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Course Motivation

Learn engineering design by the Systematic Design Process via lectures


and doing a project

Apply Systematic Engineering Design Process on a design project.

To learn design is to do design


In doing the design project:
Apply Conceptual Design Methods.
Search and apply information and engineering data
in design of machine elements. Carry out Materials Selection.
Apply PLC Technology in the control of the electrohydraulic-mechanical power transmission system.
Produce Engineering Drawings, communicate effectively
design ideas and solutions.
Estimate the Cost of the Prototype using systematic tools.
Finally, submit a Design Report at the end of the semester.

Course Contents
Ng Heong Wah
(NHW)

Product Definition
Conceptual Design
Embodiment Design
Detailed Design, Engineering Analysis & Documentation

Ang Hock Eng


(AHE)

Mechanical Power Transmission Systems


Hydraulic And Pneumatic Systems
Cost estimation tools

John Heng
(JH)

Electric Motors And Linear Motion Systems


Programmable Logic Control (PLC) techniques

Zhou Kun
(ZK)

Basic engineering materials properties and failure modes


Basic materials selection in design
Effect of component geometry in materials selection
Do a design project

MA4001 Engineering Design Teaching Plan


Wk
1

Date
10/8

Monday,LT1,11:30pm12:30pm
NationalDayHoliday

17/8

ConceptualDesignII

NHW

19/8

Wednesday,LT1,9:3011:30pm
ProductDefinition&Design
NHW
Requirements,ConceptualDesignI (AHE)
EmbodimentDesignI
NHW

24/8

EmbodimentDesignII

NHW

26/8

DetailedDesignI

31/8

NHW

2/9

7/9

EngineeringAnalysisand
Documentation
Hydraulicsystemssizing&selection

14/9

Hydrauliccircuitdesign

AHE

21/9

Hydrauliccircuitdesign

AHE

28/9
5/10

28/9 2/10,RecessWeek
CostEstimationI

AHE

12/10 CostEstimationII

AHE

10

19/10

ZK

21/10 BasicsofMaterialsSelection

ZK

11

ZK

28/10 SelectionofMaterialsandShape

ZK

12

26/10 MultipleconstraintsandConflicting
Objectives
2/11 SelectionofMaterialsandShape

ZK

4/11

13

9/11

ZK

IntroductiontoMaterials

SelectionofMaterialsandShape:Case
Studies

Date
12/8

AHE

Hydraulicsystemssizing&
selection
9/9
LadderLogicprogramming,
pneumaticcircuitsI
16/9 LadderLogicprogramming,
pneumaticcircuitsII
23/9 ApplicationofPLCsinautomated
systems
28/9 2/10,RecessWeek
7/10 ElectricMotordrivesystemdesign,
sizing&selection
14/10 Electromechanicalsensing&
actuationcomponents

NHW
AHE
JH
JH
JH

JH
JH

SelectionofMaterialsandShape: ZK
CaseStudies
3
11/11 Brakes&Clutches
AHE

DesignProjectSchedule:Tutorialssession~about40mins.Projectsession~Restof3hoursVersion:3
WeekNo
1
DatesMonday
10/8
Project
Tutorials
Tutorialquestions
Free
Concept
No
Presentation
Labs
Report
Submission
FinalPresentation

2
17/8

3
4
5
6
24/8 31/8 7/9 14/9

T1
T2
T3
T4
NHW NHW NHW AHE

7
21/9

T5
JH

8
5/10

T6
JH

MA4001DesignClasses

GroupsNo,(Venue DesignLab) Supervisors

Mon:1:30pm4:30pm

MA1MA4,4groups AHE,NHW,OLS,ZK

Tues:1:30pm4:30pm

MA5MA7,3groups OLS,JH,WMS

Wed:1:30pm4:30pm

MA8,1group Sridhar

Thurs:1:30pm4:30pm

MA9MA11,3groups SLK,XZ,YWY

9
12/10

T7
AHE

10
19/10

T8
ZK

11
26/10

T9
ZK

12
2/11

T10

13
9/11

Ong Lin Seng Seah Leong


Keey

Sridhar

Wu Mao See Xiao


Zhongmin

Ng Heong Wah

Yeong Wai Yee John Heng

Ang Hock Eng

Zhou Kun

Lab sessions
~40 mins

Tutorials

Rest of 3 hrs

Project

Do a Design Project:
Apply knowledge of design processes, costing, materials and
machine elements , to design a product
Project for this semester is:

