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Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012) 755761

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Computers & Industrial Engineering


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/caie

A genetic algorithm based approach to vehicle routing problem


with simultaneous pick-up and deliveries
A. Serdar Tasan a,, Mitsuo Gen b,c
a

Department of Industrial Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey


Fuzzy Logic Systems Institute (FLSI), Iizuka, Fukuoka, Japan
c
Hanyang University, Ansan, South Korea
b

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Available online 29 November 2011
Keywords:
Genetic algorithms
Reverse logistics
Vehicle routing problem with simultaneous
pick-up and deliveries

a b s t r a c t
The vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pick-up and deliveries, which considers simultaneous
distribution and collection of goods to/from customers, is an extension of the capacitated vehicle routing
problem. There are various real cases, where eet of vehicles originated in a depot serves customers with
pick-up and deliveries from/to their locations. Increasing importance of reverse logistics activities make it
necessary to determine efcient and effective vehicle routes for simultaneous pick-up and delivery activities. The vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pick-up and deliveries is also NP-hard as a capacitated vehicle routing problem and this study proposes a genetic algorithm based approach to this
problem. Computational example is presented with parameter settings in order to illustrate the proposed
approach. Moreover, performance of the proposed approach is evaluated by solving several test
problems.
2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The vehicle routing problem (VRP) was rst introduced by
Dantzig and Ramser (1959). The problem is concerned with delivering goods to a set of customers with known demands through
vehicle routes that begin and nish at the depot with minimum
cost. Capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is the most elementary version of the VRP and seeks a number of routes for m
number of vehicles with Q units homogenous capacity to minimize
total transportation cost of routes while satisfying the delivery demands of n number of customer nodes. Each route has to start and
nish at the depot and each customer has to be visited exactly once
by one vehicle. Details on VRP and its variants with formulation,
and solution methods can be found in Toth and Vigo (2001).
There are various real cases, where customers require simultaneous pick-up of goods from their location in addition to delivery
of goods to their location and a eet of vehicles originated in a depot serves customers with pick-up and deliveries from/to their
locations. Increasing importance of reverse logistics activities make
it necessary to determine efcient and effective vehicle routes for
simultaneous pick-up and delivery activities. The vehicle routing
problem with simultaneous pick-up and deliveries (VRP-SPD),

Corresponding author. Address: Dokuz Eylul Universitesi Muhendislik Fakultesi, Endustri Muh. Bolumu Tinaztepe Kampus Buca, Izmir 35160, Turkey. Tel.: +90
232 3017619; fax: +90 232 3017608.
E-mail addresses: serdar.tasan@deu.edu.tr (A.S. Tasan), gen@si.or.jp (M. Gen).
0360-8352/$ - see front matter 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.cie.2011.11.025

which considers simultaneous distribution and collection of goods


to/from customers, is an extension of the CVRP.
In a broader perspective, the VRP can be considered as a combination of the bin packing problem (BPP) and the travelling
salesman problem (TSP). Both BPP and TSP are NP-hard problems
(Falkenauer, 1996; Wolsey, 1998); thus VRP and its variant VRPSPD are also NP-hard.
During the last few decades, the importance of reverse logistics
has shown a rapid increase due to the environmental and economical issues as well as legal obligations. One of the most critical issues that affect the performance of the reverse logistics is the
routing of vehicles. However, efcient and effective vehicle routing
requires high computational efforts. Increasing importance of reverse logistics activities and the computational complexity of
VRP-SPD motivates this study.
The purpose of this study is to introduce an alternative approach to solve VRP-SPD. More specically, this study proposes a
genetic algorithm (GA) based approach, which uses permutation
based representation and ensures feasibility, for solving VRP-SPD
more efciently and effectively.
In order to evaluate the performance of the developed GA based
approach, several test problems from the literature are formulated
as mixed integer linear programming (MILP) models. Results of the
MILP solver are compared with the solution provided by the developed approach.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows; in Section 2, mathematical formulation and details of VRP-SPD are presented. In
Section 3, the details of the proposed approach is introduced. An

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A.S. Tasan, M. Gen / Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012) 755761

delivery. VRP-B can be thought as a two separate CVRP problems;


