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A New Directional Relay for the Protection of EHV Transmission Lines

Based on the Detection of Transient Voltage Signals

D R M Lyonette(1), Z Q Bo (1), G Weller(1), F Jiang(2)


(1) ALSTOM Protection & Control Ltd, UK (2) Singapore Polytechnic, Singapore

Abstract: This paper presents the application of a new


directional relaying technique for the protection of EHV
transmission lines using fault generated high frequency
voltage transients. The technique utilises a specially
designed transient detection unit to detect fault generated
transient voltage signals. A multi channel filter unit is then
applied to the captured signals to extract the desired bands of
signals. The filter outputs are then fed to a spectral energy
circuit where their associated spectral energy levels are
calculated. These levels can be compared to establish the
direction of the fault.
Keywords: Directional Relaying,
Transient Based Protection.

Transmission

Lines,

I. INTRODUCTION
Ever since the principle of directional relaying emerged at
the beginning of this century, it has played an important role
in the area of power line protection. Conventional directional
relay schemes relied on the measurement of power frequency,
a major disadvantage of this being slow operating time. It has
long been recognised that a reduction of fault-clearance times
very effectively improves the transient stability of electricpower systems and, in recent years, a considerable amount of
interest has therefore focused on ultrafast fault clearance and
the various means of achieving it.

Transmission lines caused by the sudden change in the


system voltage that occurs in the immediate post-fault period,
together with high frequency phenomena caused by
travelling waves and arcing fault, are generally outside the
bandwidth of receptibility of most conventional voltage
transducers. However, it has recently been shown that these
signals, if captured, can be used very effectively to develop
new types of protection schemes that have many advantages
over existing power frequency measurement based methods.
[2,3].
This paper will present a new principle in directional
relaying in which the fault direction is determined based on a
comparison of the spectral energy of the fault generated high
frequency (HF) voltage transient components. The scheme
involves the use of conventionally connected power line
carrier line traps. The HF signals are captured using a
specially designed Transient Voltage Transducer (TVT)
which is connected to the substation busbar. Power line
carrier line traps are used to confine the HF signals to the
protected zone and their bandstop characteristics are used as
a basis for ascertaining the direction of the fault. A specially
designed signal processing unit is used to process the
captured signals. Simulation studies are carried out using the
well known EMTP software. It will also be shown that the
scheme is able to make correct discrimination when a fault
occurs on the busbar itself. This is done using a specially
designed Decision Logic Unit (DLU) which makes decisions
based on the results from a window of digital levels produced
as a direct result of fault generated high frequency (HF)
voltage transient components. The DLU will produce a
different output depending on the direction of the fault or if
the fault is on the busbar itself. The faulted responses will be
examined with respect to various system and fault conditions
II. BASIC PRINCIPLE

High

frequency

components

generated

on

EHV

The basic principle of the proposed technique is based


firstly on the detection of fault generated high frequency
transient voltage signals, on the busbar, as a direct result of a
fault occurring on one of the lines or on the busbar itself.
Fig.1 can be used to illustrate the proposed technique. This

is a two section transmission system; the length of the line


sections and the source parameters are as shown in the
figure. The proposed directional relay is installed on busbar S
via the TVT circuit and line coupling capacitor. The TVT unit
has been designed based on the principle of power line
carriers. It is essentially a resonance circuit which consists of
resistive, inductive and capacitive components[2]. The
parameters of the circuit were chosen to match the line
impedance and the centre frequency to which the line traps
are tuned.

occurring on the forwards and reverse lines respectively. This


figure also shows the system response when a fault occurs
on busbar S. As shown, the signal derived will be severely
attenuated at the centre frequency 90 kHz for forward fault
and 70 kHz for reverse fault. Moreover for a fault on the
busbar section no attenuation is apparent at either center
frequency. Based on these unique characteristics, two
bandpass filters can be designed to centre around the two
bands. Once the frequency bands are chosen, the frequency
response of the system as given in Fig.2 varies little with the
length of the protected line.

