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Year 12 (HSC) PDHPE Study Booklet

Core 1: Health Priorities in Australia

1 How are priority issues for Australias health identified?


Measuring health status:

Role of epidemiology
Measures of epidemiology

Identifying priority health issues:

Social justice principles


Priority population groups prevalence of condition
Potential for prevention and early intervention
Costs to the individual and community

Measuring Health Status:


Focuses on negative
health rather than positive
health
Statistics help researchers
to:
Compare patterns of
health in population
Identify health causes
Identify strategies to
prevent diseases
Promote health

Focuses on:
Births
Deaths
Disease incidence
Disease prevalence
Hospital use
Injury incidence
Work days lost

Role of epidemiology

Epidemiology considers
patterns of diseases in
terms of:
Prevalence
Incidence
Distribution (extent)
Apparent causes
(determinants &
indicators)

Epidemiology is used by:


Gov.
Health org.
Doctors

Life expectancy: length of


time a person can expect
to live, based on current
death rates.
Life expectancy at
birth= common
indicator
Life expectancy at 65
years old
Life expectancy is
greater now
Improvements:
Lower infant
mortality
Decline death rates
(CVD & cancer)
Fall in deaths (traffic
accidents)
Living longer=
medical knowledge
Life expectancy
increase= ageing
population (need for

Morbidity: the level of


illness, disease or injury in
given population

Measures of epidemiology

Mortality: number of
Infant mortality:
deaths in given population
Infant
is
from particular
causemortality
over
amongst indigenous
a period of time.
infants(2* the rate)
Decline can be
attributed to:
Improved
medical
diagnosis
Improved
public
sanitation
Improved
health
education

Identifying Priority Health Issues:

Morbidity measures
& indicators:
Hospital use:
provides
statistics of
rates of
illness/
accidents
Doctor visits
& medicare
statistics:
indicate
reasons for
visits and no.
Of visits
Health survey
and reports
Disability &
handicap: the
incidence of
disease/accid
ents can lead
to

Social Justice Principles

Epidemiology
Recognising
andidentifies
population
groups suffering. It
eliminating health
supports the
social
justice too.of
inequities,
promotion
Greater
attention
is directed to
equity,
diversity
and
people experiencing
inequities.
supportive
environments
for all people.

Equity:
The fair allocation of funding
and resources. E.g. GPs who
bulk bill people with health care
card.

Supportive environments:
Australians have a right to have
safe & healthy environments.
This can be achieved through
cost, availability and ease of
access.

Diversity:
Australia has a diverse
population (multicultural) and
the needs of these populations
need to be met. There needs to
be sufficient health care
services & facilities for
everyone.

Priority population groups

Epidemiology data provides a


guiding path to identify priority
areas to prevent disease and
injury and it helps us to identify
risk factors.

ABTSI, elderly, disabled


people, people born overseas,
low SES people, people living
in rural/remote areas
It allows health authorities to:

Determine health
disadvantages
Better understand social
determinants of health
Identify prevalence of
disease & injury
Determine needs of
groups social justice
principles

Prevalence of condition

Cancer, CVD and type 2


Diabetes: majority of disease
burden in Australia

E.g. the decrease in deaths from


CVD can be attributed to
effective health promotion
strategies. However increasing
rates of type 2 diabetes indicate
a need for a particular focus on
the related determinants and risk
factors.

Potential for preventative and


early intervention

Diseases place a great economic


and health burden on the
individual, which can be
measured in terms of financial
loss, diminished quality of life
and emotional stress. Unable to
work, due to disease.

Indirect individual costs:


persistent pain and loss of
quality of life, increased
pressure on family to provide
support, emotional toll of chronic
illness

Indirect community costs:


premature loss of contributing as
valuable members of society and
the cost for employers in
absenteeism decreased
retraining.

Direct individual
costs: financial
Healthy problems
that are
burden that
is associated
withas those
preventable,
as well
illness and
asintervening
thatdisability
respondsuch
well to
medical in
costs
and
loss of
early
stages,
deserve
employment.
increased attention.

The diseases depend on lifestyle


and health related behaviours
Cost
of treatment,
medication,
(smoking,
diet, alcohol
and
rehabilitation.
physical activity levels)

Direct community costs:


funding of the Australian
health care system. Supports
primary health care and
pharmaceuticals

Costs to the individual and


community

2 what are the priority issues for improving Australias health?


