresentativeinaccordancewithawillor
withthisAct.
(4)Thevestingofanestateundersubsection(1)hasthesameeffectas
iftheestatehadbeenactuallytransferredtothepersoninwhomitis
vested.
(5)TheprovisionsoftheLandTitleActthatapplytoatransmissionof
landapplytoavestingoflandunderthissection.
Formerpersonalrepresentativetofacilitatepropertyanddocumenttransfer

161(1)Ifapersonceasestobeapersonalrepresentativeandanother
personissubstitutedaspersonalrepresentative,within30daysofthe
ordermakingthesubstitutiontheformerpersonalrepresentativemust
providetothesubstitutepersonalrepresentative
(a)thepropertycomprisingtheestate,and
(b)anyrecordsanddocumentsrelatingtotheestateandits
administration
thatareinthepossessionorunderthecontroloftheformerpersonal
representative.
(2)Aformerpersonalrepresentativemustsignanydocumentandtake
anystepsreasonablynecessarytoenableasubstitutepersonal
representativetoadministertheestate,butsection160operateswithout
theneedfortheformerpersonalrepresentativetosignanydocument
underthissubsection.
(3)Aformerpersonalrepresentativemaynot,unlessthecourtotherwise
orders,retainfundstopayanyexpensesorexpensesthat
(a)theformerpersonalrepresentativeincurredinthecourse
ofsoacting,and
(b)mayhavebeenlawfullyincurredbyapersonal
representativetowhomprobateoradministrationofthe
estateislatergranted.

Division10DevolutionofLand
Devolutionandadministrationofland

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162(1)Unlessthereisarighttolandbysurvivorship,onthedeathofthe
landowner,landdevolvestoandisvestedinthedeceasedowner's
personalrepresentativeinthesamemanneraspersonalproperty.
(2)SubjecttothisAct,
(a)apersonalrepresentativetowhomlanddevolvesholdsthe
landasatrusteeforthepersonbeneficiallyentitledtoit,and
(b)apersonbeneficiallyentitledtothelandhasthesame
powerasapersonbeneficiallyentitledtopersonalpropertyto
requireatransferfromthepersonalrepresentative.
(3)SubjecttothisAct,landmustbeadministeredinthesamemanneras
personalproperty,andallenactmentsandrulesoflawrespecting
(a)thepowers,dutiesandliabilitiesofapersonal
representativeinrespectofpersonalproperty,
(b)theeffectofagrantofprobateoradministration,
(c)dealingswithpersonalpropertybeforeagrantofprobate
oradministration,and
(d)theadministrationofpersonalpropertyofadeceased
person,includingthepaymentofdebtsandexpenses,
applytoland.
(4)Adispositionoflandbyonlyoneorsomeofseveraljointpersonal
representativesisnotvalidwithouttheapprovalofthecourt,unless
(a)section148[dispositionbyexecutorswhodonotrenounce
orjoinapplicationforgrantofprobate]applies,or
(b)agrantofprobateisgrantedtooneormoreofseveral
personsnamedasexecutorwithpowerbeingreservedtothe
otherorotherstoapplyforagrantofprobate,andthe
dispositioniscarriedoutbytheotherpersonorpersonsto
whomprobateisgranted.
(5)Thissectionappliestolandoverwhichapersonexercisesbywilla
powerofappointmentasifthelandwerevestedintheperson.
Transferoflandtobeneficiarymaybesubjecttoacharge

163(1)Atransferoflandbyapersonalrepresentativetoabeneficiarymay
bemadesubjecttoachargeforpaymentofmoneythatthepersonal
representativeisliabletopay.
(2)Onregistrationofatransferundersubsection(1)thatissubjecttoa
chargeforthewholeamountthatthepersonalrepresentativeisliableto
pay,theliabilityofthepersonalrepresentativeinrespectofthelandfor
adebtorobligationofthedeceasedpersonceases.

Division11PublicGuardianandTrustee
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ApplicationforgrantofprobateoradministrationbyPublicGuardianand
Trustee

164(1)ThissectionappliesifthePublicGuardianandTrusteereceives
informationaboutthedeathofapersonwho
(a)hadatthetimeofdeathafixedplaceofresidencein
BritishColumbia,or
(b)hadnofixedplaceofresidenceinBritishColumbia,buthad
propertyinBritishColumbiaatthetimeofdeath.
(2)ThePublicGuardianandTrusteemaymakeanapplicationtothe
courtforagrantofadministrationoftheestateofthedeceasedpersonif
(a)thepersondiedwithoutawillforallorpartoftheperson's
estate,or
(b)thepersondiedleavingawill,butwithouthaving
appointedanexecutorwillingandabletoapplyforagrantof
probateorwhosewhereaboutsareknown.
(3)Agrantofadministration,agrantofprobateoragrantof
administrationwithwillannexedmustnotbeissuedunlessthePublic
GuardianandTrusteefilesanaffidavitswearingthatnopersoninBritish
Columbia
(a)isentitledtoshareinthedistributionoftheestateofthe
deceasedperson,and
(b)isreadyandcompetenttoapplyforagrantof
administration.
CourtappointmentwithconsentofPublicGuardianandTrustee

165ThecourtmustnotmakeanorderappointingthePublicGuardianand
Trusteeasadministratorofanestate
(a)exceptwiththepriorwrittenconsentofthePublicGuardian
andTrustee,or
(b)unlessthePublicGuardianandTrusteeappliestobe
appointedasadministratoroftheestate.
PowersofPublicGuardianandTrustee

