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Internship Training

Report Of

Vimal Kumar
M.E. (7th Sem.)


This project involved the collection and analysis of information
from a wide variety of sources and the efforts of many people
beyond me. Thus it would not have been possible to achieve
the results reported in this document without their help,
support and encouragement.
I will like to express my gratitude to the following people for
their help in the work leading to this report:

Project supervisors: for their useful comments on the

subject matter and for the knowledge I gained by sharing
ideas with them.

Project Coordinator: for organizing and coordinating the B.

Tech. Projects 2015.


About The Company

Evolution Of NTPC
Thermal Power Plant
Generation Of Electricity

Boiler Maintenance Department (BMD)

Boiler Auxiliaries
Technical Data On Pulverizing Plant
Description Of Equipments

Plant Auxillary Maintenance (PAM)

Hydrogen Plant
Cooling Tower
Water Treatment Plant
Compressor House
Ash Handling Plant

Turbine Maintenance Department (TMD)

Turbine Cycle
Turbine Auxiliaries
Design Of Steam Turbine

Coal Handling Department (CHD)

Transportation System
Handling System

About The Company

Corporate Vision:
A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth
with increasing global presence.

Core Values:
B- Business ethics
C-Customer focus
O-Organizational & professional pride
M-Mutual respect & trust
I-Innovation & speed
T-Total quality for excellence
NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company
of India, Public Sector Company. It was incorporated in the year
1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a
wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present,
Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of
the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic
Banks, Public and others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has
emerged as a truly national power company, with power
generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.

Evolution Of NTPC
1975: NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the
Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown into
the largest power utility in India.
1997: In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of
Navratna being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing the
powers to the Board of Directors.
2004: NTPC became a listed company with majority
Government ownership of 89.5%.
NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalization of listed
2005: The Company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with
its changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a
thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.
NTPC is the largest power utility in India, accounting for about
20% of Indias installed capacity.

Thermal Power Plant

A thermal power station consists of all the equipment and a
subsystem required to produce electricity by using a steam
generating boiler fired with fossil fuels or befouls to drive an
electric generator. Some prefer to use the term ENERGY
CENTER because such facilities convert form of energy like
nuclear energy, gravitational potential energy or heat energy
(derived from the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy.
Typical diagram of a coal power thermal power station Cooling water pump
Three phase transmission line

Step up transformer
Electrical generator
Low pressure steam
Boiler feed water pump
Surface condenser
Intermediate pressure steam turbine
Steam control valve
High pressure steam turbine
Deaerator feed water heater
Coal conveyer
Coal hopper
Coal pulverizer
Boiler steam drum
Boiler ash hopper
Super heater
Force draught (draft) fan
Combustion air intake
Air preheater
Induced draught (draft) fan
Fuel gas stack

The description of some of the components above is as follows:

Cooling towers:
Cooling towers are evaporative coolers used for cooling
water. Cooling tower use evaporation of water to reject heat
from processes such as cooling the circulating water used in
oil refineries, chemical plants, power plants, etc. The tower
vary in size from small roof top units to very large
hyperboloid structures that can be up to 200 meters tall and
100 meters in diameter, or rectangular structure that can be
over 40 meters tall and 80 meters long. Smaller towers are
normally factory built while larger ones are constructed on
site. The primary use of large, industrial cooling tower

system is to remove the heat absorbed in the circulating

water system used in power plants, petroleum refineries,
petrochemical and chemical plants, natural gas processing
plants and other industrial facilities.
The absorbed heat is rejected to the atmosphere by the
evaporation of some of the cooling water in mechanical
forced draft or induced draft towers or in natural draft
hyperbolic shaped cooling towers as seen at most nuclear
power plants.

Three phase transmission line:

Three phase electric power is a common method of electric
power transmission. It is a type of polyphase system mainly
used for power motors and many other devices. In a three
phase system, three circuits reach their instantaneous peak
values at different times. Taking one conductor as reference,
the other two conductors are delayed in time by one-third
and two-third of cycle of the electrical current. This delay
between phases has the effect of giving constant power over
each cycle of the current and also makes it impossible to
produce a rotating magnetic field in an electric motor. At the
power station, an electric generator converts mechanical
power into a set of electric currents one from each
electromagnetic coil or winding of the generator. The
currents are sinusoidal functions of time, all at the same
frequency but offset in time to give different phases. In a
three phase system, the phases are spaced equally giving a
phase separation of one-third of one cycle. Generators
output at a voltage that ranges from hundreds of volts to
30,000 volts. At the power station. Transformers step-up this
voltage for suitable transmission. After numerous further
conversions in the transmission and distribution network, the
power is finally transformed to standard mains voltage i.e.
the household voltage. The power may already have been
split into single phase at this point or it may be still three
phase. Where the step-down is three phase. The output of
the transformer is usually star connected with the standard
mains voltage being the phase neutral voltage.

Electrical generator:
An electrical generator is a device that coverts mechanical
energy to electrical energy, using electromagnetic induction
whereas electrical energy is converted to mechanical energy
with the help of electric motor. The source of mechanical
energy may be a reciprocating turbine steam engine.
Turbines are made in variety of sizes ranging from small 1
hp(0.75 kW) used as mechanical drives for pumps,
compressors and other shaft driven equipment to 2,000,000
hp(1,500,000 kW) turbines used to generate electricity.

Boiler Feed Pump:

A Boiler Feed Pump is a specific type of pump used to pump
water into steam boiler. The water may be freshly supplied or
retuning condensation of steam produced by the boiler.
These pumps are normally high pressure units that use
suction from a condensate return system and can be of
centrifugal pump type or positive displacement type.
Construction and Operation feed water pumps range in size
upto many horsepower and the electric motor is usually
separated from the pump body by some form of mechanical
coupling. Large industrial condensate pumps may also serve
as the feed water pump. In either case, to force water into
the boiler, the pump must generate sufficient pressure to
overcome the steam pressure developed by the boiler. This is
usually accomplished through the use of centrifugal pump.
Feed water pumps usually run intermittently and are
controlled by a float switch or other similar level-sensing
device energizing the pump when it detect a lowered liquid
level in the boiler substantially increased. Some pumps
contain a two stage switch. As liquid lowers to the trigger
point of the first stage, the pump is activated.
If the liquid continues to drop (perhaps because the pump
has failed, its supply has been cut-off or exhausted, or its
discharge is blocked),the second stage will be triggered. This
stage may switch off the boiler equipment (preventing the
boiler from running dry and overheating), trigger an alarm or
Control valves:

Control Valves are the valves used within industrial plants

and elsewhere to control operating conditions such as
temperature, pressure, flow and liquid level by fully or
partially opening or closing in response to signals received
from controllers that compares a set point to a process
variable whose value is provided by sensors that monitor
changes in such conditions. The opening or closing of control
valves is done by means of electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic

A Deaerator is a device for air removal and used to remove
dissolved gases from boiler feed water to make it noncorrosive. A deaerator typically includes a vertical domed
deaeration section as the deaeration feed water tank. A
steam generating boiler requires that the circulating steam,
condensate and feed water should be devoid of dissolved
gases, particularly corrosive ones and dissolved or
suspended solids. The gases will give rise to corrosion of the
metal. The solids will deposit on heating surfaces giving rise
to localized heating and tube ruptures due to overheating.
Deaerator level and pressure must be controlled by adjusting
control valves-the level by regulating condensate flow and
pressure by regulating steam flow. Most deaerators
guarantee that if operated properly, oxygen in deaerated
water will not exceed 7ppb by weight.

