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You are on page 1of 32

Superconductors and Cryogenics in Microwave Subsystems

2002 Applied Superconductivity Conference

Houston, Texas

Steven M. Anlage

Center for Superconductivity Research

Physics Department

University of Maryland

College Park, MD 20742-4111 USA

anlage@squid.umd.edu

Objective

To give a basic introduction to superconductivity,

superconducting electrodynamics, and microwave

measurements as background for the Short Course

Tutorial Superconductors and Cryogenics in

Microwave Subsystems

Outline

Superconductivity

Microwave Electrodynamics of

Superconductors

Experimental High Frequency

Superconductivity

Current Research Topics

Further Reading

Superconductivity

The Three Hallmarks of Superconductivity

Superconductors in a Magnetic Field

Where is Superconductivity Found?

BCS Theory

High-Tc Superconductors

Materials Issues for Microwave Applications

Zero Resistance

Flux

Tc

Temperature

Magnetic Induction

DC Resistance

I

T>Tc

T<Tc

Tc

Temperature

Flux quantization = n0

Josephson Effects

Zero Resistance

R = 0 only at = 0 (DC)

E

Quasiparticles

measurement of mercury. At 4.15K the

resistance suddenly dropped to zero

Energy

Gap

Cooper Pairs

Perfect Diamagnetism

Magnetic Fields and Superconductors are not generally compatible

The Meissner Effect

Superconductor

B = 0 H + M = 0

(T)

magnetic

penetration

depth

superconductor

H = H 0 e z / L

T<Tc

=0

surface

screening

currents

(0)

is independent of frequency ( < 2)

H

T>Tc

H (z )

vacuum

Tc

T

The Yamanashi MLX01 MagLev

test vehicle achieved a speed of

343 mph (552 kph) on April 14, 1999

= e i

Macroscopic Quantum Wavefunction

Flux

Consequences:

Magnetic flux is quantized in units of 0 = h/2e (= 2.07 x 10-15 Tm2)

R = 0 allows persistent currents

Current I flows to maintain = n 0 in loop

n = integer, h = Plancks const., 2e = Cooper pair charge

Magnetic vortices

have quantized flux

A vortex

|(x)|

superconductor

B(x)

Line cut

Type II

<<

vortex

core

vortex

lattice

screening

currents

Sachdev and Zhang, Science

Continued

1 = 1 e

i1

2 = 2 e

i 2

I = I c sin (1 2 )

DC Josephson

Effect

I

(Tunnel barrier)

e

VDC

1 2 =

eVDC

I = I c sin

t + 0

VDC

AC Josephson

Effect

e* 1

MHz

=

= 483.593420

Quantum VCO:

h 0

V

Superconductors in a

Magnetic Field

0

FL = J

Hc2(0)

Normal

State

Lorentz

Force

B 0, R 0

vortex

Abrikosov

Vortex Lattice

Hc1(0)

B = 0, R = 0

Meissner State

Type II SC

T

Tc

a viscous drag force:

FDrag = vvortex

Moving vortices

create a longitudinal voltage

I

V>0

10

Phase Diagram

Jc

Normal

State

Superconducting

State

Tc

Ginzburg-Landau

free energy density

11

Temperature

dependence

Currents

0Hc2

Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)

Cooper Pair

s-wave ( = 0) pairing

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

S

First electron polarizes the lattice

Tc Debye e 1/ NV

concentration of positive charges

left behind by the first electron

N is the electronic density of states at the Fermi Energy

V is the attractive electron-electron interaction

with these properties:

An energy 2(T) is required to break a Cooper pair into two quasiparticles (roughly speaking)

Cooper pair size: = vF

12

http://www.chemsoc.org/exemplarchem/entries/igrant/hightctheory_noflash.html

Also:

Nb-Ti, Nb3Sn, A3C60, NbN, MgB2, Organic Salts ((TMTSF)2X, (BEDT-TTF)2X),

Oxides (Cu-O, Bi-O, Ru-O,), Heavy Fermion (UPt3, CeCu2Si2,),

Electric Field-Effect Superconductivity (C60, [CaCu2O3]4, plastic),

Most of these materials, and their compounds, display spin-singlet pairing

13

Layered structure quasi-two-dimensional

Anisotropic physical properties

Ceramic materials (brittle, poor ductility, etc.)

