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The conduction system controls the heartbeat.

It starts witht the SA Node,

____ Node, Bundle of ______, bundle branches, and _______________ fibers.

The highest leading cause of death is __________ ___________.

The endocardium is the _________ endothelial lining of heart chambers and


___________________ is the thickest part of the heart that contains cardica


Epicardium consists of viseral layer and ___________ layer.

Circulation of the heart starts at the _____________ __________ _________, RT

______, tricuspid valve, RT ventricle, Pulmonary valve, ______________ artery,
to the lungs, back through the pulmonary vein, _________ atrium. ____________
valve, Left ______________, out the aorta to body.

Downward P Wave is known as _____________ dysrhythmia.

T wave represents the repolarization of the ________________.

QRS represents the ____________ impulse as it travels through the AV node, AV

bundle, ___________ branches, Purkingie fibers, and myocardial cells, ending
with the _______________ contracting.

____________ ________________ is the volume of blood pumped by the ventricles

with each contraction.

The sound lub means that mitral and ___________ valves close, while DUb
means that the pulmonic and _____________ valves are closing.

Onset of symptoms, risk factors, ____________, age, gender, family history are
all included in a ____________ _____________.

Some risk factors for cardiac disease include _________________, obesity, high
_________ ____________, smoking, heredity, ________________, physical inactivity.

Women are at greater risk for cardiac disease when they use oral
____________________, and after the age of ________.

Difficulty breathing while laying down is known as ______________. To relieve

sit up or __________.

Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is known s having _____________ breathing and

___________ at night.

Distended neck vein is a sign of _________ sided __________ failure.

The nurse checks for a Positive Homans sign to determine a

________________ is less than 60 beats per minute. To treat it you give


Tachycardia is greater than _______ beats per minute. __________ is given to

decrease it.

_______________ should be avoioded with atrial dysrhythmias.

Premature ______________ Contractions (PVC) comes from _______ beats in the

ventricles. It is treated by _____________and Defibrillation.

SOme teachings for a Pacemaker for the heart are are high tension wires and
___________ may make it malfunction, ___________ contact sports, and it may
activate airport security alarms.

_________ _____________ is a way to know if a person has a pacemaker.

Treatment for myocarditis is ______________, antiinflamatory agents, oxygen

and _____________.

Pericrditis means that teh sac around the heart is ________. It is treated by
_____________________, antipyretics, analgesics, antiinflamatory agents, and

Shortness of breath and chest numbness are signs of _________________.

The _________________ ventricle is affected in an MI.

Initial treatment immediatly following an MI is _________________, and

thrombolytic therapy.

When given thrombolytic therapy you should check for bleedings and
_____________ stools.

A woman who is ____________ years old should go to a cardiac rehab after

having an MI.

Cyanosis, dyspnea, restless, coughing up ____________ ___________

_____________ are signs of _______________ sided heart failure.

________ _______________ is carbon dioxide is increased in the blood,

pulmonary arteris constrict which causes pulmonary HTN.

You should not rub a thrombis because it could move to the ______________ or
_________________________ is treated with a thrombectomy, elevating the legs,
use warm soaks.

Beurgers disease is an _________________ disease of smaller and medium

arteries and veins that lead to vascular ____________.

______________________ is an excision of a nerve that releives pain and

prevents vasospasms in affected area.

Primary-Raynauds Disease is intermittent ____________ of digiatl arteries and

arterioles resulting in decreased _________________ to _______ and ___________.

Secondary-Raynauds __________________ is associated with connective tissue

and colagen, _____________, or occupational trauma.

Atherosclerosis, __________________ and HTN can cause an __________________.

Unchangeable risk factors for HTN include age, _________, post menopausal
women, family ___________, genetics.

Changeable risk factors for HTN include smoking, lack of exercise, __________,
stress, oral ___________________ and diet high in sodium and fat.

Pathophysiolgy of renal disease and HTN is: Renal Disease, _________ blood
flow to kidneys, Release of renin, Renin interact with ______________ protein,
Angiotensin formed, Vasoconstriction, ______________ peripheral resistance,
_______________ blood pressure.

Essential is the same as Primary HTN and the cause is ____________________.

Diet, ___________________ first then you decide if you needs medications to

treat ____________.

High _________ diet leads to water ___________________ which leads to high fluid
volume which leads to HTN. To treat that you want a ____________ sodium diet
and a _____________(Thiazides) to decrease fluid volume.

