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OBO: Education

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Stephen P. Heyneman
Professor, International Education Policy
Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations
Vanderbilt University
Jeongwoo Lee
PhD Candidate
International Education Policy and Management
Department of Leadership, Policy and Organizations
Vanderbilt University
General Overviews
Regional Overviews
OECD Countries
Developing Countries
Middle East and North Africa
Latin America and the Caribbean
South and East Asia
Central Asia
Western Europe
Data Sets
Access and Equity
Human Capital, Economics and Finance
Accreditation and Quality Assurance
The Role of International Organizations
Social Cohesion
Competition and Ranking
Future Issues
Changes in Technology
Industry Relations
The Role of Education in International Technology
International higher education issues refer to those problems or dilemmas which pertain to
more than one country or region. These can include the nature of student affairs, finance,
professional misconduct and corruption, international trade, management efficiency, equity,
institutional governance, academic integrity, student migration, research quality and many
others. Until recently the study of higher education and the preparation of higher education
managers were predominantly North American. The literature on higher education and
concepts of higher education issues of importance, are influenced by these origins. This is

now changing. Today higher education issues are heavily influenced by the nature of the
changes in Western Europe, the Former Soviet Union and in East Asia and the Pacific. And
the research on higher education increasingly reflects the new balance of these international
issues. The study of international higher education issues continues to be influenced by the
North American context endowments, differential remuneration of faculty, transfer of
course credits. On the other hand, many issues which used to be considered solely North
American are now international enrollment ratios, dropout rates, differentiation in
institutional function. Lastly, there are issues which have emerged elsewhere, the study of
corruption, trade, research quality assessment and undergraduate student achievement
which are rapidly being studied within North America.
The following works provide an introduction to the field of international higher education
issues. Some provide this introduction without regional or specializations. This is the case
with respect to: Teichler 2007, Hirsch and Weber 1999, Altbach and Peterson 2007, and
Goedegeburre et. al. 1994. Others provide an overview with a particular emphasis. For
instance, Altbach et. al. 2009 track policies which were originally North American, but today
can be found globally. Purcell et. al. 2004 provides a perspective on issues pertaining to
womens colleges; Baker and Wiseman 2007 on issues which stem from research findings.
Geiger et. al. 2007 track issues pertaining to the research university; Stromquist 2007, the
professorate; Neave and van Vught 1994, the relations with government, and Qiang 2003,
Altbach, Philip G. and Patti McGill Peterson, ed. 2007. Higher Education in the
New Century: Global Challenges and Innovative Ideas. Rotterdam: Sense
Analysis of six key challenges in higher education: academic profession, access
and equity, higher education and social cohesion, private higher education,
international student flows, and research universities
Altbach, Philip G, Liz Reisberg, and Laura E Rumbley. 2009. Trends in Global
Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. Boston: Center for
International Higher Education.
Investigation of main driving forces, in particular globalization and massive
demand for higher education, for changes in scope and diversity in higher
education and their impacts on higher education
Goedegeburre, Leo, Frans Kaiser, Peter Maassen, Lynn Meek, Frans A. van Vught, and Egbert
de Weert, ed. 1994. Higher Education Policy: An International and Comparative Perspective.
Oxford: Pergamon Press.
A volume providing not only comprehensive identification and analysis of the
principles, structural features, modes of different higher education policies in
11 different countries but also higher education policies similarities and
differences in international trends and issues and country-specific elements
Hirsch, Werner A. and Luc E. Weber, ed. 1999. Challenges Facing Higher Education at the
Millennium. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
A overview of some key issues in higher education including challenges at the
millennium, future environment of higher education, and certain initiatives in
relation to funding, governance, alliance building between industry and
institutions and technology

Neave, Guy and Frans A. van Vught, ed. 1994. Government and Higher Education;
Relationships across three Continents: the Winds of Change. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Analysis of the relationships between government and higher education in 12
countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to examine the effectiveness of
specific types of government regulation in comparison with others in tackling
higher education crisis arising in many developing countries
Purcell, Francisca, Robin Matross Helms, and Laura Rumbley, ed. 2004. Womens
Universities and Colleges: an International Handbook. Chestnut Hill: Center for
International Higher Education.
This book as an inventory of womens higher education institutions worldwide
provides a wide range of specific and detailed information and resources by
region, which are expected to be used as practical resources for research and
studies for womens higher education.
Qiang, Zha. 2003. Internationalization of higher education: Towards a conceptual framework.
Policy Futures in Education 1, no. 2: 248-70.
Presentation of a conceptual and organizational framework of
internationalization of higher education including the meaning of, rationale for,
and approach to internationalization and strategies to incorporate international
Stromquist, Nell, ed. 2007. The Professoriate in the Age of Globalization.
Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Discussion of the professoriate, a primary player in higher education
institutions, in six countries, in particular in terms of its conditions in a
comparative perspective
Teichler, Ulrich. 2007. Higher Education Systems: Conceptual Frameworks,
Comparative Perspectives, Empirical Findings. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Description of various dimensions of higher education in Europe between 1990s and the
present such as higher educations changing role, access and admission, diversity of
institutions, the Bologna process, excellence, and education systems
Higher education issues vary in more respects than from country-to-country; they also vary
from one group of countries to another. We have followed this variation in the categories of
citations located below. Some summarize the issues with respect to the industrial
democracies (OECD 2009), low and middle income countries (Task Force on Higher
Education and Society 2004; World Bank 1994; World Bank 1995; World Bank 2002). Other
overviews pertain to specific geographical regions such as the Middle East and North Africa
(Bashshur 2004), Central Asia (Heyneman and De Young 2004; Brunner and Tillett 2007),
Western Europe (Fagerlind and Stromquist 2004; Int Veld et. al. 1996), Latin America and
the Caribbean (Segrera, et al. 2009), South and East Asia (APEID-UNESCO 2006), and SubSaharan Africa (Hinchliffe 1987; Teferra and Altbach 2003). In some instances an overview
might include a specialized issue within a region (Assie-Lumumba 2007).
OECD Countries
The challenges of higher education in Industrial democracies are dramatically different from
other parts of the world. There is greater access so attention is paid to efficiency and quality.
There is intensive competition in higher education.

OECD. 2009. Higher Education to 2030, Volume 2: Globalization. Paris: OECD.