Oxygen content is critical for superconductivity

YBa2Cu3O7-

Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8

14

d-wave ( = 2) pairing

film

grain

boundaries

substrate

thin films for use in planar microwave

devices

1

= vF vF

Tc

grain boundaries

cracks

Josephson weak links are created, leading to:

nonlinear resistance and reactance

intermodulation of two microwave tones

harmonic generation

power-dependence of insertion loss, resonant frequency, Q

15

Microwave Electrodynamics

of Superconductors

Why are Superconductors so Useful at Microwave Frequencies?

The Two-Fluid Model

London Equations

BCS Electrodynamics

Nonlinear Surface Impedance

16

at Microwave Frequencies?

Low Losses:

Filters have low insertion loss Better S/N, can be made small

NMR/MRI SC RF pickup coils x10 improvement in speed

High Q Steep skirts, good out-of-band rejection

Low Dispersion:

SC transmission lines can carry short pulses with little distortion

RSFQ logic pulses 1 ps long, ~2 mV in amplitude: V (t ) dt = 0 = 2.07 mV ps

microstrip

Kinetic

Inductance

Lkin

Geometrical

Inductance

Lgeo

(thickness t)

E

propagating TEM wave

attenuation ~ 0

17

ground

plane

Lkin ~

2

t

v phase =

1

LC

Electrodynamics of Superconductors

In the Meissner State

Normal Fluid channel

Quasiparticles

(Normal Fluid)

Energy

Gap

Ls

Cooper Pairs

(Super Fluid)

Superfluid channel

Current-carrying superconductor

J

J=E

= n i 2

18

Js

J = Js + Jn

Jn

n = nne2/m

2 = nse2/m

ns(T)

nn(T)

Tc

nn = number of QPs

ns = number of SC electrons

= QP momentum relaxation time

m = carrier mass

= frequency

Surface Impedance

Z s = Rs + iX s =

J (z ) dz

-z

H

E

J

x

conductor

PDissipated

1

2

1 2

1

Rss H dA ~ I Rs

= Re J E dV = R

2 Volume

2

2 Surface

WStored

{ }

2

1

= H + Im J E

2 Volume

Xs = Ls =

19

2

1 2

dV = 1 X

~

H

dA

LI

X

ss

2

2

Surface

Normal Fluid channel

1

Rs = 2 0 3 n

2

Z s = Rs + iX s

0

10

X s = 0

-2

10

Rn ~ 1/2

Cu(77K)

Superfluid channel

Surface resistance R ()

Ls

-1

10

2:

Because Rs ~

The advantage of HTS over Cu

diminishes with increasing frequency

-3

10

-4

poly

10

YBCO

T=0.85T

-5

10

epitaxial

-6

10

Rs ~ 2

Nb Sn

-7

10

T=0.5T

-8

10

10

-1

10

10

10

frequency f (GHz)

M. Hein, Wuppertal

20

mv

dv

m

= eE

dt

a charge carrier

Superconductor:

1/ 0

1st London

Eq. and

B yield:

E =

t

Js = ns e vs

dJ s ns e 2

1

E=

E

=

2

dt

m

0 L

ns e 2

d

B = 0

J s +

dt

m

London

surmise

ns e 2

Js +

B=0

m

vacuum

H (z )

superconductor

z/

H = H 0e

1

H= 2 H

2

21

m

0 ns e 2

L ~ 20 200 nm

Normal metal

E is the source of Jn

Lenzs Law

Jn = nE

1

d

+

J

n

dt

0 L 2

Superconductor

dJ s

1

=

E E=0: Js goes on forever

2

dt

0 L

2

B = 0 0 L J s = B B is the source of Js,

spontaneous flux

exclusion

Cooper pair has finite inertia QPs are accelerated and dissipation occurs

22

Low Microwave Dissipation

ky

Filled

Fermi

Sea

node

d

the energy gap. This leads

to power-law behavior of

(T) and Rs(T) and residual losses

90 40

10

kx

ky

Filled

Fermi

Sea

kx

(T ) = (0) + a T

Rs = Rs ,residual + b T

Rs,residual ~ 10-5 at 10 GHz in YBa2Cu3O7-

23

20

15 T (K) 10

YBa Cu O

-1

7-x

@ f=87 GHz

s

Rs = RBCS (T ) + Rs ,residual

fully-gapped SC

Surface resistance R ()

Rs e

( 0 ) / k BT

10

-2

sputtered

LaAlO

3

10

-3

coevaporated

MgO

10

-4

Nb Sn on

3

10

s

sapphire

-5

2

4

6

8

10

Inverse reduced temperature T /T

c

M. Hein, Wuppertal

The surface resistance and reactance values depend on the rf current

level flowing in the superconductor

10

YBaCuO 2, sputt, 1"

100

1000

Made by Pulsed Laser Deposition

and sputtering

19 GHz

1

0.1

0

2

77K

1.5

71K

1

30K

0.5

0

20

40

60

80

temperature, T (K)

100

61K

4K

0

15

20

25

30

24

10

Granularity

Josephson

weak links

JJs have

a strongly

nonlinear

impedance

Superconducting

grains

Edge-Current Buildup

McDonald + Clem

PRB 56, 14 723 (1997)

120

Heating

Jrf2 (a.u.)