15GVA
5
GVA

Reverse
Line 80km

Line Trap

Line Trap

Forward Line
100km

30
GVA

T
F4

F2

F3

F1

S
F5

Transient
Voltage
Transducer

The ratio of the spectral energy of the two filter outputs


will be significantly different for faults occurring in the
forward and reverse line direction and for a fault on the
busbar section S the spectral energy of the two filter outputs
will be similar and therefore their ratio will be close to 1. As a
result, the direction/location of a fault can be derived based
on the ratio of the two filter outputs.

VRelay

Bandpass
Filter1

Fig.1. Simulated transmission system with relaying scheme


VA

When a fault occurs on the system for example on the


reverse line section as shown in Fig.1(F2,F4) high frequency
voltage signals will be generated and subsequently detected
by the TVT unit. Together the line traps and the TVT work as
a signal filter to strip away unwanted frequency bands. The
two line traps on the forward and the reverse lines are tuned
to different centre frequencies 90 and 70 kHz respectively.
The lower bands of the conventional line traps are used , as
this reduces the computation power required for the relay
hardware.

VRelay

VF

VP

Spectral Energy
Circuit
F=
Forward

YF
Ratio
log(F/R)

VB
VC
VR

R=
Reverse

Loca tion
of Fault

D.L.U.

YR

Bandpass
Filter2

Fig.3. Relay schematic layout

III. RELAY DESIGN


The relay consists of modal mixing circuit, bandpass filter,
spectral energy extraction, ration computation and D.L.U
circuit.
With reference to Fig.3, the output of the TVT circuit
VRelay is fed into the relay unit. The modal transformation
method [3] is employed to decouple the phase signals into
their respective aerial modes. These signals are combined to
form VP . This signal is then band pass filtered at centre
frequencies of 70kHz and 90kHz to filter out any unwanted
bands and leave the two required signals VF and VR.

Line1 - fault in forward direction


Line2 - fault in reverse direction
Line3 - fault on busbar S
Fig.2. Frequency response of system to forward and
reverse faults
Fig.2 shows the frequency responses of the system to fault

The spectral energy levels, of the two filter outputs are


determined by the spectral energy circuit which performs a
running integral over the two signals to produce the values
YF and YR. The integral effectively processes a window of
the incoming waveform and in practice would automatically
reset after remote clearance of the fault.
The log of the ratio of the two spectral energy signals YF

and YR is used to determine whether the fault is in the


forward or reverse direction to the busbar or located on the
busbar itself. This is done in the Decision Logic Unit section
of the relay which takes the logarithmic ratio of the energy
signals and gives an output indicating the location of the
fault. The DLU performs an algorithm on the logarithmic ratio
signal and will only give a fault location decision if the level
of the input signal remains within one of three specific bands
for a restrain amount of time.

2000

1000
0

vp

-1000
-2000
80

40

The three logarithmic ratio discrimination bands are


Positive and Greater Than 0.5 for a forward line section fault;
Negative and Less Than -0.5 for a reverse line section fault
and Greater Than -0.5 and Less Than 0.5 for a busbar
section fault. The restrain time used throughout is 0.5mS this
is used to discriminate between system fluctuations and real
system faults and therefore cuts out maloperation and
nuisance tripping. Only when the digital level of the
logarithmic ratio has been observed in one of the three
discrimination bands for a time exceeding the pre-set restrain
time, will the relay (or at least the DLU stage of the relay) give
a final fault location and trip decision.

FILTER 1 OUTPUT

vF

-40
-80
50

With reference to Fig.1(F1,F3) if the fault is in the forward


direction then the logarithmic ratio relationship of the two
spectral energy signals will produce a positive value.
Conversely for the fault in the reverse direction (F2,F4) to the
busbar then the logarithmic ratio relationship of the two
signals will produce a negative value. For a fault on the
busbar itself (F5) the logarithmic ratio relationship of the two
signals will produce a value centred around zero. These
unique results are used to set the three discrimination bands
that determine the location of a fault on the system.