Design of a Mechanical Car Stacker


5

Course Grading
4 students form a team. All teams will work on same project.
Your subject grade
Examination 100%

Report 80%
Team level.
The marks consist of
mid-semester
presentation and
project report.
Team receives
same marks.

50:50

Logbook 10%

Project 100%

Interview 10%

Individual level,
Your name in front.
contains details of:

Individual level
Interview at any time in
semester.

sketches, calculations, fax


part data from supplier,
info found and any
independent work,
submitted with report.

Log book required


support material.

as

Supervisors
look
for
knowledgeable response.
6

3. Project Marks

This project is worth 50% of the course marks for MA4001. The other 50% is from
the course examination paper. The project team will comprise of four members and
individual marks will be allocated according to:

Individually kept logbook will be inspected by the tutors on a regular basis and
queried. All students are required to fill the log book with details of work done
whether it be sketches, design calculations, internet search and any other work that
they personally conducted for the project relevant to the design development.
Phone calls, faxes of product or part data from suppliers can be stapled to pages in
the log book. Therefore, no two log books should contain the same information.

Each logbook will have the student's name written on the cover in ink. An exercise
book or notebook at least A5 size is suitable. They will be submitted with the group
project report at the end of the project.

3.1 Formal Presentation and Interview

The presentation and interview are important milestones in the project.

Every team member will have to present to the lab group at the middle semester
and be interviewed at the end of semester.

For the presentation, each team will prepare a short oral discussion of the project
concepts.

The interview will be between the tutor and the team and will consist of questions
to individual team members concerning their individual involvement in the project.

Their log books will be shown to the tutor as support material.

Interview will be spread over the two to three lab sessions, with tutors deciding
on interview timings, generally at each week sessions, he will interview two to
three teams.

Marking Scheme: The total mark of 100% is distributed as follows:


Team level 80% : Report - 70% based on:
Design process {appreciation of task, design specification}.
Range, quality and number of solutions {number, feasibility, simplicity,
practicability of solutions}.
Use of matrix selection method and range of criteria}.
Development of layout and embodiment.
Detail design of machine elements. Quality and effectiveness of sketches and
drawings.
Appropriate selection of engineering materials and stress analysis .
Selection of electromechanical sensing & actuation components,
Programmable logic control. Performance and cost estimation
Presentation - 10% based on:
Clarity of design concepts and explanations. Quality sketches.
Individual level 20%
Logbook-10% : Regular, thorough and clearly documented record of design
work and organization throughout project.
Interview-10% : Knowledgeable technical response to queries.
Overall coherence between team members.

Keeping a Design Log Book

It is a responsibility for an engineer to record

ideas and results of

his/her work in a log book.

As a student of engineering, you should learn the art of good record


keeping and develop good documentation habits.

Enter everything into your logbook directly, so that it is a running


record of your project as it develops.

Do not write things down on bits of paper and copy onto the log book neatly.
Ideas, calculations, sketches, relevant pages of catalogues, design
parameters, dimensions, schematics, graphs, reminders etc. are entered.

Do not tear pages, cross out the page diagonally.


Always bring your log book to your design classes.
10

Pages from a Students Design Log Book

11

Design of a Mechanical Car Stacker

The worldwide population of cars is increasing at an accelerating rate. Expressways


are becoming increasingly choked at peak commuting periods and parking has
become an increasing problem at residences and workplaces.

In many cities, high population density, scarcity and high cost of land resulted in
innovative automated car parking systems. These can range from small 2 to 3 cars
stacking systems to warehouse sized systems storing hundreds of cars in a space
efficient manner.
The largest systems are completely automated
using warehouse storage and retrieval
technologies and reliant on software controlling
the system.