CVRP for the delivery customers and CVRP for the pickup (backhaul) customers. There are several studies related to VRP-B in the
literature (e.g. Liu & Chung, 2009; Ropke & Pisinger, 2006). The
simultaneous delivery and pick-up activities of VRP-SPD make this
problem more difcult than VRP-B to solve. Additionally, feasibility
issue is more complex in VRP-SPD.
Recently, Gajpal and Abad (2009) applied ant colony optimization to VRP-SPD. Ai and Kachitvichyanukul (2009) proposed a particle swarm optimization for VRP-SPD with random key based
representation. Zachariadis, Tarantilis, and Kiranoudis (2010)
developed an adaptive memory methodology for this routing
problem.
In the following sections, VRP-SPD is formulated as a MILP model based on model given by Dethloff (2001).
Fig. 1. Illustration of VRP-SPD. (For interpretation of the references to color in this
gure legend, the reader is referred to the web version of this article.)

2.1. Notations
Sets:

illustrative example is given in Section 4. The performance of the


proposed approach is evaluated with several test problems and
the results are discussed in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 concludes
the paper with future directions.

J: Set of customer nodes.


J0: Set of all nodes including depot.
V: Set of vehicles.
Parameters:

2. Vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pick-up and


deliveries
In VRP-SPD customers require simultaneous pick-up of goods
from their location in addition to delivery of goods to their location
as illustrated in Fig. 1. In Fig. 1, red dots represent customer nodes
while blue rectangle represents the depot; red arrows represent
deliveries; green arrows represent pick-ups in customer nodes; solid lines are the arcs between nodes. A number of routes are sought
for v number of vehicles with C units homogenous capacity, that
minimize the total transportation cost of routes while satisfying
the pick-up and delivery demands of the m number of customer
nodes simultaneously. Each vehicle has to depart and return to
the depot and each customer node has to be visited exactly once
by one vehicle.
VRP-SPD was introduced into the literature by Min (1989). His
study considered distribution problem of a public library with 22
branch libraries and 2 vehicles based on the central library. Vehicles serve branch libraries everyday with deliveries and pick-ups
at each branch library. Vehicle routes were determined by a solution approach that based on clustering customers according to
their demands and vehicle capacities rst, and then solving TSP
for each cluster. While determining routes for each cluster, an iterative procedure was used in order to satisfy the feasibility of the
route.
Dethloff (2001) emphasized the importance of VRP-SPD for reverse logistics activities and he investigated the relation between
VRP-SPD and other types of routing problems. He proposed a
mathematical formulation for this problem and developed an
insertion based heuristic, which uses several insertion criteria.
Nagy and Salhi (2005) also proposed insertion based heuristics
in order to solve VRP-SPD. The basic steps of these heuristics are
constructing partial routes for a set of customers, and then inserting the remaining customers to the existing route. They introduced
the concepts of weak and strong feasibility and their proposed approach allowed infeasibilities to occur while searching towards
strong feasibility. The proposed algorithm was extended to deal
with problems with multiple depots.
The vehicle routing problem with backhauls (VRP-B) is another
extension of the VRP and considers both delivery and pick-ups like
VRP-SPD. In the VRP-B, pick-up demands are met after nishing all

cap: Vehicle capacity.


cij: Distance between nodes i and j i, j 2 J0, i j.
dj: Delivery amount demanded by customer node j 2 J.
pj: Pick-up amount of customer node j 2 J.
n: Number of nodes.
M: Sufciently large number (e.g. M can be calculated as the
maximum value of either the total customer delivery and
pick-up demands or the total distances between each nodes
as given in (1)).

(
)
X
X X
M max
dj pj ;
cij
j2J

i2J 0 j2J 0 ;i j

Initialize Population

Decoding Routes

Selection

NO
Genetic Operators
NO

Survival

Terminate

YES
END
Fig. 2. Procedure of the proposed methodology.

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A.S. Tasan, M. Gen / Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012) 755761

R1

R2

3. Proposed genetic algorithms based solution approach

R3

1 5 6 14 3 2 15 10 8 9 4 7 11 13 12
Fig. 3. Genetic representation of chromosome for 15 nodes.