166Ifadministrationoftheestateofadeceasedpersonisgrantedtothe
PublicGuardianandTrustee,thePublicGuardianandTrustee
(a)istheadministratoroftheestateofthedeceasedpersonin
BritishColumbia,and
(b)subjecttothisAct,hastherights,dutiesandliabilitiesof
anadministratorwithregardtotheestate.
Powersbeforegrantissued
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167(1)If,afterinvestigation,thePublicGuardianandTrustee
(a)believesthatapersonhasdied,and
(b)intendstomakeanapplicationundersection164(2)fora
grantofadministration,
thePublicGuardianandTrusteemay,beforeoraftermakingthe
applicationorfilingthesmallestatedeclarationandbeforeagrantof
administrationisissued,actundersubsection(2).
(2)ThePublicGuardianandTrusteemaydoanyorallofthefollowingas
ifagrantofadministrationofthedeceasedperson'sestatehadbeen
issuedtothePublicGuardianandTrustee:
(a)arrangethefuneralofthedeceasedperson
(b)makeaninventoryofthedeceasedperson'sestate
(c)takepossessionof,safeguardanddisposeofthedeceased
person'sestate.
(3)Inactingunderthissection,thePublicGuardianandTrustee
(a)hasarighttoallinformationandrecordstowhichorin
respectofwhichthedeceasedpersonhadcustodyorcontrol
orwouldhavebeenentitledto,and
(b)mayrequireapersontodisclosethatinformationor
producethoserecordstothePublicGuardianandTrustee.
(4)AlettersignedbyanauthorizedsignatoryofthePublicGuardianand
TrusteeindicatingthatthePublicGuardianandTrusteeisactingunder
thissectionisconclusiveproofofthePublicGuardianandTrustee's
authoritytoexercisetherightsandpowersconferredbythissection.
(5)ThePublicGuardianandTrusteeoranagent,attorney,employeeor
otherpersonactingonbehalfofthePublicGuardianandTrusteeisnot
personallyliableasanexecutordesontortbyreasonofexercisingthe
powersconferredbythissection.
(6)ThissectiondoesnotrelievethePublicGuardianandTrusteefrom
(a)makinganapplicationforagrantofadministration,or
(b)filingasmallestatedeclarationunderDivision2[Small
EstateAdministration]ofthisPart.
Grantofprobateoradministrationdespitepreviousgrant

168(1)AgrantofadministrationtothePublicGuardianandTrusteedoes
notpreventthecourtfromsubsequentlygrantingprobateofthewillor
administrationoftheestatetoanypersonentitledtothegrant.
(2)Apersonwhointendstomakeanapplicationforagrantofprobateor
administrationafteragrantofadministrationhasbeenissuedtothe
PublicGuardianandTrusteemustgivethePublicGuardianandTrusteeat
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least4days'writtennoticeoftheperson'sintentiontoapply.
(3)Ifasubsequentgrantofprobateoradministrationismadeunder
subsection(1),therights,interests,powersanddutiesofthePublic
GuardianandTrusteeinregardtotheestateceaseandtheportionofthe
estateofthedeceasedpersonleftunadministeredbythePublicGuardian
andTrusteevestsintheexecutororadministratorobtainingthe
subsequentgrantofprobateoradministration,subjectto
(a)theallowanceandpaymentofallmoneyduefor
(i)thefeesandcommissionsofthePublicGuardianand
Trustee,and
(ii)thenecessaryoutlay,disbursementsandexpenses
inrelationtotheadministrationoftheestate,including
forthesubsequentgrantofprobateoradministration,
and
(b)alimitationorconditioninthesubsequentgrant,ifthe
courtconsidersanytobeappropriate.

Division12InsolventEstates
Definitions

169InthisDivision:
"insolventestate"meansanestatethatisnotsufficienttopayall
thedebtsandliabilitiesofthedeceasedperson
"securedcreditor"meansacreditorwhoholdsasecurityinterest
inanassetoftheestateofadeceasedperson.
Howproceedsfrominsolventestatearetobespent

