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ACARE goals

and DLR-Contributions
for Reduction of Aviation Climate Impact
C.-C. Rossow
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Outline

Introduction
DLR-Research Topics

Engine

Airframe

Air Traffic Management

Atmospheric Physics

Outlook and Conclusion

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World Wide Production of CO2

Total traffic:

~12% of CO2 emissions

Air traffic:

~ 2% of CO2 emissions

Impact of air traffic will double

Many atmospheric mechanisms still research topics

1.5%

12.0%

Transport
Total

Home/Office
Woods
Agriculture
Waste
Energy
Industry
Cars & Vans
Heavy Trucks
Sea
Air Traffic

Source: 4th IPCC Report


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ACARE
Vision 2020, Strategic Research Agenda SRA 1 & 2
- Environment
- Quality and Affordability
- Air Transport System Efficiency
- Security
- Safety

Goals for the Environment (based on the technological level of 2000)


- Reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by 50%
- Reduction of NOx emissions by 80 %
- Reduction of perceived external noise by 50%
- Reduction of impact of production, maintenance, and disposal of A/C
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Contributions of Industry and Research Community

Todays aircraft are already very efficient vehicles


(A380: ~3-4 liters / pax / 100 km)

Traffic increase requires further improvements (ACARE goals)

Environmental impact of air traffic strongly affected by

propulsion technology (fan, turbine, combustion, materials),


airframe technology (aerodynamics, structures, systems)
air traffic management,
physics of the atmosphere

DLR performs research in these fields to reduce environmental impact

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Contributions of Industry and Research Community

Potential for fuel


burn reduction:
Engines: ~20%
Airframe: ~25%
ATM:

~10%

Source:
Jeff Jupp,
Mitigating the
Environmental Impact
of Aviation
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Engine Technologies DLR Contributions

Source: Rolls-Royce

Overall engine performance analysis development of advanced propulsion


concepts (increased efficiency, low noise, low emissions)
Development of a high fidelity CFD-code for 3D unsteady aerodynamics, aeroelasticity and aero-acoustics (TRACE)
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Engine Technologies DLR Contributions


Flight Mission Range
3000km

6000km

12000km

-6%
-8%
-10%

UHB
BPR1.45
12

BPR1.30
17
UHB

UHB
BPR1.20
25

UHB
BPR1.45
12

BPR1.30
17
UHB

UHB
BPR1.20
25

UHB
BPR1.45
12

-4%

UHB
BPR1.30
17

-2%

UHB
BPR1.20
25

Mission Fuel [Reduction vs. Ref.]

0%

UHBR Concepts
Impact of Bypass Ratio
(BPR) on engine cruise
SFC reduction:
BPR 25:
BPR 17:
BPR 12:

-14.5%
-14.2%
-11.5%

-12%
-14%
-16%

BPR 25: greater weight and size counteract SFC reduction


BPR 17: results in lowest fuel consumption on all flight missions
BPR 12: mission fuel reduction greater than cruise SFC reduction
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Engine Technologies DLR Contributions


TRACE 3D-Design and Final Geometry of a Geared Fan (BPR = 12)

Fan stage (BLISK Rotor) completed and assembled


Aero and noise testing starting in 2007 at DLR
Validation of geared fan concept and design tools
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Engine Technologies DLR Contributions


Lean Combustion for NOx-Reduction
Lean piloted burner

Investigation of RR-D lean burner


module with internal staging

Ceramic combustor

WHIPOX combustor wall


element with effusion cooling
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Airframe Technologies DLR Contributions


Drag Reduction

Source:
Geza Schrauf,
KATnet
Key Aerodynamic Technologies
For Aircraft Performance Improvement

DLR Flight Physics Research covers all relevant Areas


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Airframe Technologies DLR Contributions


Engine Airframe Integration

EU-Project
ENIFAIR

EU-Project
ROSAS

Mitigate aerodynamic impact of engine-pylon-wing interference


Establish configuration-dependent data-base for optimal BPRs
Determine potential/risk of unconventional installations
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Airframe Technologies DLR Contributions


Laminar Flow Control Research at DLR
Hybrid Laminar Flow (HLF, B.L.-Suction)
High System Complexity (Proof of Concept)
Alternative System Designs
Wing and Configuration Design
-1.5
Cp(M=1.3)

-1
thick line with trans.
thin line without
Cp*

-0.5

Cp_3D

Natural Laminar Flow (NLF)


