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Quiromancia

La quiromancia es la adivinacin a travs de la lectura de las lneas de la mano. El


trmino deriva del griego (khir, "mano") y (mantea, "adivinacin"). Es
una rama de la quirologa y se centra en el estudio de las lneas y montes que se hallan
en las palmas de las manos que, por medio de la observacin, revelan supuestamente el
perfil psicolgico y fisiolgico de una persona. Aunque suele ir ntimamente ligada a la
adivinacin y a las ciencias ocultas, siempre ha existido una cierta aceptacin popular.
Actualmente es criticada como una seudociencia. Comnmente, la prctica de la
quiromancia se denomina leer la mano o leer las manos, aunque tambin se conoce
como echar, leer o decir la buenaventura.

[editar] Adivinacin

Lneas de la mano: 1) Lnea de la vida; 2) Lnea de la cabeza; 3) Lnea del corazn; 4)


Anillo de Venus; 5) Lnea del Sol; 6) Lnea de Mercurio; 7) Lnea de la suerte.
Se suele decir que en las manos se puede conocer el destino de una persona y adivinar
sucesos pasados, presentes y futuros. Si bien no es posible afirmar rotundamente hasta
qu nivel de detalle se pueden predecir sucesos, s que podemos intuir, gracias al perfil
psicolgico de una persona que supuestamente podramos observar en sus manos, cmo
va a actuar en una situacin concreta.
Segn la quiromancia el destino se puede leer en las palmas de las manos por
representacin de predisposicin gentica: del mismo modo que est comprobado que
una persona puede estar predestinada a padecer ciertas patologas en el futuro, tambin

podra ser posible saber cmo evolucionar su comportamiento a lo largo de su vida,


aseguran.
Sin embargo resulta ms difcil si cabe comprender y explicar de forma cientfica la
premonicin de sucesos externos a travs de la quiromancia, puesto que ello se aleja de
la base gentica plausible que sostienen los que practican la quiromancia. Por ejemplo,
es a priori cientficamente inverosmil el poder asegurar con rotundidad, como hacen
algunos quiromantes, qu nmeros de lotera acertaremos a travs de nuestras manos.
En su estudio sobre la historia de las tcnicas adivinatorias, el ensayista italiano
Giordano Berti cita las siguientes palabras de Leonardo da Vinci:
"Sulla fisionomia e sulla chiromanzia non mi dilungher, perch in loro non c' verit (...). Tu
troverai grandissimi eserciti morti in una medesima ora di coltello, e nessun segno della mano
simile l'uno all'altro".

[editar] Las lneas de la mano


El estudio de las lneas se lleva a cabo normalmente en la mano izquierda, sea cual sea
la mano dominante. La mano debe estar abierta con la palma a la vista. Dichas lneas se
dividen en dos grupos: las lneas mayores y las menores. Existen 3 lneas mayores y
numerosas lneas menores que no siempre aparecen en su totalidad.
Palmistry or chiromancy (also spelled cheiromancy, Greek kheir (, ), hand;
manteia (, ), divination), is the art of characterization and foretelling the
future through the study of the palm, also known as palm reading, or chirology. The
practice is found all over the world, with numerous cultural variations. Those who
practice chiromancy are generally called palmists, palm readers, hand readers, hand
analysts, or chirologists.
The information outlined below is briefly representative of modern palmistry; there are
many often conflicting interpretations of various lines and palmar features across
various schools of palmistry.