Feed Water Heater:

A feed water heater is a power plant component used to pre
heat water delivered to a steam generating boiler. Feed
water heater improves the efficiency of the system. This
reduces plant operating costs and also helps to avoid
thermal shock to boiler metal when the feed water is
introduced back into the steam cycle. Feed water heaters
allow the feed water to be brought upto the saturation
temperature very gradually. This minimizes the inevitable
irreversibility associated with heat transfer to the working
fluid(water). A belt conveyer consists of two pulleys, with a
continuous loop of material- the conveyer belt that rotates

around them. The pulleys are powered, moving the belt and
the material on the belt forward. Conveyer belts are
extensively used to transport industrial and agricultural
material, such as grain, coal, ores, etc.

A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a
furnace in a fossil fuel power plant.

Boiler Steam Drum:

Steam Drums are a regular feature of water tube boilers. It is
reservoir of water/steam at the top end of the water tubes in
the water-tube boiler. They store the steam generated in the
water tubes and act as a phase separator for the
steam/water mixture. The difference in densities between
hot and cold water helps in the accumulation of the hotterwater/and saturated steam into steam drum. Made from
high-grade steel (probably stainless) and its working involves
temperatures 390C and pressure well above 350psi
(2.4MPa). The separated steam is drawn out from the top
section of the drum. Saturated steam is drawn off the top of
the drum. The steam will re-enter the furnace in through a
super heater, while the saturated water at the bottom of
steam drum flows down to the mud- drum /feed water drum
by down comer tubes accessories include a safety valve,
water level indicator and fuse plug. A steam drum is used in
the company of a mud-drum/feed water drum which is
located at a lower level. So that it acts as a sump for the
sludge or sediments which have a tendency to the bottom.

Super Heater:
A Super heater is a device in a steam engine that heats the
steam generated by the boiler again increasing its thermal
energy and decreasing the likelihood that it will condense
inside the engine. Super heaters increase the efficiency of
the steam engine, and were widely adopted. Steam which
has been superheated is logically known as superheated
steam; non-superheated steam is called saturated steam or
wet steam; Super heaters were applied to steam locomotives

in quantity from the early 20th century, to most steam

vehicles, and so stationary steam engines including power

Economizer, or in the UK economizer, are mechanical
devices intended to reduce energy consumption, or to
perform another useful function like preheating a fluid. The
term economizer is used for other purposes as well. Boiler,
power plant and heating ventilating and air conditioning. In
boilers, economizer are heat exchange devices that heat
fluids , usually water, up to but not normally beyond the
boiling point of the fluid. Economizers are so named because
they can make use of the enthalpy and improving the boilers
efficiency. They are a device fitted to a boiler which saves
energy by using the exhaust gases from the boiler to preheat
the cold water used the fill it (the feed water). Modern day
boilers, such as those in cold fired power stations, are still
fitted with economizer which is decedents of Greens original
design. In this context they are turbines before it is pumped
to the boilers. A common application of economizer is steam
power plants is to capture the waste hit from boiler stack
gases (flue gas) and transfer thus it to the boiler feed water
thus lowering the needed energy input, in turn reducing the
firing rates to accomplish the rated boiler output. Economizer
lower stack temperatures which may cause condensation of
acidic combustion gases and serious equipment corrosion
damage if care is not taken in their design and material

Air Preheater:
Air preheater is a general term to describe any device
designed to heat air before another process (for example,
combustion in a boiler). The purpose of the air preheater is
to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases
the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful
heat lost in the fuel gas. As a consequence, the flue gases
are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower
temperature allowing simplified design of the ducting and

the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature
of gases leaving the stack.

An Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner
is a particulate device that removes particles from a flowing
gas (such As air) using the force of an induced electrostatic
charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient
filtration devices, and can easily remove fine particulate
matter such as dust and smoke from the air steam. ESPs
continue to be excellent devices for control of many
industrial particulate emissions, including smoke from
electricity-generating utilities (coal and oil fired), salt cake
collection from black liquor boilers in pump mills, and
catalyst collection from fluidized bed catalytic crackers from
several hundred thousand ACFM in the largest coal-fired
boiler application. The original parallel plate-Weighted wire
design (described above) has evolved as more efficient ( and
robust) discharge electrode designs were developed, today
focusing on rigid discharge electrodes to which many
sharpened spikes are attached , maximizing corona
production. Transformer rectifier systems apply voltages of
50-100 Kilovolts at relatively high current densities. Modern
controls minimize sparking and prevent arcing, avoiding
damage to the components. Automatic rapping systems and
hopper evacuation systems remove the collected particulate
matter while on line allowing ESPs to stay in operation for
years at a time.

Fuel gas stack:

A Fuel gas stack is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe,
channel or similar structure through which combustion
product gases called fuel gases are exhausted to the outside
air. Fuel gases are produced when coal, oil, natural gas, wood
or any other large combustion device. Fuel gas is usually
composed of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor as well
as nitrogen and excess oxygen remaining from the intake
combustion air. It also contains a small percentage of
pollutants such as particulates matter, carbon mono oxide,
nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The flue gas stacks are

often quite tall, up to 400 meters (1300 feet) or more, so as

to disperse the exhaust pollutants over a greater aria and
thereby reduce the concentration of the pollutants to the
levels required by governmental environmental policies and

Electricity Generation Process

(A Basic Overview)

At NTPC (Badarpur) the man two paths are the flue gas or air
cycle and steam or condensate paths.

Capital Overhaul
NTPC has been in news due to extensive load sheds in
many areas in Delhi and the main cause behind these load
sheds was the capital overhaul of one of 210 MW units.
Unit IV was under an extensive check, which has caused
shut down of the plant and the plant, was dismantled
completely to change the old parts and cleaning up the
whole unit. But capital overhaul has no meaning because
such a deep checking of the plant happens once in five to
seven years.

How Electricity Is Generated?

Thermal power station burns fuel and uses the resultant
heat to raise steam which drives the TURBO GENERATOR.
The fuel may be fossil (coal, oil, natural gas) or it may be
fissionable, whichever fuel is used, the objective is same
to convert the mechanical energy into electricity by
rotating a magnet inside a set of winding.

Coal to Steam
Its other raw materials are air and water. The coal brought
to the station by trains or by other means, travels
handling plant by conveyer belts, travels from pulverizing
mills, which grind it as fine as the face powder of size upto
20 microns. The finely produced coal mixed with
preheated air is then blown into the boiler by a fan called
primary air fan where it burns more like a gas than as a
solid, in the conventional domestic or industrial grate, with
additional amount of air, called secondary air supply, by
forced draft fan.
As coal is ground so finally the resultant ash is also a fine
powder. Some of it binds together to form pumps, which
falls into ash pits at the bottom of the furnace. The waterquenched ash from the bottom is conveyed to pits for
subsequent disposal or sale. Most of ash, still in fine

particle form is carried out of boilers to the precipitator as

dust, where electrodes charged with high voltage
electricity trap it. The dust is then conveyed to water to
disposal area or to bunker for sale while the clean flue
gases are passed on through IP fans to be discharged
through chimneys.
The heat released from the coal has been absorbed by the
many kilometers tubing which line the boiler walls. Inside
the tubes the boiler feed water, which is transformed by
heat into steam high temperature and pressure. The
steam superheated in further tubes (super heaters) passes
to turbine where it is discharged through the nozzle on the
turbine blades. Just as the energy of wind turns the sail of
the windmill, the energy of steam striking the blade makes
the turbine rotate.
Coupled to the end of the turbine is the rotor of the
generator. The rotor is housed inside the stator having
heavy coils of the bars in which electricity is produced
through the movement of magnetic field created by the
rotor. Electricity passes from stator windings to step-up
transformer which increases its voltage so that it can be
transmitted efficiently over lines of grid.
The steam which has given up its heat energy is changed
back into water in a condenser so that it is ready for reuse. The condenser contains many kilometers of tubing
through which cold water is constantly pumped. The
steam passing around the tubes loses heat. Thus it is
rapidly changed back into water.
But, the two lots of water, that is, the boiler feed and
cooling water must never mix. Cooling water is drawn
from river- bed, but the boiler feed water must be
absolutely pure, far purer than the water we drink (demineralized water), otherwise it may damage the boiler