170(1)Subjecttotherightsofsecuredcreditors,thepersonal
representativeofadeceasedpersonmustapplytheproceedsrealized
fromaninsolventestateinthefollowingorderofpriority:
(a)reasonablefuneralandotherexpensesincurredbythe
personalrepresentativeinadministeringtheestateofthe
deceasedperson
(b)compensationofthepersonalrepresentativeundersection
89[applicationforremuneration]oftheTrusteeAct
(c)legalexpensesincurredintheadministrationofthe
deceasedperson'sestate
(d)wages,salaries,commissionsorcompensationofany
clerk,employee,travellingsalesperson,labourerorworkerfor
servicesprovidedduringthe180daysimmediatelypreceding
thedateofdeathofthedeceasedpersontoamaximumof$2
000ineachcase,andinthecaseofatravellingsalesperson,
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disbursementsproperlyincurredbythesalespersoninand
aboutthedeceasedperson'sbusinesstoamaximumofan
additional$1000ineachcase
(e)aclaiminrespectofadebtorliabilityforperiodicamounts
accruedintheyearimmediatelyprecedingthedateofdeathof
thedeceasedperson,plusanylumpsumamount,payable
(i)forspousalsupport,or
(ii)underajudicialdecisionestablishingaffiliationor
respectingsupportormaintenance,orunderan
agreementformaintenanceandsupportofaspouse,
formerspouseorchild,madewhilethespouse,former
spouseorchildwaslivingapartfromthedeceased
person
(f)municipaltaxesandtaxesoftheNisga'aLisims
Governmentorataxingtreatyfirstnationassessedorlevied
againstthedeceasedpersonwithinthe2yearsimmediately
precedingthedateofdeathofthedeceasedpersonthatdo
notconstituteasecuredclaimagainstthelandofthe
deceasedperson,notexceedingthevalueoftheinterestof
thedeceasedpersoninthepropertyasdeclaredbythe
personalrepresentative
(g)thelandlordforarrearsofrentforaperiodof90days
immediatelyprecedingthedateofdeathofthedeceased
person,andacceleratedrentforaperiodnotexceeding90
daysfollowingthedateofdeathofthedeceasedpersonifthe
leaseprovidesforacceleratedrent,notexceedingthevalueof
theproceedsfromtherealizationofpropertyontheleased
premises,andanypaymentonaccountofacceleratedrent
mustbecreditedagainsttheamountpayablebythepersonal
representativeforoccupationrent
(h)allindebtednessofthedeceasedpersonundertheWorkers
CompensationAct,underanyActrespectingemployment
insuranceorunderaprovisionofanyIncomeTaxActcreating
anobligationtopaytothegovernmentortothegovernment
ofCanadaamountsthathavebeendeductedorwithheld,
rateablyandwithoutpreference
(i)claimsresultingfrominjuriestoemployeesofthedeceased
personinrespectofwhichtheprovisionsoftheWorkers
CompensationActdonotapply,butonlytotheextentof
moneyreceivedfrompersonsguaranteeingthedeceased
personagainstdamagesresultingfromtheinjuries
(j)claims,notpreviouslymentionedinthissubsection,ofthe
governmentorthegovernmentofCanada,thegovernmentof
anyotherprovince,theNisga'aLisimsGovernmentoratreaty
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firstnation,rateablyandwithoutpreferencedespitea
statutorypreferencetothecontrary
(k)allotherclaimsacceptedbythepersonalrepresentative,
rateablyandwithoutpreference.
(2)Apersonalrepresentativemustapplytheproceedsofaninsolvent
estatetowardspaymentinaccordancewithsubsection(1)assoonas
fundsareavailableforthepurpose.
(3)Acreditorwhoserightsarerestrictedbythissectionisentitledto
rankasanunsecuredcreditorforthebalanceofthecreditor'sclaim.
(4)Forthepurposesofsubsection(1)(d),commissionspayablewhen
goodsareshipped,deliveredorpaidforwithinthe180dayperiod
referredtointhatprovisionaredeemedtohavebeenearnedduringthat
period.
Provabledebts

171(1)Acreditormay,whileaninsolventestateisbeingadministered,
proveadebtthatis
(a)owingandpayableatthetimeofthedeceasedperson's
death,or
(b)owingatthetimeofdeceasedperson'sdeathbutnotyet
payable,subjecttoadeductioninrespectofarebateof
interestcalculatedinaccordancewithsubsection(2).
(2)Forthepurposesofsubsection(1)(b),theinteresttoberebatedis
tobecalculatedataprescribedratefromthedatethepersonal
representativepaysthedebtoraproratedportionofthedebttothetime
whenthedebtwouldhavebeenpayable.
(3)Apersonalrepresentativeadministeringaninsolventestateisnot
liableforandmustnotpayinterestonthedebtsofthedeceasedperson
inrespectoftheperiodfollowingthedateofdeathofthedeceased
personunlessasurplusremainsafterpaymentofalldebtsandclaims
acceptedbythepersonalrepresentative.
Conditional,contingentandunliquidatedclaims

172(1)Thepersonalrepresentativemust,beforethefirstdistributionfrom
aninsolventestate,
(a)determineavalueforaconditional,acontingentoran
unliquidatedclaim,and
(b)givetothecreditororclaimantwhoprovedtheclaim
writtennoticeoftheamountatwhichtheclaimisvalued.
(2)Thevaluedeterminedundersubsection(1)isthevalueforwhichthe
claimisdeemedtohavebeenprovedasifforaliquidatedamount
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payableabsolutely,unless,within14daysafterthenoticereferredtoin
subsection(1)isgiven,thecreditororclaimantappliestothecourtfora
redeterminationofthevalueoftheclaim.
(3)Onapplicationundersubsection(2),thecourtmay
(a)redeterminethevalueoftheclaimdeterminedbythe
personalrepresentativeundersubsection(1),or
(b)confirmthevaluedeterminedbythepersonal
representativeundersubsection(1).
Securedcreditors

173(1)Asecuredcreditorclaimingagainstaninsolventestateofa
deceasedpersonmuststateintheclaim
(a)fullparticularsofthesecurity,includingitsvalueas
assessedbythecreditor,and
(b)thevalueatwhichthesecuredcreditorassessesthetotal
claim,includingthevalueofthesecurity.
(2)Asecuredcreditorisentitledtoproveasanunsecuredcreditorfor
theamountofthedifferencebetweenthenetvaluerealizedandthe
valueofthesecuredcreditor'sclaim.
(3)Ifasecuredcreditorsurrendersthesecuritytothepersonal
representative,thesecuredcreditorisentitledtoproveasanunsecured
creditorforthewholevalueofthesecuredcreditor'sclaim.
(4)Acreditorhavingaclaimbasedonanegotiableinstrument
(a)onwhichthedeceasedpersonwas,andthepersonal
representativeis,onlyindirectlyorsecondarilyliable,and
(b)thatisnotmatureorexigible,
isdeemedtobeasecuredcreditorforthepurposeofthissectionand
mustcomplywithsubsection(1),treatingtheliabilityofanyperson
primarilyliableonthenegotiableinstrumentasthesecurity.
(5)Ifaclaimdescribedinsubsection(4)(a)
(a)ismatureorexigibleatthedateofdeathofthedeceased
person,and
(b)remainsunpaidafterthatdate,whetherbeforeorafter
proof,
thecreditorisentitledtotreattheclaimasunsecuredforthepurposeof
ranking.
(6)Despitesubsection(5),forallpurposesexceptrankingofclaims,a
creditorhavingaclaimdescribedinsubsection(5)
(a)isdeemedtobeasecuredcreditor,and
(b)mustcomplywithsubsection(1),treatingtheliabilityofall
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partiesliableonthenegotiableinstrumentaheadofthe
deceasedpersonasthesecurity.
(7)Ifthedeceasedpersonwasliableasamemberofafirmor
partnershipandacreditorholdssecurityfromanothermemberofthe
firmorpartnership,thecreditorisdeemedtobeasecuredcreditorfor
thepurposeofthissection.
Debtscontractedindividuallyandonbehalfofpartnership