Contents

1 History
2 Techniques

3 Significance of the Left and Right Hand

4 Hand shape

5 The lines

6 The mounts

7 Science and criticism

8 Palmistry in Movies and Television

9 Palmistry Online

10 See also

11 Notes

12 References

[edit] History
Palmistry or hast rekha can trace its roots back to Greece from Aristotle (384322
B.C.E.) discovered a treatise on the subject of palmistry on an alter of Hermes,[1] which
he then presented to Alexander the Great (356323 B.C.E.), who took great interest in
examining the character of his officers by analyzing the lines on their hands. Aristotle
stated that "Lines are not written into the human hand without reason. They emanate
from heavenly influences and man's own individuality". Accordingly, Aristotle,
Hippocrates and Alexander the Great popularized the laws and practice of palmistry.
Hippocrates sought to use palmistry to aid his clinical procedures.
The knowledge of palmistry has been used in the cultures of India, Tibet, China, Persia,
Egypt and to some countries in Europe. Studies show that most ancient communities
like the Sumerians, Tibetans, Hebrews, Babylonians, Egyptians and Persians were
greatly interested in the study and practice of palmistry.
Some claim that Palmistry initiated in India in (Hindu) Astrology (known in Sanskrit as
Jyotish), Chinese Yijing (I Ching), and Roma (Gypsy) fortune tellers.[2] The Hindu sage
Valmiki is thought to have written a book, whose title translates in English as "The
Teachings of Valmiki Maharshi on Male Palmistry", comprising 567 stanzas. From
India, the art of palmistry spread to China, Tibet, Egypt, Persia and to other countries in
Europe [2][3] From China, palmistry progressed to Greece where all india Anaxagoras
practiced it.[2] However, modern palmists often combine traditional predictive
techniques with psychology, holistic healing, as well as alternative methods of
divination.

Captain Casimir Stanislas D'Arpentigny published La Chirognomie in 1839.[3]


Adrien Adolphe Desbarolles published Les Mysteres de la Main in 1859

Katherine Saint-Hill founded the Chirological Society of Great Britain in 1889

Edgar de Valcourt-Vermont (Comte de St Germain) founded the American


Chirological Society in 1897
Count Louis Hamon (Cheiro) published Cheiro's Language of the Hand in 1894.

[3]

William Benham published The Laws of Scientific Hand Reading in 1900


Charlotte Wolff published works from 19361969, contributed to scientific
chirology

Noel Jaquin published works from 19251958, contributed to scientific


chirology
Arnold Holtzman (Psychodiagnostic Chirology)
Edward Heron-Allen published various works including in 1883 Palmistry - A
Manual of Cheirosophy which is still in print.[3][4]

[edit] Techniques
Chiromancy consists of the practice of evaluating a person's character or future life by
"reading" the palm of that person's hand. Various "lines" ("heart line", "life line", etc.)
and "mounts" (or bumps) (chirognomy
Chiromancy consists of the practice of evaluating a person's character or future life by
"reading" the palm of that person's hand. Various "lines" ("heart line", "life line", etc.)
and "mounts" (or bumps) (chirognomy), purportedly suggest interpretations by their
relative sizes, qualities, and intersections. In some traditions, readers also examine
characteristics of the fingers, fingernails, fingerprints and palmar skin patterns
(dermatoglyphics), skin texture and color, shape of the palm, and flexibility of the hand.
A reader usually begins by reading the person's 'dominant hand' (the hand he or she
writes with or uses the most)(sometimes considered to represent the conscious mind,
whereas the other hand is subconscious). In some traditions of palmistry, the other hand
is believed to carry hereditary or family traits, or, depending on the palmist's
cosmological beliefs, to convey information about past-life or karmic conditions.
The basic framework for "Classical" palmistry (the most widely taught and practiced
tradition) is rooted in Greek mythology. Each area of the palm and fingers is related to a
god or goddess, and the features of that area indicate the nature of the corresponding
aspect of the subject. For example, the ring finger is associated with the Greek god
Apollo; characteristics of the ring finger are tied to the subject's dealings with art,
music, aesthetics, fame, wealth, and harmony.

[edit] Significance of the Left and Right Hand


Though there are debates on which hand is better to read from, both have their own
significance. It is custom to assume that the left hands shows potential in an individual,
and the right showed realized personality. Some sayings about the significance include
"The future is shown in the right, the past in the left"; "The left hand is the one we are
born with, and the right is what we have made of it"; "The right hand is read for men,
while the left is read for women"; The left is what the gods give you, the right is what
you do with it." The choice of hand to read is ultimately up to the instinct and
experience of the practitioner.

Left The left hand is controlled by the right brain (pattern recognition,
relationship understanding), reflects the inner person, the natural self, the anima,
and the lateral thinking. It could even be considered to be a part of a person's
spiritual and personal development. It is the "yin" of personality (feminine and
receptive).