Boiler Maintenance
P.A Fans
Air Pre-Heaters
Hot P.A Fans
Cold P.A Fans
Seal Air Fans
Pulverized Bowl

The second stage of Badarpur Thermal Power Station consists
of two units of 210MW each. The boilers are manufactured and
supplied by B.H.E.L. It is of semi outdoor type single drum,
natural circulation, two- pass vertical membrane water wall
construction, reheat dry bottom , tangentially fired furnace
using pulverized fuel and having a maximum continuous rating
of 700 T/ hr. at working pressure of 137 kg/cm2 and final steam
temperature of 540*c .
The boiler is equipped with six
Raymond Bowl mills, two PA fans, forced Draught (FD) fans, two
Induced Draught (ID) fans, two regenerative type air-heaters,
dust collecting plants and other accessories. This boiler is direct
fired having six elevations of coal and three elevations of oil.
The first pass of boiler is combustion chamber enclosed with
water walls of fusion welded construction on all four sides. In
addition, there are four water walls platens to increase the
radiant heating surface. Besides this the platen pendant super
heater, reheater section are also suspended in furnace i.e.,
combustion chamber.
The second pass is surrounded by steam cooled walls on all
four sides as well as roof of boilers. Feed water is supplied to
the steam drum through the economizer links. The steam and
water mixture from the water wall plantens are collected in
boiler drum where the steam is separated and led to various
super heater stages. The boiler drum houses turbo separators
and driers.
Each turbo separator consists of primary and secondary stages.
The primary stage of two concrete cans spinner blades impart a
centrifugal motion to the mixture of steam and water thereby

throwing the water particles, hence forcing the steam outside.

The water particles gets arrested by a skin of lip above the
spinner blades and return to lower part of the drum through
annular space between two cans. Further the steam proceeds
to the secondary separator stage which consists of two
opposed banks of closely spaced corrugated sheets. The
entrained water is separated out and steam moves up to the
scrubber for final separation.

Main boiler

At 100% load

Feed water temp.
Feed water economizer

700 T/hr.
247 0C
276 0C

Steam temperature
Super heater outlet :
Re-heater inlet
Re-heater outlet


341 0C
540 0C

Steam pressure
Drum design
Drum operating
Super heater outlet :
Reheater inlet
Reheater outlet

158.2 kg/cm2
149.7 kg/cm2
137.0 kg/cm2
26.35 kg/cm2
24.50 kg/cm2

Fixed carbon
Volatile matter


50% hard groove


13.868 m
10.562 m
42.797 m
5210 m3

Boiler Auxiliaries
It is the primary part of the boiler where the chemical
energy of fuel is converted to thermal energy by
Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are time
of residence (fuel) inside the furnace and turbulence which
causes rapid mixing between fuel and air.
The furnace of the boiler may be P.E. fired dry bottom
furnace, slag type furnace, oil fired furnace. Normally
about 65% of furnace volume is enough for an oil fired
boiler as compared to the corresponding P.F fired boiler.

Boiler Drum:
Drum is of fusion welded design with hemi-spherical
dished ends. It is provided with manholes and cover. The
drum is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting
tubes i.e. down comers, risers, pipes, saturated steam
outlet. The function of steam drum internal is to separate

the water from the steam generated in furnace walls and

to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam to
below the prescribed limit of 1ppm and also take care of
sudden change of steam demand from boiler.
Wet steam entering the drum is collected in a
compartment, formed by internal baffles. From this
compartment the steam is first fed through two rows of
turbo separators consisting of primary and secondary
stages. The primary stage is formed by two concentric
cans. Spinner blades imparts the centrifugal motion to the
mixture of steam and water flowing through the inner can,
thereby throwing the water to the outside and forcing the
steam to the inside, then the steam proceeds to the
secondary separator stage.
The secondary stage consists of two opposed banks of
closely spaced thin corrugated sheets which direct the
steam and force the remaining entrained water against
the corrugated plates. Since the velocity is relatively low,
this water does not get picked again, but runs down the
plates and off the second stage lips at the two steam
From the secondary separators the steam flows upwards
to the series of screen dryers extending in layers across
the length of drum. The screen performs the final stage of

Drum Internal:
The boiler drum internal consists of the following equipments
arranged inside the drum of MW unit Cyclone steam separator: In this system, steam water
mixture is admitted tangentially. The water forms a layer
against the cylinder walls and the steam of less density
moves to the core of the cylinder and the water goes to the

Phosphate dozing line: All small pipe with no. of small holes
along its
Length is used to distribute the chemical into drum. The
phosphate is fed by a small high pressure pump in the
compartment to remove silver impurities.
Feed water distribution: The salt compartment is fed with
water from clean compartment through special holes in the
dividing partitions.
Drier: These are used as a second stage separation to
remove almost all water from the steam passing through the
super heater. The drier consists of closely packed strips of
steal with steam passing through strips making one or more
sharp changes of direction and throwing the heavier water
particles in to contact with the strip. The water runs the drier
and is returned to boiler water. The velocity of steam through
the drier must not be high else there will be chance of water
entering and hence the drier would get overloaded.
Girth baffler: It guides steam-water mixture from the riser to
the separator. At the same time it keeps the bulk of water in
the drum free from disturbance by steam bubbles.
Dry box: At the top of the drum is a compartment used to
collect the dry steam from drier and distribute it to super
heater off take tubes. Sometimes they are also known as
super saturated tubes because they carry dry saturated
Attemperator: It is also known as desuperheater. This
provides direct heat exchange with feed water which by
passing through the economizer is sprayed in to steam flow.

Water walls: Water flows to the water walls from the boiler
drum by natural circulation. The front and the two side water
walls constitute the main evaporation surface.

Reheater is used to raise the temperature of steam from
which a part of energy has seen extracted in high pressure
turbine. This is another method of increasing the cycle
efficiency. Reheating requires additional equipment i.e.,
heating surface connecting boiler and turbine piping safety
equipment like safety valve non-return valve, isolating valve,
high pressure feed pump etc.

Types Of Super Heater And Reheater:

These heating can be classified into convection and radiant
type according to heat transfer process. Even though the
surface gets heated by both types, the ratio between them
varies according to location and temp. of the flue gases at
the location. The reheaters and super heaters placed above
the furnace which can view the flame are called radiant type.
The other type is called convection type. As the radiant
surface are located in high temp. Region, they are widely
pitched to reduce the velocity of gas and the grinding the
surfaces by the ash.
Super heaters and reheaters can be arranged either
horizontally or allowed to be hung vertically. The vertical
arrangement is simpler in supporting and allowed for
expansion and this arrangement is called pendant type.

