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PIERS Proceedings, Taipei, March 2528, 2013

760

Metamaterial Loaded Wideband Patch Antenna


S. Raghavan1 and Anoop Jayaram2
1

Electronics and Communication Department, National Institute of Technology, Trichy, India


2
National Institute of Technology, Trichy, India

Abstract A new design technique for producing wideband patch antenna is introduced in
this paper. The methodology involves complementary square split ring resonators and an inset
fed rectangular patch antenna both designed to resonate at the same frequency. The dimensions
of the complementary square split ring resonator are same as that of the split ring resonators
physical dimensions, which are optimized using Artificial Neural Network. A Cascade Forward
Backpropogation neural network using Levenberg Marquardt learning algorithm is utilized for
optimization. The proposed neural network for optimization contains four hidden layers with
variable number of neurons in each layer, which is created and trained using neural network
toolbox 5.1 of MATLAB. The proposed antenna is constructed by cutting out the split ring
resonator from the two corners of the patch where the feed is given to antenna. HFSS simulation
of the proposed antenna shows improved bandwidth and return loss at the centre frequency
of 2.4 GHz. The simulation result shows remarkable improvement in antenna parameters when
compared to a normal inset fed rectangular patch antenna, the only loss being a negligible
decrement in the antenna gain.
1. INTRODUCTION

Patch antennas play a very significant role in todays world of wireless communication systems as
these cover a broad range of frequencies. These patch antennas are simple and are used for the
most demanding applications. Low weight, low fabrication cost, circular polarizations, dual band
operation, frequency agility, feed line flexibility, beam scanning are a few notable advantages of
microstrip patch antenna. Even though there are many advantages a few critical drawbacks which
limit the applicability of microstrip patch antennas are low efficiency, low gain, narrow bandwidth,
low power handling capability [11].
There are a lot of techniques to improve on the antenna parameters like defected ground structures, parasitic elements or slots, thick substrate with low permittivity, stacked patches [11]. Metamaterials can also be used to enhance the antenna parameters. These structures can be applied to
various radiating structures to reduce the size, improve the bandwidth, and achieve dual band operations [1, 2, 10]. The core idea of this work is to improve the bandwidth of the inset fed rectangular
patch antenna by incorporating the metamaterial structure into the patch. As explained in [10]
CSRR structures can be used to attain dual band operation in a patch. Here instead of designing
the antenna and CSRR structure for two different frequencies they are designed to resonate at the
same frequency. CSRR requires axial electric field for excitation and hence the CSRR structure in
the patch is placed close to the radiating edges where electric field lines have a higher density.
Artificial neural networks are made use of to optimize the CSRR dimensions. Neural network
toolbox (nntool) of MATLAB is used for this purpose. The network uses Backpropogation network
and uses Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm. The metamaterial media is loaded on the patch
and Ansoft HFSS software is used to analyze the various parameters of the resulting wideband
antenna.
2. INSET FED RECTANGULAR MICROSTRIP PATCH ANTENNA

Microstrip antennas consist of a metallic strip (usually copper) placed a small fraction of wavelength
above the ground plane. The patch width affects the input resistance and bandwidth, the patch
length determines the resonant frequency of the antenna. The design equations for the patch can
be obtained from [3, 8, 9]. At the edge of the strip the H-field drops to zero and is maximum in the
centre. The E-field intensity is at maximum magnitude at the edges and zero at the centre. The
ratio of E to H field is proportional to the impedance that you see when you feed the patch. So by
adjusting the position of feed, the impedance of the patch can be adjusted to any desired value [3].

2 d
Zin (d) = cos
Zin (0)
(1)
L

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Taipei, March 2528, 2013

761

Figure 1: Return loss characteristics of the designed antenna.

where Zin (d) represents the impedance at a distance d from the edge of the patch, L represents the
length of patch and Zin (0) represents the impedance at the edge of the patch. The antenna used is
designed for a resonant frequency of 2.48 GHz. The inset feed is given at a distance of 12.6 mm from
the edge. The return loss at resonance is found to be 12.1643 dB and the absolute bandwidth are
measured to be 1.58%.
3. SPLIT RING RESONATOR DESIGN