TVT OUTPUT

25

FILTER 2 OUTPUT

vR

-25
-50
0

a)

TIME (mS)

1400

FORWARD
SPECTRAL ENERGY

700

0
400

REVERSE
SPECTRAL ENERGY

200

0
20

3
4
LOG(ENERGY RATIO)

FOWARD FAULT DECISION

b)

TIME (mS)

Fig.4 An a-phase to earth fault in forward line at F1


VI. RELAY RESPONSES EVALUATION
The response of the complete system is evaluated by
digitally modelling the transmission line system together with
the line traps the TVT and the relay. As shown in Fig.1, the
system is based on a typical 400 kV EHV transmission
system. There are two line sections in the system, the lengths
of which are 80 km for the reverse line section and 100 km
and forward line section with short circuit levels of 5 GVA, 15
GVA, and 30 GVA at the busbars R, S and T respectively. The
simulation of the faulted power system was implemented
using the Electromagnetic Transient Programme (EMTP)
software. The sampling frequency used throughout is 200
kHz.

Fig.4.a) shows the system response to an earth fault on


phase a mid way along line section F at 50 km from busbar S.
It is evident that the magnitude of the forward line filter
output VF, is significantly higher than that of the reverse line
filter output VR. These responses produce spectral energy
levels as shown in Fig.4.b)1,2). It is evident that the
magnitude of the forward line spectral energy YF is
significantly higher than the reverse line spectral energy YR.
As shown in Fig.4.b)3) the resulting logarithmic ratio between
the two spectral energies produces a positive value of about
+1 to +2. As the level of the ratio signal is greater than 0.5 for
a time exceeding the pre-set relay restrain time a forward line
fault decision is made by the relay.
Fig.5a) shows the system response to an earth fault on
phase a, mid way along line section R at 40 km from busbar
S. In this case It is evident that the magnitude of the reverse
line filter output VR, is significantly higher than that of the
forward line filter output VF. These responses produce

spectral energy levels as shown in Fig.5.b)1,2). It is evident


that the magnitude of the reverse line spectral energy YR is
now significantly higher than the forward line spectral energy
YF. As shown in Fig.5.b)3) the resulting logarithmic ratio
between the two spectral energies now produces a negative
value of about -2 to -4. As the level of the ratio signal is less
than -0.5 for a time exceeding the pre-set relay restrain time a
reverse line fault decision is made by the relay. For line to
earth faults closer to the remote busbars R and T, although
the magnitudes of the voltages will be significantly less due
to the increased line impedance, the logarithmic ratio
relationship of the spectral energies is still maintained.
2000

1000

Fig.8. shows the system response to an earth fault, on


phase a, on busbar S. In this case the voltage levels
produced at filter 1 and filter 2 are of similar magnitude. This
intern produces spectral energy levels that are also of a
similar magnitude. Fig.8 b)3) shows the upper and lower limits
of the busbar discrimination band and it can be seen that the
logarithmic ratio signal is apparent within these limits. As the
level of the ratio signal is greater than -0.5 and less than 0.5
for a time exceeding the pre-set relay restrain time a busbar
fault decision is made by the relay in this case.
.

TVT OUTPUT

vp

-1000
-2000
24

12

FILTER 1 OUTPUT

vF

-12
-24
120

60

FILTER 2 OUTPUT

earth fault on phase c at the end of line section R, near


remote busbar R. This is a common occurrence due to fallen
trees etc. An earth impedance of 300 was used to simulate
this type of fault. It is important to note that although the
magnitude of the filter outputs is attenuated by the earth
impedance their ratio relationship is maintained. Here the fault
is in the reverse line and again the logarithmic ratio
relationship of the two spectral energy signals produces a
negative value of -2 to -4. As the level of the ratio signal is
less than -0.5 for a time exceeding the pre-set relay restrain
time a reverse line fault decision is made by the relay.