Rear convection super heater:
Upper bank
Lower bank


15 m
05 m

Terminal tube
Heating surface


556 m2


76.3 T
9445 m2


69 T
1036 m2

Plant super heater:

No. of coil
Heating surface
Pendant super heater:
No. of coil
Heating surface
Outlet heater
Front assembly
Rear assembly
Heating surface


35 m

42 m
26 m
850 m2

De-super heater:
De-super heater are provided in the super heater connecting
links and the cool reheater lines to permit reduction of steam
temperature and is necessary to maintain the temp. at
design values within the limits of nozzles capacity.
Temperature reduction is accomplished by injecting spray
water in to the path of the steam through the nozzle.
Maintenance of de-super heater is not needed, even then
they should be inspected in 2-2.5 yrs. Spray nozzles and
lines are the wearing parts of the super heater. Excessive
noise observed in de-super heater in service means wear in
nozzles or lines.

Super heater of de-super heater:
Design pressure
Design temp.


154.50 kg/cm2
430 0C
Spray Type

Reheater of de-super heater:

Design pressure
Design temperature


33.50 kg/cm2
345 0C
Spray Type

The function of an economizer in a steam generating unit is
to absorb heat from the flue gases and add as a sensible
heat to the feed water before the water enters the
evaporation circuit of the boiler.
Earlier economizers were introduced mainly to recover the
heat available in flue gases that leaves the boiler and
provision of this addition heating surface increase the
efficiency of steam generation by increasing the temp. of
feed water to the boiler and hence also named as feed water

Air preheater:
Air preheater absorbs waste heat from the flue gases and
transfers this heat to incoming cold air, by means of
continuously rotating heat transfer element of specially
formed metal plates. Thousands of these high efficiency
elements are spaced compactly arranged within 12 section
shaped compartments of a radially divided cylindrical shell,
called the rotor. Special sealing arrangements are provided in
the air preheater to prevent leakage between the air and gas
The air preheater heating surface elements are provided with
two types of cleaning arrangements, soot blower to clean
normal deposits, and washing arrangements to clean the
elements when soot blowing alone cannot keep them clean.

No. of air preheater
Heating surface area
Rotor drive motor
Speed reduction ratio :


2 per unit
1900 each
15 hp

Technical Data On Pulverizing Plant

Milling Circuit:
Each boiler is provided with 3 identical closed milling circuits
with suction type drum mills with partial recirculation of
vapours in the circuit and with the pulverized coal bunkers.
Regulated quality of vapory is recirculated in the milling

circuit and the remaining is burnt in the boiler through

vapour burners.

Pulverizing plant:
Fuel data:
Calorific value
Moisture content
Volatile matter
Ash content
Inlet size of coal to mill
Drying medium
Temp. of flue gases


4727 kcal/kg




hot flue gases
480 0C

Description Of Individual Equipment:

1. Lower part of raw coal bunker: The outlet end of raw
coal bunker, which is not included in our scope of delivery,
is to be provided with a flange for mixing needle type raw
coal bunker closure.

2. Raw coal bunker closure: The raw coal bunker closer is

of needle type. No. of steel tubes (needles) are arranged in
arrow and is guided is a frame. Each tube can be operated
individually by hands. By operating a group of needle at a
time, it is possible to avoid bridge formation in bunkers.
3. Raw coal chain feeder: The raw coal chain feeder
transports coal from the raw coal bunker to the inlet chute
leading to the pulverizer. Raw coal, which is precrushed in
coal crusher to the required size, is conveyed to R.C.
bunker by the coal handling equipment. A needle type
hand operated bunker closure is interred posed between
the bottom of R.C. bunker and top of the chain feeder.
The assembly consists of:

Hand operated bunker closure

Feed hopper
Tension head
Driving head
Double link chain
Driving unit
Supporting base frames

The feeder casing is of welded construction duly stiffened and

supported on steel frames and is lined replaceable steel plates,
which are screwed to the feeder casing. A welded double link
chain fabricated from high tensile steel, moves on wheels,
mounted on shafts in the tension and driving heads. The upper
part of the casing is provided with removable covers at suitable
places. The link chain can be taken out through the rear side
opening of the feeder, after removing the cover. Any slackness
in the chain is compensated by volute springs in the tension
The chain sweeps the raw coal falling on the top plate of the
feeder, on to the bottom plate and scraps it off to the raw coal
chute. The height of the coal bed above the top plate can be

adjusted manually by means of lever operated damper. The

damper inside the chain feeder is bolted to a shaft, which
protrudes out of the casing. A lever is keyed to the shaft
outside and can be operated by hand and can be set in any
desired position. The max. and min. heights of coal bed over
the top plate are 200mm and 120mm respectively. Signaling
equipment indicates the absence of the coal flow in the feeder.
The signaling system consists of paddle mounted on a shaft
onside the chain feeder. The shaft projects out of the casing
and has levered screwed to it. The paddle normally rests over
the top of the coal bed on the bottom plate. When there is no
coal flow, the paddle assumes a vertical position making the
lever to contact a limit switch suitably located and this gives an
indication of no coal flow in the control room. The main shaft in
the driving head is connected to the driving unit, consisting of a
vibrater, a gear box and a motor mounted as a single unit. The
chain wheel on the driving head shaft is provided with a gear
which will shear off and disconnect the driving mechanism, if
there is any over load in the feeder, the speed of the chain
feeder is automatically regulated by actuating the control
spindle of the variator by the servomotor. Rubber wires are
provided both in tension and driving head to scrap off the coal
dust from the moving chain.
Type of feeder
Width of feeder
Speed variation


chain type R 600

600 mm
18,700 mm
0.0503-0.151 m/sec

Functions of chain feeder: the chain feeder serves for

conveying the coal from R.C. bunker to the mill. The quality of
raw coal feed in to the mill can be controlled effectively by the
speed control of the variation drive. The drive is a positive one
and contains gear box, positively infinite variator and as an
integral unit.
The raw coal falls by gravity on top plate of the chain feeder
and is carried on by the moving chain to the bottom part of the

feeder from where it is dragged to the outlet chute of the chain

feeder. Provision is made to take out raw coal samples from the
feeder by means of spoon. The main shaft in the driving head is
connected to the driving unit by means of a double raw roller

Drum mill:
Drum mill consists of:

Single compartment mill drum

Antifriction bearing
Mill drive
Fuel inlet and discharge elbows
Foundations frame for drive and bearing
Ball charge
Lubricating equipment for mill bearing

Mill drum: Mill drum shell is fabricated from thick plates

provided with fabricated ends and flange for bolting the gear
rim. The entire inside surface of the mill is provided with
armour plates, which is fastened to the drum shell by bolts with
10mm thick asbestos mill board interposed between armour
plates and mill shell.
The hollow journals on both sides of the mill drum are provided
with fabricated armour inserts with helix inside.
Antifriction bearing: The entire mill drum with mill journals
supported and rotates on two antifriction bearing. Fixed bearing
is on the other side. The free is designed to take up the axial
and is lubricated by forced lubrication. Suitable thermometer is
provided to indicate the temperature of oil. Labyrinth seals
prevent the leakage of oil from the bearing. The pedestals of
bearing are bolted
to base frame.

Mill drive: It consists of: HT motor: Squirrel cage, induction

enclosed, air cooled circuit machine.