100

80

YBCO strip at T = 79 K

f = 5.285 GHz, Laser Spot Size = 1 m

60

40

20

0

0

100

200

300

400

Distance,

500

600

700

rf currents cause de-pairing convert superfluid into normal fluid

2

2

J

(0, T )

= 1

(

)

(

)

J

T

J

T

,

NL

25

(1) Taylor series expansion of nonlinear I-V curve (Z. Y. Shen)

= 0 if I(-V) = -I(V)

1 d 2I

1 d 3I

dI

2

3

4

(

)

I (V ) = I (0 ) +

V

V

O

V

V +

2

3

2! dV V =0

3! dV V =0

dV V =0

1/R linear term

I

R

I

V

= C

z

t

L

C

I

L = L0 + L

I

NL

26

V

I

= L RI

z

t

R = R0 + R

I

NL

I

L I

R

2I

2I

C

C

I

LC

RC

+

+

=

+

2

2

z

t

t

t t

t

additional terms

Cavity Perturbation

Measurements of Nonlinearity

Topics of Current Interest

Microwave Microscopy

27

Cavity Perturbation

Objective: determine Rs, Xs (or 1, 2) from f0 and Q measurements

of a resonant cavity containing the sample of interest

Input

~ microwave

wavelength

Microwave

Resonator

Output

transmission

Sample at

Temperature T

frequency

f0

f0

f = f0 f0 (Stored Energy)

(1/2Q) (Dissipated Energy)

EStored

f

= 0

EDissipated f

Rs =

28

T2

Quality Factor

Q=

T1

X s =

Measurement of Nonlinearities

Intermodulation is a practical problem

signal

20

15

10

linear

1

Bandwidth of

passband

15

3rd-order

intercept

Point (TOI)

Pout (dB)

dependent) microwave response

induces undesirable signals within

the passband by intermodulation.

10

21 - 2, 22 - 1

10

15

Pin (dB)

Pin

10

frequency

2f1-f2 f1

f2 2f2-f1

Intermodulation

29

2f1

harmonic generation

15

SC Pout

Device

20

25

M. Hein, Wuppertal

In Microwave Superconductivity Research

Identifying and eliminating the microscopic sources of extrinsic nonlinearity

Increase device yield

Allows further miniaturization of devices

Will permit more transmit applications

Identify the additional Drude term now seen in (,T)

under-doped cuprates show 2>0 above Tc

pseudo-gap electrodynamics

MgO substrates have a nonlinear dielectric loss at low temperatures

Ferroelectric and incipient ferroelectric materials as tunable

microwave dielectrics/capacitors

30

200m

loop probe

500

YBCO film

J

SrTiO3

1) Materials Properties: Nonlinear response

2) RF fields in operating devices -55

30 misorientation

Bi-crystal grain boundary

superconducting microwave device

Image JIMD

31

60 K

P3f

P2f

See poster

2MC10

Noise Level of P2f

reflectance

Position (mm)

20 m

See poster

1EG08

Jrf2

-60

-65

-70

-75

-80

-85

-90

-95

-100

-105

20 m

Z. Y. Shen, High-Temperature Superconducting Microwave Circuits,

Artech House, Boston, 1994.

M. J. Lancaster, Passive Microwave Device Applications,

Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.

M. A. Hein, HTS Thin Films at Microwave Frequencies,

Springer Tracts of Modern Physics 155, Springer, Berlin, 1999.

Microwave Superconductivity,

NATO- ASI series, ed. by H. Weinstock and M. Nisenoff, Kluwer, 2001.

T. VanDuzer and C. W. Turner, Principles of Superconductive Devices and Circuits,

Elsevier, 1981.

T. P. Orlando and K. A. Delin, Fundamentals of Applied Superconductivity,

Addison-Wesley, 1991.

R. E. Matick, Transmission Lines for Digital and Communication Networks,

IEEE Press, 1995; Chapter 6.

32

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