vR

-60

TVT OUTPUT

-120
0

a)

vp

TIME (mS)

180

90

vF

YF

0
2800

FILTER 2 OUTPUT

vR

REVERSE
SPECTRAL ENERGY

1400

YR

0
1.5

FILTER 1 OUTPUT

FORWARD
SPECTRAL ENERGY

TIME (mS)

a)

REVERSE FAULT DECISION

-0.5

FORWARD
F
SPECTRAL ENERGY

-2.5
LOG(ENERGY RATIO)
-4.5

b)

TIME (mS)

R
REVERSE
SPECTRAL ENERGY

Fig.5. An a phase to earth fault in reverse line at point F2


Fig.6. shows the system responses to a fault between a
and b phases at the end of line section F, near remote
busbar S. Here the fault is in the forward line and again the
logarithmic ratio relationship of the two spectral energy
signals produces a positive value with a magnitude of 1 to 2.
As the level of the ratio signal is greater than 0.5 for a time
exceeding the pre-set relay restrain time a forward line fault
decision is made by the relay.
Fig.7. shows the system responses to a high impedance

LOG(ENERGY RATIO)

FORWARD FAULT DECISION

b)

TIME (mS)

Fig.6. An a-b phase to phase fault in forward line at point F3


V. CONCLUSIONS

This paper outlines the basic principle of a new directional


relay for the protection of EHV transmission lines using fault
generated transient voltage signals. The conventional carrier
frequency line traps are utilised to block desired bands of
high frequency voltage signals. A transient voltage
transducer is used to capture the high frequency transient
voltage signals. Two bands of high frequency signals are
extracted from the TVT captured signal by the specially
designed relay unit. Comparison between the levels of the
spectral energy will decide the direction of a fault. The
simulation results presented in the paper clearly show that the
relay can accurately determine the direction of a fault for all
practically encountered system and fault conditions and can
correctly discriminate between line and busbar faults.

8000

vp

-4000
-8000
400

200

1250

vF

-200
-400

500

250

vp

-1250

vR

-250
-500

a)

10
0

-20

vR

-60

FORWARD
SPECTRAL ENERGY

REVERSE
SPECTRAL ENERGY

YR
3

BUSBAR FAULT DECISION

UPPER LIMIT
LOWER LIMIT

-0.5

LOG(ENERGY RATIO)

-1.0

TIME (mS)

a)

b)

YF

0.0

-120

80

0
1.0
0.5

FILTER 2 OUTPUT

11000

vF

60

FILTER 1 OUTPUT

-10

120

TIME (mS)

0
22000

-2500
20

FILTER 2 OUTPUT

11000

TVT OUTPUT

FILTER 1 OUTPUT

22000
2500

TVT OUTPUT

4000

FORWARD
SPECTRAL ENERGY

40

TIME (mS)

Fig.8. An a phase to earth fault in busbar S at F5

YF

VI. REFERENCES

1500

REVERSE
SPECTRAL ENERGY

YR

750

[1] GEC Protection & Control, Protective Relay Application


Guide.

1.5

REVERSE FAULT DECISION

-0.5
-2.5
LOG(ENERGY RATIO)
-4.5
0

TIME (mS)

[2] Z Q Bo, R K Aggarwal and A T Johns, "A New


Approach to Fault Generated High Frequency Noise
Measurement on Transmission Systems", Proceedings of the
27th University Power Engineering Conference, pp.760-763,
University of Bath, 23-25 September 1992

b)
Fig.7. A high impedance c phase to earth fault in
reverse line at point F4

[3] Z Q Bo, M A Redfern, et al, "A New Directional


Comparison Technique for Line Protection Based on the
Measurement of Fault Current Transients", Proceedings of
the International Conference on Power System Transients,
Seattle, USA, June 22-26, 1997, pp.423-427