Decision variables:
0

lv : Load of vth vehicle when leaving the depot.


lj: Load of vehicle after served customer node j, j 2 J.
sj: Variable used to avoid subtours, can be interpreted as position of node j 2 J in the route.
xijv: Binary decision variable that indicates whether vth vehicle
travels from i to j.
2.2. Mixed integer linear programming model for VRP-SPD
The objective function of VRP-SPD model is given in (2) as the
minimization of total travelled distance by vehicles those serve
customer nodes.

XXX

Minimize

i2J 0 j2J 0

cij xijv

v 2V

Subject to

XX

xijv 1;

xikv

i2J 0

j2J

v 2V

i2J 0

lv

v 2V

xkjv ;

k 2 J;

dj xijv ;

v2V

j2J 0

XX
i2J 0

j2J

lj P lv  dj pj  M1  x0jv ;

lj P li  dj pj  M 1 

j 2 J;

v2V

!
xijv ;

i 2 J;

j 2 J;

ji

VRP-SPD belongs to the class of NP-hard problems, for that reason the exact solution methods become highly time-consuming as
the problem instances increase in size. Therefore, due to the combinatorial nature of the VRP and the GAs efciency in solving combinatorial problems, a GA based approach is developed to solve the
vehicle routing problem.
GAs can easily be adapted to various types of problems therefore many different GA approaches exist depending on the problems studied. There are several ways to maintain the population
and several GA operators. However, all GA approaches must have
a good genetic representation of the problem, an initial population
generator, appropriate tness function, and genetic operators such
as crossover and mutation in order to work effectively.
The generalized procedure of the GA approach in this study is
shown in Fig. 2.
The procedure for proposed GA based approach to solve VRPSPD (adapted from Gen, Cheng, and Lin (2008)) is:
procedure: GA for VRP-SPD
input: location data for nodes, delivery and pickup demands,
vehicle capacity and GA parameters
output: the best solution: (routes with shortest total travelled
distance for serving customer nodes with simultaneous
delivery and pick-ups)
begin
t
0;
initialize P(t) by encoding routine;
evaluate P(t) by decoding routine;
while (not terminating condition) do
create C(t) from P(t) by crossover routine;
create C(t) from P(t) by mutation routine;
evaluate C(t) by decoding routine;
select P(t + 1) from P(t) and C(t) by selection routine;
t
t + 1;
end
output the best solution
end

v 2V

3.1. Genetic representation and encoding


0

lv 6 cap;

v2V

lj 6 cap;

j2J

sj P si 1  n 1 

!
xijv ;

i 2 J;

j 2 J;

ji

Instead of binary representation, permutation representation is


used for genetic representation of the VRP-SPD as shown in Fig. 3.
Direct representation is used to encode routing solution into chromosome. The length of the chromosome determined by the
100

10

Customers

v 2V

sj P 0;

Depot

j2J

xijv 2 f0; 1g;

80

11
i 2 J0 ;

j 2 J0 ;

v 2V

60

12

Constraint (3) ensures that each customer node is served exactly once. Constraint (4) guarantees that for each customer node,
same vehicle arrives at and leaves this node. Initial vehicle loads
are calculated as in (5), each vehicles initial load is the accumulated demand of all customer nodes assigned to this vehicle. (6)
Balances the load of vehicles after vehicles visit the rst customer
node on their route. For other customer nodes the loads of vehicles
are calculated as in (7) similarly through their routes. (8) and (9)
Impose capacity constraint. Constraint (10) ensures sub tour elimination, and constraint (11) maintains non-negativity of sj and xijv
is a binary decision variable as in (12).

Y
40

20

20

40

60

80

X
Fig. 4. Locations of depot and customer nodes.

100

120

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A.S. Tasan, M. Gen / Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012) 755761

D
e
m
a
n
d

Customer Nodes
Fig. 5. Delivery and pick-up demands of customer nodes.