174Ifapersondiesleavinganinsolventestatewithdebtsowingboth
individuallyandasamemberofapartnership,aclaimagainstthe
deceasedpersonbasedonadebtistobesatisfied
(a)firstfromthepropertyofthepersonbywhomor
partnershiponbehalfofandbywhichthedebtwascontracted,
and
(b)afterallthecreditorsoftheotherpersonhavebeenpaidin
full,fromthepropertyorestateofanotherperson,including
thedeceasedperson.

Division13DeceasedWorker'sWages
Definition

175InthisDivision,"worker"meansapersonwhohasenteredintoor
worksunderacontractofserviceorapprenticeship,writtenororal,
expressorimplied,inanindustrywithinthescopeofPart1ofthe
WorkersCompensationAct,whetherbywayofmanuallabouror
otherwise.
Wagespayabletosurvivingspouse

176Thewages
(a)earnedbyaworkerduringthe3monthperiodbeforethe
worker'sdeath,and
(b)owingoraccruedtotheworkeratthetimeoftheworker's
death
are,subjecttothisDivision,payabletothesurvivingspouse,ifany,of
thedeceasedworker,freefromdebtsofthedeceasedworker.
Wagesnotsubjecttoadministration

177Thewagesofadeceasedworkerthatarepayabletothesurviving
spousebythisDivisionarenotsubjecttotheprovisionsofthelaws
relatingto
(a)theadministrationoftheintestateestates,or
(b)iftheworkerdieswithawill,obtainingagrantofprobate
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ortheprovisionsofthedeceasedworker'swill.
Evidenceofentitlement

178Thesurvivingspouseofadeceasedworkerisentitledtothosewages
referredtoinsection176onproductionofanaffidavit,swornbeforea
personauthorizedundertheEvidenceActtoadministeranoath,stating
thatthepersonclaimingtobethesurvivingspouseofthedeceased
workerisinfacttheonlypersonentitledtoclaimasasurvivingspouse.
Dischargeofemployer

179Anemployerwho,ingoodfaithandrelyingonanaffidavitmadeunder
section178,paysthewagesofadeceasedworkertoaperson
purportingtobethesurvivingspouseofthedeceasedworkeris
dischargedfromliabilitytowardsthedeceasedworkerortheestateof
thedeceasedworkertotheextentofthatpayment.
Applicationtocourttodeterminecompetingclaims

180If2ormorepersonsclaimtobethesurvivingspouseentitledtothe
wagesofadeceasedworker,thecourtmayorderthatthewagesbe
paidtooneormoreofthemintheamountsthecourtconsidersjust.

Division14OtherMattersandRegulations
Representationofmentallyincapableperson

181(1)IfapersonentitledtoreceiveanoticeunderthisActortheSupreme
CourtCivilRulesisamentallyincapablepersonwhohasanominee,the
nomineerepresentsthementallyincapablepersonforthepurposesof
thisPart.
(2)Withoutlimitingsubsection(1),anomineereferredtointhat
subsectionmay,onbehalfofthepersonreferredtointhatsubsection,
(a)begivenanoticethatthisActortheSupremeCourtCivil
Rulesrequiresorpermits,
(b)giveaconsentcontemplatedbythisPart,and
(c)makeanominationpermittedbythisPart,includinga
nominationofhimselforherself.
(3)InadditiontoanoticerequirementunderanyprovisionofthisAct,if
anyotherenactmentrequiresnoticetothePublicGuardianandTrustee
ortoanotherpersoninadditiontoanoticegivenunderthissectiontoa
nominee,noticesmustbegivenundereveryprovisionofthisActand
undertheotherenactment.
Noticestominor

182(1)IfapersonentitledtoreceiveanoticeunderthisActortheSupreme
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CourtCivilRulesisaminor,thenoticeisvalidonlyifitisgivenas
follows:
(a)ifthepersongivingthenoticeknowsthattheminor
resideswithalloftheminor'sparents,tothoseparents
(b)ifparagraph(a)doesnotapplybutthepersongivingthe
noticeknowsthataparentorguardianhasresponsibilityfor
financialdecisionsrelatingtotheminor,tothatparentor
guardian
(c)ifneitherparagraph(a)nor(b)appliesbuttheperson
givingthenoticeknowsofoneormoreaddressesatwhichthe
minorresides,totheminorateachofthoseaddresses.
(2)[Repealed201125469.]
(3)InadditiontoanoticerequirementunderanyprovisionofthisAct,if
anyotherenactmentrequiresnoticetothePublicGuardianandTrustee
ortoanotherpersoninadditiontoanoticegivenunderthissectiontoa
guardian,noticesmustbegivenundereveryprovisionofthisActand
undertheotherenactment.
Openingsafetydepositboxes