Right As opposites are, the right hand is controlled by the left brain (logic,
reason, and language), reflects the outer person, objective self, influence of social
environment, education, and experience. It represents linear thinking. It also
corresponds to the "yang" aspect of personality (masculine and outgoing).

[edit] Hand shape


Depending on the type of palmistry practiced, and the type of reading being performed,
palmists may look at various qualities of the hand, including the shapes and lines of the
palm and fingers; the color and texture of the skin and fingernails; the relative sizes of
the palm and fingers; the prominence of the knuckles; and numerous other attributes of
the hands.
In most schools of palmistry, hand shapes are divided into four or 10 major types,
sometimes corresponding to the Classical elements or temperaments. Hand shape is
believed to indicate character traits corresponding to the type indicated (i.e., a "Fire
hand" would exhibit high energy, creativity, short temper, ambition, etc. - all qualities
believed to be related to the Classical element of Fire).
Although variations abound, the most common classifications used by modern palmists:

Earth hands are generally identified by broad, square palms and fingers, thick
or coarse skin, and ruddy color. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of
the fingers is usually equal to the length of the fingers.

Air hands exhibit square or rectangular palms with long fingers and sometimes
protruding knuckles, low-set thumbs, and often dry skin. The length of the palm
from wrist to the bottom of the fingers is usually equal to the length of the fingers.

Water hands are seeable by the short, sometimes oval-shaped palm, with long,
flexible, conical fingers. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the
fingers is usually less than the width across the widest part of the palm, and usually
equal to the length of the fingers.

Fire hands are characterized by a square or rectangular palm, flushed or pink


skin, and shorter fingers. The length of the palm from wrist to the bottom of the
fingers is usually greater than the length of the fingers.

The number and quality of lines can also be included in the hand shape analysis; in
some traditions of palmistry, Earth and Water hands tend to have fewer, deeper lines,
while Air and Fire hands are more likely to show more lines with less clear definition.

[edit] The lines

Some of the lines of the hand in Palmistry


1: Life line - 2: Head line - 3: Heart line - 4: Girdle of Venus - 5: Sun line - 6: Mercury
line - 7: Fate line
The three lines found on almost all hands, and generally given most weight by palmists:

The heart line is the first of the major lines examined by a reader. It is found
towards the top of the palm, under the fingers. In some traditions, the line is read as
starting from the edge of the palm under the little finger and flowing across the
palm towards the thumb; in others, it is seen as starting under the fingers and
flowing toward the outside edge of the palm. Palmists interpret this line to represent
matters of the heart, that is, more literally, our emotional living; it is therefore
believed to be an insight into how the emotional sides of our mindframes will act
out and be acted upon during our lifetimes, and often said, to what extent we
possess emotional reservoirs within us, for example, a chained or gridded heart line(
or emotional line) is often seen in people who are highly strung, nervous and draw
upon emotional strength and insight to attain their ambitions,ie they wear their
'emotions' on their sleeves,often to draw strength. Such chaining or gridding on the
heart line (emotional line) is often seen in intensely creative artists such as
musicians and writers, as well as deeply driven scientists. Dealing with emotions,
the line is also claimed to indicate romantic perspectives and intimate relationships,
again, a chained or gridded heart line is said to point to a flirtatious attitude to love,
and one which can be prone to fall in love easily. On a physical level, the heart line
is indirectly associated with heart health, moreso through the affects that emotions
can have on the body such as with blood pressure. A chained heart line is often
associated with high blood pressure, but also of an 'adrenaline junkie' attitude in life.

The next line identified by palmists is the head line. This line starts at the edge
of the palm under the index finger and flows across the palm towards the outside
edge. Often, the head line is joined with the life line (see below) at inception.
Palmists generally interpret this line to represent the person's mind and the way it
works, including learning style, communication style, intellectualism, and thirst for

knowledge. It is also believed to indicate a preference for creative or analytical


approaches to information (i.e., right brain or left brain).

Finally, readers look at perhaps the most controversial line on the hand, the life
line. This line extends from the edge of the palm above the thumb and travels in an
arc towards the wrist. This line is believed to represent the person's vitality and
vigor, physical health and general well being. The life line is also believed to reflect
major life changes, including cataclysmic events, physical injuries, and relocations.
Contrary to popular belief, modern palmists generally do not believe that the length
of a person's life line is tied to the length of a person's life.

