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Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH 8/21/09 2:49 PM Page 2

MÜN‹H Filminde Mimari


Temsillerin
Çözümlemesi
Space: Theory & Criticism
Ders veren: Doç.Dr. Aytanga Dener
Haz›rlayan: Efe Korkut Kurt
Çal›flma: ‘Münih’ isimli sinema filmi
Filmin Türü: Gerilim / Dram / Tarihi
Yönetmen: Steven Spielberg
Senaryo: Tony Kushner, Eric Roth, George Jonas (Kitap)
Görüntü Yönetmeni: Janusz Kaminski
Müzik: John Williams
Yap›m: 2005, ABD , 164 dk.
Oyuncular: Eric Bana (Avner), Daniel Craig (Steve), Ciarán
Hinds (Carl), Mathieu Kassovitz (Robert), Hanns Zischler
(Hans), Ayelet Zurer (Daphna), Geoffrey Rush (Ephraim),
Mathieu Amalric (Louis), Moritz Bleibtreu (Andreas), Mic-
hael Lonsdale (Papa), Yvan Attal (Tony)

Efe Korkut Kurt*

Girifl tinli terörist ‹srailli atletlerin kald›¤› yatak- tarafs›z olmasa da çok yönlü bir bak›fl-
Çal›flma Münih isimli filme ait alt-metinle- haneyi basm›fl, 2 sporcuyu katlettikten la yaklaflmaya çal›flm›fl bir film. Bu aç›-
ri mimari ve mekansal göstergeleri ile sonra 9 kifliyi rehin alm›flt›r. Talepleri re- dan olaylar dizininin siyasi yönünün
de¤erlendirmeyi içermektedir. Bu yön- hinelerle beraber Münih Havaalan›’na üzerine çok fazla durmadan, sürükleyi-
den filmin içeri¤i çerçevesinde mimari götürülmektir. ci bir macera filmi format›n› koruyan
ba¤lamda 3 ana bafll›kta gruplanan ko- bir tarihi dram türü ortaya konulmufl.
Alman hükümeti hayati bir karar al›r ve
nular, filmin farkl› bölümlerinde bulunan Film fliddet olgusunun kendi kendisini
rehineleri kurtarmak için düzenlenen
sahnelerdeki benzer unsurlar›n ortaya üreten ve toplumlar›n kan ba¤›na ba¤-
operasyon bir faciaya dönüflür ve tüm re-
konulmas›yla aç›lmaktad›r. Her bir sah- l› ç›karlar›n›n ve var olufllar›n› sürdür-
hineler öldürülür. Bunun üzerine ‹srail
ne mekansal ifadenin filmin anlat›m›na me çabalar›n›n yaratt›¤› çat›flmay›, bi-
Hükümeti bir karfl› terör grubu olufltura-
ve hikayesine katk›s› ve birlikteli¤i ile ele reyler üzerindeki etkilerini de vurgula-
rak Avrupa’da bulunan örgütle ve olayla
al›nm›fl, yorumsal olarak ifade edilerek yarak ele alm›fl.
ba¤lant›l› kiflilere suikastlar bafllat›r. Bu
herhangi bir kaynak kullan›lmam›flt›r.
suikastlar, karfl› fliddeti üretecek ve hem
suikastç›lar›n iç dünyalar›na hem de çev- Bu aç›dan filmde belli olgular özellik-
Filme Genel Bak›fl
Y›l 1972… Dünyan›n en büyük spor or- relerine yay›lan bir y›k›m› meydana geti- le vurgulanarak, bunlar ikili karfl›tl›kla-
ganizasyonu olimpiyatlar, Münih’te, recektir. r› ile ortaya konulmufl. Bunlardan öze-
70’lerin ruhuna uygun olarak bar›fl ha- likle dikkat çekenleri ve mimari ifade-
vas› içinde bafll›yor. Her ülke baflar› ve Filmin anlat›m dili ve lerle de güçlendirilmifl olanlar›, do-
madalyalar beklerken Münih’ten gelen k›sa felsefi çözümlemesi ¤um-ölüm, dostluk/kardefllik - düflman-
bir haber dünyay› sars›yor. Kendilerini Münih Filmi güncelli¤ini koruyan global l›k, medeniyet – ilkellik gibi kavram
‘’Kara Eylül’’ olarak tan›tan bir grup Filis- düzeydeki siyasi ve toplumsal bir konuya ikilileridir.
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH 8/21/09 2:49 PM Page 3