183(1)Ifasafetydepositboxwasleasedorrentedinthenameofa
deceasedperson,solelyorjointlywithanotherperson,apersonin
controlofthepremiseswherethesafetydepositboxislocatedmustnot
permittheremovalofthesafetydepositboxoritscontentsfromthe
premisesuntilarepresentativeofthedeceasedpersonorapersonin
whosenamethesafetydepositboxwasjointlyleasedorheldwiththe
deceasedperson
(a)preparesaninventoryinaccordancewithsubsection(2),
and
(b)leavesacopyoftheinventoryinthesafetydepositbox
andwiththepersonincontrolofthepremises.
(2)Aninventorymust
(a)bepreparedinthepresenceofthepersonincontrolofthe
premiseswherethesafetydepositboxislocatedorthat
person'sagent,and
(b)bedatedandsignedbythepersonspresent.
(3)Theoriginalwillofthedeceasedperson,andanycopiesofit,maybe
removedfromthesafetydepositboxbyarepresentativeofthe
deceasedpersonaftertheinventoryispreparedunderthissection.
(4)Subjecttosubsection(5),
(a)thecopyoftheinventoryleftinthesafetydepositbox
mustbekeptinitforatleast12months,and
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(b)thecopyoftheinventoryleftwiththepersonincontrolof
thepremiseswherethesafetydepositboxislocatedmustbe
keptbythatpersonforatleast12months.
(5)Thecopyoftheinventoryleftinthesafetydepositboxmaybe
removedwhen,duringthe12monthperiodreferredtoinsubsection(4)
(a),theleaseorrentalofthesafetydepositboxheldinthenameof
(a)thedeceasedpersonorthepersonalrepresentativeofthe
deceasedperson,or
(b)thedeceasedperson,orthepersonalrepresentativeofthe
deceasedpersonjointlywithanotherperson,
isterminated.
Powertomakeregulations

184(1)TheLieutenantGovernorinCouncilmaymakeregulationsreferredto
insection41oftheInterpretationAct.
(2)Withoutlimitingsubsection(1),theLieutenantGovernorinCouncil
maymakeregulationsasfollows:
(a)respectingthekeeping,custody,disposal,destructionand
indexingofnoticesfiledunderDivision7[Registrationof
NoticeofWill]ofPart4[Wills]
(b)respectingtheusetobemadeofandtheproceduretobe
followedwithrespecttothecertificatesissuedundersection
77(3)[searchofrecords]
(c)prescribingfeestobepaidtofileanoticeortosearchfor
orinspectanoticefiledunderDivision7ofPart4
(d)respectingtheauthorityofapersonalrepresentativefor
thepurposesofsection142[personalrepresentatives
generalauthority].
(3)Withoutlimitingsubsection(1)or(2),theLieutenantGovernorin
Councilmaymakeregulationsrespectinganymatterforwhich
regulationsoftheLieutenantGovernorinCouncilarecontemplatedby
thisAct.
(4)TheLieutenantGovernorinCouncilmaymakeregulationsfor
transitionalmatterswithrespecttoanymatternotprovidedforor
inadequatelyprovidedforasaresultoftherepealofanActbythisAct
andtheenactmentofthisAct.

Part7TransitionalProvisions,RepealsandConsequentialand
RelatedAmendments
Division1TransitionalProvisions
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TransitionapplicationofParts2,3and6

185Part2[FundamentalRules],Part3[WhenaPersonDiesWithoutaWill]
andPart6[AdministrationofEstates]applyinrespectofdeaths
occurringonorafterthedateonwhichthosePartscomeintoforce.
TransitionapplicationofPart4

186(1)Subjecttosubsections(2)and(3)ofthissectionandsection189,
Part4[Wills]appliestoawill,wheneverexecuted,ifthewillmakerdies
onorafterthedateonwhichPart4comesintoforce.
(2)Subsection(1)doesnotinvalidateawillvalidlymadebeforethedate
onwhichPart4comesintoforce.
(3)Subsection(1)doesnotreviveawillvalidlyrevokedbeforethedate
onwhichPart4comesintoforce.
TransitionapplicationofPart5

187Part5[BenefitPlans]appliestoadesignation,whenevermade,ifthe
participantdiesonorafterthedateonwhichthatPartcomesintoforce.
TransitionEstateAdministrationAct

188AdministrationandprobategrantedundertheEstateAdministrationAct
beforeitsrepealbythisActaredeemedtohavebeengrantedunderthis
Act.
Transitionpropertyencumberedbysecurityinterest

189Section47[propertyencumberedbysecurityinterest]appliesonlytoa
willmadeonorafterthedateonwhichthatsectioncomesintoforce.
Transitiondirectionbycourt

190InaproceedingwithrespecttoanActrepealedbythisAct,thecourt
maygiveanytransitionaldirectionsormakeanyorderthatitconsiders
necessaryinthecircumstances.

