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EARTHQUAKE

PROTECTION
ASHRAE

The following details can be used to help prevent the effects of earthquakes
on:

Mechanical Systems
Electrical Systems
Piping

Cable Trays,
Ductwork
Bus Ducts
Suspended Equipment
Conduit
Floor Mounted Equipment

Plumbing Systems

Piping
Fire Protection Systems

Piping

H
A S

R A

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.


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ASHRAE

Suspended systems such as piping, equipment and ductwork need seismic braces to keep them from swaying during an earthquake. Seismic
braces can be flexible using aircraft quality cables, or rigid (solid) using
steel sections such as pipe, angles, or strut channels. Braces are typically installed 30-40 ft (10-13 m) apart, at system turns and at the end of
runs. Braces are attached to the pipe/duct at horizontal supports such as
cleviss or trapezes. The other end is attached to structure such as overhead concrete slabs or structural steel. Suspended equipment requires
a minimum of four braces, one at each corner. Floor mounted equipment
needs to be anchored to the structural slab. This also includes equipment
that is Vibration Isolated with seismic snubbers.

Pipe, Cable Trays, Bus Ducts & Conduit


Bracing Details

Cable Bracing

SWIVEL
FASTENER
(TYP.)

STIFFENER CLAMP

STIFFENER CLAMP

HANGER ROD

HANGER ROD

ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)

ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)

NO LOAD
ON CABLE

SEISMIC
TENSION
LOAD
(REACTION)
SWAY BRACE

SEISMIC
FORCE

CLEVIS
STIFFENER

TRANSVERSE BRACE

LONGITUDINAL BRACE

TRANSVERSE & LONGITUDINAL CABLE BRACE FOR HORIZONTAL SUSPENDED PIPE


FIGURE 1

ASHRAE
STIFFENER CLAMP
HANGER ROD

SWIVEL
FASTENER
(TYP.)

ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)

CABLE BRACE
SEISMIC
FORCE

PIPE SECURED
TO TRAPEZE

CABLE BRACE FOR TRAPEZE SUSPENDED PIPE


FIGURE 2

Rigid or Solid Bracing


STIFFENER
CLAMP
HANGER ROD

SWIVEL
FASTENER
(TYP.)

ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)

SOLID BRACE

CLEVIS STIFFENER

SEISMIC
FORCE

SOLID BRACE IN COMPRESSION


FOR INDIVIDUALLY SUPPORTED PIPE
FIGURE 3

SWIVEL
FASTENER
(TYP.)

STIFFENER CLAMP
HANGER ROD
ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)

SOLID BRACE

SEISMIC
FORCE

PIPE SECURED
TO TRAPEZE

SOLID BRACE IN COMPRESSION


FOR TRAPEZE PIPE
FIGURE 4

ASHRAE

Duct Bracing Details


Cable Bracing
SWIVEL
FASTENER
(TYP.)
STIFFENER
CLAMP
HANGER
ROD

ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)

CABLE
BRACE

DUCTWORK SECURED
TO TRAPEZE WITH SCREWS
TRANSVERSE BRACE

LONGITUDINAL BRACE

CABLE BRACING OF SUSPENDED DUCTWORK


FIGURE 5

Rigid or Solid Bracing

STIFFENER
CLAMP
HANGER ROD
SWIVEL
FASTENER
ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)
SOLID
BRACE
ADDITIONAL
UPPER SUPPORT

FPV

FPH

C.G.
W

FPV
L

TRAPEZE SUPPORT
SHEET METAL
SCREW

SOLID BRACE OF DUCTWORK ON TRAPEZE


FIGURE 6

ASHRAE

Suspended Equipment Bracing


Suspended equipment requires bracing as shown in Figure 8 using rigid
steel sections or Figure 7 using cables. Connections to the equipment such
as piping, conduit or ductwork should be made with flexible connections.

STIFFENER
CLAMP
HANGER
ROD
O = 30 TO 60

ROD
STIFFENER
(WHEN
REQUIRED)

SWIVEL
FASTENER
(TYP.)

CABLE BRACE
(4)-TYPICAL

CABLE
BRACE

EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT

HANGER
ROD

ELEVATION

PLAN VIEW

TYPICAL CABLE BRACE ARRANGEMENT


FIGURE 7

ROD STIFFENER
(WHEN REQUIRED)
SOLID
BRACE

STIFFENER CLAMP

HANGER ROD

SOLID BRACE
(4)-TYPICAL

SWIVEL
FASTENERS
(TYP.)
SOLID BRACE
O = 30 TO 60
EQUIPMENT

EQUIPMENT
HANGER ROD

ELEVATION

PLAN VIEW

TYPICAL SOLID BRACE ARRANGEMENT


FIGURE 8

ASHRAE

Floor Supported Equipment

Floor mounted equipment may be bolted down if no vibration isolation is


required. If the equipment is isolated then the equipment must either have
bumpers as shown in Figure 9 or snubbers as shown in Figure 10.
TWO BOLTS
PER BRACKET

EQUIPMENT

PLAN VIEW

ANCHOR BRACKET
(2) PER SIDE

NO CLEARANCE
ANCHOR BRACKET
STRUCTURAL ANCHOR
EQUIPMENT
1/4" NEOPRENE

DETAIL A-A

ANCHOR BRACKET CONNECTED TO EQUIPMENT


FIGURE 9

EQUIPMENT
(SHOULD BE CONNECTED
TO STEEL FRAME OR
CONCRETE INERTIA BASE)

HEIGHT SAVING BRACKET


(TYPICAL)

SEISMIC SNUBBER
(TYPICAL)

VIBRATION
ISOLATOR
(TYPICAL)

STEEL FRAME OR
CONCRETE INERTIA BASE

CROSS BRACING
LOCATED AT OR NEAR
SEISMIC SNUBBERS

SUPPLEMENTAL BASE - OPEN SPRINGS AND SNUBBERS


FIGURE 10

ASHRAE

Anchor Bolts

Anchor bolts are one of the most important parts of a correctly designed and
installed Seismic Restraint System. The
most widely used anchors for seismic
restaints are the wedge, adhesive and
undercut.
Proper installation of anchors is
important.
Basic installation methods for shell
and adhesive anchors is shown in
Figure 12.

FIGURE 11

FIGURE 12

ASHRAE

Sites with additional information:



ASHRAE, American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air


Conditioning Engineers, www.ASHRAE.org

ASHRAE Technical Committee TC 2.7 Seismic & Wind Restraint


Design, www.ASHRAE.org/technology/page/1727

FEMA, www.FEMA.gov , Publications 412, 413 & 414

USGS, United States Geological Survey, www.USGS.gov

SMACNA, Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National


Association, www.SMACNA.org

VISCMA, Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control Manufacturers


Association, www.VISCMA.com

ICC, International Code Council, www.ICCSAFE.org

National Fire Protection Association, www.NFPA.org

AHRI, Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration Institute,


www.ahrinet.org

This publication was written by ASHRAEs Technical Committee TC 2.7, Seismic and Wind
Restraint Design. All details in this document are from ASHRAEs Publication, A Practical
Guide to Seismic Restraint, 2000, or FEMA Document 412
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