Reduction gear box: It is of robust construction with

single stage reduction. The gear box has a built in cooling
coil for circulating water, which cools the oil in gear box.
Gear rim: Gear rim is machined from steel casting and is
made up of two half pieces bolted together. The whole rim
is bolted to the flange on the mill drum.
Grid type flexible couplings: The coupling consists of
the grooved discs or hubs mounted one on the driven
shaft and other on the drive shaft, interconnected by a
grid spring.
Foundation frame for drive and bearing:
The foundation frames are fabricated from thick steel sections.
The frame under the drive consists of three parts with precisely
machined mating surfaces bolted together.
The whole foundation frame is leveled on a concrete, bolted to
the foundation and grouted.
Ball charge:
The ball charge of the mill consists of three different sizes of
forged steel balls. The quantity of bal fitting will be around 24
to 26% of volume of mill drum. The ball charge for each mill
consists of:
Diameter 40mm
Diameter 50mm
Diameter 60mm


22500 kg
20000 kg
10000 kg
52500 kg

During operation only balls with diameter 60mm are added and
will be approx. 500 kg/week.
Specifications for mill balls:
Ball diameter :
Weight per ball :
Tolerance in mm

0.26 kg

0.15 kg
+ 3

0.89 kg
+ 3

Plant Auxiliary Maintenance

Plant Auxiliary Maintenance understands that the maintenance
work of various auxiliaries outside the main plant or generation
unit, essential for proper running of plants.
There are seven such Auxiliary which comes under PAM:
Hydrogen Plant
Water Treatment Plant- I & II (PAM only undertakes
maintenance work of Treatment Plant and not the
Operational Work)
Compressor House
Control Structure Pump House
Cooling Tower
Ash Slurry Pump House

Fire Fighting Systems (Plant has a water line running

throughout, which should always be filled with water for

Hydrogen Plant
Hydrogen Gas is used for generation cooling so supply of
pure hydrogen in power station is essential for generation
filling and maintenance of hydrogen gas pressure inside the
generator casing.
Hydrogen is prepared by electrolysis of pure De-mineralized
water in an electrolytic cell. When DC is passed through
water, it decomposes the water into two elements 1volume
oxygen and 2volume hydrogen. Pure distill water is bad
conductor of electricity but if acid or salt is added it becomes
a good conductor. To make economical use of electrolysis of
water a solution called electrolyte has to be used which is
passed through the electrolyte Hydrogen is given out of

negative electrode. The Hydrogen gas is collected in Low

Pressure Holder form the Low Pressure Holder the gas is
taken through pipe to the High Pressure Compressor. The
Compressor is a 3 stage Compressor. The gas is compressed
and filled in cylinders. The gas pressure in a fully filled
cylinder is 120Kg/cm*cm. From each and every cylinder the
gas sample is taken & analysed by the Chemistry
Department. If the Hydrogen gas purity is less than 97%, the
gas is considered to be unfit for use and is discharged into
the atmosphere. Oxygen produced in the process is let off to
The gas produced also contains some amount of moisture in
it therefore, form the HP Compressor Hydrogen gas is make
to flow through after coolest, which as moisture separator
columns and then to a point filling station.
The Hydrogen filled cylinders containing Hydrogen of rated
purity then sent to the plant for general cooling plant for
dosing the Chlorine into canal for removed of fungus form
the condenser.
There are two separate centrifugal pumps which are used for
the suction of filtered water form the WTP and used for
cleaning the screens. These pumps are known as screen
work pumps. These gives supply to nozzle water traveling
water screen and as well as manual cleaning of screens
placed after the control structure for arresting any left over
impurities in the water moving farther in the intake channel
and used as cooling water in condenser.
The Compressor used in the Compressor House are of
Horizontal Double Acting Double Cylinder type. In these
compressors there are two cylinders, The High Pressure and
Low Pressure. The Cylinders have two different Pistons but
are connected to a common lead.
To start with the suction of the low pressure cylinders is from
atmosphere through air filters. There are 6 inlets to the low
pressure cylinders through air can enter the cylinder in low
pressure cylinder the atmosphere air is compressed to a
pressure of 1.5to 2kg/cm*cm. The temperature of air again

rises due to frictional heat about 150deg.celsius. To cool

down this compressed air the hot air after discharging from
high pressure cylinder is again passed through after cooler.
The compressed air is then collected in tanks and supply is
given to common header. The basic difference between the
plant air compressor have ail lubricating system between the
piston and cylinder due to which there are always some air
particles or decuples in the air. But in the instrument air
compressors the piston rings and inner surface of the
cylinder are made up of Teflon and thus there is no need of
oil lubrication as Teflon at high temperature has lubrication
But instruments air also containing certain amount of
moisture. To remove this moisture, the compressor air from
the compressor is passed through AIR DRY UNITS. These
units contain silica gel and activated Alumina Bed (2 in
numbers) are remains in service and other in regeneration.
Both the air dry units are connected through a three way
valve. Suppose A is service the silica gel will absorb moisture
and air will become dry. One air drying unit will get
exhausted in six hours, thus after six hours the unit A will get
exhausted and supplied to unit Band unit B will now be in
operation for next six hours and unit A will be regeneration
process. The time of regeneration is also six hours thus by
the time unit B will get exhausted unit A will be regenerated.
The efficiency of compressor is governed by the extent of
cooling of air inter coolers and other coolers.

Capacity of :
KG Khosla Machine Compressor is 14.2mcu/min.
KIRLOSKAR Compressor 18mcu/min
PLANT AIR Compressor 30mcu/min.

Cooling Tower
Water is required in the Thermal Power Station for various
purposes. Filtered water is used for bearing cooling, drinking

and other general uses, whereas ordinary unfiltered water is

used for condenser cooling and ash disposal purposes. Main
sources of water supply are river, reservoirs, natural lakes
and canals, wells for small stations and the oceans for
coastal plants.
Cooling tower are important components of thermal plants
where a limited supply of make up water is only available
Cooling Tower thus provide flexibility for selections of sides
for thermal power station even though Capital Investment
and tunning costs are generally on the high side.
Broadly Speaking Cooling Tower are of two types:
Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower
Natural Draft CoolingTower
Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower :Two Types viz.
Forced Draft Cooling Tower
Induced Draft Cooling Tower

Forced Draft Cooling Tower

In this case, motor driven fans located at the base the top of
the tower are open to the air vapour discharge. The main
drawbacks in these types of tower are that exit velocity is
10W and this result in re-circulating hot air into the fan
intake. Thus the efficiency of the tower is reduced. The other
disadvantages of forced draft towers are:
1. High velocity from the fan located at the base makes
it difficult to distribute air evenly over the whole of
the packing.
2. Low height, low velocity of air and 10W wind velocity
generally results in re-circulating of hot air.
3. There is rapid growth of fungus.

Induced Draft Cooling Tower

These days, it is preferred to use induced Draw Cooling
Tower where the fan is located at the top and air enters from
the openings located at ground level. Air mixed with vapours
is discharged through a fan stack located at the top of the

tower. In this case, moist air is discharged higher in the

atmosphere thereby dispensing to a greater distance from
the tower.
Cold water is collected in the pond located below the cooling
tower where make up water is also discharged.

Hyperbolic Natural Draft Cooling Tower

These are hyperbolic RCC structures supported on RCC
columns. Most of structure is empty shell but the lower
portion of shelf is open to allow the air.
A pond is constructed below the towers to catch the cooled
water for circulation. As the warm water falls in the stack it
gives its heat to the air there which becomes lighter than the
ambient air and a draft is created due to chimney.
In BTPS, induced draft type cooling towers are used. There
are three stages of Cooling Tower as:
Stage I
Stage II
Stage III
There are four Pumps used for Stage I, Two Pumps are used
for Stage II and Stage III. All Pumps are vertical in their flow.
The Cooling Towers are brought into operation in two
During rainy season the water from the canal is very
muddy therefore the water in a plant is used in a closed
cycle with the help of cooling tower.
During Summer season, the supply of water is limited;
therefore cooling towers are brought into act.