Groups experiencing health inequities
look in PE folder for
information on groups experiencing health inequities

ABTSI
Socio economically disadvantaged people
People in rural and remote areas
Overseas born people
Elderly

People with disabilities

High levels of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems

CVD
Cancer
Injury
Mental health problems and illness
Diabetes
Respiratory disease

A growing and ageing population

Healthy ageing
Increased population living with chronic disease and disability
Demand for health services and workforce shortages
Availability of carers and volunteers

High levels of preventable chronic disease, injury and mental health problems

The nature of CVD:

CVD: refers to damage to, or disease of the heart and blood vessels.
Extent of the problem (trends) Mortality: CVD accounted for 32% of all deaths
among Australians in 2010.
Mortality: CVD accounted for 6% of hospital use in 2007-08

Risk factors and protective factors for CVD:


Non-modifiable risk
factors :

Gender CVD
higher in men,
50years old

Modifiable risk factors:

Smoking when
smoking stops, risk
of heart attack &
strokes reduce
Obesity

Protective factors:

Regular physical
activity
Eat a diet low in
saturated fat and
cholesterol

Advancing age
CVD increases with
age

Family history

&overweight
increases risk of
heart disease
raised blood fat
levels diets high
in saturated fat can
rise blood
cholesterol levels
Physical inactivity
high blood pressure
and fat levels
Diabetes
damages blood
vessels ad arteries

diet low in salt


maintaining healthy
weight
managing stress
Avoid exposure to
tobacco smoke

Determinants of CVD:
Socio cultural
determinants:
ABTSI peoples are
more at risk as they
are associated with
having a low SES
and education
levels

Media exposure of
effects of smoking
on health have led
to a reduction in
smoking rates and
therefore a
declining trend for
CVD rates

Socio economic
determinants:
People with low
SES or who are
unemployed have
higher death rates
because income
can limit health
choices

People with low


education levels are
more at risk as poor
education is linked
to poor health
choices and less
knowledge about
access and use of
health services

Environmental
determinants:
People living in
rural and remote
areas are more at
risk, as they tend to
have less access to
health info., health
services and
technology, such as
electrocardiogram
monitors.

Groups at risk of CVD:

Smokers
Family
history of
CVD
People with high blood
pressure levels
(hypertension)

People who
consume high
fat diet

The
cancer:

nature of
People aged
over 65 years

Cancer: large group


uncontrollable

Tumor:
cells

Benign tumors non


cancerous, cure=surgery
Extent of cancer (trends):
Incidence:

of diseases, characterised by the


growth and spread of abnormal cells.
swelling caused by a clump of abnormal

Malignant tumors cancerous, spreadable, invade


healthy tissues

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Cancer = major causes of death in Australia, increasing in incidence in males
& females.
Main reasons for increases in incidence:

Mortality:

Cancer accounted for 30% of all deaths in Australia in 2010.


33.1% male deaths
26.5% female deaths
2010 major types of cancer= lung, bowel, prostate, breast and pancreatic
cancers.

Risk factors and protective factors for cancer:


Non-modifiable risk
factors:
Family history
Late menopause
Early onset of
menstruation

Air pollution
Number and types
of moles on skin

Modifiable risk factors:

Protective factors:

Tobacco smoking
Occupational
exposure
(asbestos)

Avoid tobacco
smoke
Avoid asbestos

High fat diet


Exposure to sun

Practise self
examination
Protective
equipment to
reduce exposure to

sun.
Determinants of cancer:
Socio cultural
determinants:
Family
history=higher risk

Incidence of lung
cancer & cervical
cancer higher in
ABTSI peoples
higher % of
smoking, less
access to health
services

Socio economic
determinants:
Low SES or
unemployment =
higher death %
because income
limits health
choices
People working
outdoors such as
lifeguards = prone
to get skin cancer

Environmental
determinants:
People living in
rural/remote areas
have less access to
health services
such as pap
smears,
technology breast
cancer screenings

Groups at risk of cancer:

The nature of diabetes:


Diabetes (mellitus): condition affecting the bodys ability to take glucose from
the blood stream to use it for energy.

Type 1 diabetes:
Body produces minimal amounts of
Insulin or none at all

Extent of diabetes (trends):


Incidence:

Risen significantly over past 20 years.


In 2007-08 4.1% of Australians reported that they had medically diagnosed
diabetes, due to increase obesity.