A book exploring significant issues including trends and developments in higher education
provision, financing, international mobility governance, and quality assurance in the
context of how to meet challenges over the next 20 years
Developing Countries
Issues in low or middle income countries include access and the difficulties of maintaining
standards of quality and efficiency with marginal available resources.
World Bank. 1994. Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience. Washington, DC: World
Investigation of the major aspects of higher education crisis in developing
countries and the prospects for four main directions for reform (diversity of
institutions, funding, the role of government, and quality and equity)
World Bank. 1995. Priorities and Strategies for Education. Washington, D.C: World Bank.
A review of the proposals of the World Bank made in the 1980s intended to
develop new approaches for the educational sector, in particular education as a
mechanisms for economic growth and poverty reduction, in the 1990s
World Bank. 2002. Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education.
Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
A report describing the contribution of higher education to a countrys capacity
to take part in an knowledge-based global economy and examining policy
options to promote economic growth and to alleviate poverty through higher
In the case of Sub-Saharan Africa, universities struggle not only with the inadequacy of
financial resources and unmet demand, but with weak institutions, autocratic governments
with an intolerance for academic freedoms.
Teferra, Damtew and Altbach Philip, ed. 2003. African Higher Education: An International
Reference Handbook. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
A comprehensive survey of current trends and issues in higher education in
Africa and analytic essays in 54 African countries higher education
Hinchliffe, Keith 1987. Higher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. London: Croom Helm
This book addresses higher education in Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular concentrating
on the present and future labor market for higher education graduates and on financing
higher education. This book will be helpful to understand current status and growth of
higher education and costs and outputs (efficiency) of higher education in Sub-Saharan
Assie-Lumumba, NDri T. 2007. Women and Higher Education in Africa: Reconceptualizing
Gender-Based Human Capabilities and Upgrading Human Rights to Knowledge. Abidjan:
Analysis of complicated issues necessary to appreciated the interface between
gender, higher education, and the production of knowledge and issues related
to the fundamental right of women to higher education

Middle East and North Africa

Higher Education in the Middle East and North Africa is characterized by unresolved
traditions of state monopoly, low private costs, poor quality and an intolerance of academic
debate which may question social or political authorities.
Bashshur, Munir. 2004. Higher Education in the Arab States. Beirut: UNESCO Regional Office.
A report on higher education in the Arab states in the world context, groundlevel case studies from three countries on purposes and performance of higher
education institutions, and possible dilemmas in higher education
Latin America and the Caribbean
Higher education in the Latin America and Caribbean region is characterized by high quality
government universities attended largely by the economic elite who have benefited from
non-government primary and secondary education and lower quality non-government
institutions attended largely by students from lower socio-economic backgrounds who have
attended lower quality government primary and secondary schools.
Segrera, Francisco Lpez, Colin Brock, and Jos Dias Sobrinho, ed. 2009. Higher Education in
Latin America and the Caribbean 2008. Caracas, Venezulea: IESALC-UNESCO.
An overview of current main trends in higher education in Latin America and
presentation of case studies analyzing key issues and realities in higher
South and East Asia
Higher education in South and East Asia is characterized by rapid expansion matching
growth in the general economies and the struggle to maintain quality with reference to
higher education in the industrial democracies.
APEID-UNESCO. 2006. Higher Education in South-East Asia. Bangkok: UNESCO.
A report on case studies from eight countries analyzing higher education
systems, specifically reform, access, diversification, governance, research
capacities, private education, internalization, accreditation, quality assurance,
and challenges for the future
Central Asia
Higher education in Central Asia is characterized by the challenges of changes the
structures from what was appropriate under the Soviet Union to the structures appropriate
for industrialized democracies. Also relevant is the growth of education corruption which
threatens the higher education sector generally.
Heyneman, Stephen P. and Alan J. De Young, ed. 2004. The Challenge of Education
in Central Asia. Greenwich (Conn.): Information Age Publishing.
Exploration of challenges in elementary, secondary, and higher education in Central Asia
along with introduction of social, political, and economic background of Central Asia
Brunner, Jose Joaquin and Anthony Tillett. 2007. Higher Education in Central Asia: the
Challenges of Modernization an Overview. The Chilean Education Forum.
Exploration of current challenges that higher education in Central Asia is
confronted with, focusing on Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and
Uzbekistan in terms of system, policy, and competitiveness

Western Europe
The issues of higher education in Western Europe, aside from those of industrial
democracies generally, contain issues of re-structuring under the Bologna Process, the
search for a European dimension and the natural competition with the quality and flexibility
of higher education in North America.
Fagerlind, Ingemar and Gorel Stromquist, ed. 2004. Reforming Higher Education in the
Nordic Countries: Studies of Change in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
Paris: International Institute of Education Planning.
Review of changes in the higher education sectors which are generated by technology,
globalization, and competition in the Nordic countries
Int Veld, Roel, Fussel, Hans-Peter, and Neave, Guy, ed. 1996. Relations between the State
and Higher Education: Legislating for Higher Education in Europe. The Hague: Kluwer Law
Identification of key issues that European countries need to face in their higher education
legislations and description of exemplary good practices of European countries
Though much attention is paid to the importance of electronic technologies, textbooks
remain deeply important. They shape the character of the manifest curriculum. They are
lightening rods for debate over history and civics, and they provide an unprecedented
window into the character of public education in every country.
Altbach, Philip G. 2006. International Higher Education: Reflections on Policy and Practice.
Chestnut: Boston College Center for International Higher Education.
Discussion of worldwide issues in the contemporary debate in higher education policy and
practice such as globalization, internationalization, world-class research universities,
funding, private higher education, corruption, and academic freedom
Forest, James F. and Philip G. Altbach, ed. 2006. International Handbook of Higher Education.
Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.
A volume containing in-depth analyses of the central topics in higher education across the
globe and comparative analyses of key countries and regions in an attempt to provide the
background, trends, and realities of contemporary higher education
Mauch, James E. and Paula L.W. Sabloff, ed. 1995. Reform and Change in Higher Education:
International Perspectives. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.
Discussion of the changing roles of government involvement in higher education policy
reform in 10 countries
Phelps, Phelps P., Greta L. Dietrich, Gabriele Phillips, and Kevin A. McCormack. 2002. Higher
Education: An International Perspective. Washington, D.C.: The ERIC Clearinghouse on
Higher Education.
A report providing a review of higher education systems in selected 12 developed
countries and outcomes of comparing the U.S. with 11 other countries, which share some
similarities with the U.S., in the context of such higher education measures as student
participation, resources and expenditures and education outcomes
Tight, Malcolm, Ka Ho Mok, Jeroen Huisman, and Christopher Morphew, ed. 2009. The
Routledge International Handbook of Higher Education. New York: Routledge.

