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PETROPHYSICAL EVALUATION OF RESERVOIR ROCKS

WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON LOG-DERIVED CATION


EXCHANGE CAPACITY OF SHALY SANDS OF KADANWARI01, KADANWARI-03 AND KADANWARI-10 OF KADANWARI
GAS FIELD CENTRAL INDUS BASIN, PAKISATN

MS GEOPHYSICS SYNOPSIS (2012 2014)

Supervised by
Dr.Mubarik Ali
Co-supervised by
Prof.Mujeeb Ahmed
Submitted by
Kamran Ramzan
Enroll. # 02-262122-007
Reg.#32399

FACULTY OF EARTH & ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES


BAHRIA UNIVERSITY KARACHI
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CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION

2. LOCATION OF STUDY AREA

3. OBJECTIVE

4 .JUSTIFICATION AND LIKELY BENEFITS

5. DATA REQUIRED

6. METHODOLOGY

7. CENTRAL INDUS BASIN

8 .STRAITIGRAPHY OF CENTRAL INDUS BASIN

9. TIME PLAN FOR THESIS

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REFERENCES

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FIGURES
LOCATION MAP

SATELITE IMAGERY OF STUDY AREA

STRATIGRAPHY OF THE AREA

TABELS
TIME PLAN FOR THESIS

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1. Introduction
The southernmost part of the Indus basin is known as Lower Indus
basin, Badin Block or adjacent areas are also part of this basin. The
approximate limits are south of Khairpur High and extends into the
Arabian Sea, Petroleum exploration started in back in 1950s in the
Lower Indus basin. The first gas discovery was Sari-Hundi in Kirthar
Range; district Dadu whereas first major oil struck in early 1980's at
Khaskheli, near Badin where several large and small oil and gas fields
have been discovered since then.
The Lower Indus basin can be divided into areas where Neogene to
Cretaceous rocks are exposed; western part along Kirthar Range and
into the areas where no surface geology exposed or minor at lesser
extent geological units of Neogene to Pleistocene are cropping out;
Badin Block are areas nearby all are without surface geological
expression.
In Badin area, early Cretaceous Sembar Formation is considered as the
principal source rock whereas clastics of the Early Cretaceous age
Lower Goru Formation is the main reservoir.
Traps in the Badin area is generally tilted fault blocks associated with
normal faults developed during Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene
rift phase. The cap rock is invariably all the time is impermeable marl
and shale sequence of Upper Goru Formation whereas the Earlu
Paleocene volcanic flow, known as Deccan basalt, believed to be the
reason for providing
increasing temperature to the underlying
sediments including source rock (Sembar and Goru)which help to
generate hydrocarbon from the source and the process of the oil
expulsion started to take place.
Oil of Badin is very high quality, it is sweet and paraffinic with API
gravity range from 32 to 55 and easy to flow. Though oil in the
southern part of the Badin area found to be heavy and waxy. The oil
reservoir depth is from 2000ft to 13500ft. Khaskeli, Golarchi, Bhatti,
Turk, Tando Alam, Bobby and Pasakhi are the large oil and gas fields of
this area.
Badin area is considered favorable for oil and gas whereas western
part of the Lowwer Indus Basin (Kirthar hills and mountains)and
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adjacent area known for its gas potential. In Lower Indus, so far more
than 12TCF (trillion Cubic feet# gas reserves and more than 100
million barrels oil have been discovered in Lower Indus Basin whereas
more than 90% oil production is from Badin area. The oil operators in
this region are, OGDCL and BP. Khaskeli is the first and the largest
oilfield in Badin Area so far.
2. Location of study area
Kadanwari Gas Field, located in the Central Indus Basin Sindh province
of Pakistan, as shown in Map and satellite image below.

Figure 1 : Map showing location of study area

Figure 2 : Satellite Imagery of Kadanwari


3. Objectives
The main purpose of well logging is the identification and evaluation of the potential of
hydrocarbon bearing formations. The main objectives of this thesis is

evaluation of hydrocarbons of Kadanwari 01 , Kadanwari 03 and


kadanwari 10 of Kadanwari gas field Central Indus basin and
correlation of these wells with the help of wireline logs with Special
emphasis of this thesis is on the potential of a zone is measured by estimating
its water saturation, Sw.
In past clean (shale free) formations, water saturation can be calculated using the wellknown Archies equation. Archies equation is based on the assumption that brine is the
only electric conductor in the formation. However, this is not the case in shaly sand
formations where ions associated with clay minerals also transport electricity. The
presence of clay minerals results in reduction of the SP deflection, ESP and an increase
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in the rock conductivity, Ct. Hence, cation exchange capacity, which represents the clay
ability to conduct electricity, has a considerable effect on the evaluation of hydrocarbonbearing formations. Consequently, the use of clean sand models to estimate the water
saturation results in inaccurate estimation of the potential of hydrocarbon zones. The
result is usually higher water saturation than actually present in the formation.