3.3. Fitness value and decoding

Table 1
Computational results for the parameter settings.
Popsize

Number of generations

II

III

IV

50
100
150

300
300
300

1296
1088
1023

1412
1276
1192

1480
1392
1308

2579
1917
2279

69.92
109.79
158.99

50
100
150

500
500
500

1240
1164
1079

1308
1230
1178

1374
1275
1294

3018
2341
2238

112.67
175.99
270.85

50
100
150

1000
1000
1000

1036
1101
1128

1167
1201
1168

1316
1259
1209

2502
2321
2345

240.15
357.42
545.35

number of customer nodes which are served by the vehicles.


Routes are determined by the capacities of vehicles.
3.2. Initial population construction
The desired number of individuals is generated to obtain a population with desired size. In the proposed methodology, initial
population generation process is based on random permutation.

Due to the characteristic of VRP-SPD, the tness value is calculated as shown in (2) that is the total distance travelled. The solutions are evaluated in terms of their tness values which is
identical to the tness of individuals. The individuals with better
tness values survive while the ones with worse tness values
die. This means that the more costly solutions are removed from
the population while others are remained (survived).
Nagy and Salhi (2005) introduced the concepts of weak and
strong feasibility in their study. In weakly feasible routes, neither
the total pickup nor the total delivery load exceeds the vehicle
capacity. In this study, weak feasibility is guaranteed with our
decoding procedure and routes are determined according to the
vehicle capacity, which ensure that total pickup and delivery loads
through the route never exceeds the vehicle capacity. The load of
vehicle, never exceeds its capacity after visiting each customer
node in strongly feasible routes. To avoid strongly infeasible routes,
a relatively high penalty cost is added to tness value in the proposed approach. Penalty cost occurs each time when the load of
vehicle exceeds capacity. In this study, while decoding procedure

I Best objective function


value
3500

3000
2500

50-300

2000

100-300

1500
150-300

1000
IV Average objective
function value of the
population

500
0

II Average of the best


values

50-500
100-500
150-500
50-1000
100-1000
150-1000

III Worst of the best


values

Fig. 6. Results of the computations.

A.S. Tasan, M. Gen / Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012) 755761

120

100

Y 60
7

40

1
27

20

22

239 16

10

15
13

14
5

28

17
2012 29

34

24
4

R4

R5

25 21
8
33 31
6
18
3
26

80

changes will gradually add some new characteristics to the population, which could not be supplied by the crossover. In the study,
partial-mapped crossover (PMX) and swap mutation (Gen et al.,
2008) are used for genetic operations of permutation based chromosomes. After crossover and mutation, each offspring is evaluated in terms of tness value mentioned before.
The procedure of PMX is as follows (Gen et al., 2008):

R2

R1
R3

20

30

11 19

40

32

60

80

100

759

120

X
Fig. 7. Routes for solution with total distance travelled 1023.

Procedure PMX
input:
Two parents
output: Offspring
step 1: Select two positions along the string uniformly
random. The substring s dened by two positions
are called mapping sections
step 2: Exchange two substrings between parents to
produce children
step 3: Determine mapping relations between two mapping
sections
step 4: Legalize offspring with mapping relationship

guarantees weakly feasible routes, tness value encourages


strongly feasible routes.
4. Illustrative example and parameter settings
3.4. Selection

The main genetic operator is crossover, which simulates a


reproduction between two parents. It works on a pair of solutions
and recombines them in a certain way generating one or more offsprings. The offsprings share some of the characteristics of the parents and by this way the characteristic are passed onto the future
generations. Crossover operator is not able to produce new characteristics. The other genetic operator is mutation, which is applied
to a single solution with a certain probability. Mutation operator
makes small random changes in the solution. These random

In this illustrative example, there are 34 customer nodes. These


34 customers are served with simultaneous pick-up and deliveries
from/to depot by vehicles originated at depot. Vehicle capacity is
100 units. Location of depot and customer nodes and delivery
and pick-up demands of customer nodes are shown in Figs. 4
and 5 respectively.
Initially, to determine the appropriate population size and number of generations for GA, a pilot study is conducted. The proposed
approach is applied with combinations of population size 50, 100,
150 and number of generations 300, 500 and 1000.
The other parameters used in GA are crossover rate 0.80 and
mutation rate 0.03. Results of several iterations are summarized
in Table 1. For each combination, best objective function value
(column I), average of the best values obtained through several
runs (column II), worst of the best values obtained through several
runs (column III), average objective function value of the population (column IV) as well as computation time as average CPU times
(s) (column V) are given. Also Fig. 6 illustrates these results as a radar graph for column I to column IV.
From these results, it can be concluded that population size 50
combined with number of generations 1000 results in good

Fig. 8. Best objective function value through the evolution process.