Division2Repeals
EstateAdministrationAct

191(1)TheEstateAdministrationAct,R.S.B.C.1996,c.122,isrepealed.
(2)[Repealed2006333.]
ProbateRecognitionAct

192TheProbateRecognitionAct,R.S.B.C.1996,c.376,isrepealed.
WillsAct
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193TheWillsAct,R.S.B.C.1996,c.489,isrepealed.
WillsVariationAct

194TheWillsVariationAct,R.S.B.C.1996,c.490,isrepealed.
Division3ConsequentialandRelatedAmendments
[Note:SeeTableofLegislativeChangesforthestatusofsections195to268.]
Section(s)
195

AffectedAct
Wills,EstatesandSuccessionAct,Schedule1

196200

AdultGuardianshipAct

201203

AdultGuardianshipandPlanningStatutesAmendmentAct,2007

204

BusinessCorporationsAct

205

CommunityCareandAssistedLivingAct

206

ConflictofLawsRulesforTrustsAct

207

ConstitutionAct

208209

CourtRulesAct

210

CreditUnionIncorporationAct

211

Cremation,IntermentandFuneralServicesAct

212

EmploymentStandardsAct

213

EnforcementofCanadianJudgmentsandDecreesAct

214

EscheatAct

215

EstatesofMissingPersonsAct

216

EvidenceAct

217218

FinancialInstitutionsAct

219

HealthProfessionsAct

220

HospitalAct

221

HospitalDistrictAct

222

InfantsAct

223224

InsuranceAct

225

InterpretationAct

226

Land(SpouseProtection)Act

227233

LandTitleAct

234

LawandEquityAct

235

LegalProfessionAct

236

LiquorControlandLicensingAct

237

LocalGovernmentAct

238

LoggingTaxAct

239

MarriageAct

240

NotariesAct

241242

PartnershipAct

243244

PatientsPropertyAct

245

PersonalPropertySecurityAct

246

PoliceAct

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247

PowerofAttorneyAct

248

ProbateFeeAct

249250

PublicGuardianandTrusteeAct

251

SchoolAct

252

SecuritiesAct

253

SocialServiceTaxAct

254256

SurvivorshipandPresumptionofDeathAct

257265

TrusteeAct

266

267268

UnclaimedPropertyAct
AmendmentstothisAct
Wills,EstatesandSuccessionAct

Repealofconsequentialamendmentsthatmaybecomeinoperative

269TheLieutenantGovernorinCouncilmay,byregulation,repealsections
196to203,243,244,247,267.1,268,268.2and268.3ofthisAct.
Commencement

270ThisActcomesintoforcebyregulationoftheLieutenantGovernorin
Council.
Schedule1
(Section195)
Item Column1
Actbeingamended

Column2
Sectionorotherprovision

CommunityCharter
S.B.C.2003,c.26

184(2)and(3)

FirstPeoples'Heritage,Language
andCultureAct
R.S.B.C.1996,c.147

9(2)

LandTitleAct
R.S.B.C.1996,c.250

260(1)(a)
265
266(1)

LocalGovernmentAct
R.S.B.C.1996,c.323

314(4)and(5)

MuseumAct
S.B.C.2003,c.12

23(2)

NotariesAct
R.S.B.C.1996,c.334

18(b)(i)and(ii)

RailwayAct
R.S.B.C.1996,c.395

42(c)

SecuritiesAct
R.S.B.C.1996,c.418

1,inparagraph(b)(iii)ofthedefinitionof
"privatemutualfund"

TrinityWesternUniversity
FoundationAct
S.B.C.1989,c.82

11(2)

10

TrusteeAct

27(4)(a)

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R.S.B.C.1996,c.464

86(1)
97(2)

11

UniversityFoundationsAct
R.S.B.C.1996,c.471

11(3)

12

VancouverCharter
S.B.C.1953,c.55

152(4)and(5)