1. Bölüm - 1. Sahne 1. Bölüm - 2. Sahne 1. Bölüm - 3. Sahne

1. Bölüm:Ifl›k, Mekan ve Mimari sorumlulu¤u ortadan kalkarak, seyircinin 2. Bölüm:Metafor olarak Mutfak
Filmde ›fl›k kimi sahnelerde iç mekana d›- kolayca özdeflim kurabilece¤i bir niteli- Filmde mutfak mimari bir unsur olarak te-
flardan süzülerek ve kuvvetli bir flekilde ¤e bürünecektir. mel bir felsefi gönderme için kullan›lmak-
girerek ve güçlü gölgelerin oluflmas›n› tad›r. Mutfak bir yandan ailenin birlikte-
sa¤layarak kullan›lm›fl. Böylece kimi sah- 2. Sahne: li¤ini yaflam/beslenme ba¤lam›nda en
nelerin anlam›na görsel bir katk› ve bilin- ‹lk suikast›n betimlendi¤i bu sahne yu- fazla sembolize eden mekan oldu¤u için
çalt› göndermeler için kullan›lm›fl görün- kar›da aç›klanan benzer ö¤eleri yine kullan›l›rken di¤er taraftan besleyen an-
mektedir. ›fl›k ve mimari dil ile güçlendirerek or- ne figürünün gönderme yap›ld›¤› bir bi-
taya koymaktad›r. Asansör bofllu¤un- linçalt›na iflaret etmektedir. Bu aç›dan
1. Sahne: dan süzülerek gelen ›fl›k suikast› ilahi anayurt kavram› ile anne kavram› bir tür
bir havaya sokarak estetize etmektedir. efllefltirmeye maruz kalmaktad›r. Filmin
Kahraman›m›za devletin yetkilileri tara-
Yine baba figürüne gönderme yapan bir sahnesinde annesiz büyümüfl kahra-
f›ndan görevinin aktar›ld›¤› sahne. Bu
öldürülen kifli, ödipal anlamda baba man›m›z için ‹srail’i bir anne olarak gör-
sahnede tafl bir tarihi yap› modern bir
katline gönderme yapmaktad›r. Bu da müfl olmas› ifade edilmesi benzer bir vur-
ayd›nlatma sistemi ve d›flar›dan gelen
guya iflaret etmektedir.
do¤al ›fl›k ile ayd›nlat›lmaktad›r. Burada vicdan›n temelini oluflturan yasa/baba
bir taraftan Orta Do¤u’nun modernize figürünün katli ile kahramanlar›m›z›n iç
dünyalar›nda ilk yara olarak ortaya
1. Sahne:
olmufl bir ortam›nda oldu¤umuz ifade
Bu sahne kahraman›m›z›n hamile efli ile
edilirken di¤er taraftan genç kahraman›- ç›kmaktad›r.
Münih olaylar›n› dehfletle izledikten son-
m›z ile devleti temsil eden büyükleri ara- ra mutfa¤›n önünde geçen bir diyalog-
s›ndaki sembiyotik iliflki mimarinin içine 3. Sahne: dan oluflmaktad›r. Mutfa¤› di¤er mekan-
süzülen tanr›sal bir ›fl›k ile vurgulan›yor. Ayr›l›k sahnesi Avrupa’n›n görkemli de-
la ay›ran kemerimsi geçifl dairesel for-
Böylece kilise mimarisinde s›kl›kla kulla- mir ve camdan yap›lm›fl tren istasyonla- muyla diflil bir göndermeyi bar›nd›rmak-
n›lm›fl olan(özellikle Gotik mimaride) r›ndan bir tanesinde betimlenmifl. Bu ta, kad›n›n hamileli¤inin alg›lan›fl›n› sine-
›fl›k, burada da devleti tanr›sal, yüce, sahnede ›fl›¤›n gökyüzünden mekana gi- ma dili ile mimari bir unsur kullanarak
kapsay›c›l›¤›na göndermede bulunmak- rifli ayr›l›k kavram›n›n ölüm kavram›yla güçlendirmekte ve vurgulamaktad›r. Ay-
tad›r. Üstlerinin yafl ve tav›rlar› ile bu et- olan benzerli¤i aç›s›nda yine tanr›sal bir r›ca evin dekorasyonu ve tafl›d›¤› simge-
ki güçlenmektedir. Böylece kahraman›- ifade aç›s›nda kullan›lmaktad›r. Kahra- ler (duvardaki Kudüs ifllemesi gibi) bu ke-
m›z babas›n›n (devletin) sözünü dinleyen man›m›z bu sahnede flefkatli bir bebe¤in merle oluflturulmufl bölüntüler ile ortak bir
bir çocuk rolüne kaymakta ve bundan rolüne geçerek çocuk rolünden yetiflkin Ortado¤u kültürel ça¤r›fl›mlar›n› güçlen-
sonraki bölümlerde yapacaklar› ile ilgili rolüne geçmektedir. dirmektedir.