Fig. 9. Average objective function value through the evolution process.

The roulette wheel selection (RWS) is used in the proposed


methodology, for probabilistically selection of individuals based
on their performance. The roulette wheel selection method scales
the tness values of the members within the population so that
the sum of the rescaled tness values equals to 1. In the roulette
wheel method, the probability of choosing an individual is directly
proportional to its tness value.
3.5. Genetic operators

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A.S. Tasan, M. Gen / Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012) 755761

Table 2
The results of the computational experiments.
Problem

Instance

Number of nodes

GA-Best

LB1-CVRP

LB2-CPLEX

LB = MAX(LB1, LB2)

UB(CPLEX)

CPLEX time (s)

GA time (s)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

A-n32-k5.vrp
A-n33-k5.vrp
A-n33-k6.vrp
A-n34-k5.vrp
A-n36-k5.vrp
A-n37-k5.vrp
A-n37-k6.vrp
A-n38-k5.vrp
A-n39-k5.vrp
A-n39-k6.vrp
A-n45-k6.vrp
A-n45-k7.vrp
B-n31-k5.vrp
B-n34-k5.vrp
B-n35-k5.vrp
B-n38-k6.vrp
B-n39-k5.vrp
B-n41-k6.vrp
B-n43-k6.vrp
B-n44-k7.vrp
P-n16-k8.vrp
P-n19-k2.vrp
P-n20-k2.vrp
P-n23-k8.vrp

32
33
33
34
36
37
37
38
39
39
45
45
31
34
35
38
39
41
43
44
16
19
20
23

957
781
798
923
1019
959
1115
974
1095
1257
1452
1397
736
865
1263
925
744
1105
1047
1126
479
240
222
569

784
661
742
778
799
669
949
730
822
831
944
1146
672
788
955
805
549
829
742
909
450
212
216
529

414.49
433.78
435.38
429.21
457.69
492.24
474.24
431.23
523.75
504.35
543.28
493.75
83.27
217.37
178.2
194.24
165.47
211.09
249.11
101.08
249.86
154.93
166.96
220.3

784
661
742
778
799
669
949
730
822
831
944
1146
672
788
955
805
549
829
742
909
450
212
216
529

1218.86
904.916
864.15
989.16
1246.58
992.55
1357.16
982.25
1192.65
1304.38
1627.91
1739.49
785.43
1004.02
1457.28
983.84
809.18
1111.01
1067
1227.69
478.63
257.18
266.14
611.98

1000
1000
1000
1000
1140
1000
1533
1000
1000
1047
1940
2660
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000
2090
1000
1000
1000
1000
1000

226
233
266
264
275
287
287
280
286
302
326
333
241
264
274
284
296
311
315
332
181
159
159
235

solutions considering the average of best objective function values.


Additionally combination of population size 150 with number of
generation 300 is preferable when considering CPU time.
The best solution found by the proposed approach is illustrated
in Fig. 7. Total travelled distance by vehicles is 1023. Five vehicles
served 34 customer nodes through:
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:

{depot,
{depot,
{depot,
{depot,
{depot,

5. Computational experiments and discussion


In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach,
twenty four medium-sized test problems are studied. These test
problems are obtained by adding pick-up demand data to a
selected set of CVRP problems from Augerat et al. (1995). The
pick-up demands are generated as uniformly distributed values
between [0, 26] for compatibility.

21, 8, 25, 31, 6, 18, 26, depot}


34, 4, 28, 5, 30, 11, depot}
12, 10, 16, 9, 23, 1, depot}
33, 3, 27, 24, 14, 22, 15, depot}
29, 17, 20, 7, 13, 32, 2, 19, depot}

2000
UB

GA

LB

1800
1600
1400

Objective Value

Route
Route
Route
Route
Route

For this example, best objective function and average objection


function values through the evolution process are given in Figs. 8
and 9 respectively.

