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Sedimentation/Settling

Following flocculation, the water then flows

into the settling basins

Water is nearly quiescent low flow with

little turbulence

Water resides for at least 3 hours and the

flocs settle out and collect at the bottom.

Circular Clarifiers

g (s )

vs =

18

where

s = settling velocity

s = density of particle (kg/m3)

= density of fluid (kg/m3)

g = gravitational constant (m/s2)

d = particle diameter (m)

= dynamic viscosity (Pas)

5

Overflow rate

Q

v=

Ac

where

v = overflow

rate (m/s)

Q = water flow

(m3/s)

Ac = surface

area (m2)

6

Type I settling applies to particles that

settle with constant velocity -- particles will

be removed if v > vs

If particles flocculate during settling,

velocity generally increases Type II

settling

As particle concentration increases with

depth, zone settling occurs

At bottom of tank compression settling

occurs

7

Sedimentation

Ideal sedimentation basins (Type 1) - REGTANGULAR

Particle removal is dependent on the

BASIN

overflow rate, v0

In order for particle to be removed settling

reaches the bottom during the time the

water resides in the tank (td).

If Vs = Vo , then

vs = v0 , 100 %

particles removed

vs > v0 , 100 %

vs < v0

100 vs

, some

v0

Sedimentation

Ideal sedimentation basins (Type 2)

UPFLOW CLARIFIER

Settling velocity, vs of the particle to be removed

Velocity of water decreases as the water flows

upward (overflow rate = vo, hydraulic surface

loading)

Velocity of the particle remains unchanged

If vs vo, then 100% of particles remain in tank

If vs < vo, then 0% of particles remain in tank

Sedimentation

Sedimentation basin =

clarifier = settling tank

Water flows into the

settling basins, where the

flow is almost devoid of

turbulence.

The water resides here for

time periods ranging from 2

to 8 hours and flocculated

particles settle out as sludge

The sludge is

mechanically removed

periodically

Sedimentation basin are

usually rectangular or

circular with either a circular

or upward water flow

pattern.

sedimentation system comprises of 2 tanks

The key parameters and typical values in the design

of settling tank are:

- surface over flow rate 20- 35 m3/day/m2

- detention times 2-8 h

- weir overflow rate 150 300 m3 /day/m 10

Sedimentation

The sedimentation tank be

divided into four zones: inlet,

settling, outlet and sludge

storage

the flow and suspended particles

across the section of the settling

zone*

Sludge storage zone- depends

upon the method of cleaning, the

frequency of cleaning and the

quantity of sludge estimated to be

produced.

settled water from the basin with

out carrying away any of the floc

particles

Zones of sedimentation: (a) horizontal flow clarifier , (b)

11

upflow clarifier

Sedimentation

*

12

Sedimentation

Example

Calculate the diameter and depth of a circular

clarifier for a design flow of 3800 m3/d and an

overflow rate of 0.00024 m/s and a detention

time of 3 h. Calculate the weir loading rate by

assuming the total effluent weir is 20 m.

13

Sedimentation

Solution

Calculate the diameter and depth of a circular clarifier for a design flow of 3800 m3/d and an

overflow rate of 0.00024 m/s and a detention time of 3 h. Calculate the weir loading rate by

assuming the total effluent weir is 20 m.

Solution

Volume , V = Q/t

= (3800 m3/d)/ ( 3/24)d

= 475 m3

Q = 3800 m3/d = 0.044 m3/s

Surface overflow rate = Q/A

0.00024 m/s

= 0.044 m3/s

A m2

Area, A

= 183.3 m2

Volume, V = AD

D =V/A

= 475 m3/183.3 m2

= 2.59 m

Diameter = 15.3 m

Weir loading rate

= Q/ Lw

= 3800 m3/d

20 m

= 190 m3/day.m ( OK!)

14

Sedimentation

Example

A water treatment plant has a horizontal flow sedimentation tank with an

overflow rate of 17 m3/d.m2 and wishes to remove particles that have settling

velocities of 0.1 mm/s. What percentage of removal should be expected for each

particle in an ideal sedimentation tank?

Solution

vs

= 0.1 mm/s

v0

Note that

vs < v0

,P

15

SEDIMENTATION

Example

Determine the surface area of a sedimentation tank . The design

flow is 0.044 m3 /s. Use a design overflow rate of 20 m / day.

Find the depth of the sedimentation for the given overflow rate

and detention time.

Solution:

(0.044 m3/ s)(86,400 s / day) = 3801.6 m3 /day

The surface area is = 3801.6 m3 /day

20 m/ day

=190.m2

2) Find the length to width dimension

Common length-to-width , L: W ratios ( 2:1 < L:W < 5:1 , and

lengths seldom exceed 100 m. A minimum of two tanks is always

provided.

use two tanks, each with a width of 5 m, a total surface area of

190 m2 ,

Length = 190 m2 /(2 tanks)(5 m wide) = 19 m

meet our length-to-width ratio of 3.8 : 1 ( OK!)

Tank 1

Tank 2

Flocculation tank

Q = 3801.6 m3 /day

Sedimentation

tank

Sedimentation

tank

1)

Tank 1

L= 19m,

W=5m

Tank 2

L= 19m,

W=5m

16

Sedimentation

3) Find the tank depth.

Rule of thumb that the detention time should be 2-8 h.

Assumed the detention time of 120 min

Q = V/t

V=Qt

V = (1900.8 m3)(120 min)(

d

) = 158 m3

d

1440 min

Depth= 158 m3 =1.684 m,= 1.7 m

95 m2

The final design would then be two tanks, each having the following

dimensions:

5 m wide x 19 m long x 1.7 m deep plus sludge storage depth.

17

END

18

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