Water Treatment Plant

The water treatment plant in the power house is used to
provide de-mineralised water to the boiler so as to avoid
sealing. The source of water in water treatment plant is

either the River water or Ground water. The River water is

mainly used in the BTPS and main source is the Agra Canal.
As the River water contains various types of impurities,
therefore it becomes necessary to purify the water and the
task is handled by water treatment plant. The impurities in
water can be classified in the following types.
Suspended Impurities
Dissolved Impurities
Gaseous Impurities
Organic Matter.
Removal Of Impurity
Suspended Impurities: The large sized impurities are
arrested by the traveling water screens at inlet. For the
removal of smaller size impurity the water is stored in
reservoir and kept still as a result of which the impurities
CLEARIFOCULATOR it is a big tank where water is stored
and some chemicals are mixed with it. It consists of two
concentric tanks. The diameter of outer tank is about 30m.
Firstly, the raw water is fed to the control tank from the
bottom. This is done so that the water is properly agitated
from the central tank the water comes into the outer tank
now in order to felicitate the settling process a solution of
Alum is fed to the water through a pipeline. Actually, the
Alum is a chemical, which felicitate fifth formation. All the
suspended impurities stick to these forth and get collected
at the bottom of the tank and this mass is known as
sludge. In the external tank four stirrers are installed.
These agitation provide proper mixing of water and Alum
solution. The excessive settling in the tank is not allowed,
as it will become difficult to remove it form the tank.
Therefore the sludge is drained two times in 8hours. A
drain valve is provided for removal of sludge, the drain
valve may choke due to the blockage of sludge in the
drain. Thus, back flushing of line drain is done by a high
pressure water line. Thus, the clarified water gets
collected at the top of the surface of outer tank, which
gets collected in trough around the tank on being over
flown in the tank. The clarified water is unsuitable for
drinking purposes. A part of this water is used in the plant

for cooling purpose and rest and remaining part can be

used in more purified form for drinking purposes after
Filtration: Filtration of clarified water is done in the sand
bed containing alternate layer of wood, charcoal and sand.
The number of sand beds depends on capacity of Water
Treatment Plant generally 4-5 beds are used for small
plants. The size of charcoal decreases with height. After
filtration water is stirred in two tanks the clarified water
tank and filtered water tank.
Removal Of Organic Matter: Organic impurities in
water include the bacterial and other microorganism. The
various methods removal of organic matter are by passing
chlorine, UV rays and Ozone. The chlorine gas is available
in high pressure yellow coloured cylinder. The chlorination
is done in the clearifoculator. But the gas is not fed directly
to water. The chlorine dosing is done through ejector,
which consists of a conversing-diverging nozzle. In the
conversing nozzle the high pressure water at low velocity
is converted low pressure water at high velocity which is
approximately equal to sonic velocity. A tapping is given at
the junction and chlorine cylinder is attached to this
tapping due to vacuum pressure at the junction. The gas is
sucked into the water and in the divergent part this high
velocity is again converted to high pressure.
Removal Of Dissolved Impurities: The requirement for
power plant is totally demineralized water thus, the water
should not contain any dissolved impurity or minerals. The
minerals and elements commonly present in the water are
CaCO3, CaHCO3, MgCO3, MgHCO3, CaCl2, MgCl2 and
Phosphorus etc. for the removal of dissolved impurities
filtered water is taken to demineralized tank.

There are five such tanks:

Activated Carbon Filter
Cation Exchanger

Anion Exchanger
Mixed Bed
Activated Carbon Filter: To neutralize chlorine in water,
The water is passed through activated carbon filter. It
consists of as capsule shaped tower, which is about 5m high
and contains a bed of activated coal. The chlorine gets
collected in the bed in HCl form. After sometime the carbon
bed gets exhausted. For regeneration the inlet and outlet
valves are closed and the back washing of the bed is done by
passing water at high pressure in opposite direction and the
HCl is washed awayin drain. The regeneration is necessary
after 16hours.
Cation Exchanger: In the Cation Exchanger the cations
present in water such as Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+, Na+, and K+
are removed. In cation battery there is sand like resin, which
is in granular form but sands is lighter than the resin
material. The composition of the resin is never disclosed by
Supplier Company basically it is polystyrene sulphorate. The
resin is in RH for. Positive ion reacts with resin free water is
removed and hydrogen is replaced. Capacity of resins
850Tonnes in the power station Maximum quantity of water
50T/H. thus regeneration is necessary after every 16hours.
For regeneration inlet and outlet values of water is closed
and 5%HCl solution is added to the cation exchanger and
regeneration is allowed for 55min. on addition HCl, CaCl2
etc. are formed and are reached by back washing by feeding
High Pressure from bottom.
Degasifier: In this whatever Carbon dioxide is dissolved in
water removed. In the degasifier the partial pressure of
carbon dioxide is decreased to zero and thus carbon dioxide
gas escapes in the atmosphere. Thus, the dagasifer works on
the principle of Henrys law of partial pressure.
Anion Exchanger: The anion resins are basically are amines
technically the anion resin used in the anion exchanger is
named as DAN IP. After sometimes the anion battery gets
exhausted and has tobe regenerated. Life of this battery is

14-15hours, having maximum capacity of 700tonnes. The

regeneration is done by adding 5%set of NaOH to the resin
for 30min. approx.
Mixed Bed: Before feeding into the boiler the water should
be totally free from minerals. The water is finally passed
through the mixed bed filled in a battery. The competition of
mixed bed is not fixed. It contains both cation exchange resin
and anion exchange resin.
Regeneration Process of Battery Carried out in Following

Back Washing
Regeneration of Anion Battery
Regeneration of Cation Battery
Again Rinse the battery
Again final rinsing of particle like HCl and NaOH
Fixed Mixing is done by passing compressed air into the

Finally after all this process, De-min. water of PH 7 and Silica

content .02% and conductivity .01 is obtained. The De-Min.
Water thus produced by water treatment plant is stored in

Compressor House:
Two types of air is generally used in the power plant are:
The plant air or station air
Instrumental air.
The Plant Air may be somewhat impure and contains
moisture oil particles etc. it is used for general purposes in
plant there are:
Sand blasting of turbine blades
Filter cleaning of main oil tank

Light oil atomization in igniter gun

Opening of gates in 210MW unit for mixing of hot
primary air.
In the 210MW units there are certain pneumatic machines
which require extremely pure compressed air free from any
moisture and oil content. These include motors for air
preheater and certain valve operation thus instrumental air
is used in pneumatic instruments.
There are three compressor houses in the power plants:
Station air compressor house the compressor installed
in this house is used for producing compressed plant air.
All the three compressors are of consolidated
pneumatic Sales Corp. made.
At the end of 4th unit, there are 2Kg Khosla made
instrumental air compressors which are used for
instrumental air.
The compressors used in the compressor house are of
horizontal type, double acting and two cylinder type. The
high pressure and low pressure cylinders. The cylinders have
two different pistons. But are connected to a common lead.
To start with the suction of the low pressure cylinder is from
atmosphere through air filters. There are 6 inlets to the low
pressure cylinder. In the low pressure cylinder the
atmosphere air and compressed to a pressure of 1.5Kg/cm 2.
The temperature of air rises due to frictional heat about
150deg. Celsius.