Extensive use of computerised tracking and


sensors allows the driver to deposit a car at the
apron, swipe a magnetic card and the system
will remove the car and park it deep within the
warehouse.

On his return, he simply swipes the card again


and the car is returned to him undamaged and in
less than a minute. See an example in figure 1.

This design project also expects you to solve the problem of car parking.
The objective of is to design a simple system capable of parking 2 to 3 cars on a
footprint of single parking lot based on a mechanical system.
The mechanical system is unlike the completely automated system described
above. The mechanical system car park is a method of parking that involves a
person such as a car park attendant or driver to initiate the mechanical movements
via electrical push buttons/switches etc.
The mechanical movements are generated by
electric motors driving machine elements such
as power screws, rack and pinions, chains, wire
ropes, pulleys and hydraulic actuators.
information available in internet search :
www.totalparkingsolutions.co.uk
www.wohr.parking.uk
www.carstackers.com.au
www.hardingsteel.com
www.ronblank.com/courses/kmp14a/kmp14a.pdf

Software is not needed as in a mechanical system. Although small and simple,


the mechanical system can be replicated or multiplied over and over to cover a
large parking lot in a conventional car park ramp below a office building, condo
or open air car park, i.e. it has to be modular. Therefore you need to design just
the modular unit and not the entire car park.
You can start with the premise that the development is starting from
scratch, so you have a free hand in designing a high density parking system in:

a new office development,

a open air car park,

a residential condominium pr

an industrial estate

Depending on each, the constraints are different and have to be included in the
design of the car park. So choose one of the above.

1.1 What are the design requirements?


The first stage of design involves writing down the design requirements. These
are concise statements specifying what the designed product has to achieve and
to what degree that achievement must be attained (i.e. its importance level) for the
product to be successful. The statements should state quantifiable parameters if
possibly (i.e. the constraints). Here are some examples:
For the car stacker to be a success, it should be able to hold as many types of
cars as possible, from small cars of 1 litre engine capacity to the largest Sports
Utility Vehicles (SUV) or Multi Purpose Vehicles (MPV) or even transit vans.
The latter are typically heavier, much taller and longer. However it might not be
necessary to cater for transit vans in a condo development, in fact, they can be
barred by specifying a volumetric and weight limitation.
This gives rise to 2 requirements:

1.1 What are the design requirements?


The maximum capacity for storage for standard cars shall be 2.2m wide and 6m
long with a minimum clear height of 1.8m.

(note that MPV require a min. height

of 2.0m).The machinery shall be capable of handling a maximum weight of


20 000 N. per vehicle.
Other design requirements you should consider are safety, aesthetics, delay
times etc and many more. In the design requirements, one should not specify
how i.e the technology needed to satisfy the requirements.
As such statement like; A hydraulic actuator capable of lifting
20 000N is to be used is not a design requirement since other types of
machines (examples being winches, hoists) are as capable of this task.

A Note to Design Stream students doing this project.


Nowhere is aesthetics and human factors design more important than in the car
stacker. Much effort is needed to put an acceptable face to the machinery so it
does not look dirty, rusty and overly functional without form.
1.2 Hydraulic or mechanical methods?
Although, the hydraulic process seems to be the more popular, mechanical
methods such as by kinematic mechanisms, rack and pinion or power screw
drives are equally suitable.
The prime energy source will be an electric motor as the initial drive, further
converted by a hydraulic pump to pressurize oil for actuating the hydraulic
cylinders in the case of hydraulic process.
Electric motors are suited to drive gear trains to transmit power to the machine
elements in the mechanical process.

Use the knowledge of machine elements from your MA3001 courses and
engineering graphics from your MA2005 courses to innovate ways of moving
the car.