Prevalence:

Prevalence of diabetes increases with age


ABTSI have highest prevalence % of type 2 diabetes in the world

Risk factors and protective factors of diabetes:


Non-modifiable risk
factors:
Being over 45 and
having high blood
pressure
Family history
Being over 35 and
an ABTSI
Having had
diabetes during
pregnancy
Determinants of diabetes:

Modifiable risk factors:

Over weight
Having had heart
disease

Having high blood


pressure

Type 2 diabetes:
Pancreas is able to
produce insulin but
Protective factors:
amount is less effective
Nutritious foods
Eat plenty of breads
and cereals and
vegetables
Eat low saturated
fat and low in salt
Maintain physical
activity

Socio cultural factors:


ABTSI high risk due
to low education
and less access to
health services

Socio economic factors:


Low SES and less
education more at
risk because more
likely to consume
high levels of
alcohol, physically
inactive and
consume poor diet

Environmental factors:
Access to
technology led to
higher levels of
physical inactivity
and greater risk of
diabetes.

Australians
incidence of type 1
diabetes among
those aged 0-14
high among other
OECD countries,
due to consumption
of high saturated fat
and sugar
Groups at risk of diabetes:
Woman who had diabetes during pregnancy
People aged over 45
Family history
Overweight
ABSTI
Nature of mental health:
Mental health: problems include
Depression
schizophre

Personality
disorders

Post
traumatic
stress

Major
depression

Schizophrenia affects the normal functioning of the brain.

Drug abuse, physical neglect and early pregnancy = poor health choices.

Extent of mental health (trends):

According to the 2007 National Survey of Mental Health in Australia;


estimated 20% of Australian adults experienced symptoms of a mental
disorder in the 12 months prior to survey.
Women more likely than men to have symptoms of anxiety.

Risk factors and protective factors of mental health:


Non-modifiable risk
factors:
Mental illness
(schizophrenia)

Modifiable risk factors:

Chemical changes
with brain

Protective factors:

depression

Drug and alcohol


abuse

prescribed antidepressants or
psychological
therapy
Organisations such
as Youth Beyond
Blue

Determinants of mental health:


Socio cultural
determinants:
ABTSI peoples
more at risk of
suicide &
depression due to
high levels of drugs
& alcohol abuse

People who have


had a falling out
with peers, or who
have been exposed

Socio economic
determinants:
People with low
SES or who are
unemployed have
higher % because
they to engage
more in substance
abuse.

Environmental
determinants:
Rural, young males
are at higher risk of
suicide due to less
access to support
services and fewer
job prospects.

to bullying, are
more at risk.
Groups at risk of mental health:

People suffering
chronic
depression

Elderly people

Alcoholics
Young gay
and lesbian

People who
have suicide
attempts

Nature of respiratory disease:


Respiratory disease: a group of diseases that affect the respiratory system (lungs,
lower & upper airways, nose and throat).

E.g. asthma, hay fever, chronic bronchitis


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD lung tissue becomes
damaged and the air passage becomes narrow obstructs oxygen intake.
This is due to inhaling gases & particles such as tobacco.
Extent of the respiratory disease (trends):
The prevalence of some conditions in the respiratory disease group is
decreasing attributed to decline in smoking (males).
The National Health Survey 2007-08 estimated that 5% of Australians
who were 55 & older had some form of COPD.
More males than females die from COPD.

Risk factors and protective factors of respiratory disease:


Non-modifiable risk
factors:
inhaled allergens
such as pollens,
animals hair, dust

Modifiable risk factors:

colds and flu

Protective factors:
visit doctor to find
how to prevent and
manage asthma

mites
cold air or changes
in temperature

attacks.
Food preservatives

Determinants of respiratory disease:


Socio cultural
determinants:
ABTSI more at risk
due to high % of
smoking

Family history of
allergies more
prone to asthma

Socio cultural
determinants:
People with less
income more likely
to smoke and have
less money to
spend on treatment

Environmental
determinants:
People living in
rural and remote
areas have less
access to
emergency services
- Higher death rates
from asthma.

People repeatedly
exposed to
hazardous
chemicals at work

Nature and extent of injuries:


Injuries: major cause of preventable mortality & morbidity in Australia

Transport injuries
Suicide attempts
Residential injuries (falls, drowinings, poisonings, burns & scalds
Industry injuries
Consumer product injuries

Extent of injuries (trends):

In 2010, deaths from injuries accounted for 6.2%


The male mortality % from injury is more than twice the female %.