Ash Handling Plant

Bottom Ash Cleaning System:
This is a continuous in which bottom ash is collected in who
bottom ash hoppers. From the bottom ash hoppers it is
continuously dropped on two water impounded scrapper
conveyers one for each hoppers which in turn transfer the
bottom ash to two cylinder grinders. The clinkers grinders

crush the bottom ash to appropriate size and the crushed

clinkers fall into sluice trench where high pressure water jets
have been fitted at suitable locations convey the mixture of
ash and water through the system of sluice trenchen and
into the air slurry pump for outward disposal by ash slurry

Fly Ash:
It is the waste product or residue obtained after burning of
coal. The following are the methods that are employed at
BTPS to control the manage fly ash.
Fly ash is made to mix with water to form slurry which is
then put alone with stack pipe of ash, which are
covered by plantation.
Electrostatic precipitator has been installed which help
a lot in reducing the pollution.
Coal is washed before burning to reduce amount of ash

Ash Disposal System And Its Utilization:

The ash produced during the process of power generation is
being put to productive use (utilization level of more than
30%) for purposes like filling of low lying areas, landscaping,
raising of ash types and manufacturer of other ash based
products like of bricks etc. The station utilized 6.3lack tones
of ash than the generated with utilization 14.24MT
Supply of dry ash to M/s Ballapur industries, as a first
stage towards utilization of ash dry ash evacuated
system capacity 250tones /day
For manufacturing of bricks using fly ash the stati9on
was pioneer in setting up an ash brick demonstration
plant in 1993 with capacity 8000bricks/year. To meet
the total captive brick requirement with ash bricks and
to meet the expended demand of bricks for outside
agencies, the station augmented ash brick many

Land filling, BTPS has taken initiative for filling of low

lying areas with ash and had been successful in land
filling at 10Cs LBG bottling plant near village Madanpur
Khad, 70000MT of pond ash has been used during
1999-2000 for above purpose.
Ash from the station has been used for construction rail
(DMRC) and DND Highway.

Turbine Maintenance
From Boiler
Palten S.H
Final S.H
Main Steam
C.R.H Line
To Condensate

Turbine Cycle:
Fresh steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine through
the emergence stop valve from the stop valve steam is
supplied to four control valves situated on high pressure
cylinder at front bearing end. After expansion through 20
stages of H.P. cylinders , steam flows to the central part of L.P.
cylinder through two cross over pipes of 900-mm dia. each from
the central part of L.P. cylinder the exhaust steam enters the
condenser or welded direct to exhaust part of turbine.
Turbine is provided with regenerative system of feed water
heating. Heated steam is extract3ed from 7 non-regulated
bleed points of the turbine from L.P. condensate of 6kg/cm
absolute pressure.
Steam at 1.01 to 1.03 Kg/cm2 is supplied to gland steam seals
of the turbine from the deaerator trough a collector where the
pressure of the steam is regulated . From the end chambers of
seals the air steam mixture is sucked out with the help of
special steam ejector.
From the condenser, the condensate is pumped to deaerator
with the help 3*50% capacity condensate pumps through
2*100% capacity ejector and four L.P. heaters condensate while
passing through the main ejector condense the air steam
mixture sucked out from condenser. A portion of the main
condensate is passed through gland steam cooler to condense
the steam from air steam mixture sucked out from the gland
seal of turbine.

Drain of L.P. heater no.s

2 , 3and 4 are in cascade and is
finally pumped to the main line of condensate with the help of
drip pumps . The drain of L.P. heater no. 1 is connected directly
to the condenser.

Turbine Auxillaries:
Vacuum System
Condensor: 2 per 200MW unit at exhaust of L.P.
Ejector: One starting and two main ejectors connected
to a condenser located near turbine.
CW Pump: 2 per unit.
Condensate System
Condensate Pumps: 3 per unit each located near the
condenser hot well.
Low Pressure Heaters: Normally 4 in no. with no. 1
located at the upper part of the condenser and no. 2,
3and 4 around 4m level.
Deaerator: One per unit located around 18m level.
Feed Water System
Boiler Feed Pump: 3 per unit each located in 0m level
in TG bay.
High Pressure Heater: normally 3 in no.
Drip Pump: 2 in no. , each situated beneath L.P.
Turbine Lub. Oil System

It consists of main oil pump (mop), starting oil pump (sol),

AC stanby pumps and emergency DC pump (1 each unit).

Range: Up to 2000 KW
Application: Pump Drive, Blower
Sugar Cane Mill & Fibrizor Drives
FD & ID Fan Drives Compressors,
Exhausters Power Generation

Design Of Steam Turbine:

Emergency Stop Valve:
Steam from boiler is supplied to the turbine through an
emergency stop valve. This valve is operated by a hydraulic
servomotor that shuts off steam supply to the turbine when
turbo-set is tripped. The sheet is made up of molybdenumchromium-vanadium steel casting on cradle. This valve is
connected to the four control valves.
High Pressure Cylinder:
High pressure cylinder of the turbine consists of two parts.
The front part is made of high creep resisting chromiummolybdenum-vanadium steel casting. The rear part is made
of special carbon steel casting. The two parts are connected
with a vertical joint. Each part consists of two halves having
a horizontal joint. The horizontal joint is secured with the
help of studs and nuts. Four steam chests, two on top and
two on the sides are welded to the nozzle boxes, which are
welded to the cylinder at the front bearing end. The steam

chests accommodate four control valves to regulate the flow

of steam to the turbine according to the load.
The high pressure cylinder comprises of 20 stages, the first
being the governing stage. The nozzle apparatus of the first
stage is welded. In high pressure zone the material for the
body and blades are of chromium-molybdenum-vanadium
steel and in lower temp. Zones the blades are of stainless
steel whereas body is of alloy steel and mild steel.
Low Pressure Cylinder:
The L.P. cylinder is of double flow type with two exhaust
opening. Each flow comprises of five stages .it consists of
three parts i.e. one middle part and two exhaust parts. The
middle part is grey iron casting and the two exhaust parts
are fabricated from wieldable mild steel. Steam from H.P.
cylinder flows through two cross-over pipes fabricated out of
weld able steel. Suitable compensators have been provided
to allow expansion. Necessary mercury thermometers are
provided to measure temp. of steam at L.P. exhaust.

There are two surface type condensers which are both air
and water tight, with an equalizing pipe between them . The
condenser steam inlet, the expansion being taken up by the
spring on which condensers are seated. Each condenser has
separate inlet and outlet of cooling water to facilitate
cleaning of the cooling tubes with 50-60% load on turbojet. it
is also provided with an inlet for dematerialized make up
water . In the upper part of each condenser, two sections of
L.P. heater no.1 are installed. These two sections connected
in parallel and steam is supplied from the same bleed point.
Cooling surface
Consumption of cooling water
No. of water flows for each condenser


No. of tubes
Tube material


Starting Ejector:
It is provided for creation of vacuum in condenser. The
ejector is supplied with steam from the deaerator at the rate
of 1100kg/hr.

Main Ejector:
These ejectors are capable of removing 60kgs of dry air per
hr. The ejector is provided with necessary pressure and
vacuum gauges for measurement of steam pressure and
thermometers for measurement of temp. at the inlet and
outlet of the condensate and of air-steam mixture.

Condensate Pumping Sets:

Three condensate pumps 50% efficient are installed at
ground level for pumping the condensate from the condenser
to the deaerator through L.P. heaters. Two pumps are
normally in operation and third on serves as standby.

