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Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept.

of ECE, KL University

KL University, Vaddeswaram,
Dept. of ECE,
Signal Processing (B. Tech all branches) 13-ES205
Lesson-4: Simple Manipulation of DT Sequences
Topics to be covered:
Simple Manipulation of DT Sequences:
Addition, multiplication, shifting, folding and scaling.

Study objectives
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
To

Manipulate the DT Sequences.


4.0 Simple Manipulation of DT sequences: There are various kinds of operations or
manipulations of DT sequences are illustrated below.
4.1 Addition, subtraction and multiplication of DT sequences:
Ex1: Consider two DT sequences

x1[n] 2 1 -1 3 -1 5 and x2[n] 2 3 4 3 2 1 .

Compute and plot the addition, subtraction and multiplication operations of these two
sequences. Repeat the above in graphical form. Develop Matlab codes and plot them

Ans: Given that x1[n] 2 1 -1 3 -1 5 , and

x2[n] 2 3 4 3 2 1

Addition

x1[n] x2[n] = x1[n] x2[n] 4 4 3 6 1 6

Subtraction

x1[n] x2[n] 0 2 5 0 -3 4

Multiplication

x1[n] x2[n] 4 3 4 9 -2 5

The results are shown in the following figure


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Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University

Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University

4.2 Amplitude scaling: Amplification and Attenuation:

Ex2: Consider a DT sequence x[n] 2 6 -1 3 -1 5 . Determine and plot the results

for amplification by a factor 2 and attenuation by a factor 2. Develop Matlab codes and
plot them.

Ans: Given that x[n] 2 6 -1 3 -1 5

Amplification by a factor 2: y1[n] 2 x[n] 4 12 -2 6 -2 10

Attenuation by a factor 2: y2[n] x[n] / 2 1 3 -0.5 1.5 -0.5 2.5

The results are shown below.


4.3 Time scaling: The time scaling refers to the up sampling and down sampling process.
Ex3: Perform the time scaling operations for the sequence in Ex2. Develop Matlab codes and
plot them.

Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University

4.4 Transformation of independent variable (time): A sequence x[n] may be shifted in time
by replacing the independent variable n by n k , where k is an integer. If k a is positive
integer, the time shift results in a delay of the sequence by k units of time. If k a is negative
integer, the time shift results in an advance of the signal of the sequence by | k | units of time.

Ex4: A sequence is represented by x[n] {-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4} . Find analytical

solution for the sequences x[n 3] and x[n 2] and represent in graphical form.
Solution: The analytical solution

x[n]
x[n 3]

{-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

{-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

x[n 2] {-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

Graphical representation

4.5 Folding / Reflection / Time reversal: Another useful modification of the time base is to
replace the independent variable n by n . The results of this operation is a folding or a
reflection of the signal about the time origin n 0 . An example is shown below.

Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University

4.6 Combined Folding and Shifting operations:

References:
1. John G. Proakis and Dimitris G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, principles,
algorithms and applications, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011.
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Dr. M. Venu Gopala Rao, Professor, Dept. of ECE, KL University

Exercise
1. Define the following DT sequences both in mathematical expressions and graphical
representations. Develop Matlab scripts and plot them.
(a) [n 3] (b) [n 2] (c) u[n 2] (d) u[n 2] (e) u[n] u[n 10] (f) u[n 2] u[n 10]
2.

A discrete-time sequence x[n] is defined as x[n] {2 1 3 1 0 3 4 5 2

1} .

Sketch and label the following sequences. Develop Matlab scripts and plot them.
(a) x[n] [n] (b) x[n] [n 3] (c) x[n] [n 2] (d) x[n]u[n] (e) x[n]u[n 3] (f) x[n]u[n 2] .
3. Consider a DT sequence is represented by x[n] { 2 -2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5} . Perform the

following operations. Represent both in mathematical and graphical forms.


(a) x[n 3] (b) x[n 2] (c) x[n] (d) x[n 2] (e) x[n 3] (f) x[2n] (g) x[n / 2] (h) x[n2 ]
(i) even xe [n] and odd components xo [n] of sequence (j) y[n] xe [n] xo [n] , where xe [n] and

xo [n] are even and components of the sequence computed in part (i) . Justify whether the
resultant sequence y[n] is even or odd. Illustrate the results by computing in mathematically
and representing in graphical form.
4. Consider

two

DT

sequences

x1[n] 3 0 1 1 0 2 3 -2 5

and

x2[n] 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 1 . Perform the following operations and plot them.

(a) Addition (b) Subtraction, and (c) multiplication.


5. A discrete-time sequence x[n] is defined as

1 n2 , 3 n 1

x[n] 1, 0 n 3
0,
elsewhere

(a) Determine its values and sketch the signal x[n] .


(b) Sketch the signals that results if we:
(i) First fold x[n] and then delay the resulting sequence by four samples.
(ii) First delay the x[n] by four samples and fold the resulting sequence.
(c) Sketch the signal x[n 4] .