Risk factors and protective factors of injuries:


Non-modifiable risk
factors:
Lack of judgment

Modifiable risk factors;


Carrying more

Protective factors:
Adhering to road

The road is
complicated

passengers than
the no. Of seat
belts
Peer pressure

safety rules

Not driving when


fatigue or under
influence of alcohol
or dugs

Determinants:
Socio cultural
determinants:
Injury &
hospitalisation %
high for ABTSI
because of low
levels of education

Media exposure of
laws relating to
road use and
consequences of
road trauma helps
reduce traffic
injuries

Socio economic
Environmental
determinants:
determinants:
Males aged 25-64
People working in
from disadvantaged
rural/remote areas
areas are 2.2times
because they are
more likely to die in
more exposed to
traffic accidents and
dangerous
1.6 times likely to
machinery
die from suicide.
Females are 2.2
times more for
traffic injuries and
1.3 times more from
suicide.
Unemployed people
People in
or low income
rural/remote areas
earners may not be
more likey to
able to afford safety
commit suicide
devices in homes
because they have
high level of
unemployment and
less access to
support services.

A growing and ageing population:

Healthy ageing:

ageing people unhealthy due to sickness or injury

more access to health services

work years likely to be shortened

reduction in economic growth

Responsibility of Ambassador for ageing:

Prompt positive + active ageing


Encourage contributions made by elderly
Prompt initiatives
Assist elderly to access programs
Note: maintaining &
achieving good health
leads to less access to
Increased population living with chronic disease &
health services.
disability:
Improvements in number of people
surviving heart attacks, strokes & cancers, however increase of chronic
disease or disability.
Demands for health services and workforce shortages:

Government initiatives to meet needs of older population:


More funding for dementia care
Government initiatives to improve Australias retirement income system
shortages in labour from illnesses:
Compulsory superannuation
These initiatives encourage planning for financial security for elderly and
economic burden on gov.

Availability of carers and volunteers:

Older Australians can contribute to caring and voluntary work


Statistics= caring + volunteering is beneficial to economy
2010 2.9 billion Aus over 65 volunteered
Caring society= quality of life
Prediction for future= shortage of carers.

Roles of Health-care facilities and services in achieving better


health
Health care in Australia:

CWLTH
STATE
LOCAL GOV.
Health insurance funds
Public and private services
Institutions
Other org.

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CWLTH GOV.
(Policies, finance, health programs)

Less complex surgery & less


expensive equipment (eye,
nose mouth operations).
Same day surgery

Operations not
emergency

Health
insurance:
Private:
HCF
NIB
BUPA
Medibank
Owned & operated by individual
Grand
& community groups
United
Aus. Unity
Health
Fund

Public:

STATE
GOV.
LOCAL
GOV.

Medicare
.

Performs short stay surgery


Health care Non-institutional
providers: care:
Institutional care:
Community
health services
Hospitals:Medical
Repatriation
services
Public
Health
Private
Promotion
Psychiatric
agencies
Nursing
Pharmaceutical

Public
Operated &
financed by
state &
CWLTH GOV.

Serves greater
proportion of
elderly and young

Private

Provides same
day surgery

Provides highly
specialised &
complex services
(heart &lung
transplants)

Nursing homes: provides care for:

Those unable to look after themselves


Aged/ dementia
Disabilities

Types of nursing homes:

Private charitable
Private for profit
STATE GOV

Psychiatric hospitals:

Reduction in hospitalisation for mental illness, no. Of public psychiatric


hospitals
Service providers:
GPs
Private psychiatrists
Community based public mental health services
Specialised residential mental health care facilities

Medical services:
Health
Professionals

Specialists

Doctors
GPs

Medicare all Australians eligible to claim refunds for payments for medical
services outside hospitals (& services as private patients in hospitals).
Whole/part of cost of GP consultation is reimbursed by Medicare.
Consultation - improved access to doctor & increased health promotion
& awareness of prevention: e.g. pap smears

Health Related Services


Occupational
Pharmacy
(Medicare)

and speech
therapy
(private health
insurance)

Optometry
(Medicare)

Ambulance
(private health
insurance )

Nursing
(Medicare)

Health
inspection

Counselling

Dentistry
(private health
insurance)

CWLTH
Local
State

Pharmaceuticals:

Pharmaceutical
Benefits Scheme
(PBS): funded by
CWLTH Gov & non Gov. CWLTH Gov program, that provides subsidised
(pay part of cost of producing to keep selling price low) prescription
drugs to Aus residents, ensuring affordable access.
PBS Safety Net: to ensure no one is excluded for financial reasons from
access to medicine needed. People with no Gov concession card eligible.