To fight infection and transport _________ fluid from interstitial space to

circulatory system are the functions of the _____________________ system.

WBCs fight ______________________.

RBCs _________________ blood tissue.

An ____________ in WBC could be and infection or ______________________.

_________________ are involved with blood clotting.

Type ____ blood is the universal donor.

Type AB blood is the universal ______________.

When you obtain blood for a transfusion you need to give it __________ and
within __________ mins, do not mix, and you piggyback it with _________

Filtering out old RBCs, platelets and microorganisms is the function of the

The neck, ____________ , and ______________ are all palpable lymph nodes.

When the spleen is infected it _____________ to produce and release

_______________ and lymphocytes.

RBC Disorders:

Iron Def. Anemia- _______________ of iron to synthesize function iof Hgb.

Treatment is a diet high in ___________, oral or injected iron.

Aplastic Anemia-the bone marrow stops making enough ___________

__________. Treatment is ____________________________ therapy or bone marrow
transplant and infections are treated with _________________.

Pernicious Anemia- lack of B ___________ intrinsic factor. Treatment is a

lifetime injection of vitamin __________.

Sickle Cell Anemia- Inherited in _____________ ________________ normal cells are

turned sickle shape and obstruct capillarie vessels. Treatment is if infected
give ________, genetic counseling, Droxia is given to relieve pain and
_________ ______ is given daily to produce RBC. Trental ________________ blood

Polycythemia - ___________________ production of RBCS. Treated by


If a person had a gasterctomy and has Pernisious anemia the signs and
symptoms will be dehydration, decreased oxygen, ___________________ and
______________ changes.

____________ cell crisis is crystallization of _______________ which forces the

RBCs to sickle and ___________ vessels.

Sickle Cell anemia affects ___________________ _____________________.

WBC Disorders:

Leukemia- bonemarrow producse ______________ numbers of immature WBCs

that are incapable of _______________ the body.

Acute Leukemia-Rapid onset and treated ____________. ALL-Occurs in Children

younger than _______. AML-Occurs after the age of _________. Treatment is
chemotherapy. ALL is also given ________________ for decreased reoccurances.

Chronic Leukemia-increase in WBCs over months or ____________. CLL-have

increased abnormal B _________ with WBC of 20-100thousand. CML-_________
chromosome, genetic link. Trreated with chemptherapy.

Agranulocytosis- severly _______________ of granulocytes. Caused by adverse

reaction of ___________. Treatment is ___________. Must have alot of __________
to prevent weakness and fatgue.

Chronic leukemia put a person at ________________ risk for ________________.

Coagulation Disorders:

DIC-condition of alternating clotting and ____________. Heparin does not

_______________ the thromin it stops one from forming again. Amicar can be
given to stop bleeding.

Hemophilia-inherited bleeding disorder where there is a lack of ______________

factor. Desmopressin acetate(DDAVP) can be given for mild hemophilia.

Hodgkins Lymphoma-rare, arises as ______________ swelling in ____________

node. Chemo drugs are given for treatment and Zofran is given for
____________ and ______________. Analgesics can be given for ______________.

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma- more common, originates from B lymphocytes and

_____ lymphocytes. Chemotherapy is treatment.

DIC is treated with Amicar and _________ to prevent from forming more.

______________ lymphoma is the worst type.

Hodgkins lymphoma is diagnosed by Chest xrays, CBC, bone marrow

aspiration, ____________ CT scan, and lymphnode biposy

Nonhodgkins is diagnosed by __________ node biopsy.

Plasma Cell Disorder:

Myeloma-plasma cells in bone marrow become _____________, crowd out

normal cells, ___________ normal bone tissue, and causes pain. Steroids along
with anitneoplastic drugs are given. Analgesics for pain. Increase fluids to
minimize complications of excessive __________ in blood and urine. Treatment
is chemo and radiation.

_____________ Fib is a very serious arrhythmia.

MI mimics symptoms of _______________.

HCT measures the _____________ of blood cells in a _________________ of blood.

Normal is 38%-54%.

Temporary ___________ of blood and oxygen supply to the myocardial tissue is


Coronary Vasodilators:

Nitro Tabs-cause blood vessels to _____________.

Beta Blockers and Calcium Channel blockers slow the ______________ rate and
_______________ the oxygen demand of teh heart.

CCBlockers also dilate vessels and ____________ spasms of coronary vessels.