2. Bölüm - 1. Sahne 2. Bölüm - 2. Sahne 2. Bölüm - 3. Sahne


Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH 8/21/09 2:49 PM Page 4

2. Bölüm - 4. Sahne 2. Bölüm - 4. Sahne 3. Bölüm - 1. Sahne

2. Sahne: 4. Sahne: ad›m ad›m ikiz kulelerin y›k›m›na giden


Bu sahnede kahraman›m›z yüksek gelir Bu sahnede mutfaktaki yemek yapma ey- yolda modernite fikrine bir darbe niteli-
grubuna hitabeden bir haz›r mutfak dük- lemi aç›kça vahflete ve fliddete bir gön- ¤inde oldu¤u düflünülebilir. ‹ç mekan
kân›n›n vitrininden bakmaktad›r. Burada derme niteli¤inde ortaya konmaktad›r. çekiminde tümüyle harap olan ve du-
geçen diyalogda iyi bir mutfa¤›n ne ka- Mutfakta b›çaklar, atefl vs. gibi öldürücü varlar› çöken yap› bir tür medeniyetin
dar pahal› oldu¤u vurgulanmakta, bu da ve tehlikeli aletlerin bulunmas› ve kullan›l- ve modernizmin çöküflüne gönderme
ailesinin iyi bir hayat sürmesini isteyen mas› bu fikre katk›da bulunmaktad›r. Ay- yapmaktad›r. Burada kahraman›m›z›n
n› sahnenin devam eden bölümünde ise yanlar›na gitti¤i ç›plak genç çift bu y›-
her kiflinin ödemesi gereken bir bedel
elektriklerin kesilmesi ile mum ›fl›klar› ile k›nt›lar›n aras›nda Adem ile Havva’y›
olarak ortaya konulmaktad›r. Sahnenin
ayd›nlat›lan ortam, bir taraftan medeni- an›msatmaktad›r.
devam›nda betimlenen Paris atmosferi
ve süs köpe¤i burjuvazinin sembolik ifa- yetin sembolü elektri¤i kapatarak bir
desi ile mutfa¤a ait pahal›l›k imaj›n› güç- göndermede bulunurken, di¤er taraftan 3. Sahne:
mumlar alt›nda yenen yemek bir tür ilkel Filmin son sahnesinde kahraman›m›z kö-
lendirmektedir.
ayin atmosferi vermektedir. tü baba figürü (devlet) ile bir diyalog ya-
3. Sahne: flamaktad›r. Bu diyalog New York Man-
Mutfakta geçen ve birlikte yemek yap›- 3. Bölüm: Y›k›m hattan’› siluet olarak gören yap›sallafl-
lan bu sahnede ikili aras›nda geçen 1. Sahne: mam›fl bir peyzajda geçmektedir. Bu dü-
sahnede aile kavram› vurgulanmakta, Cumbal› bir kâgir yap› bombalanmakta- zensiz do¤al alan ile gökdelenlerin yük-
yemek yapman›n vahfli ve ilkel taraf› d›r. seldi¤i yar›m ada aras›nda z›tl›k iliflkisi
hissettirilmektedir. Kahraman›n elinin filmin temelini oluflturan ikili karfl›tl›klara
yak›n plan irdelendi¤i bölüm ayr›ca 2. Sahne: mekansal bir gönderme niteli¤indedir.
ifadelidir. Alman düflünürü Kant eli K›br›s’ta “Olimpic Hotel” isimli bir otel Sahnenin son resmi olarak kadraja giren
beynin bir uzant›s› olarak ele almakta- bombalan›r. Otel dokunun büyük ölçü- ‹kiz Kuleler’in silueti ça¤›m›z›n en önde
d›r. Bu aç›dan el, medeniyeti yapan ve de tarihi ve küçük ölçekli yap›lardan gelen simge binalar›n› filme katarak güç-
y›kan bir araç olarak ikili anlam›yla oluflan çevreye k›yasla, hacimli, beto- lü bir mesaj vermektedir.
ifade bulmaktad›r. Yine ayn› sahnede narme bir yap›d›r. Bölgenin modern mi-
ailenin reisi niteli¤indeki flah›s, filmin mari üslubunun dönemsel olarak ta tipik (ITÜ Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü - Mimari Tasa-
di¤er sahnelerinde betimlenen bir ba- bir örne¤i bu yap›n›n bombalan›fl› bir r›m Doktora Program› “Space: Culture &
ba figürüne benzer bir flekilde ba¤lan- önceki cumbal› yap›ya oranla çok daha Identity” dersi için yap›lm›fl çal›flmadan
ciddi bir hasar yaratmaktad›r. Bunun al›nt›d›r.)
maktad›r.