Health care roles:


Governments:

Physiotherap
y (private
health
insurance)

Prevention
Promotion
Rehabilitation
Care
Diagnosis
Treatment

Health Providers:

Doctors
Nurses
Physiotherapists
Dentists

Organisations:

Institutions:

Hospitals
Clinics
Nursing homes

Community health
services
Charities
Support groups

Responsibility for health-care facilities and services:

5 levels of responsibility:
CWLTH
Sate & Territory
Local
Private sector
Community Groups

CWLTH Gov:
Provides funds to State & Territory Gov for health, and influences health policy
& delivery.
Responsible for special community services health programs/ services for
veterans & Aboriginals
Contributes major funds to:
high levels residential care (care given away from home) e.g.
treatments for sufferers of anorexia
medical services
health research
public hospitals
public health activities
Sate &Territory Gov:

responsibilities:
hospital services
metal health programs
dental health services
home and community care
womens health programs
rehabilitation programs
child, adolescent & family health
contributes major funds to:
community health services
public hospitals
public health activities

SE
S

services

Private sector:

services private hospitals, dentists & alternative health services (e.g.


chiropractors)
Approved by CWLTH Department of Health and Ageing
Private Org. National Heart Foundation & Cancer Council funded by State &
CWLTH

Local Gov:
Monitoring of sanitation & hygiene standards in food outlets; waste disposal;
monitoring of building standards; immunisation; Meals on Wheels
State controls immunisation, but local implements them.
Community groups:

E.g. Cancer Council, cancer support groups, carers Australia/ NSW, Dads in
Distress, Sexual Health Services & Diabetes Aus.
Promotes health to empower individuals & community

Equity of access to
health facilities and
services

Culture &
religious beliefs

Knowledge of available
services
Knowledge gap=
lack of education,
poor literacy,
migrants,
indigenous groups,

Access affects issues like:

Shortages
Lack of
Patient
Waiting

Geographic
location

of qualified staff
funding/equipment
waiting list for surgery
times in emergency departments

Health care expenditure VS early intervention and prevention expenditure:

It costs more to cure a disease once it has developed than it does to


fund measures to prevent the illness

Early intervention focuses on:


Educati
on

Weight
control

Active
lifestyle

Healthy eating
practices

More than 90% of Aus health expenditure is allocated to treating & curing
illnesses
Preventative programs:

Doctors Bulk Bill


patients= patient
pays nothing and
doctor receives
100% (85% for
specialists) of
scheduled fee
from Medicare

Provides access to free


treatment as public patient in
public hospital

Strategies to prevent illness and death:


Educating children about positive health behaviours
Restrictions on advertising
Higher taxes on alcohol and tobacco
Preventative Health strategies:
1. Cost effectiveness preventing = huge savings
2. Improvement to quality of life prevention= improvements in
morbidity rates and longevity
3. Maintenance of social equity policy of prevention= helps
provide greater equity

Impact of emerging new treatments and technologies on health care:


E.g. of developments in emerging treatments & technologies:
progress advancing in treatment of eye conditions with drugs
instead of lasers
quit smoking by developing tablets
genetic testing, which finds diseases earlier and prevents death
E.g. of early intervention programs= pap smears, vaccines to prevent
HPV infections, tests for prostate cancer.
Health insurance: Medicare and private:

Medicare

All Aus covered


85%

Provides access to
free/subsidised treatment by
medical practitioners

Private rooms
Security, protection, peace of
Private Health
mind

Insurance

Short wait
times

Insurance
covers while
overseas

Able to stay in hospital of own


choice

Ancillary benefits dental cover


Medicare
Who pays?

CWLTH Gov
Tax payers

Have doctor of own


Private
health insurance
choice
CWLTH Gov
Private

How paid for?

Levy/tax linked to
salary

What benefits?

Basic medical
services
Choice of GP
Basic hospital
services
Specialist health
care

contributors
Monthly premiums
for various forms
of cover
Some special
benefits e.g.
sports equipment
The rest is listed
above in the mind
map.

Complementary and Alternative Health-Care Approaches:


Reasons for the growth of complementary and alternative health products and
services:
1. WHO recognition support of a list of medicinal plants for use in
preparation for herbal medicines
2. Alternative medicine traditional method
3. Effectiveness of treatment
4. Herbal medicine= desire, rather than synthetically produced medicine.
Range of products and services available:
Alternative health care approach
Acupuncture

Aromatherapy

Chiropractic

Herbalism

Description
Involves inserting needles into skin.
Healing= stimulates body and minds
own healing response
Use of pure essential oils to influence,
mind, body/ spirit. Used in treatment of
depression, sleeping disorders, anxiety
Based on relationship between spine and
functioning of nervous and
musculoskeletal system
Uses plants and herbs. Used to restore &
support bodys own defence
mechanisms.