1.3 The movement


The design project requires an exploration of the alternatives to the conventional.
A better solution to the design is to be sought rather than fine tuning the
conventional design.
Think in 3 dimensions, there are a total of six degrees of freedom to move a car,
i.e. linearly in 3 directions X,Y and Z and rotates about the Z, Y and Z axes.
The systems may consist of the following primary components to assist in the
movement:
Carrier or pallet or shuttle is the base transporting the car horizontally in two
dimensions X and Y.
A lift is the transport device used for vertical Z movements.
A turntable is for rotating the car around the horizontal plane.
Rack or framework is the supporting structure for the parking system,
providing for storage, machinery for transport and safety for the user.

The following figures shows some interesting movement used in commercial


systems. Use these as a means to generate ideas.
However the machinery are not shown, it needs to be designed in detail in your
project.

1.5 Structural framework of the car stacker

The structural frame supporting the cars, hydraulic or mechanical systems need
to be strong and stiff in order to function reliably. Moving parts need well
lubricated guides or rollers. The supporting frame must also ensure all the
moving part of the machine elements remain in alignment and large deformation
(even elastic) does not affect the functioning of the device. Strength of materials
calculations are required to confirm the strength of the frame members. You
need to carry out design calculations to ensure that your structural supports are
within the design stresses as well as the deflections are within tolerances.

It is advisable to apply embodiment principles to the design of the structural


frames to improve on the efficiency and reliability of the frame. Reinforcement
and strengthening enables reduction in weight and economy in use of material.
Flat steel plates used without reinforcement will be excessively thick in order to
resist bending deformation or buckling failure. With stiffeners and corrugations,
thinner plates can be used. Beam to beam connections are strengthened against
bending modes by web reinforcement

Project Objectives:
To design a car stacker for parking and storing multiple cars (2 to 3) on the
footprint of a typical car park slot utilizing either the aboveground and/or
underground space.
To conduct a literature survey of the available mechanical car stacker system in
the market and patents disclosed of related inventions in the field.
Discuss the available design and write a critique ( for example discussing the
pros and cons of the concept as shown in fig 2.)
To develop the design requirements.
To generate a number of concepts (3) to perform the functions required.
Innovative and creative design is expected.
To select the best of the 3 design concepts using concept selection methods.

For the best design, to design in detail the mechanisms to transport the car from
parking position into the stacker, and in reverse return the car to the same
parking position.
Design may use either mechanical or hydraulic power transmission. For
hydraulic process, the hydraulic pump, control valves and relevant accessories
must be specified and included in the design. The source of power will either be
an electric motor/s. The car stacker use the machine elements/components
where-ever it is appropriate to the design; namely:
Hydraulic cylinders
Bearings
Belts and pulleys
Brakes and
clutches
Cables and wire
ropes
Chains and
sprockets

Gears and shafts


Kinematic mechanisms
Rollers and wheels
Springs, pins, keyways, couplings and keys.
All the above supported by structural framework of steel
beams and plates construction shown to be capable of
withstanding all anticipated loadings.

2.1 Learning objectives

In carrying out this project, students working as a team will use the tools
learnt from the lectures to undertake the following;

Perform product definition and generate needs assessment and product


requirements.

Understand that the needs assessment will be used to create a set of criteria
and weighting factors to evaluate design concepts.

Build up a number of uniquely different design concepts using brainstorming


and other appropriate creative processes.

Use the structured matrix method for evaluating the design concepts with
respect to the selection criteria to finally select the most suitable concept.

Be able to develop the concept further by appropriate layout and embodiment


procedure.

Become familiar and can apply machine elements to create suitable actions of
the mechanical car stacker and select the most suitable noting its advantages
over other elements

2.1 Learning objectives

Become familiar with the loading analysis and strength of materials calculations and
the selection of approximate dimensions of machine elements to adequately sustain
the applied loads within the factor of safety.

Become familiar with the selection procedures for some off-the-shelf machine
elements and use of parts catalogues in the product.

Be able to draw conceptual sketches and part drawings to drafting standards using
CAD programs or by manual drawings.

Carry out detailed stress analysis and material selection process.

Conduct a cost estimation of the mechanical car stacker system.

Demonstrate a high level of confidence and enthusiasm in the stacker and sal ability
in the market place.

