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SPLIT RING RESONATOR DESIGN

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760

S. Raghavan1 and Anoop Jayaram2

1

2

National Institute of Technology, Trichy, India

Abstract A new design technique for producing wideband patch antenna is introduced in

this paper. The methodology involves complementary square split ring resonators and an inset

fed rectangular patch antenna both designed to resonate at the same frequency. The dimensions

of the complementary square split ring resonator are same as that of the split ring resonators

physical dimensions, which are optimized using Artificial Neural Network. A Cascade Forward

Backpropogation neural network using Levenberg Marquardt learning algorithm is utilized for

optimization. The proposed neural network for optimization contains four hidden layers with

variable number of neurons in each layer, which is created and trained using neural network

toolbox 5.1 of MATLAB. The proposed antenna is constructed by cutting out the split ring

resonator from the two corners of the patch where the feed is given to antenna. HFSS simulation

of the proposed antenna shows improved bandwidth and return loss at the centre frequency

of 2.4 GHz. The simulation result shows remarkable improvement in antenna parameters when

compared to a normal inset fed rectangular patch antenna, the only loss being a negligible

decrement in the antenna gain.

1. INTRODUCTION

Patch antennas play a very significant role in todays world of wireless communication systems as

these cover a broad range of frequencies. These patch antennas are simple and are used for the

most demanding applications. Low weight, low fabrication cost, circular polarizations, dual band

operation, frequency agility, feed line flexibility, beam scanning are a few notable advantages of

microstrip patch antenna. Even though there are many advantages a few critical drawbacks which

limit the applicability of microstrip patch antennas are low efficiency, low gain, narrow bandwidth,

low power handling capability [11].

There are a lot of techniques to improve on the antenna parameters like defected ground structures, parasitic elements or slots, thick substrate with low permittivity, stacked patches [11]. Metamaterials can also be used to enhance the antenna parameters. These structures can be applied to

various radiating structures to reduce the size, improve the bandwidth, and achieve dual band operations [1, 2, 10]. The core idea of this work is to improve the bandwidth of the inset fed rectangular

patch antenna by incorporating the metamaterial structure into the patch. As explained in [10]

CSRR structures can be used to attain dual band operation in a patch. Here instead of designing

the antenna and CSRR structure for two different frequencies they are designed to resonate at the

same frequency. CSRR requires axial electric field for excitation and hence the CSRR structure in

the patch is placed close to the radiating edges where electric field lines have a higher density.

Artificial neural networks are made use of to optimize the CSRR dimensions. Neural network

toolbox (nntool) of MATLAB is used for this purpose. The network uses Backpropogation network

and uses Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm. The metamaterial media is loaded on the patch

and Ansoft HFSS software is used to analyze the various parameters of the resulting wideband

antenna.

2. INSET FED RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

Microstrip antennas consist of a metallic strip (usually copper) placed a small fraction of wavelength

above the ground plane. The patch width affects the input resistance and bandwidth, the patch

length determines the resonant frequency of the antenna. The design equations for the patch can

be obtained from [3, 8, 9]. At the edge of the strip the H-field drops to zero and is maximum in the

centre. The E-field intensity is at maximum magnitude at the edges and zero at the centre. The

ratio of E to H field is proportional to the impedance that you see when you feed the patch. So by

adjusting the position of feed, the impedance of the patch can be adjusted to any desired value [3].

2 d

Zin (d) = cos

Zin (0)

(1)

L

761

where Zin (d) represents the impedance at a distance d from the edge of the patch, L represents the

length of patch and Zin (0) represents the impedance at the edge of the patch. The antenna used is

designed for a resonant frequency of 2.48 GHz. The inset feed is given at a distance of 12.6 mm from

the edge. The return loss at resonance is found to be 12.1643 dB and the absolute bandwidth are

measured to be 1.58%.

3. SPLIT RING RESONATOR DESIGN

A single cell SRR is a pair of enclosed loops with splits in them at opposite ends. The loops are

made of metal and have a small gap between them. A magnetic flux incident on the metal rings will

induce rotating currents in the rings, which in turn produce their own flux to enhance or oppose the

incident field. Due to splits in the rings the structure can support resonant wavelengths much larger

than the diameter of the rings. The SRR can be mainly considered as a resonant magnetic dipole

that can be excited by an axial magnetic field [4, 5], whereas the CSRR (Figure 2(a)) essentially

behaves as an electric dipole (with the same frequency of resonance) that can be excited by an

axial electric field. The equivalent circuit of the complementary square split ring resonator will be

a parallel LC tank circuit as shown in Figure 2(b). The design equations of SRR (CSRR) is given

in [6]. The equivalent inductance and capacitance relations are given as

4.860

0.98

L0 =

(a w d) ln

+ 1.84

(2)

2

w+d

=

(3)

awd

C0 = (a 1.5(2 + d))Cpul

(4)

where Cpul is capacitance per unit length between the rings.

The resonant frequency of the CSRR structure is given as

f0 =

2 L0 C0

(5)

ANN is formed from interconnected layers of interconnected processing elements. The number of

input and output neurons depends on those of the corresponding system that is being implemented.