A single cell SRR is a pair of enclosed loops with splits in them at opposite ends. The loops are
made of metal and have a small gap between them. A magnetic flux incident on the metal rings will
induce rotating currents in the rings, which in turn produce their own flux to enhance or oppose the
incident field. Due to splits in the rings the structure can support resonant wavelengths much larger
than the diameter of the rings. The SRR can be mainly considered as a resonant magnetic dipole
that can be excited by an axial magnetic field [4, 5], whereas the CSRR (Figure 2(a)) essentially
behaves as an electric dipole (with the same frequency of resonance) that can be excited by an
axial electric field. The equivalent circuit of the complementary square split ring resonator will be
a parallel LC tank circuit as shown in Figure 2(b). The design equations of SRR (CSRR) is given
in [6]. The equivalent inductance and capacitance relations are given as

4.860
0.98
L0 =
(a w d) ln
+ 1.84
(2)
2

w+d
=
(3)
awd
C0 = (a 1.5(2 + d))Cpul
(4)
where Cpul is capacitance per unit length between the rings.
The resonant frequency of the CSRR structure is given as
f0 =

2 L0 C0

(5)

4. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK

ANN is formed from interconnected layers of interconnected processing elements. The number of
input and output neurons depends on those of the corresponding system that is being implemented.
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) represents a promising modeling technique, especially for data sets
having non-linear relationships [7]. In the course of developing an ANN model, the architecture of
ANN and the learning algorithm are the two most important factors. In this paper, Multi Layered
Perceptron (MLP) neural network architecture is used in optimizing the physical dimensions of
the square split ring resonator. The model used in this paper (Figure 3) is a cascade forward
Backpropogation network with Levenberg Marquardt training algorithm for minimizing the error
of the non linear function. The equation for finding the resonant frequency of the metamaterial
structure depends on three variables a, d and w (Equations (2)(5)). So by giving the frequency
f , size of resonant structure a and dielectric constant r as inputs to the neural network the

PIERS Proceedings, Taipei, March 2528, 2013

762

Table 1: Typical values obtained from the proposed neural network.


Input to Network
r
f GHz a mm
2.2
2.52
5.2
2.2
2.45
5.1
3.78
2.47
4.5

(a)

Output from Network


w mm
d mm
0.6995
0.1204
0.6511
0.1003
0.6749
0.1076

Calculated Value of Frequency


fcalculated GHz
2.5151
2.4584
2.4650

(b)

Figure 2: (a) Geometrical dimensions


of the complementary square split ring
resonator and (b) its equivalent LC
circuit [6].

Figure 3: The black box model of


the proposed neural network.

Figure 4: Metamaterial
loaded patch antenna.

Figure 5: Return loss characteristics of the metamaterial loaded patch antenna.

optimized values of w and d can be obtained. The range of values for f is 3 GHz < f < 16 GHz,
and a is 1 mm < a < 10 mm and r takes standard discrete values. The network has therefore
3 input neurons and 2 output neurons. Table 1 gives a few typical values of w & d obtained
from the proposed network. The calculated value of frequency using the dimensions obtained from
neural network is also included in the table.
5. CSRR LOADED PATCH ANTENNA

The CSRR structure behaves as an electric dipole. This high Q structure may not radiate well but
is capable of transferring the energy to the patch and make the patch radiate at that particular
resonant frequency [10]. This idea is utilized in dual band patch antenna to obtain smaller patch
dimensions but in our work both patch and CSRR structure are designed for the same resonant
frequency, the designed patch is shown in Figure 4. This particular design results in a wider bandwidth centered on resonant frequency of 2.4 GHz as compared to the regular inset fed rectangular
patch antenna. The structure is analyzed using Ansoft HFSS software.
From the Figures 1 and 5, we could infer that the return loss at resonance is higher for the
CSRR loaded antenna (24.037 dB) as well as there is significant improvement in bandwidth. The

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Taipei, March 2528, 2013

763

absolute bandwidth is calculated to be 5.07%. The gain of the antenna is measured to be 7.467 dB
and the antenna is having radiation efficiency of 94.03 %.
6. CONCLUSION

The metamaterial loaded patch antenna is designed using ANN and simulated using HFSS software.
The output of the multilayer perceptron network is shown in Table 1. Using the network the CSRR
dimensions for any frequency, within the prescribed range, can be obtained. The return loss curve
obtained from HFSS for both the antennas are shown in Figures 1 and 5. When compared with
the parameters of inset fed rectangular patch antenna described in Section 2, we could observe a
remarkable improvement in the absolute bandwidth as well as the return loss. There is a 12.63 dB
improvement in the antenna return loss and the bandwidth has improved approximately 3 times.
The simulated value of radiation efficiency also shows slight improvement. The proposed design
achieved the desired result without any change in rest of the parameters except gain, which is
reduced by 0.2 dB as compared to the rectangular patch antenna. As a future work the design
could incorporate methods to improve gain while providing a wider bandwidth.
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