Be able to present a competent, professionally presented technical report starting


from the product definition, conceptual design and the development of the
embodiment to the final design calculations with good quality drawings.

How to start
This is quite a challenging project, but do not worry. There are
systematic steps to proceed with the design which is the course content
taught by the lecturers.
The steps:
1. Define and understand the problem
2. Conceptualise solutions, how many ways can it be done?
3. Embodiment design improve and make more effective the solution
concepts, Also make the design more manufacturable.
4. Detail design Produce drawings and instructions on manufacturing
a prototype.
31

Systematic Design Approach


Important steps of the process, make sure the team follows the structured
approach,

Analyze and redefine the project idea, learn as much as possible by


discussion and information search about the problems and redefine in
teams own terms .

Define the project brief in abstract terms.

Determine the customer needs and potential markets.

Create good product specifications or requirements.

Generate many concepts solutions, use techniques such as brain storming


to generate large number of solutions.

Generate detailed layouts of the main functions and other auxiliary


functions.

Generate detailed designs of the parts. & Modify designs as necessary.

Use the segmentation techniques where possible (Function Analysis


Diagram) to break up problem into smaller easy to handle parts.

Analyze proposed solutions and use relatively rapid means (solution


screening), first order analysis to reduce the number of solutions.

Make sure there are some good (minimum of 3) solution concepts.

Generate specification specific to the solution concepts and make use of


the product specifications as selection criteria of the decision matrix
selection method.

Select one solution using decision matrix method. Create a simple layout
of main functions using embodiment principles.

Design Report front page


For use in your project report.
Design for Mechanical Car Stacker

Product Picture

Student names and photo

Report to be submitted by
Week 13 (9th Nov to 13th Nov)

34

Structure of the Report


Title page:

Title of project, authors and group number (with photos)


-(Have a pictorial view of your own design on the front like in this
document)

Chapter 1:

Introduction
Give reasons for the designing this product, research and survey
on existing design and systems, design requirements list,
quantifiable parameters.

Chapter 2:

Conceptual Design
- Contains the function analysis chart, morphological chart and
many hand drawn sketches of alternative conceptual designs.
Selection of best design using matrix selection method.

Chapter 3:

Embodiment (Layout) Design


- Contains alternative layout or embodiment of critical
components so that more robust and effective design are
obtained.

Chapter 4:

Electrical System Design (if any)


-Selection, design of electromechanical sensing and actuation
35
components. Use of digital control technique and microcomputer
programming

Structure of. the Report


Chapter 5:

Detailed Design and Material Selection


Mainly contains calculations and detailed assembly and part
drawings. Calculations on selection of main machine elements
and strength of materials sizing of major parts only. Although CAD
drawings are preferred, hand drawn part drawings are accepted
provided the relevant manufacturing and dimensional information
are shown. Must provide an assembly drawing showing how the
parts are put together.

Chapter 6:

Cost Estimation
-Estimate the total cost of 1 prototype using product explosion
diagram. Discuss and include the direct and indirect cost.

Chapter 7:

Conclusions
- Give a short account of major achievements of the design and
problems encountered.

References
Appendices:

-Books, references, data sources and URLs of internet websites


- Relevant tables or catalogues pages where the off-the-shelf
machines element parts were selected.

36

Work as a Team

Everybody is ignorant. Only on different subjects.


- Will Rogers
Co-operation is better than competition.
Meet the challenge together.
You get more out of working as a team than alone.
No formal group leaders.
Handle your own interpersonal dynamics.
Team ownership of the design problem.

37

Understand your design problem

A problem adequately stated is a problem well on its way to being


solved.
- R. Buckminster Fuller
Have many design solutions
The best way to have good ideas is to have lots of ideas.
- Linus Pauling
Research the internet
In the field of observation, chance favours the prepared mind.
- Louis Pasteur
Work hard
I find that the harder I work, the more luck I seem to have.
- Thomas Jefferson

38

Next Week

Meet your supervisor at the Design Office to start on the project


next week. Form your teams and try develop Design
Requirements of the project

Prepare yourself:
Explore the design problem
Setting up your design requirements
Research the internet Dont copy, improve and innovate
Think of solutions

39

Peer Review Form


Form must be filled one week before the recess and handed to your supervisor.
The purpose is to discover interpersonal problems between teams early and to
correct them before it is too late.