During this study we Carry out petrophysical interpretation of the


provided wireline logs of mentioned wells , which are as follow
i.
Calculate the volume of shale.
ii.
Detrmine the porosity and permeability of reservoirs.
iii.
Lithology
iv.
Determine Water saturation and Hydrocarbon saturation.
v.
Log-derived cation exchange capacity of shaly sands.
vi.
Net pay thickness
vii.
Correlations of logs
4. Justification and Likely Benefits
We have exploited almost all of the structural traps and zone of interest
of the study area, Now we are approach the log-derived cation
exchange capacity of shaly sands techniques for water saturation
determination to re optimized reservoir of the study area. By
integrating
petrophysical
analysis
I
will
establish
reservoir
characteristics (porosity, permeability), Hydrocarbon saturation and
other petrophysical characteristics.
5. Data Requirement
With the permission of Directorate General of Petroleum Concession
the data will be collected from LMKR. The data require for the
completion of research are as follow; complete suite of LAS (Log Ascii
Standard) file of wireline log data, Final well report and tools e.g.
Petrel/kingdom suit and Geographix suit.
Open hole wireline logs of Kadanwari 01, Kadanwari 03 and Kadanwari
10 wells , which includes
a. Sonic log
b. Density log
c. Gamma ray log
d. Spontaneous Potential log
e. Resistivity log
f. Neutron log
g. Bhorehole geometry log
6. Methodology

The method use to detrmine for petrophysical characteristics are as


follow
Raw log curves

Volume of shale

Lithology

Porosity & Permeability

Saturation of water

Saturation of hydrocarbon

Net pay thickness

Conclusion
7. Central Indus basin

The Central Indus basin is separated by Jacobabad and Mari Kandhkot


highs (Sukkur Rift) from Southeren Indus basin.The Central Indus basin
is divided into three main units shown in figure 3.
1. Punjab Platform
2. Sulaiman Depression
i. East sulaiman depression
ii. Zindapir Inner Folded Zone
iii. Mari Bugti Inner fold Zone
3. Sulaiman Fold Belt

Figure 3 : Central Indus basin and the subdivisions into


petroleum zone
(after Raza et al, 1989)
7.1 Punjab Platform
Kadri, (1995) describes this part as the eastern segment of Central
Indus Basin where

no surface outcrops of sedimentary rocks are present. Tectonically it is


a broad
monocline dipping gently towards the Sulaiman Depression. Punjab
Platform is
tectonically the least affected area because of its greater distance from
collision zone. A number of wells have been drilled on this platform.
The stratigraphic sequence established on the basis of these wells
revealed some of the most significant stratigraphic pinch outs in
Pakistan.
7.2 Sulaiman Depression
This depression is longitudinally oriented area of subsidence; it
becomes arcuat and takes up a transverse orientation along its
southern rim.This depression was formed as result of collision between
two plates. The western flank of depression includes Zindapir Inner
Folded Zone while Mari Bugti Inner Folded Zone lies in the south , to
the east it merges into Punjab Platform. The seismic evidence shows
some buried anticlines (e.g. Ramak) which may have been formed due
to the flow of Eocene shales.
7.3 Sulaiman Fold Belt
This is a major tectonic feature in the proximity of collision zone and,
therefore, contains a large number of disturbed anticlinal features.The
most important lithostratigraphic variations observed in Sulaiman
Depression and the Fold Belt are in Paleocene/Eocene. This period
marks the facies changes from north to south and east to west. The
reason for this variation is believed to be the presence of a number of
new basins at that time, created due to the collision of plates and their
irregular and non-uniform coalescence.
8. Stratigraphy of the Central Indus basin
The generalized stratigraphy of central Indus basin ranges from
Mesozoic formations to recent.
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Figure 4- Generalized Stratigraphic Column of Central Indus


basin

9. TIME PLAN FOR THESIS


Work Flow

Feb

Mar-April

April-May

Proposal submission
Data collection
Studying log curves
Manual interpretation
Data processing
Data interpretation
Geographix/Petrel
Correlation of wells
Thesis writing
Thesis submission

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May-Jun

Jun-July

July-Aug

References:
1. Nasir Ahmed , Giacomo Spadini , Arshad Palekar , M. Asim Subhani,
Porosity prediction using 3D Seismic inversion Kadanwari Gas field ,
Pakistan ,Pakistan journal of hydrocarbon research Vol. 17, (June
2007),p.95-102.
2. Kadri, I.B., 1995, Petroleum Geology of Pakistan, Pakistan Petroleum
Limited. Karachi, p.33.
3. Anna Berger , Susanne Gier and Peter Krois, Porosity preserving
chlorite cement in shallow marine volcani-clastic sandstones :
evidence from Cretaceous sandatones of the Sawan gas field,
Pakistan, AAPG Bulletin, V93 , No 5 , may 2009, P.596.
4. Mahmud S.A and Ahmed Shamim (2009), Reservoir Potential of Lower Nari
Sandstones in Southern Indus Basin and Indus Offshore Presented on SPE/PAPG
Annual Technical Conference 2009.
5. M. Anwar Moghal, M. Ishaq Saqi, and M. Athar Jamij 2012: Hydrocarbon Potential
of Tight Sand Reservoir (Pab Sandstone) in Central Indus Basin-Pakistan.
6. Khattak F G., Shafeeq M., Ali S M.,Regional trends in porosity and
permeability of reservoir horizons of Lower Goru formation, Lower
Indus Basin, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research
Vol.11, (January 1999).p.37-50, 8 Figs., 3 Tables.
7. Shahid M A., Rahman S., Shah S H. , Haq M Z. , Palekar A H.,
Identification of Low Resistivity Hydrocarbon Bearing Reservoirs in
Lower & Middle Indus Basin Using Available Wireline Logs.PAPG-SPE
ATC, 2008.
8. Wandrey C J., Law B E., and Shah H A., Sembar Goru/Ghazij
Composite Total Petroleum System, Indus and Sulaiman-Kirthar
Geologic Provinces, Pakistan and India. U.S. Geological Survey
Bulletin 2208-C.
9. Lau, M.N. and Bassiouni Zaki, Development and Field Applications of Shaly
Sand Petrophysical Models Part I: The Conductivity Model, SPE Publications,
SPE 20386, 1990.

10. Demircan, G., Estimation of Shale Cation Exchange Capacity Using Log Data:
Application to the Drilling Optimization, Louisiana State University M. S. Thesis,
2000

11. Petrophysics MSc Course Notes by Dr. Paul Glover


http://www2.ggl.ulaval.ca/personnel/paglover

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