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of ECE, KL University

KL University, Vaddeswaram,

Dept. of ECE,

Signal Processing (B. Tech all branches) 13-ES205

Lesson-4: Simple Manipulation of DT Sequences

Topics to be covered:

Simple Manipulation of DT Sequences:

Addition, multiplication, shifting, folding and scaling.

Study objectives

After studying this chapter you should be able to:

To

4.0 Simple Manipulation of DT sequences: There are various kinds of operations or

manipulations of DT sequences are illustrated below.

4.1 Addition, subtraction and multiplication of DT sequences:

Ex1: Consider two DT sequences

Compute and plot the addition, subtraction and multiplication operations of these two

sequences. Repeat the above in graphical form. Develop Matlab codes and plot them

x2[n] 2 3 4 3 2 1

Addition

Subtraction

x1[n] x2[n] 0 2 5 0 -3 4

Multiplication

x1[n] x2[n] 4 3 4 9 -2 5

1

for amplification by a factor 2 and attenuation by a factor 2. Develop Matlab codes and

plot them.

4.3 Time scaling: The time scaling refers to the up sampling and down sampling process.

Ex3: Perform the time scaling operations for the sequence in Ex2. Develop Matlab codes and

plot them.

4.4 Transformation of independent variable (time): A sequence x[n] may be shifted in time

by replacing the independent variable n by n k , where k is an integer. If k a is positive

integer, the time shift results in a delay of the sequence by k units of time. If k a is negative

integer, the time shift results in an advance of the signal of the sequence by | k | units of time.

solution for the sequences x[n 3] and x[n 2] and represent in graphical form.

Solution: The analytical solution

x[n]

x[n 3]

{-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

{-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

x[n 2] {-1 0 1 2 3 4 4 4 4 4}

Graphical representation

4.5 Folding / Reflection / Time reversal: Another useful modification of the time base is to

replace the independent variable n by n . The results of this operation is a folding or a

reflection of the signal about the time origin n 0 . An example is shown below.

References:

1. John G. Proakis and Dimitris G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing, principles,

algorithms and applications, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2011.

5

Exercise

1. Define the following DT sequences both in mathematical expressions and graphical

representations. Develop Matlab scripts and plot them.

(a) [n 3] (b) [n 2] (c) u[n 2] (d) u[n 2] (e) u[n] u[n 10] (f) u[n 2] u[n 10]

2.

1} .

Sketch and label the following sequences. Develop Matlab scripts and plot them.

(a) x[n] [n] (b) x[n] [n 3] (c) x[n] [n 2] (d) x[n]u[n] (e) x[n]u[n 3] (f) x[n]u[n 2] .

3. Consider a DT sequence is represented by x[n] { 2 -2 2 0 1 2 3 4 5} . Perform the

(a) x[n 3] (b) x[n 2] (c) x[n] (d) x[n 2] (e) x[n 3] (f) x[2n] (g) x[n / 2] (h) x[n2 ]

(i) even xe [n] and odd components xo [n] of sequence (j) y[n] xe [n] xo [n] , where xe [n] and

xo [n] are even and components of the sequence computed in part (i) . Justify whether the

resultant sequence y[n] is even or odd. Illustrate the results by computing in mathematically

and representing in graphical form.

4. Consider

two

DT

sequences

x1[n] 3 0 1 1 0 2 3 -2 5

and

5. A discrete-time sequence x[n] is defined as

1 n2 , 3 n 1

x[n] 1, 0 n 3

0,

elsewhere

(b) Sketch the signals that results if we:

(i) First fold x[n] and then delay the resulting sequence by four samples.

(ii) First delay the x[n] by four samples and fold the resulting sequence.

(c) Sketch the signal x[n 4] .

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