Critical and comparative overview of the major eight issues and questions in higher
education and higher education research across countries
International issues of higher education can be found in the journals which specialize in
international education. Few journals focus on international higher education exclusively.
This list includes most of those which contain higher education issues.
*Comparative Education []*
This journal investigates theoretical and empirical analyses and debates in the field of
comparative education from national, international and global perspectives
*Comparative Education Review []*
Founded in 1957 by University of Chicago Press, this journal explores cross-national issues
of education and the social, economic, and political influences and forces shaping them.
*Education Review []*
This journal covers national and international issues in a wide range of schooling and
education fields including education policy and management
*Higher Education Management and Policy
Published by OECD, this journal investigates practices and policies on wide international
scope in the field of higher education institutional management and system
*International Journal of Educational Development
This journal intends to stimulate significant debates about the roles of education in
development, with particular emphasis on developing new theoretical insights and
understanding of the interaction between local, national, regional. And global contexts
*International Higher Education
This journal addresses critical issues in higher education from international perspective
and reports analyses of the issues
*International Journal of Higher Education Research [
This journal explores educational developments in higher education institutions and in
public and private higher education sectors on a basis of comparative analyses and
*Studies in Higher Education []*
This journal publishes both research-based empirical analyses and policy-oriented articles
from any perspective in higher education or discipline
*UNESCO Prospects []*
Published by UNESCO, this journal covers current and controversial comparative and
international educational issues with emphasis on not only theoretical or researchoriented discussions, but policy implementation for policy makers and practitioners

Statistical information on international higher education can be found in three central

(for the industrialized democracies), UNESCO Institute of Statistics (for all member states),
*World Bank Education []* (for middle and low-income countries).
Additional information can be found at *Eurostat
[]*, *USAID: Education &
Universities []*, the *U.S. National Center for Education Statistics []*, and
three Regional Development Banks: *Asian Development Bank Education
[]*, *Association for the Development of Education
in Africa []*, and *Inter-American Development Bank
Education []*. Available statistics include rates of enrollment, drop
out, specializations, graduation rates and portion of the general population with postsecondary education. OECD includes higher education financial data including portion of
public expenditures allocated to higher education, portion of higher education expenditures
from non-government sources, and unit expenditures. These data are not as complete in
either the UNESCO or World Bank data sets, though they are improving over time. Data sets
do not yet include academic achievement or unit expenditures/faculty, but these are
currently under construction.
*Asian Development Bank Education []*
This agency contains comprehensive and broad information on education, in particular
educational reform and development, for Asian countries
*Association for the Development of Education in Africa
This agency created in 1988 in an attempt to establish links between ministries of
education and development agencies provides databases and plentiful information on
education policies and the transformation of education for development.
*Eurostat []*
This portal site of the European Union provides information and statistics on European
Union affairs by theme that allow comparison between countries and regions in an
attempt to help EU Member States make decisions on a concrete foundation of reliable
and objective statistics.
*Inter-American Development Bank Education []*
This agency with objectives of alleviation of poverty and inequality and sustainable
development for Latin America and the Caribbean countries contains over 1,000
searchable statistics and indicators which create a wide-ranging dataset for the region. A
dataset of educational indicators is provided in the subsection titled Sociometro.
*Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development[OECD]
OECDs educational database serve as reliable database in that they are based on
documents and reports Ministries of Education or National Statistical offices provide. In
particular, there are two useful annual publications: Education Policy Analysis and
Education at a Glance, which compile comparable indicators on country-specific education
systems performance, quality, equity, and efficiency.
*UNESCO Education []*

UNESCO is one of the most comprehensive sources of educational dataset worldwide.

*Institute for Statistics []*provides a multitude of publications
and numerical data. Also, it contains resources for higher education and important
international higher education policy issues *online [].
*USAID: Education & Universities
The principal U.S. Agency focusing on foreign assistance also works in the field of higher
education, especially in terms of contribution of education to political, economic, and
social development. It is possible to acquire many publications and reports on higher
education from *Higher Education for Development[HED]
[]*and specific education data from *USAID Global Education
Database []*which includes data from UNESCO and the
Demographic and Health Surveys.
*U.S. National Center for Education Statistics []*
The primary federal entity of the U.S., NCES gathers and analyzes data associated with
education in the country and other countries. NCES annually makes public a wide range of
education statistics and publications.
*World Bank Education []*
As another huge epicenter of data and researches on various sectors, World Bank provides
a rich, comparable and up-to-date range of data and indicators on education as well
through its *Education data page []*
Stemming from WWII, the principal equity concern has been the selectivity of higher
education and its fairness to marginal populations, working class families, low-income
minorities, residents of rural areas. Since no nation, including the Soviet Union, has ever had
a system where the portion of students exactly mirrored their portion of the general
population, much of the debate has centered on interventions which hold the potential of
raising the portion of underserved populations in higher education (see Clancy and
Goastellec 2007). This has raised tensions on grounds that need for assistance might
contrast with ability, hence the concern over whether under-served populations were
sufficiently prepared for university work and whether the efficiency of the economy was
inhibited by inattention to the more able (though they originate disproportionately from
middle class families). Recent work on access and equity however has broken into new
areas. Traditionally it was thought that the gap in higher education quality was widening
between wealthy and poor countries and with every new technological innovation, and that
this gap only increased. Now with the wide-spread use of electronic technologies in higher
education, it may be possible to narrow instead of widen the gap. The fact that a student
with electronic access in Shanghai may have the same level of bibliographic resources as
the student in Boston (see Capshaw 2008) suggests that the equity issues of the future may
be cast quite differently than they have in the past. Similarly, the struggle over alternative
sources of higher education income has traditionally revolved around tuition fees. It has
been a common understanding that higher tuition raises a handicap to those from lowincome families; hence the struggle has been to keep tuition low or non-existent on the
grounds that to not do so would hurt the poor. New cross-national surveys of student
populations in countries with different higher education systems have now challenged this
traditional notion (Arun et al. 2007). Countries with a wide divergence in higher education
missions and a wide divergence in tuitions have been found to have higher portions of the
poor enrolled. Moreover, the higher the portion of income from sources other than the state