40

Importance of Engineering Design Process

The real key to world competitive product lies in high-quality product design.

Decisions made in the design process cost very little in terms of the overall product cost
but have a major effect on the cost of the product.

You cannot compensate in manufacturing for defects introduced in the design phase.

The design process should be conducted so as to develop quality, cost-competitive


products in the shortest time possible.

4Cs of Design

Creativity
Complexity
Choice
Compromise
41

Interrelations of Design, Materials, and Processing to Produce a Product


Relation of Materials Selection to Design
An incorrectly chosen material can lead not
only to part failure but also to excessive lifecycle cost.

At the concept level of design, essentially all


materials and processes are considered in
broad detail.

The materials selection charts and


methodology developed by Ashby are highly
appropriate at this stage.

Depending on the importance of the part,


materials properties may need to be known
to a high level of precision.

Material and process selection is a


progressive process of narrowing from a
large universe of possibilities to a specific
42
material and process.

General Criteria for Selection

Materials are selected on the basis


for four general criteria:

Performance characteristics
(properties)

Processing (manufacturing)
characteristics

Environmental profile

Materials Selection in Embodiment Design

43

Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE)


The advent of plentiful computing has produced a major change in the way
engineering design is practiced.
Advantages of Computer-Aided Engineering:
Automated engineering drawing in two dimensions
Three dimensional modeling
Finite Element Modeling (FEM)
Rapid prototyping
Design optimization
Computer-Aided Design (CAD)
Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM)

Designing To Codes And Standards


A code is a collection of laws and rules that assists a government agency in meeting its
obligation to protect the general welfare by preventing damage to property or injury or
loss of life to persons.
A standard is a generally agreed-upon set of procedures, criteria, dimensions, materials,
or parts.

Chief Aspects of Designing To Codes


and Standards:

Efficiency
Safety
Interchangeability
Compatibility

44

Complete the Selection and Sizing of Components


It is necessary to complete these activities before the design can be complete.
Complete Engineering Drawings

A major task in the detail design phase is to complete the engineering


drawings.
Drawings of individual parts are usually called detail drawings.
Detail drawings show the geometric features, dimensions, and tolerances
of the parts.
Assembly drawings show how the parts are put together to create the
product or system.

Detail design is the phase where all of the details are brought together, all
decisions are finalized, and a decision is made by management to release
the design for production.

Detail design is the lowest level in the hierarchy of design abstraction.

Detail design is a very specific and concrete activity.

Poor detail design can ruin a brilliant design concept and lead to
manufacturing defects, high costs, and poor reliability in service.
THE REVERSE IS NOT TRUE!

45

Detail Drawing of a Lever

Engineering Drawings: The information on a detail drawing includes: Standard view of orthogonal
46
projection; Auxiliary views; Dimensions; Tolerances; Material specification; Manufacturing details. Design
layouts show the spatial relationships of all components in the assembled product (the system).

Exploded Assembly Drawing: Gear Reducer

47
Assembly drawings are created in detail design as tools for passing design intent to the production department.

Final Cost Estimate

The detail drawings allow the determination of final cost estimates, since
knowledge of the material, the dimensions, tolerances, and finish of each part
are needed to determine manufacturing cost.

Cost analysis also needs specific information about the particular machines
and process steps that will be used to make each part.

Note: Cost estimates will have been made at each step of the product design
process with successively smaller margins for error.

Prepare Design Project Report

A design project report usually is written at the conclusion of a project to describe the
tasks undertaken and to discuss the design in detail.

A design project report is a vital document for passing on design know-how to a


subsequent design team engages in a product redesign project.

A design project report may be an important document if the product becomes involved
in either product liability or patent litigation.
48

Cost evaluation

An engineering design is not complete until we have a good idea of the cost required
to build the design or manufacture the product.