Regenerative Equipment:
L.P. Heater No.1:
Heater no.1 is installed inside the condenser. It is horizontal
type consisting of two sections, one is connected in parallel
and steam is supplied from the same bleed. The heaters
have u-shaped brass tubes rolled with brass tube plates.
Heating surface
Bleed steam pressure
Tube design pressure
No. of tubes
No. of paths



L.P. Heater No. 2, 3 & 4:

The three heaters are of surface type. They are designed for
vertical mountings and are supported at 5m level. They are
of welded construction with u-shaped brass tubes rolled with
plates. Water flows inside the tube system from outside. The
tubes are designed for the full pressure developed by main
condensate pump. Two level transmitters will be connected
to each heater, one for remote level indication in local panel
and other for automatic level control.
Heating surface
Tube design pressure
Tube design temp.
Shell design pressure
Shell design temp.




High Pressure Heaters No. 5, 6 & 7:

These heaters are also surface type , and are designed for
vertical mounting and are supported at zero level. Each
heater comprises of a spiral tube and the spiral coils. Feed
water flows inside the coils of the spiral tube system and
heating system washes the tube from outside.
Heating surfaces are
Max. bleed steam pressure (kg/cm2):
Max. bleed steam temp. (0C)
Tube design temp.
Tube design pressure
No. of spiral tubes












Drain Coolers:
Drain cooler is of horizontal welded construction designed for
cooling the drain of L.P. heater no. 3. part of main
condensate passes through and takes off the heat from the
drain of L.P. heater no. 3 . the tubes are of brass rolled in
steam tube plates .
Thermometers for measuring temp. of condensate at inlet
and outlet of drain are provided.

Gland Steam Coolers:

It cools the air steam mixture sucked from the turbine gland
seals. It is of horizontal type and is in two sections. An
ejector mounted on the cooler maintains a constant vacuum
in the first section. It also sucks the remaining air-steam
mixture from first section to second , where the air is let off
and steam is condensed. A part of main condensate after the
main ejector flows through the cooler tube system drains
from cooler is led to condenser through an expander and

Drip Pumping Sets:

The two pumps are installed at ground level for pumping the
bleed. Condensate from L.P. heater no.2
into main
condensate line.

Feed Water Pump:

Each 100MW boiler unit is provided with three electrically
feed pumping sets of capacity 245tons/hr. it is a multistage
barrel type of pump. The inner body is vertically spurt and
tightened together by bolts and encased in a heavy outer
barrel. Both the suction and discharge are on the top of the
pump. On the discharge side the barrel is closed by a high
pressure cover. The sealing of pressure on two sides is done
by providing special mechanical seals.



From Jharia Mines

Railway Wagon
BTPS Wagon
Crusher House
Coal Stack Yard
R C Bunker
R C Feeder
Bowl Mill
To Furnace

Coal And Transportation

As coal is the prime fuel for a thermal power plant adequate
emphasis need to be given for its proper handling and storage
also, it is equally important to have a outstand glow of this fuel
to maintain uninterrupted power generation.

Coal Transportation System (Mgr.)

Each of NTPC project requires transportation of large quantity
of coals from the coal mines to power station site of the order
of 30000 tons per day for a typical 2000 MW station. This
enormous coal requirement is being met ITOrll opm cost mines.
Techno economic study conducted for coal transportation from
mines to power station have revealed that captain merry go
round (MGR) rail transportation system is most economic and is
also reliable. This system calls for high speed load outstation at
the mines which have the following advantages:
High loading enables loading of trains quickly this achieving
high turnover of wagons and reduction in rolling stock
Top opm railway wagons are loaded with maximum possible
load consistently and accurately.
Simple loading arrangement at a simple point avoids the
need for by marshaling yard with cumbersome operational
The high speed load outstation consists of one or more loading
silos depending upon the coal requirement of the linked power
station. The loading capacity of the loading silo is such that is
adequate to fill at least one complete rake of wagon and in
some cases two rakes.

Coal Handling System

In the coal handling system of NTPC station, three coal path are
normally available for direct of coal.
Path Afrom track hopper to boiler

Path Bfrom track hopper to stock

Path Cfrom stock Yard to boiler
The storage facilities at the stockyard have been provided only
for crushed coal. The coal handling system is design to provide
100% stand by for all equipments and conveyers.
The 200 mm coal as received at the track hopper is feed to the
crusher house for crusher of 50% capacity is provided and
these are preferred to two crushers of 100% capacity because
of increased reliability and possible higher availability.
A series of parallel conveyers thereafter are designed either to
carry crushed coal directly to the boiler bunkers or to divert it
to the stockyard. To feed coal into bunkers, mobile trippers
have been provided over bunkers on conveyers.
The coal mills and thereafter, also the bunker conveyer of 200
MW units of the earlier projects are provided between boiler
and turbo-generator building. However, for better mill
maintenance, accessibility and to reduce coal dust nuisance the
turbine plant area, coal mills, and bunker conveyers are now
being place between boiler and electrostatic precipitator.

Coal Handling System Equipments

The various equipments involved in coal handling system have
been described in this section:
Idlers: These essentially consist of rolls made out of
seamless steel tube enclosed fully at each end and fitted
with stationary shaft, antifriction bearing and seals. The
idlers support the belt and enable it to travel freely
without much frictional losses and also keep the belt
properly trained.
Pulleys: These are made of mild steel. Rubber lagging is
provided to increase the friction factor in between the belt
and the pulley.

Conveyer belt: The conveyer belt consists of layers or

plies of fabric duck, impregnated with rubber and
protected by a rubber cover on both sides and edges. The
fabric duck supplies the strength to withstand the tension
created in carrying the load while the cover protects the
fabric carcass. Heat resistant belting is always
recommended for handling material at a temperature over
Drive unit: This comprises of motor coupled to reduction
gear box with the help of flexible coupling on the high
speed shaft of the gear box with the provision of fluid
coupling on the input side, the motor starts under no load
conditions and the conveyer moves only when the motor
reaches its full speed. This also eliminates the starting
shock on the conveyer components.
Scrapper: Conveyer are provided with scrappers at a
distance pulley in order to clean the carrying side of the
belt built up material on idlers rolls. It is important that
care should be taken to ensure that the scrapper is held
against the belt due to remove material without causing
damage to the belt due to excessive force exerted by the
The following categories of scrapper are in common use:- Steel blade
Rubber or fabric blades
Nylon brush
Compressed air blast.
Crusher: The roles of crusher are to crush the coal from
240mm to 20mm size of coal received from the vibrating
screen. This is accomplished by means of granulators.
These granulators are of ring type and there are about 37
crushing elevations. In each of these elevations, there are
4 granulators; 2 plain types and 2 tooth type. These have
been arranged in such a way that 2 of the some types are
not side by side. Normally, these crushers have capacity of
around 600 tons.

Vibrating screen: The function of vibrating screen is to

send the coal size less than 250mm to the crusher. The
screen is operated by 4 V-belt connected to motor.
Magnetic separator: This is an electromagnet placed
above the conveyer to attract magnetic materials. Over
this magnet there is one conveyer to transfer these
materials to chute provided for dumping at ground level.
Vibrating feeder: This is used to held coal on the
underground conveyer belt from where coal goes to
bunker. Coal from the stock yard with the help of bull
dozer is taken to the vibrating feeder via. Reclaim hopper.
Tippler: A tippler is provided in the conveyer to stack the
material at desired location on either side or along the
conveyer with the help of chute fitted with the tripper
itself. The tripper is provided with wheels which move on
rails, parallel to conveyer. These trippers are of 3 types:
Belt propelled/ manually operated
Winch driven.