(which can include tuition and other sources), the larger the portion of low income students
with higher education opportunity. The future of this issue internationally is likely to continue
to challenge these traditional assumptions that because it is free it is therefore
advantageous to the poor.
Arun, Richard, Adam Gamoran, and Yossi Shavit. 2007. More Inclusion than Diversion:
Expansion, Differentiation, and Market Structure in Higher Education. In Stratification in
Higher Education: A Comparative Study, ed. Yossi Shavit, Richard Arum, and Adam Gamoran,
1-39. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
This is the first cross-national study of the influence of higher education structures on
socio-economic representation in higher education institutions. The book contends that
systems where institutions have diverse missions and large portions of income from nonstate sources have higher access and higher portions of students from low income
backgrounds within their student populations.
Capshaw, Norman Clark. 2008. Do Electronic Technologies Increase or Narrow Differences in
Higher Education Quality Between Low and High Income Countries? Peabody Journal of
Education 83, no. 1: 117-42.
An attempt to figure out how technologies of the internet and computers have influenced
the gap in higher education quality, focusing on the U.S. first and low- to middle-income
countries second
Clancy, Patrick and Gaele Goastellec. 2007. Exploring Access and Equity in Higher
Education: Policy and Performance in a Comparative Perspective. Higher Education Quarterly
61, no. 2: 136-54.
This article conducts a comprehensive analysis of some commonalities and differences in
national policies of access and equity in higher education between countries and
introduces some problems of measuring equity in and access to higher education from a
comparative perspective
Skilbeck, Malcolm and Helen Connell. 2000. Access and Equity in Higher Education: an
International Perspective on Issues and Strategies. Dublin: Higher Education Authority.
A report on the international range of equity issues in terms of legislative framework for
pursuing equity in Ireland, fundamental concepts in the equity debate, current state of
equity in higher education, and issues and problems that primary equity target groups are
confronted with and applicable strategies and approaches to accomplish greater quality
in higher education
Stromquist, Nell P. 2005. Comparative and International Education: A Journey toward Equality
and Equity. Harvard Educational Review 75, no. 1: 89-111.
Discussion of issues of equality and equity in the context of the comparative and
international education including gender in education, non-formal education, globalization,
international finance agencies and translational organizations as new educational actors,
and public policies in education
Rapid growth in enrollment rates (massification), rapid improvements in quality, new
standards of equity yet insufficient public resources have combined to drive major shifts in
higher education governance. A university of 20 years ago might have been considered
autonomous if it had control over academic content and faculty appointments. Today, the
definition of autonomy includes sources of revenue, remuneration policies, ownership of
property, admissions, allocation of scholarships, and managerial structures. Originally

thought of as privatization today these areas of governance are considered the normal
components of good management. The literature on university governance such as
Heyneman (2009) and Thompson (1998) reflects shifts in the nature and function of the
state from one of control to that of supervision. It also reflects managerial choices which
universities now must face. These include the choice of breadth vs. depth of endeavor; the
range of topics to cover; the type of student market to target; the question of whether they
are a developer (rare) or a deliverer (more common) of knowledge. Bad or nave choices
may contribute to over-expectations and inefficiencies (see Thompson, 1998).
Amaral, Alberto, Glen A. Jones, and Berit Karseth,ed. 2002. Governing Higher Education:
National Perspectives on Institutional Governance. Dordrecht: Springer.
Analysis of higher education governance (jurisdiction) issues and reforms in nine countries
from different theoretical perspectives and presentation of empirical evidence and
theoretical approaches to examine system-level reforms and institutional governance
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2009. The Appropriate Role of Government in Education. Journal of
Higher Education Policy 3, no. 2: 135-57.
A review of the origins and purpose of public education and higher education and a
discussion of the roles and responsibilities of the government in education
Huisman, Jeroen, ed. 2009. International Perspectives on the Governance of Higher
Education: Alternative frameworks for coordination. New York: Routledge.
In an attempt to answers to a question of how to better comprehend governance in higher
education and its impact, this paper concentrates on three directions: the traditional
approaches (application of existing governance frameworks), deviation from the
traditional approaches, and new and complex interaction of governance and cooperation
Kennedy, Kerry. J. 2003. Higher Education Governance as a Key Policy Issue in the 21 st
Century. Educational Research for Policy and Practice 2, no. 1: 55-70.
Introduction of governance in terms of its definition, its significance in current higher
education, the social, political, and economic condition governance should consider, and
the desirable features of university governance in the 21st century
Paradeise, Catherine, Emanuela Reale, Ivar Bleiklie, and Ewan Ferlie, ed. 2009. University
Governance: Western European Comparative Perspectives. Dordrecht: Springer.
Analysis of the structure, governance, and management of seven Western European
higher education and research systems from the perspective of national dynamics,
organizational design, and the changes introduced through steering tools
Thompson, Quentin. 1998. Trends in Governance and Management of Higher Education.
Human Development Department LCSHD Paper Series No. 33. Washington, D.C.: The World
A report on trends in higher education governance and management primarily in the
English speaking OECD countries, the impact of external environmental changes on higher
education governance, and governance and management at the institutional level in
terms of changes within higher education institutions
Trakman, Leon. 2008. Modeling University Governance. Higher Education Quarterly 62, no. 12: 63-83.
Evaluation of competing trends in types of university governance in three countries, the
U.K., Australia, and the U.S. and description of five models of board level governance in
higher education institutions and the models practical application