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Problem #
Fig. 10. Comparison of the results.

A.S. Tasan, M. Gen / Computers & Industrial Engineering 62 (2012) 755761

During the computational experiments, parameter values


which were previously determined in Section 4, are used as
follows:
Population size = 150.
Maximum number of generations = 300.
Crossover rate = 0.80.
Mutation rate = 0.03.
VRP-SPD problems are formulated as MILP model and CPLEX
10.0 solver (ILOG, 2006) is used for obtaining lower and upper
bounds of the objective function. The best integer feasible solution
given by CPLEX 10.0 after 1000 s are used as an upper bound (UB);
in case of no feasible solution till 1000 s, the rst feasible solution
is considered as UB. CPLEX 10.0 produces lower bounds (LB-CPLEX)
for the problems, however best known CVRP solutions given by
Augerat et al. (1995) can be considered as alternative lower bounds
(LB-CVRP). The results of the computations and CPU times with the
details of test problems are shown in Table 2. Best known CVRP
solutions is higher than lower bounds found by CPLEX for all test
problems, so they are used as lower bounds LB = Max{LBCVRP, LB-CPLEX}. The LB, UB and results of GA based approach are
shown in Fig. 10.
As seen from Table 2 and Fig. 10, proposed GA provides solutions, which are between lower bound and upper bound for all of
the 24 problems. In other words, solutions of the proposed GA
based approach are better than the solutions provided by CPLEX
10.0 solver, which uses branch and bound algorithm for solving
MILP models. In addition, the proposed approach gives better solutions within signicantly shorter time frame when compared with
CPLEX 10.0. Due to the NP-hard nature of VRP-SPD, MILP approach
cannot solve the problem within an acceptable time frame. On the
contrary, GAs perform well on NP-hard problems. Therefore, the
proposed approach provided better solutions than MILP. Considering these results and CPU times, it can be stated that, GA based proposed approach is efcient and performs well.
6. Conclusion
The VRP is a well known combinatorial optimization problem.
Customers require simultaneous pick-up of goods from their location in addition to delivery of goods to their location in some cases.
The VRP-SPD is an extension of the CVRP and considers simultaneous distribution and collection of goods to/from customers. A
eet of vehicles originated in a depot serves customers with
pick-up and deliveries from/to their locations.
VRP-SPD has been receiving growing attention due to the
increasing importance of reverse logistics activities. Also VRPSPD has a combinatorial nature. Due to GAs efciency in solving
complex optimization problems, a GA based approach for solving
VRP-SPD was proposed in this study.
Feasibility issue is more complex and hard to be ensured in
VRP-SPD than in VRP-B due to the simultaneous delivery and
pick-up activities as mentioned in Section 2. This study contributes
to the VRP eld by providing an efcient and effective GA based approach that produces highly feasible routes for VRP-SPD. Details of

761

the proposed approach were given in the previous sections, after


introducing VRP-SPD and its mathematical formulation. Then, an
illustrative example and parameter settings were presented followed by performance evaluation of the proposed approach with
computational experiments. Twenty four CVRP test problems were
transformed into VRP-SPD problems by adding pick-up demand
data randomly to the selected problems. According to the results
of computational experiments, it can be concluded that the proposed GA based approach both performs well and is efcient.
The results of computational experiments prove that, the solutions
of the proposed approach have both weak feasibility and strong
feasibility. While decoding procedure guaranteed weak feasibility
of solutions, tness value enabled the proposed approach to produce strongly feasible routes.
Direct genetic representation was used for encoding in this
study. Further studies may use indirect representation methods
such as random key based representation to improve solution
quality and efciency of the procedure. Additionally, the proposed
approach may be applied to a real world routing problems with
simultaneous pick-up and deliveries.
Acknowledgment
This research is partly supported by KOFST Project 2010-2011
at Hanyang University.
References
Ai, T. J., & Kachitvichyanukul, V. (2009). A particle swarm optimization for the
vehicle routing problem with simultaneous pickup and delivery. Computers &
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