Schedule2
(Section83)
ConventionProvidingAUniformLawOnTheFormOfAnInternationalWill
THESTATESSIGNATORYTOTHEPRESENTCONVENTION,
DESIRINGtoprovidetoagreaterextentfortherespectingoflastwillsby
establishinganadditionalformofwillhereinaftertobecalledan"internationalwill"
which,ifemployed,woulddispensetosomeextentwiththesearchforthe
applicablelaw
HAVERESOLVEDtoconcludeaConventionforthispurposeandhaveagreedupon
thefollowingprovisions:
ArticleI
(1)EachContractingPartyundertakesthatnotlaterthansixmonths
afterthedateofentryintoforceofthisConventioninrespectofthat
Partyitshallintroduceintoitslawtherulesregardinganinternational
willsetoutintheAnnextothisConvention.
(2)EachContractingPartymayintroducetheprovisionsoftheAnnex
intoitslaweitherbyreproducingtheactualtext,orbytranslatingitinto
itsofficiallanguageorlanguages.
(3)EachContractingPartymayintroduceintoitslawsuchfurther
provisionsasarenecessarytogivetheprovisionsoftheAnnexfull
effectinitsterritory.
(4)EachContractingPartyshallsubmittotheDepositaryGovernment
thetextoftherulesintroducedintoitsnationallawinorderto
implementtheprovisionsofthisConvention.
ArticleII
(1)EachContractingPartyshallimplementtheprovisionsoftheAnnex
initslaw,withintheperiodprovidedforintheprecedingarticle,by
designatingthepersonswho,initsterritory,shallbeauthorizedtoactin
connectionwithinternationalwills.Itmayalsodesignateasaperson
authorizedtoactwithregardtoitsnationalsitsdiplomaticorconsular
agentsabroadinsofarasthelocallawdoesnotprohibitit.
(2)ThePartyshallnotifysuchdesignation,aswellasanymodifications
thereof,totheDepositaryGovernment.
ArticleIII
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Thecapacityoftheauthorizedpersontoactinconnectionwithaninternationalwill,
ifconferredinaccordancewiththelawofaContractingParty,shallberecognizedin
theterritoryoftheotherContractingParties.
ArticleIV
TheeffectivenessofthecertificateprovidedforinArticle10oftheAnnexshallbe
recognizedintheterritoriesofallContractingParties.
ArticleV
(1)Theconditionsrequisitetoactingasawitnessofaninternationalwill
shallbegovernedbythelawunderwhichtheauthorizedpersonwas
designated.Thesameruleshallapplyasregardsaninterpreterwhois
calledupontoact.
(2)Nonethelessnooneshallbedisqualifiedtoactasawitnessofan
internationalwillsolelybecauseheisanalien.
ArticleVI
(1)Thesignatureofthetestator,oftheauthorizedperson,andofthe
witnessestoaninternationalwill,whetheronthewilloronthe
certificate,shallbeexemptfromanylegalizationorlikeformality.
(2)Nonetheless,thecompetentauthoritiesofanyContractingParty
may,ifnecessary,satisfythemselvesastotheauthenticityofthe
signatureoftheauthorizedperson.
ArticleVII
Thesafekeepingofaninternationalwillshallbegovernedbythelawunderwhich
theauthorizedpersonwasdesignated.
ArticleVIII
NoreservationshallbeadmittedtothisConventionortoitsAnnex.
ArticleIX
(1)ThepresentConventionshallbeopenforsignatureatWashington
fromOctober26,1973,untilDecember31,1974.
(2)TheConventionshallbesubjecttoratification.
(3)InstrumentsofratificationshallbedepositedwiththeGovernmentof
theUnitedStatesofAmerica,whichshallbetheDepositary
Government.
ArticleX
(1)TheConventionshallbeopenindefinitelyforaccession.
(2)InstrumentsofaccessionshallbedepositedwiththeDepositary
Government.
ArticleXI
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(1)ThepresentConventionshallenterintoforcesixmonthsafterthe
dateofdepositofthefifthinstrumentofratificationoraccessionwith
theDepositaryGovernment.
(2)InthecaseofeachStatewhichratifiesthisConventionoraccedes
toitafterthefifthinstrumentofratificationoraccessionhasbeen
deposited,thisConventionshallenterintoforcesixmonthsafterthe
depositofitsowninstrumentofratificationoraccession.
ArticleXII
(1)AnyContractingPartymaydenouncethisConventionbywritten
notificationtotheDepositaryGovernment.
(2)Suchdenunciationshalltakeeffecttwelvemonthsfromthedateon
whichtheDepositaryGovernmenthasreceivedthenotification,butsuch
denunciationshallnotaffectthevalidityofanywillmadeduringthe
periodthattheConventionwasineffectforthedenouncingState.
ArticleXIII
(1)AnyStatemay,whenitdepositsitsinstrumentofratificationor
accessionoratanytimethereafter,declare,byanoticeaddressedto
theDepositaryGovernment,thatthisConventionshallapplytoallor
partoftheterritoriesfortheinternationalrelationsofwhichitis
responsible.
(2)Suchdeclarationshallhaveeffectsixmonthsafterthedateonwhich
theDepositaryGovernmentshallhavereceivednoticethereofor,ifat
theendofsuchperiodtheConventionhasnotyetcomeintoforce,from
thedateofitsentryintoforce.
(3)EachContractingPartywhichhasmadeadeclarationinaccordance
withparagraph1ofthisArticlemay,inaccordancewithArticleXII,
denouncethisConventioninrelationtoallorpartoftheterritories
concerned.
ArticleXIV
(1)IfaStatehastwoormoreterritorialunitsinwhichdifferentsystems
oflawapplyinrelationtomattersrespectingtheformofwills,itmayat
thetimeofsignature,ratification,oraccession,declarethatthis
Conventionshallextendtoallitsterritorialunitsoronlytooneormore
ofthem,andmaymodifyitsdeclarationbysubmittinganother
declarationatanytime.
(2)ThesedeclarationsshallbenotifiedtotheDepositaryGovernment
andshallstateexpresslytheterritorialunitstowhichtheConvention
applies.
ArticleXV
IfaContractingPartyhastwoormoreterritorialunitsinwhichdifferentsystemsof
lawapplyinrelationtomattersrespectingtheformofwills,anyreferencetothe
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internallawoftheplacewherethewillismadeortothelawunderwhichthe
authorizedpersonhasbeenappointedtoactinconnectionwithinternationalwills
shallbeconstruedinaccordancewiththeconstitutionalsystemoftheParty
concerned.
ArticleXVI
(1)TheoriginalofthepresentConvention,intheEnglish,French,
RussianandSpanishlanguages,eachversionbeingequallyauthentic,
shallbedepositedwiththeGovernmentoftheUnitedStatesofAmerica,
whichshalltransmitcertifiedcopiesthereoftoeachofthesignatoryand
accedingStatesandtotheInternationalInstitutefortheUnificationof