Early human capital models suggested that public or private investment in higher education
led to positive economic rates of return and could explain a sizeable portion of the variation
in economic growth and innovation. However, with the rates of enrollment above 50% of the
age cohort, the economic rates of return to higher education might be expected to decline.
Instead they have been maintained. Wage differences between high school and college
completion in OECD countries have increased rather than decreased. Today, attending some
sort of higher education is becoming the norm rather than the exception. On the other hand
explanations of economic growth have shifted. Economic growth used to be attributed to the
quantity of education to which an age cohort had been exposed; today the major portion of
the variance can be explained by the quality of learning to which an age cohort has attained
But economic growth is also influenced by the style of higher education. Land grant
institutions may have made a large contribution to the economic growth in the American
west With respect to finance there has been a long-standing observation as to the
characteristics of cost sharing the need to finance higher education with a combination of
resources from the state and the student. It also includes the discussion over the
characteristics of student loan programs which may be feasible in the context of a particular
country Equal attention has been paid to how financing can be used to augment
organizational efficiency. Performance-based funding schemes have become more common
Bennell, Paul. 1996. Using and Abusing the Rates of Return: A Critique of the World Bank.
International Journal of Educational Development 16, no. 3: 235-48
Examination of how the World Banks 1995 Education Sector Review draws on the
research of rate of return to education, whether patterns of internationally acknowledged
rate of return to education are in existence, and the role of rate of return to education in
economic analysis of education
Bowman, Mary J. 1962. The Land Grant Colleges and Universities in Human Development.
Journal of Economic History 22, No. 4: 523-46.
Examination of the diffusive and indirect impacts of land-grant higher education
institutions and their activities on human resource development and the contribution of
land-grant activities to American economic growth
Hanuskek, Eric and Ludger Wobmann. 2007. The Role of Education Quality for Economic
Growth. The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series No. 4122. Washington, D.C.
A review of the role of education, in particular education quality, which is representative of
the cognitive skills, in promoting economic welfare, which is expressed in individual
earnings, income distribution, and economic growth
Heyneman, Stephen P. 1995. Economics of Education: Disappointments and Potential.
UNESCO Prospects XXV, no. 4: 559-83.
This article summarizes the problems with using economic rates of return to make
investment decisions in higher education. It explains the categories of education
questions to which economic rates of return can inform and the categories of education
investment issues on which economic rates of return have no useful role.
Johnstone, Bruce D. and Pamela N. Marcucci. 2007. Worldwide Trends in Higher Education
Finance: Cost-Sharing, Student Loans, and the Support of Academic Research. UNESCO.
Discussion of six worldwide trends underlying the financing of higher education, trends in
the contexts of country-specific and global politics and ideology, and such solutions as
cost-side solutions, cost-sharing, student loans and governments financial sponsorship for

research and development in response to financial pressures and growing demands for
Jongbloed, Ben and Hans Vossensteyn. 2001. Keeping up Performances: An International
Survey of Performance-Based Funding in Higher Education. Journal of Higher Education
Policy and Management 23, no. 2: 127-45.
Exploration of national government policies for funding higher education in 11 OECD
countries and a description of mechanisms for funding the higher education sector and
the multitude of how grants to higher education institutions are oriented on performance
Shin, Jung Cheol. 2010. Impacts of Performance-based Accountability on Institutional
Performance in the U.S. Higher Education. DOI: 10.1007/s10734-0099285-y
This article analyzes the changes in institutional performance in the United States
resulting from the adoption of the new standards of accountability. The article discovers
that performance has not improved with performance-based accountability.
Task Force on Higher Education and Society. 2000. Higher Education in Developing
Countries: Peril and Promise. Washington, D.C. World Bank.
A report on the future of higher education in developing countries in the context of higher
educations problems and new realities, public interest in higher education, higher
education as a system, governance, science and technology education, and need to
develop general education curricular
Task Force on Higher Education and Society. 2004. Moderated Discussion: The Task Force on
Higher Education and Society. Comparative Education Review 48, no. 1: l70-88.
Description of three different comments on the Task Force on Higher Education and
Societys 2000 report (Higher Education in Developing Countries: Peril and Promise):
introductory comment (background to the report, the impact of the report on the World
Banks programs and priorities, the content of the report, and the impact of the report
New non-government institutions have been founded in Africa, Asia, Latin American and the
former Soviet Union. Some are branches of well-known universities in OECD countries;
others are newly-formed and well financed; others are no more than profit-making
proprietary schools. There has been a growing literature on how standards can be
maintained for these new institutions and others can be accredited.
Billing, David. 2004. International Comparisons and Trends in External Quality Assurance of
Higher Education: Commonality or Diversity? Higher Education 47, no. 1: 113-37.
A comparative study on the major national external quality assurance frameworks for
higher education in the context of commonality and diversity
Brennan, John L. and Tarla Shah. 2000. Managing Quality in Higher Education: An
International Perspective on Institutional Assessment and Change. McGraw-Hill Education
Clarification of the purposes, methods, and impacts of national systems of quality
assessment and management in higher education institutions that are elucidated through
a series of case studies on the experiences of 29 institutions and 7 national quality
agencies in 17 countries
Gaither, Gaither H, ed. 1998. Quality Assurance in Higher Education: An International
Perspective. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Presentation of some of the best quality assurance policies, practices, and procedures in
higher education which are identified in five countries
Uvalic-Trumbic, Stamenka. 2002. Globalization and the Market in Higher Education: Quality,
Accreditation and Qualifications. Paris: UNESCO Publishing.
Exploration of the probable extent of an international framework in quality assurance,
accreditation, and qualification and the potential limitations of the framework and
discussion of how governments and higher education institutions are acting in response to
the challenge of global markets in higher education
Van Damme, Dirk. 2002. Trends and Models in International Quality Assurance and
Accreditation in Higher Education in Relation to Trade in Education Services. Higher
Education Management and Policy 14, no. 3: 93-136.
Providing an analytical and descriptive overview of trends and models in quality assurance
contributable to transnational regulation of trade in higher education with an emphasis on
four models of development of international quality assurance
Westerheijden, Don F., Bjorn Stensaker, and Maria J. Rosa, ed. 2007. Quality assurance in
higher education: Trends in regulation, translation and transformation. Dordrecht: Springer.
Description of quality assurance in higher education in terms of the impact of quality
assurance on higher education system, quality assurance in relation to regulation,
translation, and transformation, problems of current quality assurance practices, and
proposals for better quality assurance in dealing with institutional challenges
Wit, Hans de and Jane A. Knight. 1999. Quality and Internationalisation in Higher Education.
Paris: OECD.
Discussion of the internationalization of higher education and quality assurance in terms
of its concepts and review process, presentation of case studies of internationalization
quality review process in six countries, and analysis of the uses, benefits, approaches, and
issues in internationalization quality review process of higher education