The combined length of these three main lines (heart, head, life) can also be
used. If this combined length is longer than a persons foot they may be over
bearing. However, if it is shorter they may give in too easily to other people. A
similar length suggests a well balanced individual.[5]

The lines on your hand are arab numbers. The right hand has a perfect number 18 while
the left hand has a perfect number 81. These two numbers added together give 99, the
number of named attributes belonging to Allah[citation needed]. When 18 is subtracted from
81 this equals 63, which is the age the Islamic prophet Muhammad died[citation needed].
Additional major lines or variations include:

A simian crease, or fusing of the heart and head lines, has special significance
in that both emotional as well as reasoning nature have to be studied from this line
alone. The peculiar line is thought to be a combination of the head and heart lines on
such hands that are separately marked on the rest of the hands.

According to Cheiro, this line is thought to endow a person with an intensity of purpose
or single-mindedness, the nature of which is decided upon by exact position of this line
on the hand and the direction of any branches shooting from it, which is normally the
case. In hands where such a line exists without any branches as a singular mark, it
indicates an extremely intense nature and special care is needed for such persons. The
normal position for the line is starting below the index finger and ending where
normally the heart line terminates at the edge of the hand below the little finger,
indicating average interests for the person and the intense side of the nature is decided
purely by the direction of any branches shooting from it. The upper half of the palm
lying immediately below the fingers is considered to represent the higher or intellectual
nature and the lower half of the palm to represent the materialistic side of the nature. If
one of these halves is larger than the other as decided by the central placement of the
head line or in this case the single transverse palmar crease it shows greater
development of that aspect of the nature. Based on this general principle, if this line is
placed below its normal position it indicates an intensely intellectual nature; if it is
placed above its normal position it indicates an intensely materialistic nature and
interests. The direction in which any branches may be found shooting from this line
have a significant impact on the nature of this line resulting in suitable modifications
from the above defined results depending on the nature of the mounts on the hand. For
instance, if a branch from this line shoots to the mount of Moon lying on the lower edge
of the hand exactly opposite the thumb, it indicates an intensely vacillating nature and
emotional temperament.

The fate line runs from the bottom of the palm near the wrist, up through the
center of the palm towards the middle finger. This line is believed to be tied to the
person's life path, including school and career choices, successes and obstacles.
Sometimes this line is thought to reflect circumstances beyond the individual's
control, or alternately the person's choices and their consequences.

The mounts in Palmistry


Jupiter, Saturn, Apollo, Mercury, Mars positive, Mars negative, plain of mars, Luna
mount, Neptune mount, Venus mount.[6]
Other minor lines:

Sun Line - parallel to the Fate Line, under the ring finger; believed to indicate
fame or scandal
Girdle of Venus - starts between the little and ring fingers, runs in a rough arc
under the ring and middle fingers to end between the middle and pointer fingers;
thought to relate to emotional intelligence and the ability to manipulate

Union Lines - short horizontal lines found on the percussive edge of the palm
between the Heart Line and the bottom of the little finger; believed to indicate close
relationships, sometimes - but not always - romantic.

Mercury Line - runs from the bottom of the palm near the wrist, up through the
palm towards the little finger; purported to be an indicator of persistent health
issues, business acumen, or skill in communication.

Travel Lines - these are horizontal lines found on the percussive edge of the
palm between the wrist and the heart line; each line is said to represent a trip taken
by the subject - the longer the line, the more important the trip is to the subject.

Other Markings - these include stars, crosses, triangles, squares, tridents, and
rings under each of the fingers; their supposed impact and meaning varies by
location on the palm and freedom from other interfering lines.

"Apollo Line" - the Apollo line means to have a fortunate life; it travels from the
Mount of the Moon at the wrist to beneath the Apollo finger.

"Ominous Line" - crosses life line and forms 'x' shape; very bad sign to find;
palm readers will often not mention this line because of the worry it causes to the
person being read. Common indicators of ominous line include 'M' being formed by
other lines.