3. Bölüm - 2. Sahne 3. Bölüm - 2. Sahne 3. Bölüm - 3. Sahne


Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH 8/21/09 2:49 PM Page 5

Analysis Of
Entry Part 1: Light, Space and Architecture
The work is containing the ideas of the Light is used in some scenes strongly ma-
film which are expressed or strenghten by king strong shadows in the interior space.
Architectural the use of architecture. These ideas are Thus, it seems to be used for addition to
shown in three groups according to the the meaning of some scenes and as refe-
Representations content and different scenes in the diffe- rence to the subconscious.
rent part of the film are selected in that

In The Movie context. All the scenes are taken into con-
sideration with their contribution to the
Scene 1
The mission is given to our hero from his

MUNICH
sub-text and symbolic meaning and ex- superiors. In that scene, the space which
pressed with free comments in a systemic is an old Stone building is lightened by
way without using any reference. the natural light entering from the high
windows and a modern style lighting ele-
Plot ment hung to the ceiling. We feel that we
The film begins with a depiction of the are in an eastern country (expressed by
events of the Munich Massacre in 1972, the style of the old building) which is a mo-
followed by a recreation of the news cove- dern country (expressed by the modern
rage interspersed with snippets of real fo- lighting element). The symbiotic relation of
otage. The film opens with a recreation of our hero with his superior (the govern-
the kidnappers' entrance to the Olympic ment) is expressed by the light comes from
Village and the initial assault on the apart- the windows as a sign of divine cover of
ment building. the father. In that sense, the light which is
used for divine meanings especially in
The operation which was made to survive gothic architecture is used in the same
the hostages turn into a disaster and all way here. As our hero gets in to the role
the hostages were killed. After that, Israel of the child, his responsibility on the
Government organizes a counter-terror te- events will decrease so that the spectator
am and sends the team to Europe to assas- is able to identify himself with him without
sinate the people related with the organi- feeling guilty.
zation and the incident. The assassination
was going to produce the contrary violen- Scene 2
ce and appear enlarging destruction both In that scene which the first assassination
Program: Architectural Design/ PhD inward the team members and their surro- puts the same kind of elements mentioned
Lesson: Space: Theory & Criticism undings. above by the help of light and architectu-
Lecturer: Ass. Prof. Dr. Aytanga Dener re. The light comes from the upper floors
Prepared by: Efe Korkut Kurt The Expression Style and the Short Ide- through the apartment hole makes the as-
Title: ‘Munich’ the movie ational Analysis sassination in a hymn atmosphere. The co-
Sort of the Film: Phys / Drama / Historic The movie Munich is approaching to a ming of the elevator shows the coming
Director: Steven Spielberg global subject which is very actual trying end of the old man. Again, the figure of
Scenario: Tony Kushner, Eric Roth, Ge- not to take side. In this direction the film the father is expressed by the help of the
orge Jonas (Novel) tries to be an adventure film as a historical divine sign of the light coming into the
Image Director: Janusz Kaminski drama getting rid of the political pronunci- space from outside (from the top). The first
Music: John Williams ation. The film takes the violence fact as cut of our hero’s conscience is done which
something produces itself and the benefits is created by the law/father in Freudian
Production: 2005, ABD , 164 min.
of the societies linked with blood connec- theory.
Actor/Actresses: Eric Bana (Avner),
tion and their effort to exist as something
Daniel Craig (Steve), Ciarán Hinds
conflictive and its effects on individuals. Scene 3
(Carl), Mathieu Kassovitz (Robert),
In this direction some facts are emphasi- The separation scene is described in a
Hanns Zischler (Hans), Ayelet Zurer
zed in particular and expressed as binary big, historic train station in Europe. The
(Daphna), Geoffrey Rush (Ephraim),
oppositions. Some of these which are con- light comes from the glass ceiling as the
Mathieu Amalric (Louis), Moritz Bleib-
cept couples strengthen by the architectu- divine meaning of the light as death,
treu (Andreas), Michael Lonsdale (Pa-
ral images; birth-death, friendship-hosti- which is a concept resembles the separa-
pa), Yvan Attal (Tony)
lity, civilization- primitiveness. tion. Our hero becomes an adult from a
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH 8/21/09 2:49 PM Page 6