Because policies for improvement are in high demand, because higher education
development costs are high for low and middle income countries, and because of the
premium for student and faculty exchanges, research collaboration and clarifications in the
international regulatory environment, there has been a growing literature on the role of
international organizations.. This literature covers trade organizations (WTO), international
banks (the World Bank and the regional development banks), U.N. professional agencies
(UNESCO) and institutions to maximize regional cooperation and development (EU,
Altbach, Philip G. 2001. Higher Education and the WTO: Globalization Run Amok.
International Higher Education 23: 2-5.
Discussion of the rules of WTO and GATS in changed circumstances such as inequalities
among the worlds universities exacerbated by globalization and the commercialization of
knowledge and higher education and each countrys need to control over its higher
Bassett, Roberta M. and Alma Maldonado-Maldonado. 2009. International Organizations and
Higher Education Policy: Thinking Globally, Acting Locally? New York: Routledge

A book describing the significance of international organizations as the global drivers

behind higher education policy, especially in developing countries and analyzing their
impacts on the formulation and implementation of national higher education policy and
roles in higher education institutions
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2003. The History and Problems of Making Education Policy at the
World Bank, 1960 2000. International Journal of Educational Development 23: 315-37.
Discussion of reasons of the World Banks growing influence on the global education
agenda and, however, of its ineffective policies that in some cases create significant
educational distortions
Jones, Phillip W. 1992 World Bank Financing of Education: Lending, Learning and
Development. London: Routledge.
Description of the World Bank as a driving force of the major changes in global education,
specifically the history and evolution of the Banks lending policies in education, the
Banks education lending project experiences, and the Banks influence on formulation of
educational policy of a lot of countries
Jones, Phillip W and David Coleman. 2005. The United Nations and Education:
Multilateralism, Development and Globalization. London: Routledge
Description of four key agencies within the UN system, UNESCO, the World Bank, UNICEF,
and UNDP during the period of the post-Cold War in terms of their commitment to the
promotion of worldwide advancement of education.
Jones, Phillip W. 2006 Education, Poverty and the World Bank. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers
Description of the World Banks role in education, in particular the expansion and reform
of education systems, and the World Banks policies and projects for education and
education systems since 1963 within the context of promoting economic growth and
alleviating poverty.
One purpose of higher education is to offer an opportunity for the more able to prove
themselves worthy of specialized, often expensive training. Such training frequently leads to
positions of societal leadership in the arts, politics, the military, business, law, medicine and
many other fields. It is important for nations to have leaders who have achieved their
positions on the basis of what they have accomplished rather than on inheritance, military
force, or wealth. As a profession, faculty members in a university have a code of ethics not
unlike medical doctors. They are obligated to treat all students fairly and to judge their work
on the basis of achievement rather than on race, ethnicity, gender or other characteristics
acquired at birth. In the last decade however, it has been discovered first in the former
Soviet Union then elsewhere that university systems can be corrupt. Admission and good
grades can be acquired for a price; university accreditation can be purchased illegally;
research can be plagiarized. The literature on these tendencies began with the definition
and description of higher education corruption Altbach (2004) and Heyneman (2004) open
the discussion of its definition. Hallak and Poisson (2007) open the discussion of how to
manage it as a problem and Rumyantseva (2005) relates the issues of higher education to
corruption in the economy more generally. It then progressed to noting the differences
between regions (see Heyneman 2009a; Osipian 2008) and lastly to issues of its adverse
economic impact (see Heyneman et al. 2008) and social development (see Heyneman

Altbach, Philip G. 2004. The Question of Corruption in Academe. International Higher

Education 34: 7-8.
Discussion of professional corruption such as academic posts, plagiarism, and promotion
process, the examination system considered a common site for corruption, and causes
and effects of academic corruption
Hallak, Jacques and Muriel Poisson. 2007. Corrupt Schools, Corrupt Universities: What can be
Done? Paris: Institute for International Educational Planning.
A report on educational corruption in terms of definition, a conceptual framework,
diagnosis of corruption phenomena, and factors conducive to explaining the development
of corrupt practices, applicable strategies to improve transparency and accountability, and
policy recommendations to combat educational corruption
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2004. Education and Corruption. International Journal of Educational
Development, 24(6), pp. 637-648.
Discussion of the definition and importance of corruption in education, description of
various types of corruption and their causes, and introduction of four categories of reforms
designed to minimize the risk of educational corruption
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2007. Buying your way into heaven: The Corruption of Education
Systems in Global Perspectives. Perspectives on Global Issues, 2(1), pp. 1-8.
Explanation of the meanings of education corruption and how it works, illustration of the
effects of corruption, and provision of measures to deal with education corruption
Heyneman, Stephen P., Anderson, K.H. & Nuraliyeva, Z. 2008. The Cost of Corruption in
Higher Education. Comparative Education Review, 52(1), pp. 1-25.
Discussion of corruption in higher education in Europe and Central Asia along with
empirical evidence in incidence of corruption and empirical analysis of the impacts of
corruption on educational attainment and private economic return
Heyneman, Stephen P., ed. 2009b. Buying Your way into Heaven: Education and
Corruption in International Perspective. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
A book compiling discussions of corruption in higher education in global perspective
Osipian, Ararat L. 2008. Corruption in Higher Education: does it differ across the nations and
why? Research in Comparative and International Education 3, no. 4: 345-65.
Discussion of the differences in types of corruption in higher education across countries,
the multitude of the differences, and the reason of the differences
Rumyantseva, Nataliya L. 2005. Taxonomy of Corruption in Higher Education. Peabody
Journal of Education 80, no. 1: 81-92.
Exploration of the common forms of corruption in higher education in developing
countries, the features of educational-specific corruptions, and two types of educational
corruption (corruption with and without students directly involved in)
One purpose of schools and universities is to influence social as well as economic behavior.
It has been noticed however that the influence of schools and universities can be negative
as well as positive; that is, under certain circumstance they have been known to exacerbate
social tensions. But how are these influences defined and characterized; and how might they
be measured. These are the questions which originally motivated Heyneman 2007a and
Moiseyenko 2005. Since then, questions have arisen as to how universities in different
contexts operate to influence social cohesion. Work has been done on the Netherlands (see