Artificial Neural Network (ANN) represents a promising modeling technique, especially for data sets

having non-linear relationships [7]. In the course of developing an ANN model, the architecture of

ANN and the learning algorithm are the two most important factors. In this paper, Multi Layered

Perceptron (MLP) neural network architecture is used in optimizing the physical dimensions of

the square split ring resonator. The model used in this paper (Figure 3) is a cascade forward

Backpropogation network with Levenberg Marquardt training algorithm for minimizing the error

of the non linear function. The equation for finding the resonant frequency of the metamaterial

structure depends on three variables a, d and w (Equations (2)(5)). So by giving the frequency

f , size of resonant structure a and dielectric constant r as inputs to the neural network the

762

Input to Network

r

f GHz a mm

2.2

2.52

5.2

2.2

2.45

5.1

3.78

2.47

4.5

(a)

w mm

d mm

0.6995

0.1204

0.6511

0.1003

0.6749

0.1076

fcalculated GHz

2.5151

2.4584

2.4650

(b)

of the complementary square split ring

resonator and (b) its equivalent LC

circuit [6].

the proposed neural network.

Figure 4: Metamaterial

loaded patch antenna.

optimized values of w and d can be obtained. The range of values for f is 3 GHz < f < 16 GHz,

and a is 1 mm < a < 10 mm and r takes standard discrete values. The network has therefore

3 input neurons and 2 output neurons. Table 1 gives a few typical values of w & d obtained

from the proposed network. The calculated value of frequency using the dimensions obtained from

neural network is also included in the table.

5. CSRR LOADED PATCH ANTENNA

The CSRR structure behaves as an electric dipole. This high Q structure may not radiate well but

is capable of transferring the energy to the patch and make the patch radiate at that particular

resonant frequency [10]. This idea is utilized in dual band patch antenna to obtain smaller patch

dimensions but in our work both patch and CSRR structure are designed for the same resonant

frequency, the designed patch is shown in Figure 4. This particular design results in a wider bandwidth centered on resonant frequency of 2.4 GHz as compared to the regular inset fed rectangular

patch antenna. The structure is analyzed using Ansoft HFSS software.

From the Figures 1 and 5, we could infer that the return loss at resonance is higher for the

CSRR loaded antenna (24.037 dB) as well as there is significant improvement in bandwidth. The

763

absolute bandwidth is calculated to be 5.07%. The gain of the antenna is measured to be 7.467 dB

and the antenna is having radiation efficiency of 94.03 %.

6. CONCLUSION

The metamaterial loaded patch antenna is designed using ANN and simulated using HFSS software.

The output of the multilayer perceptron network is shown in Table 1. Using the network the CSRR

dimensions for any frequency, within the prescribed range, can be obtained. The return loss curve

obtained from HFSS for both the antennas are shown in Figures 1 and 5. When compared with

the parameters of inset fed rectangular patch antenna described in Section 2, we could observe a

remarkable improvement in the absolute bandwidth as well as the return loss. There is a 12.63 dB

improvement in the antenna return loss and the bandwidth has improved approximately 3 times.

The simulated value of radiation efficiency also shows slight improvement. The proposed design

achieved the desired result without any change in rest of the parameters except gain, which is

reduced by 0.2 dB as compared to the rectangular patch antenna. As a future work the design

could incorporate methods to improve gain while providing a wider bandwidth.

REFERENCES

1. Mahdy, M. R. C., Md. R. A. Zuboraj, A. Al Noman Ovi, and Md. A. Matin, An idea of

additional modified modes in rectangular patch antennas loaded with metamaterial, IEEE

Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, Vol. 10, 2011.

2. Ha, J., K. Kwon, Y. Lee, and J. Choi, Hybrid mode wideband patch antenna loaded with

a planar metamaterial unit cell, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60,

No. 2, Feb. 2012.

3. Matin, M. A. and A. I. Sayeed, A design rule for inset-fed rectangular microstrip patch

antenna, WSEAS Transactions on Communications, Vol. 9, No. 1, Jan. 2010.

4. Marques, R., F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, Comparative analysis of edge and broadside coupled split ring resonator for metamaterial design-theory and experimentation, IEEE

Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 51, No. 10, 25722581, Oct. 2003.

5. Baena, J. D., J. Bonche, F. Martin, R. M. Sirello, F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso,

J. Garcia Garcia, and I. Gill, Equivalent circuit models for split ring resonators and complementary split ring resonators coupled to planar transmission lines, IEEE Microwave Theory

and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 4, Apr. 2005.

6. Vidyalakshmi, M. R. and S. Raghavan, Comparison of optimization techniques for square

split ring resonator, International Journal of Microwave and Optical Technology, Vol. 5, No. 5,

Sep. 2010.

7. Sri Rama Krishna, K., J. Lakshmi Narayana, and L. Pratap Reddy, ANN models for microstrip line synthesis and analysis, International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 15, 2008.

8. Balanis, C. A., Antenna Theory Analysis and Design, 3rd Edition, A John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,

Publication, 2005.

9. Garg, R., P. Bhartia, I. Bhal, and A. Ittiboon, Microstrip Antenna Design Handbook, Artech

House, London, 2001.

10. Dong, Y. and T. Itoh, Metamaterial-based antennas, Proceedings of the IEEE, Feb. 2012.

11. Lee, K.-F. and K.-F. Tong, Microstrip patch antenna-basic characteristics and some recent

advances, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 100, No. 7, Jul. 2012.

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