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# Water Treatment: Sedimentation

Sedimentation/Settling
Following flocculation, the water then flows
into the settling basins
Water is nearly quiescent low flow with
little turbulence
Water resides for at least 3 hours and the
flocs settle out and collect at the bottom.

## Settling in Treatment Train

Circular Clarifiers

## Type I Settling -- Stokes Law

g (s )
vs =
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where
s = settling velocity
s = density of particle (kg/m3)
= density of fluid (kg/m3)
g = gravitational constant (m/s2)
d = particle diameter (m)
= dynamic viscosity (Pas)
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Overflow rate
Q
v=
Ac
where
v = overflow
rate (m/s)
Q = water flow
(m3/s)
Ac = surface
area (m2)
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## Types of Particle Settling

Type I settling applies to particles that
settle with constant velocity -- particles will
be removed if v > vs
If particles flocculate during settling,
velocity generally increases Type II
settling
As particle concentration increases with
depth, zone settling occurs
At bottom of tank compression settling
occurs
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Sedimentation
Ideal sedimentation basins (Type 1) - REGTANGULAR
Particle removal is dependent on the

BASIN

overflow rate, v0
In order for particle to be removed settling

## velocity , s must be sufficient so that it

reaches the bottom during the time the
water resides in the tank (td).
If Vs = Vo , then

vs = v0 , 100 %

particles removed

vs > v0 , 100 %

vs < v0

## fraction of the particles will be removed P =

100 vs

, some

v0

Sedimentation
Ideal sedimentation basins (Type 2)
UPFLOW CLARIFIER
Settling velocity, vs of the particle to be removed
Velocity of water decreases as the water flows
upward (overflow rate = vo, hydraulic surface
Velocity of the particle remains unchanged
If vs vo, then 100% of particles remain in tank
If vs < vo, then 0% of particles remain in tank

Sedimentation
Sedimentation basin =
clarifier = settling tank
Water flows into the
settling basins, where the
flow is almost devoid of
turbulence.
The water resides here for
time periods ranging from 2
to 8 hours and flocculated
particles settle out as sludge
The sludge is
mechanically removed
periodically
Sedimentation basin are
usually rectangular or
circular with either a circular
or upward water flow
pattern.

## Either rectangular or circular , normally 1 unit

sedimentation system comprises of 2 tanks
The key parameters and typical values in the design
of settling tank are:
- surface over flow rate 20- 35 m3/day/m2
- detention times 2-8 h
- weir overflow rate 150 300 m3 /day/m 10

Sedimentation
The sedimentation tank be
divided into four zones: inlet,
settling, outlet and sludge
storage

## Inlet zone - to evenly distribute

the flow and suspended particles
across the section of the settling
zone*
Sludge storage zone- depends
upon the method of cleaning, the
frequency of cleaning and the
quantity of sludge estimated to be
produced.

## Outlet zone- to remove the

settled water from the basin with
out carrying away any of the floc
particles
Zones of sedimentation: (a) horizontal flow clarifier , (b)
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upflow clarifier

Sedimentation
*

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Sedimentation
Example
Calculate the diameter and depth of a circular
clarifier for a design flow of 3800 m3/d and an
overflow rate of 0.00024 m/s and a detention
time of 3 h. Calculate the weir loading rate by
assuming the total effluent weir is 20 m.

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Sedimentation
Solution
Calculate the diameter and depth of a circular clarifier for a design flow of 3800 m3/d and an
overflow rate of 0.00024 m/s and a detention time of 3 h. Calculate the weir loading rate by
assuming the total effluent weir is 20 m.
Solution
Volume , V = Q/t
= (3800 m3/d)/ ( 3/24)d
= 475 m3
Q = 3800 m3/d = 0.044 m3/s
Surface overflow rate = Q/A
0.00024 m/s
= 0.044 m3/s
A m2
Area, A
= 183.3 m2
Volume, V = AD
D =V/A
= 475 m3/183.3 m2
= 2.59 m
Diameter = 15.3 m
= Q/ Lw
= 3800 m3/d
20 m
= 190 m3/day.m ( OK!)

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Sedimentation
Example
A water treatment plant has a horizontal flow sedimentation tank with an
overflow rate of 17 m3/d.m2 and wishes to remove particles that have settling
velocities of 0.1 mm/s. What percentage of removal should be expected for each
particle in an ideal sedimentation tank?
Solution

vs

= 0.1 mm/s

v0

Note that

vs < v0

,P

## Recalculate by considering v0 are 0.2 mm/s and 1 mm/s respectively.

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SEDIMENTATION
Example
Determine the surface area of a sedimentation tank . The design
flow is 0.044 m3 /s. Use a design overflow rate of 20 m / day.
Find the depth of the sedimentation for the given overflow rate
and detention time.
Solution:

## First change the flow rate to compatible units.

(0.044 m3/ s)(86,400 s / day) = 3801.6 m3 /day
The surface area is = 3801.6 m3 /day
20 m/ day
=190.m2
2) Find the length to width dimension
Common length-to-width , L: W ratios ( 2:1 < L:W < 5:1 , and
lengths seldom exceed 100 m. A minimum of two tanks is always
provided.
use two tanks, each with a width of 5 m, a total surface area of
190 m2 ,
Length = 190 m2 /(2 tanks)(5 m wide) = 19 m
meet our length-to-width ratio of 3.8 : 1 ( OK!)

Tank 1

Tank 2

Flocculation tank
Q = 3801.6 m3 /day

Sedimentation
tank

## Find the surface area.

Sedimentation
tank

1)

Tank 1
L= 19m,
W=5m

Tank 2
L= 19m,
W=5m

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Sedimentation
3) Find the tank depth.
Rule of thumb that the detention time should be 2-8 h.
Assumed the detention time of 120 min
Q = V/t
V=Qt
V = (1900.8 m3)(120 min)(
d
) = 158 m3
d
1440 min
Depth= 158 m3 =1.684 m,= 1.7 m
95 m2
The final design would then be two tanks, each having the following
dimensions:
5 m wide x 19 m long x 1.7 m deep plus sludge storage depth.

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END

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