Bastedo 2007), Indonesia (see Kraince 2007), South Africa (see Lesko 2007) and Central Asia
(see Heyneman 2007b). This has then stimulated work such as Heuser 2007 on the
question of social cohesion within universities.
Bastedo, Michael N. 2007. Rethinking Governance from the Bottom Up: The Case of Muslim
Students in Dutch Universities. UNESCO Prospects XXXVII, no. 3 (September): 319-32.
Discussion of faculty members perspective on the role of the university in promoting
social cohesion and the integration of Islamic minorities in Dutch society and the
governance implications for fostering social cohesion
Heuser, Brian L. 2007. Academic Social Cohesion within Higher Education. UNESCO
Prospects XXXVII, no. 3 (September): 293-303.
Exploration of the theoretical foundations of academic social cohesion within higher
education institutions and the role of universities as moral institutions in promoting moral
awareness, in particular academic social cohesion
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2007a. Higher Education and Social Cohesion: A Comparative
Perspective. In Higher Education in the 21st Century: Global Challenges and Innovative
Ideas, ed. Philip G. Altbach and Patti McGill Peterson, 55-78. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
Discussion of how higher education institutions affect social cohesion and provision of
comparative filed studies describing the successes and failures of higher education
institutions in dealing with social cohesion in six countries: Indonesia, South Africa, the
Netherlands, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Georgia
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2007b. Three Universities in Georgia, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan: the
Struggle Against Corruption and For Social Cohesion. UNESCO Prospects, no. 3 (September):
Discussion of the relationship between higher education and social cohesion and
exploration certain areas for universities to influence social cohesion in Georgia,
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan
Kraince, Richard G. 2007. Islamic Higher Education and Social Cohesion in Indonesia.
UNESCO Prospects XXXVII, no. 3 (September): 345-56
A report exploring public Islamic higher education institutions role in cultivating better
relations between a variety of religious communities and social cohesion in postauthoritarian Indonesia
Lesko, Nancy. 2007. University Teaching and Social Cohesion in the age of HIV/AIDS: A South
African Case Study. UNESCO Prospects XXXVII, no. 3 (September): 333-44.
Examination of the relationships between university curriculum and teaching, HIV/AIDS,
and social cohesion, specifically teaching about HIV/AIDS in two departments at a
university and the teaching implications for social cohesion
Moiseyenko, Olena. 2005. Education and Social Cohesion: Higher Education. Peabody Journal
of Education 80, no. 4: 89-104.
Presentation of how higher education institutions affect social cohesion and higher
education institutions role in fostering social cohesion in local communities
Higher education competition makes many uncomfortable. Shouldnt a university education
be considered as a source of personal growth and intellectual stimulation? However,
competition within and across countries is a new reality (see Hendel and Ingo 2008;

Marginson 2006) and in many ways it is a competition with increasingly shared criteria for
excellence and displays of results (see Usher and Savino 2006). Systems which attempt to
rank universities internationally have emerged in Europe, the U.K., China and the U.S. The
question is what effect do they have. See Dill and Soo (2005) for a comparison of the U.S.,
the U.K., Australia and Canada. See Hazelkorn (2007) for a general overview of ranking;
Hgskoleverket (2009) for in terms of the history of ranking. Other parts of the literature
cover how ranking systems should be handled in terms of public policy. See Hendel and Ingo
(2008) for a discussion of the implications within Europe; Margingson and van der Wende
(2007) for a discussion of how they factor into the global higher education competition,
Salmi and Saroyan (2007) on recommendations for using them effectively, and Siganos
(2008) for the influence of one specific system from China.
Dill, David D. and Maarja Soo. 2005. Academic Quality, League Tables, and Public Policy: A
Cross-National Analysis of University Ranking. Higher Education 49, no. 4: 495-533.
Comparison of national university ranking systems through a comparative analysis in four
countries (Australia, Canada, the U.K. and the U.S.) and examination of ranking systems
effect on institutional decision making and policy
Hazelkorn, Ellen. 2007. The Impact of League Tables and Ranking Systems on Higher
Education Decision Making. Higher Education Management and Policy 19, no. 2: 81-105.
An overview of effect of ranking systems and league table on higher education institution
decision making on a basis of a comprehensive world-wide survey of higher education
leaders and senior managers
Hendel, Darwin D. and Stolz Ingo. 2008. A Comparative Analysis of higher Education Ranking
Systems in Europe. Tertiary Education and Management 14, no. 3 (October): 17389.
A comparative analysis of a number of European higher education ranking systems and
presentation of a model categorizing qualitative indicators for comparing ranking systems
*Hgskoleverket (Swedish National Agency for Higher Education)[]*. 2009.
Ranking of Universities and Higher Education Institutions for Student Information Purposes?
Report 2009: 27R, Swedish National Agency for Higher Education.
A report describing the ranking phenomenon for universities and other higher education
institutions in terms of history and current trends and many existing ranking systems at
the international and domestic levels and discussing the preconditions for ranking and the
pros and cons of ranking as information for students
Marginson, Simon. 2006. Dynamics of National and Global Competition in Higher Education.
Higher Education 52, no. 1: 1-39.
Explanation of the dynamics of national and global competition in higher education and
discussion of interactions between national and global competition by exploring Australian
higher education in the context of the vertical segmentation of national higher education
systems and national and global competitions interface
Margingson, Simon and Marjik van der Wende. 2007. To Rank or to be Ranked: The Impact of
Global Rankings in Higher Rducation.Journal of Studies in International Education 11, no. 3-4:
306-29. entre for Higher Education Policy Studies, University of Twente.
Discussion of global university rankings, in particular the Shanghai Jiao Tong University
(SJTU) and the Times Higher Education Supplement, research in global rankings, and
possible methodological problems and policy limitations
Siganos, Andr. 2008. Rankings, Governance, and Attractiveness of Higher Education: The
New French Context. Higher Education in Europe 33, no. 2-3: 31116.

