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Chemical reactions

During reactions, particles collide and undergo change atoms rearranged


to produce new particles
Chemical energy
Chemical energy=heat content= enthalpy= H
Chemical energy of a substance is the sum of its potential energy (stored)
and kinetic (movement) energy.
Results from:
o Attractions between electrons and protons in atoms
o Repulsions between nuclei
o Repulsions between electrons
o Movement of electrons
o Vibrations of and rotations around bonds
Energy changes during chemical reactions
Exothermic reactions
o Total energy of products is less than total energy of reactants
o Energy released often as heat
Endothermic reactions
o Total energy of products is more than total energy of reactants
o Energy absorbed from environment
Energy released or absorbed = heat of reaction
o

H=H product H reactant

Thus H=ve=exothermic
o

H=+ ve=endothermic

Thermochemical equations
Show the energy released or absorbed during a chemical
reaction.
o 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l) C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g); H = +2803
kJ mol1
C6H12O6(aq) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l); H = 2803
kJ mol1

moles H mole is doubled , H is doubled

Activation energy
is the energy required to break the bonds of reactants
so that a chemical reaction can proceed.
Process: Energy absorbed bonds between atoms
break new bonds form energy is released
product
Energy profile (diagram on side)
Collision theory
For a chemical reaction to occur, the particles must collide with each other
with sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy barrier to the
reaction.

o Only SUCCESSFUL collisions allow chemical reaction to progress.


Factors that affect rate of reactions
o Increasing surface are of solids
Increase SA greater number of exposed particles
increases frequency of collisions faster reaction
o Increasing concentration of reactants in solution/pressure of
gaseous reactants
Increase concentration More particles increase frequency
of collisions increase chance of successful collisons
Increase pressure increases concentration of gas molecules
increases frequency of collisions higher chance of
successful collisions
o Increasing the temperature
Increase temperature increase kinetic energy increase
speed of particles more collisions more successful
collisions
Or increase particles with the correct activation energy
to undergo reaction
o Adding a catalyst
Provides an alternative reaction pathway with a significantly
reduced activation energy.

YIELD
Chemical equilibrium is the stage when the quantities of reactants and
products in the reaction remain unchanged
Reaction yield is how far the reaction will go/ the extent of conversion of
reactants into products
Reversible reactions
o Some physical and chemical changes can be reversed.
o Forward and reverse reactions occur simultaneously
o N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g)
Equilibrium
Dynamic equilibrium
o Equilibrium is a dynamic state, Forward and back reactions have not
ceased
o Amounts and concentrations of chemical substance remain constant
o Total gas pressure is constant
o Temperature is constant
o Reaction is incomplete
General process: Reactants start reacting to form product (forward
reaction) some of the products formed, reactant to form the reactants
(reverse reactions) eventually forward and backward reactions perform
at the same rate the amount of reactants and products remains
constant
Different reactions proceed to different extents have different
equilibrium constants
Equilibrium Law
aA + bBcC + dD

K=equilibrium constant at a specific temperature


o

o
o

[C] [D]
a
b
[ A ] [ B]

Q=Reaction quotient =concentration fraction=

Specific to type of reaction. e.g Hydrochloric acid and potassium


hydroxide has a different K value to hydrochloric acid and sulphuric
acid
Calculated using the reaction quotient equation but only with
concentrations at equilibrium
K value changes, if temperature changes

1
K

Inversed equation ( e . g cC +dD aA+ bB )=

Equation is doubled( e . g . 2 aA+2 bB 2 cC+ 2 dD)=K 2

Tells us the extent of the reaction

K <104
4

10 < K <10

Consists of mostly reactants


4

Significant amount of products and

reactants

104 < K

Consists of mostly products

Q<K
Proceed right (faster rate of forward
reaction)
Q=K
Has reached equilibrium
Q>K
Proceed left (faster rate of reverse reaction)
Effects on the equilibria
Le Chateliers law
o
Pressure
o Changes the equilibrium position (the relative amount of products
and reactants)
o Does not change K
o GASES ONLY
o To change pressure, need to change volume
Increase Volume, Decrease pressure, system partially
opposes change by favouring the direction that produces
more particles
Decrease Volume, Increase pressure, system partially
opposes change by favouring the direction that produces less
particles
o Adding inert gas
No effect with the position of equilibrium
o Aqueous solution adding water
Increases volume, system partially opposes change by
favouring the direction that produces more molecules
Concentration
o Changes the equilibrium position (the relative amount of products
and reactants)
o Does not change K

Adding reactants
Pushes the reaction forward.
o Adding products
Pushes the reaction backward
o Reducing reactants
Pushes the reaction backward
o Reducing products
Pushes the reaction forward
Temperature
o Changes K
o Exothermic reaction (T opposite effect on K)
As temperature increases products decrease decrease K
value
As temperature decrease products increase increase K
value
o Endothermic reaction (T same effect on K)
As temperature increase products increase increase K
As temperature decrease products decrease decrease K
Catalyst
o Does not change K
o Increases rate of reaction via an alternate pathway.
o Only speeds up the time it reaches equilibrium does not change
position of equilibrium
Some reactions dont reach equilibrium
o Reaction will produce products that leave the system forwards
reaction until completion
o

E.g.

CaC O3 (s)C O2(g)+CaO (s )

carbon dioxide will leave

system.
o Reaction where minute quantities of reactants are present
Acid-base equilibria

At equilibrium water is

o
o

Kw

H 3O

OH

K w =

is the ionisation constant of water

Used to calculate pH levels

+
H 3 O

O H

K =

H3 O

pH=log 10

Self ionisation of water is endothermic


Change in temperature
Increase temperature Net forwards reaction Water
is more acidic &

Kw

increases

Decrease temperature Net backwards reactions


Water is more basic &

Acidity constant
o

Kw

decreases