Wing and Configuration Design
Robustness to Disturbances (Receptivity)
Mission Assessment (Speed vs. Fuel)

t/c=10.7
t/c=11.7
t/c=12.7

0.5

phi=19, M=0.74,Re=20 mill, CL=0.72


Aerofoils: a9.4_eh (t/c=11.7) and derived

1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

x/c

Operational Parameters
Anti-Contamination / De-Icing
Surface Quality and Integrity
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Airframe Technologies DLR Contributions


Weight Reduction
Challenges
Technology
Potential

Weight [%]
30

New Metal
Technologies

Weight Reduction

Fuel Reduction

CO2 Reduction

-40

-30

Todays Metal
Technologies

20
-20

10
10

-10

-10

20

30

Costs [%]

-20

Future Fibre Composite


Technologies

-30

Todays Fibre Composite


Technologies

30% Reduction in Structural Weight:


15% Reduction in Fuel Consumption
(Estimate for 250 PAX, 6500 km configuration with pre-design tool PrADO)
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Airframe Technologies DLR Contributions


Weight Reduction
Chain of Research Areas to enable A/C Weight Reduction

Light Weight
Materials

Light Weight
Structures

Light Weight Design

Materials Science

Manufacturing Technology

Material Requirements

DLR Research Portfolio covers complete chain of Research Areas


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Air Traffic Management DLR Contributions


Operational Improvement
Reduction of unnecessary fuel consumption
during all flight phases from Gate-to-Gate
Optimization of Air Space
Structure to avoid route
extensions
Reduction of Holdings
Use of efficient Approach and
Departure Procedures
Avoid traffic jams at runway
heads before take-off
Operational Towing
Use of on-board fuel cells

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Airframe Technologies DLR Contributions


Reduction of Route Extensions
Example: Route Hamburg Toulouse

Average route extension in


Europe per flight: 48,6 km
Additional distance flown in
2006 in Europe:
441 million km
Additional CO2 Emission of
~ 4%
Direct
Extensions
Extension (%)

TMA
Interface

Total 2006

4,0%

1,9%

5,9%

Extension per Flight

32,9 km

15,7 km

48,6 km

Additional Distance

298 M km

143 M km

441 M km

3,2 M t

1,5 M t

4,7 M t

Additional CO2 Emissions

Source: Eurocontrol, Performance Review Report 2006

- Flight on airways vs. Direct Routing: 52,8 NM


- 2470 Kg CO2 Reduction (6,2%) on a A330-300
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Airframe Technologies DLR Contributions


Efficient Airport Traffic Management

Improved
Planning

With DMAN

Reduction of time when engines are running on the ground


Reduction of long departure queues by use of a Departure Manager (DMAN)
Reduction of ~ 5 tons of fuel per hour and runway in high traffic situations
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Conclusions and Outlook


Engines: Propfan / Open Rotor Technology
UDFTest on
MD-80

Re-Inventing the Propeller:


15-25% SFC-Reduction
Noise, Safety (blade loss)

(1987)

Engine /Airframe Installation


Reduced Cruise Speed ( M~ 0.75-0.8)

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Conclusions and Outlook


Airframe: New Configurations
Potential and Challenges
Fuel-Efficient
Design

BWB: + 20% L/D; - 15% Weight (?!)


Noise: < - 10 dB (fuel burn penalty ?)

Press. Cabin, PAX; S&C; H.L.; Airport


Family concept (+ of Cayleys paradigm)
Noise Regulations (dB vs )

Low Noise
Design

Economical / Ecological BCs:


Strong incentive required
BWB:

tanker A/C (mil.)


freight (unmanned ?)
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fully laminar
flow (?)

Conclusions and Outlook


Airframe: Operations
Potential and Challenges
Chain of med. flights: -10% to -20% (?)
Aerial Refueling: -10% to - 40% (?)
Formation flights: -10% (?)

Infrastructure (A/P, tanker fleet, etc.)


Flexibility, reliability, vulnerability
Safety (control, redundancy, etc.)

Economical / Ecological BCs:


Strong incentive required
Achievable with currentFolietechnology
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Conclusions and Outlook

Todays air transport system is highly matured and efficient

Drastic system changes require high incentives (economics)

Concrete boundary conditions for design required (ecology)

Global legislation for ATM and ecological targets necessary (politics)

Physics does not make ACARE goals unachievable (John Green)

There are however no low-hanging fruits anymore:

Continuous research: on-off / on-off switching not efficient

long-breath: instead of break-through long (deep) drilling

Progress not achievable by pure multidisciplinary assembly

Long way from laboratory via demonstration to product

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Airbus S.A.S. 2007


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