Illustration of the influence of the Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU) ranking on the
French higher education and the definition of a university at the regional, national, and
international levels
Salmi, Jamil and Alenoush Saroyan. 2007. League Tables as Policy Instruments: Uses and
Misuses. Higher Education Management and Policy 19, no. 2: 24-62.
Outlining league table usefulness and role in measuring and comparing higher education
institutions performance in a variety of countries and providing recommendations for
effective usage of rankings by institutions and national policy makers
Usher, Alex and Massimo Savino. 2006. A World of Difference: A Global Survey of University
League Tables. Canadian Education Report Series. Toronto, ON: Educational Policy Institute.
A discussion of 19 university league tables and ranking systems across the globe, the way
they are selected, they serve as measurement of quality, they collect data for quality
measurement, and they measure quality, and an alternative to the league table format
At the time it may have seemed like a major innovation when first introduced in Europe in
the 1970s, but land grant universities had been employing distance teaching since WWII.
What has changed for all institutions however is the technologies available. With electronic
data bases the norm and instantaneous connection available in many parts of the world,
high quality higher education can be delivered to non-traditional students (older students
with high opportunity costs) and outside of major urban centers (see Capshaw 2007,
Capshaw 2008; Collins and van der Wende 2002; Denman 2009). Approximately one half of
the higher education student population in the U.S. is over 40; most attend at night, on
weekends, after work, and by internet. The trend is quicker in some countries than others,
but seems unidirectional (see Heyneman 2001; Heyneman 2006). Because higher education
is now a commodity, it is the subject of international trade discussions and this has created
debates that are explored in Barblan 2002, Knight 2006, and Payne 2008. Some such as
Tilak 2008 have argued for the maintenance of rules and regulations which would restrict
international provision of higher education and of private higher education, whereas others
such as Agarwal 2009 have argued that nations require open borders to take advantage of
innovations in quality. Heyneman 2007, on the other hand, asserts that having access to
high quality international education is a human right. Lastly is the question of university
relations with industry. It may be essential for a research university to have creative and
long-standing relations with local or international firms; there are mutual benefits for all
partners. But the relationship can have drawbacks and raise problems of bias and challenges
to academic freedom (see Baker 2007). What is certain however is that government policy
toward research funding and university strategies to maximize public and private resources
can significantly enhance the future of research universities (see Goodet al. 2007;
Hatakenaka 2009).
Changes in technology
Capshaw, Norman C. 2008. Do electronic technologies increase or narrow differences in
higher education quality between low and highincome countries? Peabody Journal of
Education 83, no. 1: 117-32.
An attempt to figure out how technologies of the internet and computers have influenced
the gap in higher education quality, focusing on the U.S. first and low- to middle-income
countries second
Capshaw, Norman C. 2007 How the Internet Affects Higher Education: A Multi-Country
Analysis. Saarbrucken, Germany: VDM Verlag.

Focusing on the gaps of access to and quality in higher education between high income
and low-to-middle income countries and whether the gaps will expand or narrow, this
book both quantitatively and qualitatively investigates the internet and computer
technologys spread and effect.
Collis, Betty and Marijk van der Wende, ed. 2002. Models of Technology and Change in
Higher Education: an International Comparative Survey on the Current and Future use of ICT
in Higher Education. Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS)
Comparative exploration of possible four scenarios that the use of information and
communication technology (ICT) in teaching and learning in higher education will yield, of
strategic choices and responses to use ICT of higher education institutions across seven
countries, and of conditions that influence the strategic responses and choices
Denman, Brian. 2009. Higher Education by Distance: Opportunities and Challenges at
National and International levels. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 53rd Annual
Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, March 22, in Charleston,
South Carolina.
Discussion of distance higher education in terms of current key concepts definition
relevant to distance higher education delivery and trends in quality assurance, and report
on a case study exploring types of distance higher education delivery in four countries
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2001. The Growing International Commercial Market for Educational
Goods and Services. International Journal of Educational Development 21: 345-59.
A paper defining education products and services, outlining the structure of the two subsectors, describing the size of commercial activity and its trends, and reviewing the
challenges and opportunities for those interested in this arena.
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2006. Global Issues in Higher Education. eJournal USA. Washington,
D.C.: U.S. Department of State.
Discussion of global influences on higher education in terms of three ambitions of
education (access, quality, and equity), financial resources, and social cohesion
Industry relations
Baker, David P. 2007. Mass Higher Education and the Super Research University: A Symbiotic
Relationship. International Higher Education, no. 49, Fall.
Discussion of two major world-wide transformations in higher education, expansion and
massification of higher education and the advent and flourishing of the super research
university, largely in the USA
Good, David, Suzanne Greenwald, Roy Cox, and Megan Goldman, ed. 2007. University
Collaboration for Innovation: Lessons from the Cambridge-MIT Institute. Rotterdam: Sense
Description and exploration of a new form of academic enterprise (international university
collaboration), the Cambridge-MIT Institute (CMI), which is an attempt to bring together
the complementary strengths of each university, in the context of the successful
integration of knowledge into research, and the outcomes of a strategic alliance of the two
Hatakenaka, Sachi. 2009. Higher Education in Innovation and Economic Development.
International Higher Education, no. 56 (Summer): 2-3.
Discussion of different roles that higher education plays in the context of higher education
institutions and the industry

The role of education in international trade

Agarwal, Pawan. 2009. Indian Higher Education: Envisioning the Future. Thousand Oaks:
Sage Publications.
Identifying the needs and gaps in higher education in India, this book presents some
suggestions for improvement of higher education, which are drawn from other countries
experiences and outlines a framework applicable to create a competitive environment in
higher education.
Tilak, Jandhyala B.G. 2008. Higher Education: A Public Good or a Commodity for Trade?
UNESCO Prospects 38, no. 4: 449-66.
Description of the shift in perception on the nature of higher education from a public good
to a private and tradable good and of dangerous implication the shift brings about
Heyneman, Stephen P. 2007. International Trade in Higher Education: What Should India Do?
India Economic Review 4, 4 (December): 86-93.
Discussion of current condition of Indias higher education and of pros and cons of
international trade in education
Knight, Jane. 2006. Higher Education Crossing Borders: A Guide to the Implications of the
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) for Cross-Border Education. Vancouver and
Paris: Commonwealth of Learning and UNESCO.
A report examining different aspects, in particular complexities and challenges, of crossborder education and providing basic information on the principles and rules of GATS and
key issues related to GATS and higher education policy and practice
Payne, Brandon 2008. Compulsion, Craft or Commodity? Education Services Trade in the
Larger Context. Peabody Journal of Education 83, no. 1: 133-53.
A study examining the relationship between trade openness and openness to trade in
education in 162 countries and between the strength of commitments to lower barriers to
all trade and commitments to lower barriers to education
Barblan, Andris. 2002. The International Provision of Higher Education: Do Universities Need
GATS? Higher Education Management and Policy 14, no. 3: 77-92.
Discussion of debate on whether or not universities need to make the commitment to the
General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO)
made by several countries that export education