child and now the power of light and arc- pregnant woman so that she is pointed Scene 4
hitecture is behind him. with the use of cinematic language. Besi- In that scene, the action of cooking is ma-
des, the arch shape of the separation is in king a reference to the violence and wild-
Some of the agents come to question them- a harmony with the Middle Eastern cultu- ness in the kitchen. The use of the deadly
selves - bombmaker Robert declares that ral signs of the couple’s house decoration and dangerous tools like knives and fire
"we're losing it [our Jewish righteousness]; (like the carpet on the wall with the pictu- etc. contribute to this idea. The cut of the
I'm losing my soul" as the group goes over re of Jerusalem) which is showing that we electricity as the sign of civilization and the
a laundry list of violence that has spun off are in Israel. huge dinner made with the light of the
from their own mission of retribution.( candles is expressed as a ceremonial at-
Murphy, M, C, Electronic Intifada) Scene 2 mosphere after the killings.
In that scene our hero is looking at a ready
Part 2: The Kitchen as a Metaphor "All this blood, all of it comes back to us,"
made kitchen shop which addresses the
The kitchen is used in the film as an archi- says Robert, the first to bail from the missi-
high income groups. In the dialogue, the
tectural element for a main philosophical on. And the most seasoned agent among
cost of a good kitchen is expressed as the
sign. The kitchen is used as the savage them soberly states, "Each time we kill we
cost of a family’s survival. The Paris pictu-
space of the human being in the whole li- create six more," noting that the new lea-
re in the coming after this scene and the
ders replacing the assassinated Black Sep-
ving place and showing the wholeness of dog in the man’s hand as the sign of the
tember leadership are that more extreme -
the family in the meaning of feeding neces- rich and the bourgeois strengthen the refe-
and for some of them, "Black September is
sity. In the other way the kitchen has the rence of the expensive kitchen. not violent enough." ( Murphy, M, C,
sign of the feeding mother figure in the sub-
2006)
conscious. In that direction the concept of
The same debate is going on right now in
motherland matched with sign of the mot-
America. If it is true that civilizations must Part 3: Destruction
her. In one of the scenes, our hero is des-
sometimes compromise their values, the qu- Scene 1
cribed as someone who was grown witho-
estions remain: What is the cost, and what An old building with a bay window made
ut a mother and always saw Israel as his
is the benefit? Spielberg clearly asks if Isra- of stone is bombed. Only the windows are
mother.
el has risked more than it has gained. broken into pieces.
(Ebert, R, 2005)
The film has deep love for Israel, and con-
Scene 2
tains a heartfelt moment when a mother re-
Scene 3 A Hotel called the “Olympic Hotel” (the na-
minds her son why the state had to be fo-
In that scene which is happening in the me refers to the Olympic games in ancient
unded: "We had to take it because no one history) in Cyprus is bombed. The hotel bu-
kitchen, the meaning of the family is ex-
would ever give it to us. Whatever it took, ilding is a massive structure with a typical
pressed and the wildness and primitive-
whatever it takes, we have a place on modern style compare with the surroun-
ness in cooking is perceived. The part
earth at last." (Ebert, R, 2005) ding buildings which are mostly in smaller
which the hand of our hero is focused on
size and more classical style. The effect of
Scene1 is also meaningful. Kant discusses the hand
the bomb is making a very serious dama-
In that scene, the picture of our hero is as the organ of the brain. In that Picture the
ge to the building when we compare with
with his pregnant wife in front of the kitc- hand is shown as the implement that builds the old building in the pervious bombing.
hen after watching the Munich killings. and demolishes the civilization as a binary In that way, the idea of modernity is stroke
The oval arch shape of the separation of opposition. The figure of the father is lin- with the use of modern style architecture.
the kitchen from the living room gives a re- ked with the other figures of father mentio- The Picture interior part of the building af-
ference to the female and the shape of the ned in the pervious scenes. ter the bombing shows all the demolished
Mimarlik Egitimi MUNIH 8/21/09 2:49 PM Page 7