[edit] The mounts


In order to be able to interpret the linesand their effects on our relationshipsit is
essential to have an understanding of the underlying mounts.
The hand is divided into seven segments called mounts. Each mount relates to a
corresponding planet with a specific portfolio. The mounts of the hand provide a
tangible record of how we deal with each of these planetary influences, and what our
challenges are.
The mounts also represent the colors in the spectrum of the rainbow. The more each
mount begins to reflect the characteristics of its own specific light frequency, the more
representative it becomes of the superconscious soul or light within.
The mounts are Luna, Venus, Mars (formed by its negative and positive poles), Jupiter,
Saturn, Sun, Mercury and Rahu and Ketu.
Following is a brief description of the mounts and the specific characteristics that they
reflect.

The mount of Luna (or Moon - represents the first stage of our evolutionary
process. Luna stands for the original plan of creation, as in the Bible quotation, in
the beginning was the Word... As such, it relates to the collective unconscious as
well as to each persons individual receptivity to tune into that creative source. Luna
pertains to the qualities of perception, creativity, imagination and sensory
awareness.

Venus - next in the sequence of mounts, represents the actual physical


manifestation of the concept which was initiated in Luna. (... and the Word was
made flesh....*). Venus represents the actual cellular makeupor energythat
manifests itself in physical form. It shows the condition of the body and how at
home we feel in our physical form. The mount of Venus reflects the presence or
absence of qualities such as harmony, kindness, grace, charm and love. It reflects
our degree of physical and sexual health, sensuality and beauty.

Mars negative - is the next focus of attention for the unfolding human soul.
Symbolically, it relates to the mobilization of the spark of incarnate energy
originally conceived and then brought into being through Luna and then Venus.
Mars negative stands for our energy, which, when not properly harnessed and
channeled, can lead to exhaustion, or possibly to anger and aggression.

Jupiter - represents the awakening of the conscious mind. In India, it is referred


to as the guru or dispeller of darkness. It speaks of our sense of purposewhat role

we want to play in life. Jupiter stands for ambition, confidence, leadership and
justice.

Saturn - indicates the necessity to search within. It represents the alchemist who
is able to synthesize the experiences of Jupiter in order to extract a deeper meaning
of life. Saturn stands for wisdom, co-ordination and discernment.

The Sun - in our hand indicates our desire to share all that has been learned from
the profound nature of Saturn. It is referred to as atma and represents our soul. The
Sun shows that aspect within us which can transcend any limitations. Success,
charisma and integrity are all characteristic of the Sun.

Mercury - In India, stands for the Buddha and reflects an enlightened


consciousness. It relates to our involvement in the world, and also our ability to be
detached from the fruits of our actions. Mercury denotes intuition, spontaneity and
the ability to communicate effortlessly.

Mars - Next lies the mount of Mars positive (which, with Mars negative
located on the opposite side of the palmforms the Mars galaxy). Whereas Mars
negative relates to our physical energy, Mars positive deals with our mental
strength. Positive characteristics include endurance, persistence, and a calm mental
state.

Rahu and Ketu - are inextricably intertwined. Ketu represents the kinds of
circumstances we attracted in the past and our attitudes towards them, whereas
Rahu relates to our immediate environment. A famous Sanskrit verse tells us that
our present is the result of all our yesterdays, and the future depends on how well
we live today. This sums up the relationship between Rahu and Ketu.

Ketu is our karmic account book, whose balance sheet portrays the entire record of our
thoughts, attitudes, and behavior of the past. Rahu reflects the kind of environment we
are likely to attract in the present, and how receptive we are to either making the most of
it, or limiting its potentials by resisting opportunities that come our way.
From a metaphysical viewpoint, as the mounts begin to express the ideal characteristics
for which they standfor example, the objective perception of Luna, the unconditional
love of Venus, the calmly active energy of Marsthey consequently begin to radiate at
their specific light frequencies in the color spectrum. The result is pure radiant light.