How to make informed consumer choices:

A client needs to ask the following ques:


What is the treatment you offer? How does it benefit me?
What experience and training do you have?
What are your qualifications?
How much will the treatment cost?

Can this treatment be combined with conventional medication?


Private health insurance:

CWLTH Gov implemented schemes to encourage people to take out private


health insurance:
30% tax rebate (discount) for people with private health insurance
1% Medicare levy surcharge (extra)
Lifetime health care incentive with lower premiums (payments) to those
who join before age 30.

Disadvantages of Medicare:

Some services not covered. E.g. dental services


Waiting lists
Limitations to level of choices available. No choice of doctor

Disadvantages of private health insurance:

Costly
Premiums must be paid regardless of levels of use.

Chapter 4 Actions required to address Australias health priorities


Ottawa Charter:

Developed in 1986
by UN
Established by
WHO

Five Action Areas:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Developing Personal Skills


D
Re-orientating Health Services
R
Building Healthy Public Policy
Biggie
Strengthening Community Action Smalls
Creating Supportive Environments Cat

( acronym= DRBSC)

How health promotion based on the Ottawa Charter promotes social justice:
Social justice principles = Equity, Diversity, Supportive Environments.

Five action areas

Equity

Diversity

Developing
personal skills

Mandatory PDHPE
K-10

Re-orientating
health services
Building healthy
public policy

Health services for


ABTSI
Bulk billing
(pharmaceutical
Benefits Scheme)
Lobby groups

Access to
Medicare
community based
support
Language
assistance
AbStudy health
care cards

Strengthening
community action
Creating
supportive
environments

Provision of health
enhancing items

Lobby groups
Destigmating
(labelling health
conditions to cover
areas of health
promotion) health
conditions

Supportive
environments
Media campaigns

Partnerships with
the community
Health campaigns

Lobby Groups

Legislative
bans
Provision of
health
enhancing
items

E.g. of health promotions that are based on the Ottawa Charter to an extent
include:
Closing The Gap
Fresh Tastes @ School
National Tobacco Strategy
National Action Plan on Mental Health

Explanation of each action area:


1. Developing personal skills: aimed at improving knowledge and skills of
individuals so they:
Are able to make informed health decisions
Have the capacity to be a positive influence on those around them
Equity education to improve all peoples levels of health literacy is central in
ensuring they have information and skills required to make decisions about their
health to ensure positive outcomes.
Diversity is about ensuring that information is relevant to all people regardless of
their age, gender, culture, geographic location, sexuality or socio-economic status.
Programs must be able to be personalised in order to target all individuals
Supportive environments empowering individuals by giving them knowledge and
skills, which they can pass on to others within their environment. If a parent is
educated about healthy food habits they will provide nutritious foods for their

children, which will reduce the chance of them developing a diet related illness such
as diabetes.
2. Re-orientating health services: the process of re-orientating health services
encourages the health sector to move beyond its traditional role of providing
curative services.
This is also about change in professional education & training.
Equity all individuals, regardless of educational backgrounds, should have
equal opportunities to train in the promotion of health as well as the provision of
health services to increase the health outcomes of their own community and that
of others.
3. Building healthy public policy laws can ensure that all people are treated
fairly, regardless of their social makers. E.g.:
All workplaces have government enforced smoking bans that protect
both blue-collar & white-collar workers.
PBS is an e.g. of equity because the government provides affordable
and equal access to prescription drugs, as the government subsidises
the cost of medication to assist people from low SES.
The no hat no play policy in primary schools promotes a supportive
environment for children, as wearing a hat during play is compulsory.
This protects children from UV exposure.
4. Strengthening community action valuing diversity is essential when aiming
to strengthen community action. Each community is unique & different so
must be consulted about the development of health promotion strategies
intended to improve their health.
Developing equity between communities is also important. Resources whether
financial, structural or human must be equally available to all communities in
order to optimise potential for health promotion success.
5. Creating supportive environments the place they live and the people around
them can either create barriers to good health or in optimal conditions help to
break down barriers
Supportive environments local council improves the lighting & security of the
local bicycle track it will increase the chance of it being used by people either
early hour of the morning or later in the evening. This increased level of
availability may encourage member of the community to use the track and
therefore improve their physical fitness.