walls (on which some cultural signs are put are in New York, standing against a carry out more murders of innocents, presu-
to show the location) as the sign of the des- Manhattan skyline where the Twin Towers mably because of the assassinations. At
truction of civilization and modernity. The still soar. Steven Spielberg seems to ask if the end of the film, the camera lingers on
nude boy and girl in these ruins are recal- what Avner did contributed to what was the before 9/11 Manhattan skyline, domi-
ling Adam & Eve taking us back to the star- to happen in New York almost 30 years nated by the twin towers of the World Tra-
ting point of the civilization. later. And Spielberg, without mentioning de Center. The film is crafted to demonstra-
the word 'Iraq', clearly w ants audiences te that violence breeds violence in the long
“It's a one-eyed giant of a movie. It has fe- to make that connection, too. The 'war on run as well as in the short run.
arful power. Its enormous noise and unsur- terror', he implies, is one more event in
passable effects made a hard-boiled previ- the escalating 'eye for an eye' tragedy Spielberg aims swinging blows at some
ew audience cower the night I saw it. Spi- that can be traced back to Munich and very big moral and political targets, which
elberg seems to rage, as he tries to make beyond. other American film-makers - and not only
you know what a bomb really does when In reality, Saddam's crimes had little to those with a Jewish background like his
it explodes in a busy hotel or what bullets do with Palestine and nothing to do with own - prefer to avoid. Often he connects.
do to a body. There was some of that rage the Twin Towers. But, as Macdonald His characters and, indeed, the film itself,
in Saving Private Ryan, but Munich is mo- says: 'Eighty-five per cent of the American say things about the Middle East, the Israel-
re deadly, more selective, in what it deci- population still thinks that Saddam was Palestine conflict and Israeli attitudes which
des you have to see.” (Ascherson, N, directly involved in 9/11.' And that helps go right off the Hollywood reservation.
2006) to explain why Spielberg wanted so Kevin Macdonald praises Spielberg's co-
badly to make this film at this particular urage. 'He's the most important Hollywood
Scene 3 moment. My guess is that he is aiming not
director of his era. And yet he's making
In that last scene of the film, our hero has just at United States policy but at the mil-
political points, really remarkable state-
a dialogue with his superior who was fi- lions in his country who applaud it. Mac-
ments about a serious issue. He's saying
gure of bad father/ deep government. donald again: ' Many Americans will
that revenge helps nobody, that violence
The dialogue is happening on a soft land- watch this and think that this is really abo-
can only lead to violence, that an eye for
scape which is not structural with the ut America in 2006.' (Ascherson, N,
an eye is not the way forward. That's a lot
magnificent silhouette of Manhattan, 2006)
to say in conservative America, conside-
NYC. There is an opposition between the
ring it's a film made by Universal Pictures
identity of the spaces, on which one of Conculution:
and trying for a wide audience.' (Ascher-
them is an irregular ground and the other Spielberg told a Los Angeles Times intervie-
is an urban area with huge skyscrapers son, N, 2006)
wer that answering aggression with ag-
giving the symbol of the civilization. This gression "creates a vicious cycle of violen-
Bibliography
opposition of the identity of the spaces is ce with no real end in sight." He said much
Ascherson, N, (2006), "A master and the
giving reference to the conceptual opposi- the same thing to Time magazine; "a res- myths of Munich", The Observer
tions that are read as the philosophical ponse to a response doesn't really solve Lane, A, (2005), “The Other”, The New Yorker
text pieces of the film. The last Picture of anything. It just creates a perpetual-motion Murphy, M, C, (2006), "Munich": Spielberg's
the film is the Twin Towers which are de- machine." And his film frames for the vie- thrilling crisis of conscience”, The Electronic In-
molished as the continual of the violence wer exactly this bleak vision of unending tifada
between two sides expressed during the and unendable violence. Palestinian terro- Eber, R, (2005), “Munich”, Chicago Sun-Times

whole film. rists murder Israeli athletes to put their cau-


se before the world. Israeli counterterrorists *Efe Korkut Kurt
In the last shot of Munich, Avner and his assassinate Palestinian terrorists involved U&L Architect
Mossad controller part in enmity. They with those murders. Palestinian terrorists (ITU Architectural Design/PhD)