PrivateLaw.
(2)TheDepositaryGovernmentshallgivenoticetothesignatoryand
accedingStates,andtotheInternationalInstitutefortheUnificationof
PrivateLaw,of:
(a)anysignature
(b)thedepositofanyinstrumentofratificationoraccession
(c)anydateonwhichthisConventionentersintoforcein
accordancewithArticleXI
(d)anycommunicationreceivedinaccordancewithArticleI,
paragraph4
(e)anynoticereceivedinaccordancewithArticleII,paragraph2
(f)anydeclarationreceivedinaccordancewithArticleXIII,
paragraph2,andthedateonwhichsuchdeclarationtakeseffect
(g)anydenunciationreceivedinaccordancewithArticleXII,
paragraph1,orArticleXIII,paragraph3,andthedateonwhich
thedenunciationtakeseffect
(h)anydeclarationreceivedinaccordancewithArticleXIV,
paragraph2,andthedateonwhichthedeclarationtakeseffect.
INWITNESSWHEREOF,theundersignedPlenipotentiaries,beingdulyauthorizedto
thateffect,havesignedthepresentConvention.
DONEatWashingtonthistwentysixthdayofOctober,onethousandninehundred
andseventythree.
Annex
UniformLawOnTheFormOfAnInternationalWill
Article1
(1)Awillshallbevalidasregardsform,irrespectiveparticularlyofthe
placewhereitismade,ofthelocationoftheassetsandofthe
nationality,domicileorresidenceofthetestator,ifitismadeintheform
ofaninternationalwillcomplyingwiththeprovisionssetoutinArticles2
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to5hereinafter.
(2)Theinvalidityofthewillasaninternationalwillshallnotaffectits
formalvalidityasawillofanotherkind.
Article2
Thislawshallnotapplytotheformoftestamentarydispositionsmadebytwoor
morepersonsinoneinstrument.
Article3
(1)Thewillshallbemadeinwriting.
(2)Itneednotbewrittenbythetestatorhimself.
(3)Itmaybewritteninanylanguage,byhandorbyanyothermeans.
Article4
(1)Thetestatorshalldeclareinthepresenceoftwowitnessesandofa
personauthorizedtoactinconnectionwithinternationalwillsthatthe
documentishiswillandthatheknowsthecontentsthereof.
(2)Thetestatorneednotinformthewitnesses,ortheauthorized
person,ofthecontentsofthewill.
Article5
(1)Inthepresenceofthewitnessesandoftheauthorizedperson,the
testatorshallsignthewillor,ifhehaspreviouslysignedit,shall
acknowledgehissignature.
(2)Whenthetestatorisunabletosign,heshallindicatethereason
therefortotheauthorizedpersonwhoshallmakenoteofthisonthewill.
Moreover,thetestatormaybeauthorizedbythelawunderwhichthe
authorizedpersonwasdesignatedtodirectanotherpersontosignonhis
behalf.
(3)Thewitnessesandtheauthorizedpersonshallthereandthenattest
thewillbysigninginthepresenceofthetestator.
Article6
(1)Thesignaturesshallbeplacedattheendofthewill.
(2)Ifthewillconsistsofseveralsheets,eachsheetshallbesignedby
thetestatoror,ifheisunabletosign,bythepersonsigningonhis
behalfor,ifthereisnosuchperson,bytheauthorizedperson.In
addition,eachsheetshallbenumbered.
Article7
(1)Thedateofthewillshallbethedateofitssignaturebythe
authorizedperson.
(2)Thisdateshallbenotedattheendofthewillbytheauthorized
person.
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Article8
Intheabsenceofanymandatoryrulepertainingtothesafekeepingofthewill,the
authorizedpersonshallaskthetestatorwhetherhewishestomakeadeclaration
concerningthesafekeepingofhiswill.Ifsoandattheexpressrequestofthe
testatortheplacewhereheintendstohavehiswillkeptshallbementionedinthe
certificateprovidedforinArticle9.
Article9
Theauthorizedpersonshallattachtothewillacertificateintheformprescribedin
Article10establishingthattheobligationsofthislawhavebeencompliedwith.
Article10
Thecertificatedrawnupbytheauthorizedpersonshallbeinthefollowingformorin
asubstantiallysimilarform:
CERTIFICATE
(ConventionofOctober26,1973)
1.I,...............................,(name,addressandcapacity),aperson
authorizedtoactinconnectionwithinternationalwills
2.Certifythaton.................................................(date)at
.............................(place)
3.(testator)...................................(name,address,dateandplaceof
birth)inmypresenceandthatofthewitnesses
4.(a)............................................(name,address,dateandplaceof
birth)
(b)............................................(name,address,dateandplaceof
birth)
hasdeclaredthattheattacheddocumentishiswillandthatheknows
thecontentsthereof.
5.Ifurthermorecertifythat:
6.(a)inmypresenceandinthatofthewitnesses
(1)thetestatorhassignedthewillorhasacknowledgedhissignature
previouslyaffixed.
*(2)followingadeclarationofthetestatorstatingthathewasunableto
signhiswillforthefollowingreason.....................................
Ihavementionedthisdeclarationonthewill................
*thesignaturehasbeenaffixedby............................................
(name,address)
7.(b)thewitnessesandIhavesignedthewill
8.*(c)eachpageofthewillhasbeensignedby..........................and
numbered
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9.(d)Ihavesatisfiedmyselfastotheidentityofthetestatorandofthe
witnessesasdesignatedabove
10.(e)thewitnessesmettheconditionsrequisitetoactassuch
accordingtothelawunderwhichIamacting
11.*(f)thetestatorhasrequestedmetoincludethefollowing
statementconcerningthesafekeepingofhiswill:
12.PLACE..........................................
13.DATE............................................
14.SIGNATUREand,ifnecessary,SEAL
*Tobecompletedifappropriate.
Article11
Theauthorizedpersonshallkeepacopyofthecertificateanddeliveranothertothe
testator.
Article12
Intheabsenceofevidencetothecontrary,thecertificateoftheauthorizedperson
shallbeconclusiveoftheformalvalidityoftheinstrumentasawillunderthisLaw.
Article13
Theabsenceorirregularityofacertificateshallnotaffecttheformalvalidityofawill
underthisLaw.
Article14
Theinternationalwillshallbesubjecttotheordinaryrulesofrevocationofwills.
Article15
Ininterpretingandapplyingtheprovisionsofthislaw,regardshallbehadtoits
internationaloriginandtotheneedforuniformityinitsinterpretation.

Copyright(c)Queen'sPrinter,Victoria,BritishColumbia,Canada

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