Among functionally equivalent alternatives, the lowest cost design will be successful
in a free market place.

Understanding the elements that make up cost is vital because competition between
companies and between nations is fiercer than ever.

Maintaining market requires a detailed knowledge of cost and an understanding of


how new technology can lower costs.

Decisions made in the design process commit 70 to 80 percent of the cost of a


product.

It is in the conceptual and embodiment design stages that a majority of the costs
49 are
locked into the product.

Primary
energy (fuel)

Prime
Movers
(engines)

Coal

Secondary Movers

Power Transmissions

Motors

Actuators

Fixed Ratio

Variable Ratio

Steam turbine

Electric
motors

Fluid cylinders

Mechanical
coupling

Mechanical Coupling
(some)

Oil

I/C engine

Fluid motors

Fluid actuators

Clutch

Clutch (some)

Gas

Gas turbine

Fluid coupling

Fluid coupling (some)

Hydroelectric

Electromagnetic
coupling

Electromagnetic
coupling (some)

Nuclear

Belt

Gearboxes

Oceanographic

Chain

Belt drives (some)

Terrestrial

Gears

Power Converter
M-1

Prime
mover
Power Source

Power Transmitter

I-2

Component
No. 1

2-L

Component
No. 2

Load

Power Sink

ii

ii
I

Q
Hydrostatic Drive

DC Electrical Drive (Ward Leonard Drive)

Typical Drives ( or transmissions)

( bar )( lpm )
kw
600

Characteristic Power Parameters


Type of Power
Watts
Mechanical (linear) :

N x m/s

Potential
Parameter

Flow Parameter

Force ,N

Velocity, m/s

Mechanical (Rotary) : Nm x rad/s Torque, Nm


Hydraulic :
Electrical:

IxV

Angular Velocity, rad/s

Head, bar

Discharge, litres/min

Voltage, V

Current, I

Fluid Power Control


Power source

motor

Pump

Input power
(kW)

Control valves
Pressure
Control
Valves

Directional
Control
Valves

Power actuators
Flow
Control
Valves

Linear actuator
Output power
(kW)

Path of power transmission and


power modification
rotary actuator

motor

Pump

Classification of Selected Electric Motors


AC
Motors

AC/DC
Motors

SPECIAL
Motors

DC
Motors

Single-phase
induction
Synchronous

Threephase

415 ~ 440v

Servomotors

Self
excited

DC Brushless

220 ~ 240v
Repulsion
start
SquirrelCage

Separately
excited

Universal

Synchronous

Induction
Squirrel-cage
Wound-rotor

Split-phase
Capacitor start
Capacitor motor
Permanent split-capacitor (PSC)
Shaded-pole

Stepper Motor

Permanent
Magnet
Shunt
Series
Compound

Permanent Magnet
Variable Reluctance
Hybrid

(heat)
Motor Efficiency 90.5%

Good Energy Management Entire motor load system be evaluated to minimize


energy waste
NEMA publication, MG10- makes the following recommendation
1. Motor Ratings
2. Application Analysis
3. Process and Machinery
4. First Cost versus Long range energy cost

Mechanical Load Torque Speed Characteristics


Torque in %

Power

T . = 100%
TRated

Constant Torque, P =

1.
Constant HP

100% = N .
NSync

Speed in %

Torque-speed characteristics
1. Constant Torque (Traction Load) ---- conveyors, crane hoist systems
2. Torque to speed (laminar flow load) viscous friction, magnetic brakes
3. Toque inversely to speed (traction load) constant horse power loads
4. Torque to square of speed (turbulent flow) centrifugal pumps, fans & blowers

Source: J.L.Meriam , L.G.Kraige, Engineering Mechanics Statics,Dynamics

Source: J.L.Meriam , L.G.Kraige, Engineering Mechanics Statics, Dynamics

Source: J.L.Meriam , L.G.Kraige

Source: J.L.Meriam , L.G.Kraige, Engineering Mechanics- Statics, Dynamics