[edit] Science and criticism


The study of digit ratio, the relative length of one finger to another finger on the same
hand of the same individual, has produced some interesting scientific papers concerning
the role of androgens during fetal development. These studies, the earliest of which
were published during the 1880s, established by measuring the 2D:4D ratio between the
index finger and ring finger, it could be shown that a greater proportion of men have
shorter index fingers than ring fingers than do women.[7][8] with the statistically
significant sex difference in a sample of 201 men and 109 women established by 1930,
[9]
In recent years, the 2D:4D digit ratio has also been used to predict success in social

and economic terms. For instance, a study by a group of Cambridge University


scientists led by Dr John Coates, himself a former Wall Street broker, compared the
profits made by traders over a period of 20 months with their finger-length. They found
that the ring finger length (the leading marker in contemporary studies of digit ratio)
was correlated to city stockbrokers' success.[10] Digit ratios have also been linked to
other conditions, such as prenatal androgen exposure, sexual dimorphism,
homosexuality, depression, reproductive success, and musical aptitude[11].
A considerable amount of research into palm crease and fingerprint whorl variations has
been undertaken in mainstream scientific journals, generally with respect to the
usefulness of these phenotypic markers in diagnosing genetic medical disorders.
Aberrent digit length, which can include having one or more unusually short fingers
(brachydactyly) or severely incurved fingers (clinodactyly). has also been scientifically
correlated with numerous genetic chromosomal disorders and congenital syndromes.
Such research has uncovered strong correlations between the single palmar crease,
aberrant fingerprints, and/or aberent finger length and chromosomal disorders such as
cri du chat syndrome (chromosome 5), aberrations on chromosome 9[12], Noonan
syndrome (chromosome 12), Patau syndrome (chromosome 13), Edward's syndrome
(chromosome 18), Down syndrome (chromosome 21), and Aarskog-Scott syndrome (Xlinked recessive).
The use of palmar creases for medical diagnosis was the subject of a number of papers
published in the 1970s and '80s, with researchers noting some correlation between
variation in palmar creases and various pathologies, including: trisomy 21,[13]
intrauterine methadone exposure,[14] leprosy,[15] and intrauterine insult leading to mental
retardation.[16] However, these studies have been criticized for lacking in objectivity due
to lack of strict definitions of what constitutes a crease and its variants, as well as
lacking systematicity due to small sample sizes.[17] Additionally, a recent study assessing
pediatricians' ability to diagnose fetal alcohol syndrome by way of physical features
alone indicates only moderate-to-fair rates of correct assessment by abnormal palm
creases, with pediatricians tending to overestimate incidence of the pathology.[18]
Palmistry for medical diagnosis is thus suggested to be most useful when combined
with other metrics for identification.
Unusual dermatoglyphic or fingerprint patterns have also been shown act as markers to
a variety of genetic disorders.[19][20] One study of fetuses with chromosomal
abnormalities showed that the development of dermatoglyphic patterns was delayed by
more than two weeks in utero.[21]
Despite evidence that supports specific connections between the lines of the palm and
chromosomal disorders, between abnormal fingerprint patterns and chromosomal
disorders, and between fetal androgen mediated digit ratios and adult behaviours, there
has been little widely accepted scientific research verifying palmistry's accuracy as a
system of character analysis and no conclusive data have yet been found to support the
claims made by hand readers with respect to life expectancy. Some skeptics include
palmists on lists of alleged psychics who practice a technique called cold reading in
order to appear psychic.[22]

[edit] Palmistry in Movies and Television

Palmistry has been shown in a number of films and television shows, including:

Amaya (2011)- Through the use of Himalad (Palmistry) the priestess found out
that Amaya is the chosen one - the girl with a twin snake who will kill the ferocious
Rajah.
Eat Pray Love (2010) - Julia Roberts's character goes in for a palmistry reading
which transforms her life

The Simian Line (2001) - Readings by a quirky psychic set in motion the main
plot of the film

Before Sunrise (1995) - Julie Delpy's character has her palm read, while Ethan
Hawke's character is sidelined, leading to a cynical rant from his character

Jacob's Ladder (1990) - Tim Robbins' character has his palm read at a party,
which acts as an ominous portent

Teen Witch (1989) - While Robyn Lively's character has her palm read, the
fortune teller recognizes her as reincarnated witch who will soon be coming into her
powers

The Simpsons - Palmistry is lampooned in Episode 67, New Kid on the Block.